Leadership: Concepts and skills of leadership, Leadership and managerial roles, Leadership styles and effectiveness, Contemporary issues

in leadership. Motivation: Motivation concepts, Motives, Theories of motivation and their applications for behavioural change. Team Building & Empowerment: Nature of effective groups, Team formation, making teams effective, Cross functional and self directed teams, empowerment. Conflict Resolution: Conflict definition; causes of organizational, group & role conflicts; conflict resolution and management

Leadership  means: style of a leader Leader:  Individual who influences others towards a common larger goal Characteristics: Manager Administers Maintains Focuses on systems & structure Relies on control Short term perspective Asks how & when Eyes on bottom line Accepts status quo Does things right Leader Innovates Develops Focuses on people Inspires trust Long term perspective Asks what & why Eyes on horizon Challenges status quo Does the right thing

The historically important studies on leadership 1. The Iowa leadership studies: a. The experiments were designed to examine patterns of aggressive behaviour b. Under authoritarian leadership, members were apathetic c. The laissez faire leadership, produced more aggressive acts d. Under democratic leadership i. Members behaviour fell between authoritarian & laissez faire leadership styles 2. The Ohio State of leadership studies a. The following two dimensions of leadership emerged: i. Consideration 1. Means: mission / task or goal orientation ii. Initiating structures 1. Concern for the welfare of the troops / recognition of individual needs & relationships iii. The study shows how leaders carry out their leadership function iv. The study points out & emphasis the importance of both task & human dimensions

3. The early Michigan leadership studies a. If supervisors had a genuine concern for employees, the production was high b. If supervisors were production centered, production was low c. Employee satisfaction was directly related to productivity Traditional theories on leadership: 1. Trait leadership a. Leaders are born & not made 2. Situational approach a. Contingency theory of leadership i. Leader viewed as a product of time & situation ii. The person with a particular trait that a situation requires will emerge as leader b. Fiedler observed under favourable situation the task directed leadership was most effective c. Under unfavourable situation, authoritarian leadership was most effective d. When the situation was in between favourable & unfavourable, democratic leadership emerged 3. Path-goal leadership theory a. It attempts to explain the impact of leader’s behaviour on subordinates: motivation, satisfaction & performance b. This gives rise to following leadership styles: i. Directive leadership 1. leaders gives direction 2. subordinates knows what has to be done 3. no participation of subordinates ii. Supportive leadership 1. leader approachable 2. shows genuine concern for subordinates iii. Participative leadership 1. leader asks for suggestions from subordinates 2. but the decision making rests with the leader iv. Achievement-oriented leadership 1. leader sets challenging goals for subordinates 2. shows confidence in them that they will attain & perform well

c. using one of the four styles contingent on the situational

factors, the leader attempts to influence subordinates perceptions & motivates them, which in turn leads to their role clarity, goal expectations, satisfaction & performance Modern theoretical process of leadership  Includes: o Charismatic leadership theories  Individuals who by the force of their personal abilities are capable of having profound & extraordinary effects on followers o Transformational  Are people oriented  While transactional leaders are task oriented o Social cognitive  Interaction style between leader & his subordinates  Their respective behaviours have a mutual impact on each other  The leader should believe that his employees will rise to occasion o Substitutes  They are neutralizers that prevent leader from behaving in certain way  These substitutes or neutralizers can be found in subordinate, task & in organization  Examples • Subordinate: o Works for satisfaction & not reward • Task: o Tasks are structured • Organization: o Cohesive work group  The theory tries to point out that some things are beyond leader’s control  Leaders do not have mystical powers over people. The situation plays a role o Authentic

 The authentic leader is: confident, hopeful, optimistic, resilient, transparent, moral future oriented, & develops associates  To be authentic, • The leader should be aware of his own strength & weakness, & regulate his own behaviour • The organizational environment should be supportive & conducive for development of the above qualities  Leadership across cultures: o In a global economy, the key to making right choices comes from having qualities like personal values, the manager’s background [upbringing] & interpersonal skills Great leaders: styles, activities & skills  Leadership styles: o The Tannenbaum & Schmidt continuum of leadership behaviour  Could be either boss centered or people centered Boss centered People centered Theory X Theory Y Autocratic Democratic Production centered Employee centered Close General Initiating structure Consideration Task directed Human relations Directive Supportive / Participative o Range of behaviour of a leader:  Makes decisions & announces  Sells decision  Presents ideas & invites suggestion  Presents tentative decisions, subject to change  Presents problems. Get suggestions,& makes decisions  Defines limit, asks group to make decision

 Permits subordinates to function within defined boundaries

o The Blake & Mouton managerial grid  It represents varying combination of concern for people & task  1:1: low concern for people & low concern for task  1:9: low concern for task & high concern for people  9:9: high concern for people & high concern for task  9:1: high concern for task & low concern for people  5:5: middle of the road 1:9 9:9 1:1 9:1 o Hersey & Blanchard’s approach  Identifies two major styles: • Task styles o Roles are defined o Task w.r.t.: What / When / How is told in advance • Relationship styles o Leader has close relationship with members o Communication is open o Psychological support
 Taking a contingency approach to recognize situational

variables; Hersey & Blanchard incorporated the maturity of the followers into the model. The level of maturity is defined by the following criteria: o Degree of achievement motivation o Willingness to take on responsibility o Amount of education & / or experience  The key for leadership effectiveness in this model is to match up the situation with the appropriate style. The following are the basic four styles: o Telling style

 High Task, Low on Relationship o Selling style  High Task & High Relationship o Participating style  Low on Task; High Relationship o Delegating style  Low on Task, Low Relationship  Today’s Leadership Styles: o Blake Mouton managerial grid & Hersey & Blanchard’s are still relevant in today’s context o Jim Collins: 5 Leadership Style:  The essence of level 5 leadership is, having an ambition for the cause of the work, the outcome, the company, the organization: above self. And at the same time, having the ferocious, frightening, terrifying wilfulness to act on that ambition o Leadership researchers House & Podsakoff behaviours & approaches of great leaders based on charismatic & transformational theories came out with behaviours & approaches of great leaders:  Vision  Passion & self-sacrifice  Confidence, determination & persistence  Image building  Role modelling  External representation  Expectations of & confidence in followers  Selective motive arousal  Frame alignment [alignment of goals / ideologies / activities]  Inspirational communication The roles & activities of leadership  Mintzberg proposes the following managerial roles: o Interpersonal roles  Figurehead  Motivator  Liaison

o Informational roles  Monitor  Disseminator  spokesman o Decision roles  Entrepreneur  Disturbance handler  Resource allocator  Negotiator Activities of successful & effective leaders The time spent by above managers in the activities engaged by them: types of traditional communication people networking managers management management average 32% 29% 20% 19% successful 13% 28% 11% 48% effective 19% 44% 26% 11%  Managers need to develop their people skills if they are to be effective Leadership skills:  Cultural flexibility  Communication skills  HRD skills  Creativity  Self-management of learning  According to Whetten & Cameron , a leader should have o Personal skills  Consists of: • Developing self awareness o Determining values & priorities o Identifying cognitive style o Assessing attitude toward change • Solving problems creatively o Using the rational approach o Using the creative approach o Fostering innovations in others

• Managing stress o Coping with stressors o Managing time o Delegating

o Interpersonal skills  Consists of: • Communicating supportively o Coaching o Counselling o Listening • Gaining power & influence: o Gaining power o Exercising influence o Empowering others • Motivating others o Diagnosing poor performance o Creating a motivating environment o Rewarding accomplishments • Managing conflict o Identifying causes o Selecting appropriate strategies o Resolving confrontations Leadership skills & career development program  Three primary areas to be developed: o Knowledge o Trust o Power  Leadership can be taught
1. Comment: Men make better leaders than

women 2. How do you build trust?

3. Do you think trust evolves out of an individual’s personal characteristics or out of specific situations? Explain 4. What kind of activities should you as a student pursues that might lead to the perception that he / she is a charismatic leader? In pursuing those activities, what might the student do to enhance this perception of being charismatic?

MOTIVATION Meaning  It is a process.  Starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need  That activates a behaviour or drive  That is aimed to at a goal or incentive Primary motives:  includes: o Hunger o Thirst o Sleep o Avoidance of pain o Sex o Maternal concern

 Two criteria must be met in order for a motive to be included in the primary classification o Unlearned o Physiological  Since people have the same physiological makeup, they will essentially have the same primary needs General motives  The curiosity, manipulation & activity motives  If the above motives are not expressed in an organization people may not be motivated  Affection motive is closely associated with primary motive Secondary motives:  Are closely tied to the learning concepts  A motive must be learned in order to be included in secondary classification  It includes: o Power o Achievement o Affiliation  In the study of OB, following motives are also included in secondary motives: o Security o Status Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motives  Extrinsic: o Extrinsic motives are tangible & visible to others o They are distributed by other people o Extrinsic motives include rewards & avoidance of punishment. Extrinsic rewards are contingency based  Intrinsic: o Are internally generated o Includes feelings of responsibility, achievement, accomplishment o Performing meaningful work has been associated with intrinsic motion

Work motivation approaches:  Consists of o Content theories  Includes; • Scientific management • Human relations • Maslow • Herzberg • Alderfer  Process theories o Includes:  Lewin & Tolman  Vroom  Porter & Lawler  Lawler  Contemporary theories o Festinger & Homans o Adams Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs  He identified following needs: o Physiological  Corresponds to basic needs, viz. food, clothing & shelter  Taken care by pay packet o Safety  Includes both emotional & physical safety  Loss of employment  Injury to any part of the body  Taken by care by various social legislation o Social  Corresponds to affection & affiliation needs  Being member of a team  o Esteem  Need for power, achievement & status

 Titles, symbols o Self-actualization  Realizing one’s potential  Personal growth  According to him, once the lower needs are fulfilled, then the individual moves to the next level Herzberg’s two factor theory  Hygiene factors includes: o Company’s policy & administration o Supervision o Salary o Interpersonal relations o Working conditions  Motivator factors: includes: o Achievement o Recognition o Work itself o Responsibility o Advancement Alderfer’s ERG theory  He identified three core needs o Existence  Relates to physiological well being o Relatedness  Relates to social relationship o Growth  Relates to personal development  According to him an individual can be at the same time at two levels Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation:  It is built around the concept of valence, instrumentality & expectancy  Valence means the strength of an individual’s preference. The value which an individual puts to the outcome  Expectancy means the probability that a particular action or effort will lead to the particular outcome

 Instrumentality means the degree to which the effort should be

put to accomplish the outcome The Porter-Lawler model  It consists of the following steps: o Value of reward o Perceived effort o Efforts o Abilities o Role perceptions o Performance o Rewards [intrinsic & extrinsic] o Perceived equitable rewards o Satisfaction  Equity theory of work motivation o Inequity occurs when a person perceives that the ratio of his / her outcome to inputs & the ratio of a relevant other’s outcomes to inputs are unequal o Both the inputs & the outputs of the person & the other are based on the person’s perceptions o Outcomes consists of rewards [both intrinsic & extrinsic] Motivation across cultures  The following factors contribute to the motivational differences across culture:  The roles of religion  The role of uncertainty avoidance  The role of power distance 1. What is the role of self-efficacy in goal setting? 2. Explain the formula: Performance = f[A X M X O] & give an example 3. Can an individual be too motivated so that his performance declines as result of excessive effort? Discuss 4. Performance can’t measure, so any effort to link pay with performance is a fantasy.

Differences in performance are caused by the system, which means the organization ends up rewarding the circumstances. TEAM The nature of groups:  If a group exists in an organization, its members: o Are motivated to join o Perceive the group as a unified unit of interacting people o Contribute in various amounts to the group processes [i.e. some people contribute more time or energy to the group than do others] o Reach agreements & have disagreements through various forms of interaction  Group dynamics describes how a group should be organized & conducted Stages in group formation:  Forming o There is uncertainty & even confusion o Members are not sure about the purpose, structure, task or leadership of the group  Storming o It is characterized by conflict & confrontation o Atmosphere is emotionally charged, for there is considerable disagreement & conflict among the members about roles & duties  Norming o Cooperation & collaboration sets in. o Have “we” feeling with a high cohesion, group identity & camaraderie  Performing o Group is fully functioning o Devoted to effectively accomplishing the tasks agreed upon.  Adjourning o It represents the end of the group

Types of group  Small & large groups  Primary & secondary groups  Coalitions  Membership & Reference groups o Example of membership: crafts union o Example of reference group: individual like to belong. or become member of a prestigious social groups  In & out groups o In groups are those who have or share the dominant values o Out groups are those on the outside looking in.  Formal & informal groups Factors that increase & decrease group cohesiveness: Factors that increase group Factors that decreases group cohesiveness cohesiveness Agreement on group goals Disagreement on group goals Frequency interaction Large group size Personal attractiveness Unpleasant experiences Intergroup competition Intragroup competition Favourable evaluation Domination by one or more members Group / Team effectiveness  The following are the ways to enhance the satisfaction & performance of the group: o Organize work around intact groups o Having groups charged with selection, training & rewarding of members o Using groups to enforce strong norms for behaviour o Distributing resources on a group rather than an individual basis o Allowing & perhaps even promoting intergroup rivalry so as to build within group solidarity  The following factors play a major role in determining group effectiveness: o Task interdependence  How closely group members work together

o Outcome interdependence  How group performance is rewarded o Potency  Members belief that the group can be effective  To assess group / team effectiveness, first determine the criteria  Effective groups are characterized as being dependable, making reliable connections between the parts & targeting the direction & goals of the organization The dynamics of informal groups:  Formal groups have official prescribed goals & relationships, whereas the informal one does not  Both formal & informal coexist & are inseparable. Norms & roles in informal groups:  Norms are the “ought” of behaviour. They are prescriptions for acceptable behaviour determined by the group.  Norms will be strongly enforced by work groups if they: o Aid in group survival & provisions of benefits o Simplify or make predictable the behaviour expected of group members o Help the group avoid embarrassing interpersonal problems o Express the central values or goals of the group & clarify what is distinctive about the group’s identity  A role consists of a pattern of norms. A role is a position that can be acted out by an individual. The content of a given role is prescribed by the prevailing norms  Role can be defined as a position that has expectations, evolving from established norms  The informal roles wield considerable power In organizations & are recognized by effective managers The informal organization:  Benefits of informal organization o Makes for a more effective total system o Lightens the workload on management

o Fills in gaps in manager’s abilities o Provides a safety valve for employee’s emotions o Improves communication The dysfunctions of groups & teams:  Norm violation o Results in antisocial behaviour o If members are chronically exposed to antisocial behaviours, are more likely to engage in them, resulting in dissatisfaction  Role ambiguity o Occurs when the individual employee is unclear about what is he supposed to be doing  Conflict o Occurs when an individual is asked to performing tasks or perform those tasks that are in conflicts with his own personal value system  Groupthink o Results from the pressure on the individual members to conform & reach consensus  Risky shift o A group may make more risky decision than the individual members would on their own  Social loafing o In a group some members do not contribute & the entire workload falls on the rest of the group members.

TEAMS IN THE MODERN WORKPLACE:  Difference between team & group Work groups Factors

Work teams

Share information

Goal

Neutral [sometimes Synergy negative] Individual Accountability Individual & mutual Supplementary Skills Complementary Types of Teams  Problem-solving o Members are from same departments o Meet at regular intervals to make the department effective / efficient  Self managed o Operate as profit centers  Cross-functional o Members from different functions o Meet regularly to make the organization effective / efficient  Virtual o Members physically dispersed o Work to achieve common goal through computer How to make team teams more effective?  Through o Tem building  To build a team, we require time & training  Monitor & evaluate on a continuous basis the following key areas: • Team’s mission • Goal achievements • Feelings of empowerment • Communications • Roles & norms that are positive o Collaboration  Process of collaboration involves learning how-to improve interpersonal interactions in group settings while committing to a common agenda o Leadership  Traits of a leader

Collective performance Positive

Be fair / decisive / trustworthy • Take the blame & give the credit to others o Understanding cultural issues  Selection of team members with common cultural backgrounds  Respect local laws

Creating effective teams  the model consists of following four categories: o work design: includes: autonomy / skill variety / task identity / task significance o composition: includes: competence / attitude o context: includes: leadership o process: includes: common purpose / team efficacy / conflict Turning individuals into team players:  focus on o communicate openly & honestly, o resolving conflicts o culture
o

1. How can management invigorate stagnant teams? 2. Don’t teams create conflict? Isn’t conflict bad? Why then, would management support the concept of teams? 3. How do you think member expectations might affect team performance? 4. Under what conditions will challenge of creating team players be greatest?

CONFLICTS Characteristics of the term conflict:  Misunderstanding over an issue, because of differences in perception  Can be o Functional: improves performance o Dysfunctional: hinders performance  Levels of conflict: o Intra-individual o Interpersonal o Intergroup o organizational  Intra-individual: o Forms of conflict in terms of: o Frustration o Goals o Roles Conflicts due to frustration  When motivated drive is blocked, before a person reaches a desired goal  The barrier may be overt [outward / physical] or covert [inward / mental]  Expressed in the form of defence mechanism, like: o Aggression  Depends upon the perception of being victimized by others o Withdrawal  Because of motivational problems o Fixation  Rules become end in themselves  Expressed as irrational bureaucratic behaviour o Compromise

 Where motivated goals cannot be achieved, & fulfilment is sought outside the job

Goal conflict:  Occurs when the goal has both positive & negative features or two or more competing goals clash  Types of goal conflict o Approach-approach conflict  Individual is motivated to approach two or positive but mutually exclusive goals o Approach-avoidance conflict  Individual is motivated to approach a goal & at the same time he is motivated to avoid it  The single goal contains both positive & negative characteristics for the individual o Avoidance-avoidance conflict  Individual is motivate to avoid two or more negative but mutually exclusive goals Role conflict & ambiguity  There are three major types of role conflict: o Person & the role  Clash between my expectations & role expectations o Intrarole conflict  Contradictory expectations about how a given role should be played o Interrole conflict  Differing requirements of two or more roles that must be played at the same time  Ambiguity:: o When expectation are mot stated

Interactive conflict  Refers to interpersonal conflict  Cause is attributed to personality or defect in other person  Four major sources: o Personal differences  No two people are alike.  Hence becomes source of conflict o Information deficiency  Cause is due to communication o Role incompatibility  For example production manager & sales managers have both have interdependent functions. However the role of production manager is to cut costs, while sales manger has the role of increasing roles through increased sales,.  The sales manager may make delivery promises to customers that are incompatible with the low inventory levels maintained by production manager o Environmental stress  Environment is stressful  For example: scarce or shrinking resources, downsizing  The dynamics of individual interacting with one another is as follows: o Forcing  Assertive / uncooperative o Accommodating  Unassertive / cooperative o Avoiding

 Uncooperative / unassertive o Compromising  Between assertiveness & cooperativeness o Collaborative  Cooperative / assertive

Intergroup behaviour & conflict  Occurs when whenever when individuals belonging to one group interact, collectively or individually with another group or its members  Reasons for intergroup conflict o Competition for resources o Task interdependence o Jurisdictional ambiguity o Status struggle The effects of stress & intraindividual conflict  Conflicts results in stress.  Stress affects performance  The effect of stress can be seen o Physically  Immunity reduces  Heart problems  Tension / headaches / back pain  Constipation / ulcer / diabetics o Psychologically  Anger  Anxiety  Depression  Nervousness  Irritability  Tension  Boredom

o Behaviourally  Undereating / overeating  Sleeplessness  Increased smoking / drinking  Drug abuse

Coping strategies for stress & conflict  Individual coping strategies o Exercise o Relaxation o Time management o Socialization  Organizational coping strategies o Be proactive o Improved personnel selection & job placement o Realistic goal setting o Increased employee involvement o Improved organizational communication o Establishment of corporate wellness programs [employee physical & mental conditions] Negotiation skills: going beyond conflict management  Take integrative approach that uses problem-solving techniques to find win-win outcomes  It is based on a collaborative strategy  This approach is also called as principled negotiation or negotiation based on merits  There are four elements in this approach to negotiation: o People  Separate people from problem o Interest

 Focus on interest & not positions o Options  Generate variety of options, before deciding what to do o Criteria  Result should be based on some objective standards  The integrative approach requires the effective negotiator to use skills like: o Establishing Superordinate goals o Separating people from problem o Focusing on interest rather than positions o Inventing options for mutual gain o Using objective criteria  For effective negotiations the techniques have been grouped into degrees of risk which is as follows o Low risk negotiation techniques  Flattery  Addressing easy point  Silence  Make counteroffer  Gain sympathy o High risk negotiation techniques  Unexpected temper loss  High balling [ gain concessions based on trust]  Boulwarism [take it or leave it]  Waiting until the last moment [when deadline is near, make a reasonable but favourable offer, leaving the opponent little choice but to accept]  The outcome of negotiation should be win: win 1. Under what conditions might conflict be beneficial to a group? 2. How could a manager stimulate conflict in his department? 3. How do men & women differ if at all in their approaches to negotiation? 4. Why isn’t integrative bargaining more widely practised in organization?

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