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Psychology and the day's work

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Study ia Mental Developmeat

TCOTB AND THE RACE A Study In the Psychology






1918 February. 1922. September. 1923 . March. 1920. 1918. 1921 February. December. August. March. BY CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS Printed in the United States o{ America Published September. 1919 January. September. May. 1918 Reprinted November.COPYKIOHT. December.



Psychologists have only recentiy extended their investigations into lines directly useful in explaining and interpreting behavior. then. of business.PREFACE Psychology considered vior is as the science of human behaconcerned with man's response to the impressions made upon him by objects. again. This adjustment represents the capacity of man for achievement. in short. in habits of work. in some sort of adjustment and this adjustment culminates in social and moral habits. in habits of life. The adjustment may be mechanical and rigid. and events. And through all the adapting process nms the influence and the effect of their changes caused by the manner of life and the advance of years. yet industrial chemistry and economic botany are rendering incalculable service to related lines It is well. A science is made no less scientific by applying The chemist and botanist are not conits discoveries. ^people. from time to time to take an mventory of stock and try to discover the significance of the facts and principles of human behavior which investigation has revealed. Yet their contributions in several fields vij . make up the situations that he meets. It is his of physiological conditions. it may be flexible and adaptive—capable of new adjustments as circumstances change. Behavior dividual's way of dealing with these situations complete failure. results finally in —the — not a in^if They to the conditions in which one lives. cerned primarily with the practical application of the results of their work. or. insensible to misfits. ways of thinking and acting. without power to readjust as conditions alter. efficiency —the strategy and tactics of life.

e viii PREFACE of the world's work are already impressive. that are fundamental to thinking and acting. In psychopathology. in the psychology of adyertising. St. therefore. Washinoton University. they have made noteworthy additions to the store of knowledge. Much has been written about making others efficient. The choice. The topics that could be discussed extend far beyond the limits of a single volimie. in legal psychology. It is.. 1918. . in the hope of interpreting a few of these personal experiences of daily hf that this book is written. Mo. is largely personal. Concerning the more conunon matters of every-day life. September. whether in the life of social intercourse or in the business and professional world. thinking and acting determine achievement. Lonis. as well as phases and causes of behavior. Yet knowing oneseK reaches far into success and failure. but the writer has tried to select types of conduct. working. of course. Yet these experiences make up the day's work. however. And after all. psychologists have offered relatively little of interpretative value. and to-day and psychological tests are being made in the army to deter- mine the fitness of men to do the work to which they aspire in the service of our country. and acting. They determine its quantity and quality. in experimental pedagogy. Edgar James Switt. but comparatively little about one's own method of thinking. and there is no other way of understanding the behavior of others.

CONTENTS CHAPTER I. Thinking and Acting 41 Habit in Preparation for Efficiency 84 123 The Psychology of Learning Fatigue and Its Psychology Curiosities of V... IV.. PAGE i n. 348 379 . VIII. VI. . 314 X. Organization for Mental Efficiency .. Memory Improvement Memory and Its The Psychology of Testimony and RtmoR Our Varying Selves The Psychology of Digestion Index 273 IX. 164 198 236 . in. VII.


to leave home meant the end of things.. in addition. "and yet hxmaan beings were there. as to the rest. "To all her. however. pp. In a broken street. "It did not seem possible that hiunan beings could brave these haimted streets. and nothing more. I asked the invariable question: "'How do you dare stay here?' "'Where would I go?' she said. with a helpless little look." says Owen Johnson. satisfies When the response results in the immediate. untroubled and resigned. growth. . 103 /. familiar his alert. .CHAPTER I ORGANIZATION FOR MENTAL EFFICIENCY Man's response measure of his behavior which to situations in the day's work is the efficiency. We select an illusconditions unreflective trative example from the many suggested by the present war. the ability of a man to react effectively to his daily problems may is be gauged by cumstances. whom should we happen upon but a postman delivering mail to a woman who rose cautiously from her cave. change. efficiency is perfect.. pressing itself to demands and.' speaking of Arras imder bombardment. The ' outer world was something uncompreThe Spirit of France. Remember. where one shell had literally disembowelled a whole house. She was a sweet-faced old lady. this was within fifty yards from the house which had been literally blown away. more sight of the person whose response to new adaptation influenced by the force of habit. leaving only the roof hanging like a suspension bridge. adapts ress. flexible adaptation to changing cir- —the is The other side of the shield. and progIn other words.

that prefers any risk rather than exile. fortunately. Now it is a fact. where occasionally a village would be devastated. It is rapid and inexorable selection in which the sight of dead and maimed friends and the constant prospect of sharing their fate are the tests of even temporary sxirvival. which I have observed. the children killed and women tortured. everyday illustration ^is related by S. habitual reactions in horribly abnormal situations! The nervous system cannot long continue to respond to repeated shocks. Adapt themselves they must if they remain. or the nervous system gives way under the strain. but. the nervous system cares for that.2 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK terrified her. I had a selection made from these papers which gave a criminal record of Chicago for the winter and revealed an appalling situation. which finally lose their power and cease to produce a response. Either it becomes inured to the frequent mental concussions. This daily crop of news would be duly accented by reports of horrible crimes. McClure from lis editorial experience. that people in an adjacent village. Another instance of adaptation a more common. short of an absolute order. when I was in Turkey. and the ability of the individual to continue his normal. S. "In the winter of 1905-1906 the Chicago papers were filled day by day with news that revealed Chicago as a semibarbarous community in which life and property were imsafe to an extraordinary degree. Those who could not adapt themselves to the awful conditions had left or become insane. so that it is not surprising that this daily grist of news of — — — . which The military authorities have done everything possible to enforce the evacuation of Arras. that people will become accustomed to almost any environment. went about their work quite calmly and indifferently. who might at any time become victims. and yet they are met at every turn with this terrified clinging to the threshold." Adaptation and habit adaptation to terrifying conditions. I remember. hended.

observed. Adaptation is perhaps the most significant influence to which organisms are subjected. Within the limits set by the physical environment. fitness for must be made by the t)rpes of variations mu3t exist in the environment. and adaptation to electricity could not have been made were it not for the prevalence of electrical energy. but these instances of control are sufficiently rare to be ogists. 1914. with all the kinds of energy manifested in or through them. however. so far as conformity conditions their life." * What is the explanation of these adaptations which lead. that is possible. In the unicellular animals the circle is small. great variation for instance. What. could not have arisen had it not been for the atmosphere which surrounds the earth. living creatures. an air-breathing mechanism quite different from the limgs might have developed. commented upon by zool- Usually animals must adapt themselves to a rigid environment. May. determines the kind and range of variation? For the lower animals it is natural selection acting through strucAnimals must adjust them^ tural changes and instincts. been different from what they are. forms a circle within which the organisms live. To be sure. of course. at times. for example. if they could have existed at all. It is entirely conceivable. .MENTAL EFFICIENCY 3 the Chicago crimes was accepted by the citizens as a matter of course. The essential nature of their habitat has altered little even through the ages. would bear little or no resemblance to present forms. or perish. then. tions of the environment as the damming of a stream by beavers are. The character of the surroundings. Had the earth and atmosphere. Conse' McClwe's Magazine. Such moderate alteraselves to conditions as they are. to such incredible acquiescence ? All variation by which an individual or a species is ad- justed to the surrounding conditions organism. Lung-breathing animals.

A certain equilibrium must be established between external forces acting upon the individual and his responses. seen that strict conformis forced Among the lower animals we have ity is the rule. But let us see how adaptation works out in the actual affairs of life. imcontrolled adaptation that is characteristic of the lower animals. because of the superior development of his brain. on the other hand. changes. and the fact that reconstruction of the environment to enable the adaptation to be more intelligent caUs for an expenditure of energy which man is loath to meet. It is the same sort of involuntary. When a young is career he man starts on his business or professional at once confronted with certain obstacles be overcome. exigencies of their surrounding condi- any great and any reconstruction that they make is explained by some earlier adjustment which has become fixed in them as an instinct. Now efficiency requires that the quantity of intel- ligence in human adaptations be increased. re- from the attempt to maintain harmonious relations between the organism and its environment. In certain the world in which he Kves. Maintaining this equilibrium is what is meant by adaptation. Their surroimdings have put upon them few new requirements which called for adaptive reconstruction.— 4 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK little quently. though sulting more or less interrupted. and the reasons for this are the pressing demands for immedrifting. The history of animals from the lowest to man reveals continuous. Any change that takes place upon them by the tions. but in many other matters his "thinking" has been largely lines alter his environment. possesses greatly increased ability to reconstruct their environment to it. diate adjustment which is as much a human as an animal requirement. If difficulties to he is a lawyer the obstacle . Man. Few extent before adapting themselves to made over he has practically The changes growing out of the natural sciences have been stupendous. these simple animals have vindergone change.

the statement must be qualified by adding that the standard of achievement may be low. that the young attorney will adopt a method that expresses his own personality rather than that of the witness. for instance. Now there are different ways of approaching a witness. In other words. was is in the lowest tiird of those made by the salesmen in the organization. the selective force in deter- Since this relative success mining the adaptations it is dear that the result may be altogether inadequate to the needs and possibilities of the situation. however. It is almost certain. a salesman recently said with great elation that his sales for the year exceeded those of a fellow traveller whose record. again. "There is no standing still in the business world to-day. the writer happened to know. Soon this form of behavior toward witnesses becomes an established adaptation. to illustrate further. And. "Everything is in continual change. There is. leading the witness kindly to unforeseen admissions. Many college students. so . A certain summer school. This is shown by the fact that lawyers are often described as relentlessly severe or as gentle and insinuating. The human environment is not static. celebrated an increase of twenty-five students over the preceding year." said the president of a large manufacturing plant recently.MENTAL EFFICIENCY may S be the unwillingness of a witness to reveal facts with which he is familiar. For them it is sufficient to have just missed the lowest passing mark. a further fact of immense importance to adaptation. If we say that we know when we succeed in what we are engaged upon. "succeed" if they obtain the "gentleman's grade" of mediocrity. and one acquainted with human personalities knows that certain methods are successful in dealing with some men and worthless with others. his attitude and manner of questioning will be an unconscious adaptation to the difficulties that arise. Yet the surroimding times as many territory should furnish two or three students as the school ever had. however.

6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK man no sooner adapts himself to one set of condito others. Again. requires that be adjusted and difficulties overcome. This was the case in the overlapping of responsibilities in the furniture factory to which we have referred. Success in business." to a successful commer- Methods of doing the day's work also bring their prob- There is an enorlems of organization and overlapping of duties and responsibilities. one of the more promisiag solutions may be put to the actual test of a preliminary trial to determine what errors had been overlooked. as in other matters. Each department concerned blamed another. however. and the first method that seems to meet the exigencies of the situation is usually adopted. and in the end no one was satisfied. those conflicts may that are pressing for solution at the is moment. must readapt himself fall behind the more Those who The management it sat still while other companies brought cial basis. cannot do so largest manufacturers of engines failed to grasp the significance of the steam-turbine. a man commonly uses neither of tJiese methods. related conflicts are not adjusted. that a tions than he One of the versatile. But the exigencies that are met are the immediate ones. Now the be delayed until the problem is thought out. mous amount of A large furniture manufactory spent several days trying to determine the responsibility for failure to do a given co-ordination. The result that the more remote. ask what determines the selection of the plan or method of meeting difficulties that arise in business or When we . As a matter of fact. Such inefl&dency produces continual finanpiece of cial loss and frequent dissatisfaction both within the or- ganization and with customers. work satisfactorily and promptly. solution Then the several ways that suggest themselves may be thought through so as to determine how they would work out in practice. The idea in mind is the somewhat general notion of success.

catching and tossing one before the other reached the hand. In the acquisition of skill. where we shall see it playing a leading r61e. Out that the devices for avoiding "collisions" in the difficulty air. To explain the matter to a clerk would require more time and energy at the moment than to do it himself. and the method employed is commonly the human first one that promises to attain the desired result. he attends to the matter. Consequently. 7 fact in we come upon an important psychology. is of six young men learning the juggler's feat of tossing two balls into the air. unconscious as those which have been noted in acts of muscular skill. In both cases they are attempts to meet in acts of skUl. in the unreflective which we have been speaking. the writer found that only two adopted successful method unadaptation of not always the best. this adaptation is so strictly imconsdous that the learner is not aware of the particular method which he has adopted for meeting a difficulty until he finds himself using it with more or less success. is usually the meet an emergency. and soon attention to This adaptation is quite as details has become a habit. A . Unselected actions follow the line of least resistance. The is urgent and there is always a tendency to meet it with an economical use of energy. which was the they were trjdng to meet. as it is an integral part of what he is engaged upon. The other four used methods which soon ended in failure. situation Now it is significant for efficiency consciously adopted. It must be done at once. So a business man attends to a matter of detail. requiring the least expenditure of energy. The obstacle that confronts us must be overcome. This frugality of energy does not indicate intentional slighting of difficulties.MENTAL EFFICIENCY in the professions. All six found themselves employing devices before they were aware of the attempt. The plan unconsciously adopted to one very small matter may be the determining cause. It is a phase of unreflective adaptation to them.

man does not reason as much as he thinks he does. and the other does. They do not stop to think the matter over. Afterward. The one does not reason. for example. by John B. next he is likely to jump up and paw the bars. as in the other instances of which we have spoken.— 8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK method quickly an emergency. is commonly assumed that in this respect for example. and the most available the easiest at the moment — is unconsciously employed. is always the case in unreflective — The finger movement is ' For a full treatment of this subject. trying one way after another in rapid succession until they either obtain the desired result or become discouraged and stop. within an enclosure sees food he will probably first error" method. . This unconscious the quickest Way of getting results. That the arm movement in the long run is less fatiguing and produces a better writer does not avail unless the beginner adaptation. As a matter of fact. then he does something else until he finally hits upon the right combination for getting out and obtaining the meat. first The term was head between the bars. there is a sharp distinction between the actions of animals and man. by degrees. Watson.^ It and the dog performs only those acts necessary to secure the food. see Behavior. the useless stick his actions are eliminated. but go right at it. is This mode of overcoming obstacles the "trial-and- used to designate the manner in which animals attack a problem. Children. it is said. Of course it is used unconsciously. He reasons so seldom that he likes to call attention to the little that he does. If a dog. and smce it attains the desired end passably well. it is used unless the teacher is insistent. Perhaps this explains why he calls himself a reasoning animal. in learning to write use the trial-and-error method in determining the posture of the body and the movements in the writing. The means which they employ are determined by specific inheritance or individual experience.

is admirably illustrated by the entire history of the art of medicine which preceded the scientific period. There was no outlook beyond immediate needs. of Padua. Problems were not foreseen. guided more by the imderlying philosophical behef than by the results — — ^Superstition in Medicine. like other beliefs. would rather be wrong with Galen than right with any other physician.* Medicine. The Relation of . as well as the adjustment of knowledge and method to them. Indeed. by Hugo Magnus. Systems of medicine if the philosophical and religious view of diseases and their cures may be so dignified ^followed one another as philosophy and religion changed. Medicine to Philosophy. without clarifying judgment. Through out long years some working principles were acquired. in the sixteenth century. withinterpretation. acts of skill.. if the first it is method meets the better way. at best. this. Massaria. One system was used until another was thought to be better. likely to In children and adults difficulty fairly well. Moon. Difficulties were met by the simplest possible adjustment. literary style. and in other things. It was the trial-and-error method. Learning the curative qualities of roots and herbs is an example of the method and of the value of the knowledge gained by it. 1909. by R. O. and the environment was the compelling.MENTAL EFFICIENCY is 9 held rigidly to instructions. this way of making progress under the influence of prevailing beliefs and conditions. be adopted without further search for a This is the explanation of slovenly habits in in language. But it goes further than Unreflective —unconscious—adaptation was the method of progress during the early history of the race. but they were gained at an enormous cost of time and life. alike. directing force. 1908. an approximate and temporary makeshift. rested on authority. Systems were respectable or disreputable. though at that time the trial-and-error judgment was. and the final result was.

igii. The scientific method of investigation and experimentation was imknown. If an illustration of so obvious a fact of human behavior is needed. but they are secured at an enormous cost of time and suffering. late thought. it continues to be the chief method of modern man. The mind. of a long period of progress Out conscious trial and error reflective adaptation is followed to-day when obstacles are not so overwhelming as to force deliberation. his And when. and ' By George B. but the individual must see it. since accuOne uncritidsed authority ruled until superseded by another. Usually they pass unnoticed. Unwithout excuse. besides the pains natural to originality. Thousands of dollars are spent for newspaper. . So any means of escaping from it has always been welcome. and so we have Three Thousand Years of Mental Healing} Naturally in the past no other method of progress than that of uncriticised trial and error could be expected. played its r61e in cures. new ideas were rarely made secure until the old had been worn 'out by the corroding effect of time. rate records were not kept. not be otherwise. as in the earlier days. It is too difficult. street-car.. In the past this had its justification. thinking has never been popular. Blind trial and error is the animal and racial way. Man rarely stops to think out the method of procedure unless the difficulty is so great that no plan of action immediately presents itself. Unf ortxmately. There was no problem here. the thinker risked life. But through it all the importance of finding the cause of diseases was xmrecognized. Consequently. The common supposition that problems are recognized is an error. Cutten. A momentarily insoluble problem is needed to make him think. There must not only be a problem. But this is not all that is necessary. advertising is a case in point. TO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK It could of the treatment. but in the present it is by unsome truths emerge. there was nothing to stimuBesides. then as now.

These judgments have about as much value as the beUefs in the performances of so-called "psychics. like the lower animals. sales in a given advertised district are sometimes checked but there are too many local factors involved to give these estimates general value. unintelligent elimination of mistakes. because they have not yet become aware of the problem. They set definite problems. and many more. half. It is by which the experience of the race has been achieved. study the conditions. expensive. Then he adapts himself as best he can. The method said.s a wasteful process. and the oracular nature of the writings of the ouija-board. but when tmcriticised it ." such as foreseeing the future. is not without results. waits for something to turn up. Yet these facts. Knowledge has been slowly and painfully accumulated by the unplanned elimination of errors. Scientists no longer wait for the tedious. the comparative cost per reader of full.MENTAL EFFICIENCY ii outdoor bulletin advertising without any intelligent effort to estimate the comparative value. This puts intelligence into nature's unintelligent method of But the scientific plan has not been generally progress. which are still accepted on imperfect experiential evidence by the old women of both sexes. uncriticised trial-andtrial-and-error error method. They are using the slow. Again. To be sure. we have . as the errors of earlier workers may be eliminated. and quarter page newspaper and magazine insertions is rarely known to business men. and then plan their investigation so that the means. Business men do not have the information those tion. The amazing advance of the natural sciences during the last quarter of a century is due to a new plan of campaign. Usually man. mental telepathy. Principles of advertising cannot be deduced in this way. adopted. may be ascertained by . who understand the method of scientific investigaSome of them have already been worked out by psychologists.

And by his planning he may reconstruct the environment. the inability of the United States to recognize the righteousness of the German cause was to be explained. The first magnificent Russian drive. And in their planning they created conditions which the Allies have had to meet. and in military science Germany has risen above the animal method of unplanned adaptation. the Ger- . tions that large part of the civilized world. We have heard much about time being on the side of the AUies. This means that they could not at once adapt themselves to the new type of war. Her and made their arrangements so completely that the adaptation had to come largely from her enemies. if he will but use his intelligence. the The explanation is that Germans looked ahead and planned. The world has been amazed at the success of German arms against a Animals. followed immediately by the equally convincing Balkan victory. It is doubtful whether we shall ever have a better illustration of man's control over the conditions he must meet than this present war. To these they must adapt themselves or perish. In industry. the surprise of the German which does not take into account different sorts of minds. but in her failure to understand the collective mind of her enemies she has remained on the lower level. But man can foresee and plan. and entirely new implements of war had to be invented and made. One of these new conditions were produced military staff saw the problems the is many interesting psychological facts of the present war nation that the Allies do not know when they are whipped. and by Germany. Many of the plans of the Allies were rendered obsolete by her constructive military thought. again. And.12 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK we have observed. are dependent upon condiwere forced upon them. should have brought a request for peace from a purely military standpoint. For her statesmen there existed no such problem. Forts were demolished like paper houses. in commerce.

"They understand nothing Britling said. the planting of disease germs in Roumania. Is it asking too much to expect a nation to be efficient in various lines? Probably na- . Zimmermann note urging Mexico and Japan to make war on the United States. and the scrap-ofpaper episode. their efficiency is arguable. sinking the Lusitania. by generous use of British gold and the But the Germans missed Their ignorance of the psychology of other naof the spirit of tions is one of the astonishing disclosures of this war. Then followed the sinking of the Lusitania. there was first the invasion of Belgium. But surely. soldiers and nurses were killed— hideous exhibitions of brutality. and then to sink them "without a trace." the submarine perfidy that made the United States an active enemy. only 13 mercenary nature of the people. they certainly show unintelligent adaptation. and bombing hospitals have not advanced the German armies. the point. and the aerial bombardment efficiency of hospitals. is unequalled in modern history. the secret proposal through neutral Sweden to promise protection to Argentine ships. It is gross. The array of psychological blunders of the German mili- tary and civic authorities. To mention only a few. to carry the illustration further. inexcusable incompetency. the execution of Edith Cavell and Captain Fryatt. disclosed was by planned adjustment to the supposed needs of the moment. by which wounded these acts.ny's fate.MENTAL EFFICIENCY mans thought. man. No they reveal only amazing incapacity to understand the spirit and sentiments If these acts were not always unof civilized peoples. the execution of Edith Cavell and Captain Fryatt. which brought England into the war and shocked the civiHzed world." as Mr. and the massed psychological blunders have sealed Germa. Was military necessity the motive ? If so. the barbaric deportation of Belgians. the slaughter of the women and children by air raids on unfortified towns. murdering from the air innocent women and children.

a filing-case from which a man draws reports from his past fife.. again. A significant psychological corollary is that another man with essentially the same "experience" will draw the opposite conclusion. "Never. fulfilled his fate because he lost his . and never have the feeling of having previously existed in another form?" a theosophical devotee once said to the writer. The feel explanation is. are expecting. In discussing questions of efl&ciency with business men the writer has found them differing vitally regarding matters of policy about which they should have agreed did "exExperience is perience" have objective validity. prised at the experiences of followers of occult phenomena. Primitive man. who was convinced that injury to his clay image what they "Do you "That — — would cause his death. And the acceptance of uncriti- — cised experience is adaptation to events as they come to us. then attained only in those fields to which At all events. If a man expects a plan to succeed the chances are that he is will carry it through. He selects from the files that for which he is looking. like that of individuals. Behevers in the miraculous cures by relics or mind produce the cure if there is nothing serious the matter by their belief. hear. The disagreement was not in the facts but in the interpretation of them and in the attitude toward them. And the analogy goes further." came the astonished exclamation. madam. the serious study and thought are given. that behevers see. This last is important because the mental attitude ends by altering the facts themselves. of course. is specific general. fulfil is strange! themselves for their advocates.14 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK and not it is tional ability. and if one anticipates failure one Unbelievers are often sur- quite certain to be gratified. German belief regarding the behavior of civilized nations toward her barbarous acts grew out of uncriticised experience the animal method. If one wants to beHeve something one will find ample justification in one's memory records. I often do!" Prophecies. To the reply.

and the one selected is likely to be taken either from unwillingness to undergo the effort of thinking or from emotional bias. was own fulfilments. They grow so that when they come back to her she can hardly recognize her own work. He gets what he is looking for and so does not question the result. A variety of meanings may be observed in most experiences. and. Another teacher replied that he had used the plan for ten years and could not get along without it. submissive adaptation of perception. and visible spirits vanished with the coming of science."^ "Where there's I in Italy. The new knowledge that attends scientific investigation alters experience. Leigh. a will there's a way" may not always be true. and always to her advantage. the stories told afterward grow. in 15 more recent times. No one who did not believe in ghosts ever saw one. their honor and letting them govern themhas failed. again. Spiritualistic materialization illus- from the side whenever she gives a seance. The Colorado penitentiary system which has transformed the prison and made the roads of the State would fail under a less enthusiastic believer than Warden Tynan. "I have tried put- ting children selves. This confidence was the reason for his success. speaking through Mr." said a teacher recently. "It trates uncriticised. Of He expected failure and arranged the de- that it had to fail. and especially when get their omens and prophecies before now beby driving men into recklessness and making them run headlong upon the very ruin that they fancied was running upon them. One medium has said that ' Westward Ho I . says: "I have seen.MENTAL EFFICIENCY nerve. except in groups where science has not yet penetrated. Experience is likely to is evidently a treacherous guide because it give what one is seeking. which. but it is a good mental attitude to bring the desired result. is favored by native ' indolence. The trouble is not with experience but with the experiencer. Charles Kingsley. on it but course tails so it did.

the m the Scenes with Mediums. in the way medium desires they should. "the nmnber of the year the we add Behind sum of its "If to 1794. a metaphysical healer. Coincidences agreement between events with wholly — — — different causes or conditions. ' astonishingly striking. Here. Another instance of adaptation is the acceptance of succession of events as indicating cause and effect. his intention had been to show that suggestion was the common factor and operating cause in all mind-cures. which. and a Christian Scientist went to the platform to express their pleasure at finding him in their ranks. which had been low. A At friend has told the writer that he recently dress on mind-cures. potatoes. adaptation accepting appearances and adjusting oneself to them was perfect. are likely to agree again —are not often the basis of judgments and opinions. The fact that a potato famine occurred. Shortly after McKinley's first election to the presidency of the United States. fell." the close of his address a New Thought advocate. is then made to their face the explanation of the importance ascribed to niunbers by the ancients. but comprehension was negligible. accordingly. rose to over a dollar a bushel. gave an addescriptive. Sometimes the co- Coincidence is is incidence stance. so far as he expressed any opinion at all. that the a fact. The and lecture was purely giving the positions beliefs of the several "schools. Yet. owing to continued droughts in wide potato areas. 1912. p. was ignored. and adaptation value.16 is PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK that they always help out. 67. again." for inwhich Robespierre digits. "that believers are so anxious for tests if they be believers." she says. It is a common experience of lecturers to find an address interpreted in quite contradictory ferent hearers who read their own views into ways by difwhat was said. an advance which was attiibnted by Wisconsin farmers to his election. Abbott. by David P." ' This is because the mediums' desires coincide with the wishes of their followers. the result is 181 5. .

p. 263. and tion. The tion in this lavish ' Principles of Science. the year in which Charles the Tenth abdicated. But. If fishes stopped to examine a worm or a fly before seizing it they would starve to death. it will be found that the sum of consisted of 402 members.' If we give to each letter a numerical value corresponding to its place in the alphabet. and the conger-eel the enormous number of fifteen million annually. They are the basis of much of the evidence for "reasoning" in anilittle mals. again. . They are troubled neither by philosophic nor scientific doubts. by W. in 1830. whom 221 formed the party queue de Robespierre. They could not do otherwise and survive. It is the world — more economical for nature to provide against annihila- way than to make all animals clever. To them is what it seems to be. it is probable that not a of the circum- stantial evidence in criminal courts has no better founda- The success of advertising campaigns.' while the remainder. Stanley Jevons. igoo. 181 in nimiber. may frequently be traced to the same chance agreement of events. The herring lays twenty thousand eggs. the repetition of the process gives 1830. and then the offspring are not so niunerous. Animals low in the scale accept appearances. of called 'La the values of the letters in each the number of the party.— MENTAL EFFICIENCY 17 year in which Napoleon fell. as we ascend the animal series intelligence begins to count. There are only a few things for which animals must provide chiefly food and self-protection and nature remedies their mistakes by rapid and numerous multiphcation. Again. were named 'Les honnetes gens. Appearances are true to fact often enough to meet their purposes. the French Chamber of Deputies. It is better that they take their chances." ' name exactly indicates Teachers of psychology are frequently regaled with coincidences seriously offered as "proof" of something that those who relate the stories want to believe.

To be sure. he continues to use the animal method. These people want immediate results. but it is too slow and laborious to satisfy the unscientific. scientists. In the arctic region they dig down through the snow under the trap. Foxes are famous for the skill with which they circumvent animals and man. at least beyond that which is needed to do his work. Far down the animal scale mechanical reactions are the only defense but among the higher forms intelligence has a greater value in nature's market. Like the lower animals. . To be sure. In other words. They prepare an experiment so as to fontrol conditions. and they interpret more correctly the world in which they live. has not developed a method does not of progress. some effort is being made to-day to test experience in matters outside of science. This is man's reconstruction of nature's trial-and-error method. So they draw conclusions from Kmited and uncontrolled observations. The complacency of "self-made" men in their "experience" is well known. seeking food or escaping from enemies. and they eliminate one factor after another that the effect of each in the phenomenon under investigation may be determined. and in man survival depends only in a sHght degree upon physical strength. So they must be protected by cleverness if a given species is to survive. and then they carry away the bait. as we have said. He make it his business to criticise experience. so as to spring it. The life when of both parents and young is now important. because is the offspring are not so numerous. he is prone to accept appearances as true to fact. They have taken a heavy responsibility from their teachers and from the Almighty with their boast of being self-made. Man.18 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK higher forms have better developed sense-organs. Intelligence is now the compelling factor. and take much pride in what "experience" has taught them. however. have a method. Nature not so ex- travagant in producing them. To them appearances may be deceitful.

at best. are commonly men who have had much criticise. But this organic zation tends to proceed in the same imintelUgent way that has been found to be characteristic of the organization of movements line in learning an act of skill. Penology is still and sociology an array of interesting Experience. Men are still much like those of old who refused to look through Galileo's telescope at the satellites of Jupiter because. again. and few occupations are not concerned with them. In this way the essential is distinguished from the unessential or accidental. of course. "Efficiency experts. organizes itself. " experience " is thought to be of only one sort. beings. blooming. an attempt to introduce an but it has been only hesitatingly admitted into factories. of least resistance is followed. This requires a wide knowledge not only in the business in which onie is engaged. buzzing confusion" of which . observation. Few have studied psychology. and the doors of other is management lines of business are still generally closed to it. only the "big. but also And for those who deal with human in related subjects. or experience give. but confused facts. always yielding valuable knowledge. as they said. an awful chaos. for those who are dealing with human behavior. In municipal and governmental affairs. is of fimdamental importance in determining ^ciency tests and plans. but if they looked the devil would make them see Facts should be so classified that their bearing upon one another or their lack of cormection may become clear. but little Some of them do not know what an investigation means or how a problem looks. the satellites were not there. as in other things." however. them.MENTAL EFFICIENCY Scientific 19 intelligent plan into industry. — — Unorganized facts. scientific management is only occasionally employed. the science of human behavior psychology ^is needed. experience in the business which they scientific training. In both cases the Personal bias and emotional preference play a leading part in the product of experience. In these matters. which.

uneventful environment means mental stagnation. such adventures are not provided they will if they have the stuff that makes for vigorous manhood. Progress. This is . like and others. The time comes when boys should have something dangerous to — do. nothing to compel selective action comes dulness. too undisturbed to An With the world's problems. professor of poetry in Oxford. by Faraday itself. This is their way of reconstructing their environment. organize experience go its own way and the Oxford theologians who were excited to violent antagonism at the production. struggle against nature and agamst human adversaries. of induced currents of electricity in a coil of wire by means of a magnet. also.20 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Many They are not sufficiently sensitive to feel let James spoke. Keble. period when they The best period of a people. is their years of struggle. find If them for themselves. mental growth as the hormones "chemical messengers" are to physical development. something that requires strenuous effort. efficient in make them then in time retrogression. thought and courage. in their mind at least. the are doing things that are worth re- cording m their history. and it is quite comparable to the creations of engineers and men of "big business. it "had truckled sadly to the spirit of the times" The exin honoring these "hodgepodge philosophers. as he said. of selecting and making the situations to which they will adapt themselves." perience of these professors had been too limited." If boys do not find adventures when they are not furnished them. requires resistance something to work against. the confusion. uneventful life of the "weU-behaved" boy. improvement. if they adapt themselves to the colorless. This need of courage in risk and adventure is as true of — — races as of individuals. was angry at the imiversity because. real adventure involving. their childhood has been deprived of something as essential to danger. This is not without significance in the training of children.

tance. They are either progressing or retrogressing. But neither races uals are nor individuals can stand still. observable in the rise and progress of religions. And the reason why the sons of seK-made men so rarely show the qualities of their fathers is that they are protected. perseverance. and gone the way of the inefficient. Of course obstacles should not be beyond the available strength. or science. and they are aroused only when ease is more unbearable than action.MENTAL EFFICIENCY s&in in th« is also it is 21 It Roman republic and Grecian democracy. do not put brains into men. Their achievements are usually below their maximum efficiency. Peoples sometimes succumb after brilliant efforts because the call was beyond their capacity. Obstacles also eliminate iticapables. and the determination to win. insufficient in battles and politics. Those who succeeded had staying qualities. But this does not necessarily mean that the losing battle which they valiantly The quality of resisfought was without significance. They rarely do the best . peoples have yielded to debilitating tendencies. adverse circumstances. art. and equally true of individuals. An illustration of the psychological effect of working against resistance latent ability in is seen in the occasional revelation of men. They do not wish to exert themselves lumecessarily. and "carry" them in business. fields. The fathers supply them with money and automobiles. Opposition. but they draw out what there is in them. to fight developed staying quali- In other enervated by acquiescence and luxury. must work against resistance if it is to develop. The brain. was transferred to( other ties. Whatever truth there is in the accomplishments of self-made men lies in the fact that they had to fight against adverse conditions. Adaptation is always goiog on. like muscle. The need cases. though sometimes by the psychological law of compensation their failure to maintain themselves as a nation may lead to success in literature. Peoples and individ- by nature indolent.

Consequently. is racial indolence. and man does not. the result is usually no standard. It is. adapting themselves. are their adaptation to distant At the outset he puts tremendous exertion into an under- Then his efforts relax. energy expended in intelligent effort varies with individuals. They do not make a little job into a big one. and "satisfactory" is a variable quantity. doctors. we have No more effort is expended in a work than is required to produce a satisfactory There result. seen.22 of PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK which they are capable. attained Consequently. In this respect the lower animals are superior to man. But these rare persons are seeking promo- tion or looking forward to achievements in other lines. They. piece of It requires severe effort to maintain one's highest level of efficiency. The reason for this. They grow to the smallest dimensions of their job and then stop. maintains his highest level of efficiency unless a continually exciting and varying stimulus is active in the environment. the quantity of are capable. and business men are contented witli efforts that bring fair results. They use all of their powers to the limit of their capacity. be associated with those whose standards of achievement are high who stimulate to continuous effort toward better efficiency. but they are making demands which they hold in view. — . There are those who conscientiously strive to secure the best of which they To be sure. lawyers. . perhaps at first gradually and imperceptibly. until finally he is acting on a level of efficiency much below his ability. of supreme importance that young men and women. and effort is a strain which one is loath to make. No one. during their adaptive period. also. teachers. So true is it that man is satisfied with the results which meet the lowest requirements of a situation that this human characteristic may be called the tendency to minimum effort. therefore. This is not merely that we may be shown how to do the work more effectaking. is far below the grade of which the individual is capable. probably.

reveals one's power. put into a position of excepwork with the "sink-or-switn" determination. he ran wild in the forest. Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry. No persuasion could bring him either to read or to work. either of that impassioned love for liberty. . effort. On the contrary.MENTAL EFFICIENCY lively 23 stantly operative. U. "His companions" [in youth] " recollect no instance of premature wit. is At when a man tional responsibility. he throws himself into the his future character. like one of the aborigines of the country. I. . and will ^the determination — ' William Wirt. Grant is an example. he could not make a living. The circumstances that surround one are evidently tremendously important in determining indolence caused speedy failure. When stimulating it arouses ambition. But the rest of his career is interwoven in our country's history. Ives say: "There is no telling what a man can do until you frighten him. vol. no remarkable beauty or strength of expression. Another failure followed a second attempt in business. Then. and then he displays power unknown to his friends or himself. Robert Louis Stevenson illustrates this when he makes one of his characters in St. he tried law. however slight. whether latent abilities shall reveal tb. S." * Established in business by his father. An environment is either stimulating or inert. no striking sentiment." Sometimes the occupation for which one is fitted. 24. but that the improvement-stimulus may be conOnly in this way can one keep alive at the growing-point. and no indication. as a great opportunity. But the most striking illustration is Patrick Henry. Neither he nor his friends had any hope of his success. . not knowing what else to do.emselves. and divided of the chase his Kfe between the dissipation and uproar and the languor of inaction. no flash of fancy. p. or of that adventurous daring and intrepidity which marked so strongly times. . his inattention and Given a farm.

however. required alteration too great the change is too rapid or the animals cannot make the adaptation and the species perishes. As we ascend the animal series organisms become more These higher forms represent the animals that have been able to adapt themselves to a wider range of conditions. and former leader of the once famous "Jennings Gang. and in the lowest forms of life that complex. The trail through the prehistoric jimgle to modern times is strewn with the remains of animals that failed to quahfy for new requirements. It has been a blind struggle for survival. ingly that he meets the fails. The individual then unconsciously. is no less forceful in its requirements and no less effective in producing alteration. The circle of requirements has enlarged. then. Only now the changes are mental as well as physiological. he chanced upon a or as vocation that aroused all his latent powers. all there is to it. in its broadest meaning. the reformed bandit and train-robber. The animal reacts differently to new conditions behaves differently because it is is — — physiologically different. At this stage. Those that succeeded have built their new lives upon the graves of incapables. minimum did Patrick Henry until consider it somewhat further. The education of man differs from that of the lower animals in the inclusion of factors which play no part in the development of lower forms of life. then. Neither has it been conIf the scious. Education. and quite likely unintentionally. education is wholly a matter of organic adaptation which results in physiological modification. consists in coming into such rapport with the environment as to meet successfully the exigencies which arise. Al Jennings. Let us is the psychological significance of adaptation." . Here. Adjustment is always an element in education. Adaptation. The change has not been sudden.24 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to achieve —but if it is inert the adaptation is at the lowest level of efficiency. expends his energy so grudg- requirements of his work.

by Al Jennings and Will Irwin. the atmosphere had changed." The game of adaptation is two-sided and the player must keep up with it. Some one will look up and say Why. . The next day I made Red Hereford's with Bill. but he asked where we were going." ^ The writer doubts whether it was prison life which awakened his dormant mind. of food to accept hospitality. where's John gone ? No one but me will know. I will be sitting with a group of a dozen people having a talk. It wasn't so before I took the road. "If there were two men in the whole territory on whom I depended. I got the habit in prison. "I am always surprising my friends. Daily. There. approaching the subject indirectly. mind ' BeaUng Back. and all that without losing any of my absorp- tion in the conversation. 310^. forced Heavy rewards upon by need his head severely strained the loyalty of friends. Curiosity about the other fellow's whereabouts wasn't etiquette in our set.MENTAL EFFICIENCY 25 has given an interesting illustration of adaptation from his own Mfe. I can always tell when and how he left the room. when meant cap- Illustrations are not wanting in his book. Failure to read their faces. ture or death. That my old crimes raised me from a rough country practitioner to a real lawyer I haven't the slightest doubt. they were Sam Baker and Red Hereford. which they take for a kind of clairvoyant instinct. I stopped at Baker's on my way out. "by deductions. Her maimer made me a little suspicious. When presently Baker came in he seemed cordial enough. uncertain environment makes demands upon those in it. whom I'd met on the road. For example. It wasn't what he said — it was his manner. and an active. A changing. also. relentless need for the minutest observation and most rigorously exact interpretation of persons and events outside of prison did the work. pp." he says. Usually ' : ' I him have learned by his expression and gesture what made leave. His wife told me that he had gone to find us boys.

Pfungst.26 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK its adaptations and reconstructions. childish interests. He saw more. and a sugar biscuit or a pinch of snuff becomes a thing to follow after and scheme for. 1911. and reasoned more correctly on criminal aristocracy required intellect of these Jennings had. Those who cannot meet the issues succumb either by suffermg the supreme penalty of failure or by dropping to a lower responds with where the less. level." he says. — — the basis of his interpretation. See also My Life in Prison. In Al Jennings' world of that day the latter meant becoming To remain in the cattle rustlers or ordinary thieves. The conditions of his life called for certain responses behavior which were possible only as the result of functional changes. . t. These changes were largely in the nervous system. venson observed this effect. by Oscar Pfungst. was able to see and interpret the unconscious movements of the persons.' "how grown men and seasoned soldiers can go back in life. That it is possible to see served has been proven much more than is usually obby Pfungst in his investigation of "Clever Hans." the so-called educated horse. and bravery. playing the part of the horse. "For it is strange. exacting demands can be met. Prison-life adaptation is more likely to cause deterioraRobert Louis Stetion than to develop mental keenness. so that after but a little whUe in prison. Self-preservation is a stern and effective teacher.^ Without any further practice than was involved in making the experiments. came from the need of the fullest development of all of his powers of perception. which is after all the next thing to being in the nursery. they grow absorbed in the most pitiful." The sharpening of his intellect. p. interpreted better what he saw. Ives. who thought three numbers together with their • St. Both and they came out when needed. interpretation. *Clever Hans. by Donald Lowrie. and reasoning. which Jennings attributes to his life "on the road" and in prison.



sum, so as to determine the order in which the numbers were mentally added. For example, a man thought of 12 as 5 2 and as 2 5, and Pfvmgst, as he s 5 tapped off the number with his hand, could determine by watching the man which order the number took in his mind. The significance for interpreting events of this sharpened observation and inference is obvious. Adaptation to a changed environment is also seen in the altered conduct of States-prison convicts when placed under new conditions. These striking changes, which

+ +

+ +


it is

to a revolution in the character of the pris-

oners, are so


a matter of general knowledge to-day only necessary to refer to them. In Colorado,


convicts have been employed

making roads two hundred
in tents

miles from the prison.

The men were housed

and dugouts, away from the towns near at hand, and the camps were guarded only to keep away tramps and prowlers who might attack the commissary or carry away other property.^ "For a long time the only man who carried firearms in one of these camps was a long-time prisoner


patrolled the place for the above reason. We have now " [when the letter was written] " three hundred men employed away from the walls, and yet in the last eight months only one man has escaped." Mr. Fremont Older, of the San Francisco Bulletin, has a former stage-robber as manager of his ranch. "He is absolutely honest and could be trusted with a million dol. .




years, for stage robbery

has served four terms, aggregating thirty-eight and highway robbery, and he
in California."

was considered the worst man


adaptation has a wide reach in making and remaking men. Perhaps the explanation of the change in these convicts

when placed under a new environment


to be found in

Information contained in a letter from Warden Tynan.

Used with


From a

personal letter.

Used with permission.




a statement of an Oregon convict. Governor West was convinced that the shoe-shop of the penitentiary was inSo he telephoned the warden and asked that a efficient. prisoner, whom he designated by number, be sent to him. The convict came miguarded. He was told that he shotild go to Oregon City, study the machinery of the shoe-shops, and report on what was needed to make those of the
penitentiary efficient.
his return told the governor

went, again unguarded, and on what was necessary to make the prison shoe-shops modern. The governor then said You have to him:. "Now, you're in for Hfe, a murderer.
tried to get






you try



you, governor. I've tried it betime?" This would have been a pipe for sure. But it's the fore. first time since I can remember that a man trusted me.


I'll tell

you down." These human pictures represent men's physiological and mental reorganization in a changed environment. They are whoUy comparable to the adaptations of lower animals. Habits and actions ^behavior viewed in the large are not isolated states. They are responses to environmental situations, and they can be rightly appraised only when considered in relation to these environing conditions. Behavior involves two factors, the organism, and the objects
I couldn't throw

or circiunstances that



demand adaptive


The external conditions At one time this demand

imposes the penalty of death for failure to meet it, and at another the ridicule of associates with all the anguish that accompanies ostracism. The human will is not resistless. It is influenced by

and individual




which originated in

needs quite different from those of the present day. Consequently, the adjustment of action to environment is at times imperfect. Primitive man, like his animal ancestors,


of former

York Times, May Governor West,




by a


from the secretary

expended tremendous strength and, having won

his fight,

relapsed into inaction, revelling in the fruits of his victory. Man is able to maintain a persistent battle-front

only in extreme danger to his Kfe.
gradually relaxes his vigilance and


At other times he when resistance

becomes too great a burden, he slowly 3delds. Witness the progress of reforms. A crjdng need is felt and volimteers are not lacking. But soon, confronted with continued opposition, enthusiasm wanes and vanishes, and things remain much as they were. The overwhelming but temporary outburst of indignation after the Iroquois Theatre and the Triangle Shirt-Waist Building burned, with their appalling loss of Ufe, are illustrations. Enthusiasm comes in waves, but the effort needed to keep it going is
too exacting.

All of these forms of behavior are phases of adaptation.

In the case of the convicts of

whom we

have spoken, the

them required more mental, moral, and physical stamina than they had at their disposal. When, at a later time, the circumstances surrounding them favored an ethical, social attitude, when
industrial conditions confronting

opposition to the unsocial did not require such strenuous,

unremitting resistance,



it is

recognized that will

outcome of pitting
social science

Only an adaptive process, the emotions, and thoughts, with
adaptations followed.

their judgments, against surrounding

conditions, will a

be possible. As we shall see later, the will is not a "faculty" a single, simple force. It is the whole mind active, impulses, emotions, ideas, and ideals, but it Life is active with reference to something external to it. is not action. It is reaction. The illustrations of adaptation which we have given are those of individuals ^made within the Ufetime of one person. When we turn to racial adaptation an interesting observation has been made by Boas.^ He claims to have


Senate Document, No. 208. Sixty-fiist Congress, 2d Session, p.




found that "the head form, which has always been considered as one of the most stable and permanent characteristics of human races, undergoes far-reaching changes due to the transfer of the races of Europe to American

seen in Stefansson's blond Eskimo His measurements of 104 of these men "give an index of 97, which places the 'blond, Eskimo,' when judged by head form, exactly where it places them when judged by complexion in the class with persons who are known to be of mixed Eskimo and white descent." Naturally, adaptation was favored by cross-breeding, but if Stefansson's theory is correct the Scandinavians who survived in their westward journey from Greenland must have practised very rigid adaptation. This is shown by the fate of early discoverers, as Sir John Franklin's party, who, though equipped with protecting devices and a reasonable quantity of food, could not meet the conditions sufl&ciently

Another example


of Victoria Island.'

well to survive.

more them

or less successful
to meet.

have been discussing adaptations which were more and which made the individuals or group
the exigencies that they fitted

efficient in respect to

But himian adaptation
If the




is not fully illusLet us therefore turn for a moment to


death-rate increases

it is


of lack of intelKgent adjustment to conditions. And this is exactly what is happening in the United States to-day.

Government reports show that the death-rate from organic
diseases in this country has been steadily rising since 1880.

might be assumed that this is a necessary state of affairs due to uncontrollable causes involved in the progress of civilization were it not for the fact that during this period the death-rate from the same causes has not risen in European countries of a corresponding degree of civilization. "Coincident with the increase in the death-rate from orIt

Vilhjalmur StefSnsson,

My Life with the Eskimo,

1913, pp. 192/.



ganic diseases in the United States, the advance has occurred in the general death-rate in all age periods, commencing with age forty to fifty." '

The last report^ of the United States Census Bureau gives 1,001,921 deaths for the year 1916 in the '"registration area,' which contains approximately 70 per cent of
the population of the entire United States. ... Of these deaths nearly one-third were due to three causes heart disease, tuberculosis, and pneimionia. The deaths from heart disease (organic diseases of the heart and endo-




carditis) in the registration area in

1916 numbered




159.4 per 100,000 population. The death-rate from this cause shows a marked increase as compared with 1900,
it was only 123.1 per 100,000." The mortahty rate from Bright's disease and acute nephritis has increased, with some yearly fluctuations, from 89 per 100,000 in 1900 to 105.2 in 191 6; and the rate from diabetes has risen almost continuously since 1900, when it was 9.7 per 100,000, to 1 91 6, when it was 17 for the same number of inhabitants. Arterial diseases, again, have increased from 6.1 in 1900 to 25.6 in 1912; and the increase of the mortality rate from apoplexy has been continuous since 1913. These startling figures become even more impressive when it is remembered that an organic disease, especially of the


heart or kidne)rs,

makes the prognosis decidedly more un-

favorable for an acute disease Hke pneimionia, and this

was one

of the three diseases that caused nearly one-third

of the deaths in the registration area during the year.

another of the three, still "causes more deaths annually than any other malady, except heart diseases, and about 37 per cent more than all external







E. E. Rittenhouse. Paper prepared from government reports and lifeexpectancy tables at the request of the Committee on Public Health Education of the Medical Society of the County of New York, and read at the Academy of Medicine. * Bureau's Summary of Mortality Statistics, issued Nov. 27, 1917.



an eradicable disease if proper attenis given to fresh air and out-of-door exercise. The general death-rate has declined in recent years, but The this does not mean that the race is more vigorous. decline in mortahty is chiefly in infancy, childhood, and



early adult Ufe.


the reason


better defense against

germ diseases. The evidence indicates that deaths from wear and tear are increasing. Vital statistics show that the expectancy of life from shortly before forty years of
age has been gradually but steadily



gations of Rittenhouse indicate that during the last thirty

years the death-rate from organic diseases has increased


86 per cent in Massachusetts and 94 per cent in fifteen cities. And yet, while the death-rate from

these causes has been increasing in the United States, it has been stationary or decreasing in England, Germany, Sweden, and France. Since these countries do not have better physicians than the United States, there can be but one explanation lack of intelligent adaptation to the rapid changes which have been taking place during recent


The mortaUty rate from some of the organic diseases has doubled within forty years. A striking increase in deaths from diseases of the heart, arteries, and liver begins between thirty and forty years of age, the maximxmi being reached at sixty or shortly after; and when the decades preceding 1881 and 19 11 are compared it is foimd that during the latter period the expectation of life has been lowered for all ages after forty. The condition which
these statistics indicate has attracted the attention of the United States Public Health Service, which has sent a warning^ through the country. "At the age of forty the expectation of life," the statement runs, "is less now than it was thirty years ago. This is true for both men and women. Life expectancy


and Health, by F. C. Smith, Government Printing


intelligent care of


during infancy and childhood has increased owing to more young children, to the introduction of diphtheria antitoxin, and other means of combating the
infectious diseases,



more sanitary


But the

diseases of degeneration are increasing, especially those

involving the kidneys, heart, and blood-vessels, particularly among persons not employed at manual labor. One

reason for this is the lessened physical and the increased mental work entailed by our complex social fabric. More people are engaged in sedentary occupations than formerly. More nervous energy is required of a man. Deprived of the natural assistance which physical exercise affords in eliminating through skin and lungs the waste products of the body, the kidneys become overloaded and fail. Lacking the normal assistance which working muscles give to circulation as they urge the blood and lymph onward in the natural channels, and overloaded with food poisons which brain-work cannot bum up as physical exercise will, the arteries become brittle and weak and the heart muscle
flabby, like the biceps of its imfortunate possessor.


florid businessman succumbs to apoplexy, perhaps; another

pasty-complexioned brain-worker to nephritis; another to a fatty heart or to chronically overtaxed digestion, all of which could have been postponed for many years by a

moderate amount

of daily exercise."


lack of applied intelligence of

by the

report of the Committee of

homo sapiens is shown, One Hundred on

National Health. There are over 625,000 deaths annually in the United States which coxxld be prevented, and at least
half of the 3,000,000 sick-beds





be empty


the existing knowledge of hygiene were ap-


health examinations of the Life Extension Insti-

tute have revealed unsuspected ailments in persons who considered themselves well, and to an extent which has astonished even those who have long been familiar with


large groups of clerks

these subjects.

and em-

ployees of banks and commercial houses in New York City, with an average age of twenty-seven, and all supposedly picked men and women, only i per cent were found free of impairment or of habits of living which are

obviously leading to impairment. Of those with important physical impairments, 88.88 per cent were, prior to the examination, imaware of impairment; i6 per cent of the total number examined were (affected with organic
heart trouble, 42 per cent with arterial changes, janging from slight thickem'ng to advanced arterio-sclerosis, 26 per cent with high or low blood-pressure, 40 per cent had

albumen in the urine, 24 per cent had a combination of both heart and kidney disease, 47 per cent had decayed teeth or infected gums, 31 per cent had faulty
sugar, casts, or
vision uncorrected.


industrial groups, not exposed to



occupation hazard or poisoning, the figures were as follows: With an average age of thirty-three, none were foimd to be free of impairment or of living habits which are obviously leading to impairment.

Of those with important

physical impairments, 89 per cent were, prior to the examination, unaware of impairments; 3 per cent of the

number examined were

affected with organic heart

trouble; 53 per cent with arterial changes, ranging from shght thickening to advanced arterio-sclerosis; 23 per cent

with high or low blood-pressure; 45 per cent had sugar, albumen, or casts in their urine; 26 per cent had a combination of both heart and kidney disease; 69 per cent had decayed teeth or infected gums; 41 per cent had faulty
vision imcorrected."'

No single explanation for this physical deterioration can be given. Probably, however, the most fundamental cause is the sudden change, during the last two generations, from muscularly active lives, spent mostly out-of-doors, to

How to


by Irving Fisher and Eugene L.

Fisk, pp. 136/.

" * The physical waste produced by city life calls for stimulants and narcotics to speed up energy or dull the feeling diabetes goes up'. The identification of the common causes of diabetes with the common causes of Graves' disease may explain why.MENTAL EFFICIENCY 35 ph3rsicaUy inactive lives. Kved chiefly indoors. The annual consumption of alcohoKc liquor. The proportion of city inhabitants has increased more than 130 per cent in the last fifty years. Man: An Adaptive Mechanism. 'When stocks go down in New York more commonly found and races who are constantly under a strain of business perplexities. and who are constantly within sight and hearing of thousands of irritating and harassing episodes. 241. as evidence of the significance of erate drinkers • companies have foimd that "the death-rate of very mod- among the insured is 18 per cent higher Crile. . pp. in the words of a certain phrase-maker. The body and organs cannot at once readapt themselves from a life of action in the open to sedentary conditions in confined. for example. and luxury. of the shop or office has started a physical After they have' made be a long way on the road to decline. this. and while our city population has increased 35 per cent during the last decade. . devitalized air. Proof of this is not wanting. the rural population has increased only about 1 1 per cent. dried-out. in large cities. overheated. by George W. and why it is rare in localities where leisurely and quiet ways of life prevail. . 225. why diabetes is among individuals of fatigue.5 gallons per capita to nearly 20 gallons since i860. power and progress and and of their antitheses. This change from an active out-of-doors life to the inside impairment which city conditions have promoted. of liberty . Speaking of these facts with reference to two of the their adaptation to these conditions the race will prevalent diseases says: "It — arterio-sclerosis and diabetes — Crile is essentially a story of the modern world. life-insurance and. has increased from 6. of success.

Brown. ited to a few. the consumption of coffee per capita has increased 54 per Besides this. But other unintelligent adaptations are evident in modern social and especially urban life which hasten physical the vigor of the nervous system and of the impairment. and the yearly consumption of patent medicines and nostrums of one sort or another has increased 365 per cent per capita beyond that of thirty-five years ago. and..D. cent duruig the last two generations. if druggists are to be beheved. Harvard Illustrated. There is a dangerous tendency toward habits of physical ease. lege slouch" The "col- an illustration. and that three out ' Address at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Association of Life Insurance Presidents. E.200. Increase in wealth has brought luxuries and ease. without the advice of a physician. ' Lloyd T. with probably still more disastrous effect. and the productivity of the mind is not unrelated to body in general. Walking is rapidly becoming a lost art People ride in street-cars or automobiles. Rittenhouse.000 of them. indication of Then.000. most 75. M. Even the sauntering that boys do is must conform to a cer- tain "style" that predisposes to impairment. Mental processes accompany certain cerebral processes. The mind is not an ethereal. spiritual force inhabiting the brain. vol.000 worth of tobacco is annually burned. pounds of drugs are consumed annually. as another the enervating effect of "civilized" life. An exammation of 746 Harvard freshmen showed ^ that four out of every five stand and walk in a slimiping posture. p.000. ." ^ $1. by E.36 and PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of steady drinkers 86 per cent higher than the aver- age. Athletics in schools and colleges are lim- The others take their exercise vicariously on the bleachers. If it be asked. What have these facts of physiology and hygiene to do with psychology? the answer is obvious. The apartment janitor or house man does the work formerly done by boys. 280. 1916. 18.

never reach the final examination to which these figures refer. 1916. out of those sent to West Point we find about onefourth rejected for physical reasons. The first furnishes drait under the Selective Service Act of 1917 the latest information regarding the physical condition of avac young men. The conspicuously unfit. (X those who aj^Ked for admission to the Naval Acadin 1914. According to a statement issued in December. therefore.* and yet. Out of 562 candidates for West Point in 1914. and in 1916. prdiminary physical examination eliminated the conspicuously unfit before they reached the academy. a cent. 142 were ph5^ically unfit and were rejected. 16 per cent. only I out of every 30 who applied for admission from > Report of the Frowst Marshal General to the Secretary of War. though at no time have the demands on "fitness" been unduly severe. Yet.11 per cent were found phjracaJly unfit. in 1915. 1918. 25 per In these cases.MENTAL EFFICIENCY of five 37 when they affect do not know how to take a correct position even try. It was also foxind that the students who the slouch have a greater variety and a higher peris strik- centage of sickness than those who stand erect. 30 per cent were rejected. army or navy. It is emy probable that the smaller number of rejections in 1916 was the result of lowering the physical requirement on account of the project of war. . the commanding officers of several cantoimients have complained that too many who were physically unfit have been sent to the camps. also. The physical deterioration of young Americans ' ingly shown by the rejections for physical causes among those who have applied for admission to the. notwithstanding these disturbing figures. by recruiting officers of the United States Marine service. Of those called and examined 29. These figures are the more dismajnng when it is recalled that all candidates undergo a preliminary medical examination before going to West Point.

Every significant change in the environment puts the organism out of harmony with it and some sort of reorganization and. Too little walking makes flabby muscles and flat feet. knowing that one is diseased plays a leading r61e in the drama of life. good condition to be avail- Referring to a large number of candidates. Captain L. Pinkston. Development implies a reconstruction —men- . much — rhetorical flight of the imagination that led Henry Ward Beecher to cry: "It is as difficult for a dyspeptic to enter the kingdom of heaven as for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. Only when the enviromnent is static do physical alterations reduce to the minimum or cease altogether. a stationary environment there is growth but no de- velopment.38 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK in sufl&ciently Manhattan were able. The external environment is the stimulus to which the physical organism reacts. with the individual With time. The will depends hardly lessi upon the stomach than upon the brain. recently said that out of 11. It is one of those vicious Kttle circles." Aside from the physical effect. reconstruction is if necessary Failure to make the environmental change is sufficiently great. and the determined. Thinking and judgment suffer. It was no mere are flat chests. of the New York City recruiting bureau.012 applicants. man becomes vacillating and unre- We have seen that the changes which occur in the organism may be described in large part in terms of adaptation. Such is the physical preparedness of the men They of New York fit City — i I in every 35 who applied is physically to be a marine What are the chief defects ? the same the coxmtry over heart trouble. and flat feet. P. the adaptation perpetuates the lack of its harmony which. The mental effect of deterioration of the tissues of the bodily organs is evident. may become sufficient to cost Kfe or even to annihilate the species. efficient liable. and then flat feet forbid walking. finally. only 316 could be accepted.

The lower over to any passive. If this reconstruction produces greater organic complexity to meet more involved conditions of life there is progress. the variation thus introduced leads to the estabhshment of a new reaction. his animals. we have said. there is always the tendency. During any marked change in the essentials of an environment many perish because of Those that surinability to meet the new requirements. If the established response is continuous through the species with the moderate variation observed in even so-called fixed reactions it is in- — — stinct. The marvellous irrigation systems by which deserts . on the other hand. Adaptation may take a form of response already perfected or in process of becoming fixed. Along with the impulse to adapt and. to the environment as it stands. when necessary. mental. as we have noticed.MENTAL EFFICIENCY tal 39 lost equi- and physical —leading to the restoration of a its librium between an organism and environment. which tends again to become fixed in habit. can entirely reconstruct environment and in way create new incentives to further improvement. largfe must adapt themselves They cannot make it is extent Their adaptation this therefore Man. is always resisted. vive make as little change in structure and behavior as will meet the exigencies of the situation. or. and if it is peculiar to an individual it is habit. An environment constantly chang- ing under man's reconstructing and reorganizing ability presents a continuous succession of inducements to progress. there may be a tendency to ' alter the reaction to meet the varying needs of the environment. to do so with as little expendiChange. When changed conditions in the environment are met by a responsive adjust- The ability of ment of behavior in the organism. whether organic or ture of energy as possible. to readapt oneself to altered circumstances. again. an organism to break away from established types of response— to adapt itself better to new conditions —measures its capacity to develop.

We is have illustrated its length because of human adaptation somewhat at importance in human efficiency. This difference arises from the stealthy way in which adaptation works. And it is here that man's intelligence has a chance to assert itself. Man intelligraice prone to think that his higher it superior to this organic tendency. to whom reference has been made. of personality was true to itself and to the condition which In helping others to develop. and the transformation of water-power into electrical machines that supply distant cities with electricity are illustrations. We may therefore turn to the nature and method it out. The convicts. Evidently the intellect should play a more discriminative part in planning the conditions to which hiunan adaptation shall be made. drew of thinking. servient to relentlessly Yet he is makes him no less sub- than are the lower animals. adapted themselves to two widely varying sets of conditions. when it is a question of training oneself. and the results were so different as to exhibit in each convict two apparently antagonistic selves. . the effect of the conditions to which response is made is readily discernible because of the objective point of view. however. Adaptation is We cannot escape it.40 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK have been changed into fertile farms. Yet each manifestation exacting. The problem is quite different. The only method of control is the indirect one of planning the conditions to which adaptation shall be made.

Mere succession of things thought of even related things need not be thinking. he wiU inevitably adapt himself. 41 A few illustra- . Suppose we pause a moment to correct a rather wide-spread error. not those that are fanciful or artificial. There are many ways in which Some of these things and their ideas may be related. The test is in the kind of associated significance ideas that we have. perhaps. and foremost among these. perhaps a belief. ideas come into the mind and are succeeded by others that have some sort of connection with the first. and. We will assume then that the external conditions have been well planned with reference to efficiency that the stage is set. is the subtle process called thinking. and others have not. if not. it exposes — — the insecure foundation. for a belief. and these Some consequence should relations must lead somewhere. like breathing. sooner or later. Thinking implies seeing real relations. mere association of ideas does not constitute thinking.CHAPTER II THINKING AND ACTING We have seen that the man who would be efficient should strive to control the external conditions to which. so to — speak. Thinking is not a spontaneous process. Evidently. if it is well grounded. then. But this is not necessarily thinking in the proper sense. This consequence becomes a body of knowlfollow them. To be sure. Ideas may have no more than is disclosed in the prattle of infants. The next step is the organization of effective mental habit^. Thinking also finds the reasons edge. ways have significant meaning under given conditions.

and they take the place of arguments. pohticians assume that the public can be fooled long enough to win the election. said: time. As a matter of fact. on hearing some one speak of the barren. Obviously. Even activity taking part in the events—does not make experience. working ten hours a day six days in the week. tradition. A like those of Thackeray and George Eliot. told the manager of a large manufacturing plant on being that the laborers in his mills were dragging out a Joyless. to illustrate failure to think from a different angle. They are designed to awaken certain ready-made associations in the voters. and the voters accept their judgment. it is clear that ideas brought into the mind through association may revolve in a very small circle and. exerts sqch a dominating influence. and they are of a type sufficiently frequent to be rather commonplace. hopeless existence. consequently. But slogans presuppose absence of thinking. and environment. are often insulting to even intelligence. however. They there- fore Justify it. Getting experience requires understanding causes and consequences seeing connection between what precedes and — — that which follows." And again. degenerating lives of those in the slums. as usually accepted. controlled by inheritance. in- cluding early education and social pressure. Merely living through a series of events. thinking is largely If these illustrations are fairly chosen. replied: "They should have good books to read. yet they are not resented. we have found does not give valid experience." "well-read" woman. never advance thought. Change is meaningless transition un- . and it is partly for this reason that experience." "They don't know how to use their leisure The arguments moderate of political parties. A wellchosen slogan is frequently sufficient. for example.42 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK tions will indicate the frequency of insignificant associations incorrectly dignified as '(thoughts.

depends wholly upon the accuracy of the process. When change trans- lated into cause and effect it is full of significance. inventive and original. as in other judgments. to the extent of the failure of habits. We learn something. new. experience usually what promises to be the efficient course to pursue. adaptation tends to become conscious. "fundamental principles. The thinking of an Arsene Lupin in accomplishing his criminal purposes is as good as that of a Sherlock Holmes in thwarting them. is measured by the amount of conscious. Thinking is strictly an intelIts value lectual matter and in no sense a moral one.THINKING AND ACTING less it is 43 is connected with its results." which will be shared by others in proportion as these people have had similar experiences and have reasoned with like accuracy from the same startThe circle within which one reasons will be ing-point. rests upon personal judgment. He begins with experience. the test of the value of the decision is the success or failure of the plan in achieving the aims which are sought. When response becomes habitual experience is at its minimum. This interpretation. The tion of character of experience any experience at all ^is determined by the proportions in which habits of response. on the one hand. at least. or with the interpretation and estimate of the views of others which is determined by his experience. —indeed. The starting-point from which the thinking proceeds is itself a matter of experience and interpretation. attentive reaction which is opposed to habits of thought and behavior. again. With man. The quantity of experience. The human being seems to be enclosed in a circle from which he cannot extricate himself. and variability. enter as constituents into our thought and actions. — the very realiza- In the active affairs of life. again. and. Here. settles . any break with mental habits tends to be educative. however. on the other. So far as situations fail to be adequately met with habits.

He was "not original in devising brilliant plans. Livermore. The Story of the Civil War. 495. howa matter of the accuracy of the intellectual operation by which new beliefs grow out of the facts and ideas accepted as a true starting-point.44 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK large or small according as one's experience has been broad or limited. There are two classes of discerning men. reminds one of a remark once made by Ohver Cromwell: "To be a Seeker." he said. and in proportion to one's ability to dis- cover meaning in the experiences of others and to reconthem in terms of personal experience. each important and effective in his way. for example." The willingness and ability to admit in action the value of ideas presented » by others reveals an intellecp. though unable to initiate in any large degree. General George Meade seems to have been of the latter class. it is ocre men lies. by William R. "is to be of the best sect next to a Finder. but his dear understanding enabled him to discriminate between the plans of others." ^ Meade's success. ever. Probably some are bom with a nervous orgajiization that accepts struct certain types of "fundamental principles" more readily than do others. . Throughout this mental growth the interpretation of experience plays a directing r61e. and it is in just this interpretation that the difference between great and mediquestion. Mystics and bdievers in occult phenomIn the same ena. Since the ideas and beliefs with which deflect we start will even subsequently accurate thinking. But inherited tendencies no more than individual experience establish universally valid principles. we always have with us. those who originate and those who. considered in connection with his lack of inventiveness. responds to music way some are bom with a brain that and poetry. it is of the utmost importance that they be subjected to the severest scrutiny at the beginning of an attempt to think out a From the moment of their acceptance. are yet appreciative of the inventions of others.

and whatever efficiency these people possess lies in These strict adherence to prescribed modes of action. They can only follow Deviation from rules. for one evidence of mental inferiority is the fear lest accepting the opinions of stamp one as weak. and the one who reads the meaning of events with clearest understanding makes discoveries or meets emergencies in ways wholly outside the ken of of efficient men of lesser attainments. men cannot interpret experience. They dread the contrast. for example. one of the Austrian generals exclaimed indignantly: "This beardless youth ought to have been beaten over and over again. even though xa&y not represent the highest cast of mind. be drawn from science. those who are foredoomed to follow rules. it. The least effective use of experience is probably exhibited by the literal man who has no sense of proportion. No two situations are exactly alike. and the man. For the same reason.THINKING AND ACTING tual freedom of 45 it no mean worth. One of the proofs of Lincoln's greatness was his willingness to take into his Cabinet men of the krgest ability whom he could find. of course. There are. for who ever saw such tactics The blockhead knows nothing Illustrations could easily ! . of course. is the one who can make distinctions between them and discover differences. but he who never dares achieves nothing. always involves risk. and he endured criticisms and innuendoes from them which would have cut deq)ly into the others will of small self-esteem of a less able man. other things being equal. no sense humor. regardless of political affiliations. or rather a continuous series of adventures. after he had stormed the bridge of Lodi and forced the passage of the river. but perhaps mihtary achievements afford the most striking In the early period of Napoleon's victorious instances. In its best expresaon life is a great adventure. men mental calibre in positions of responsibility do not wish to have bigger men than themselves imder them. career.

would ever think of violating. He knew the man in front of him. A. vol. conceived as a dream. C. an inexcusable violation of the "rules. "would be discredited because of the chances that he took. Dodge. ' History of Napoleon Bonaparte. and the next day. p. knew what the odds against him were. by Theodore A.. Such insufferable. p. 96. The plan "was forged almost as a dream in that eager and fertile workshop from which dreams came so thickly."'' Grant. or a genius. to cite another instance of disregarding rules. would have been a stupendous blunder except that it succeeded. it worked out with exactly reasoned care. to-morrow on our flank. fought the battle of Antietam with a river at his back. with a confidence in their commander which had grown with every step they took. strategy. on our front. to cite a different sort of an illustration. and he was looking by John S. 233. I. U. as he did in his attack on Vicksburg. disregarded a military principle which no one but a fool. Abbott. Lee. in cutting loose from his base of supplies. p. It was no dream to lead a hundred thousand men two hundred miles through a hostile country and bring them out in perfect fighting trim.. He knew the art of war. and he was certain that if he lost the battle he could extricate himself before McClellan would counterattack with sufl&dent vigor to bring disaster. Many of Lee's moves. But the point is that. so that in the end success attended almost every step of it. gross violations of the established principles of "1 war are Sherman's march to the sea. To-day he is in our rear. A wording of essentially the same thought is fouad in Napdeon. I. He should have been surrounded of the sort and his forces cut to pieces. S. by Gamaliel Bradford. different somewhat . also. 147. But he took them with his eyes open. again. ' Union Portraits.46 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of the rules of war. vol." But he had interpreted events. a recent reviewer says. But nothing according to the rules of happened.

The inteUectuaUy sensitive do not require shocks. of the his for example. mountainous country without made aU the more glaring the violation of the rule that a force must not be divided in the face of the enemy. These military geniuses saw and read the markings of strata of experience lying below the: level of prescribed conduct." with amazing success. when to disregard rules is distinctive. . had to traverse a The story of Newton and the myth but psychologically it had to be invented because it falling apple is a historical is true. represents the Some such story way in which a great mind acts. At the battle of Hermannstadt. The only excuse for Falkenha3m's conduct was that it succeeded. and some minds are imperJackson's plank road. Falkenha3Ti nevertheless detached a considerable force from his right detour to force fall wing and sent it by a wide upon the Roumanian rear. The detached force sat down in Red Tower Pass directly astride the Roimianian line of retreat and supplies. And Falkenhayn has recently repeated this "blunder. 47 He could not gain it in any other way. and the newly acquired army of the AUies was thrown into hopeless disorder in its mad struggle to escape from the encircling fire of guns. he knew that he was violating one of the most elementary rules of strategy. and what they read suggested actions and plans outside the To know field of intellectual vision of the less endowed. and this Adous to suggestions that are not hammered in by concussion." When.THINKING AND ACTING for a decision. although being attacked heavily in front. but only the intelGetting experience lectually prepared can interpret them. Things are continually happening that are loaded with suggestive meanings. Lee divided his forces in the face enemy at Chancellorsville and sent Jackson on famous night-march along the plank road to attack Hooker's flank. This flanking wild. Suggestions imply a capacity to be influenced. Violation of rules in the cases of which we have been speaking was not an exhibition of erratic thinking.

These principles are rules of action. It is testing the effect of actions. and these meanings involve the relation between the actions of the person who is seeking experience and the responses behavior of the other persons and things efficiency. The mind of the genius works in exactly the same way as . We do something and then watch the result. The sagacity of some men is a constant source of amazement to those of moderate mental fertility. with reference to their response to oiur actions upon them. which he is trying in Interpretation of the way — — — — however. Many factors are involved which do not readily disclose experiment reduced to themselves to the superficially observant person.48 is PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK not merely living and acting. But to a certain few the tr3mig — — some way to influence or control. and this was due to their penetrating vision and interpretation of what they saw. through association of ideas. yield a flood of suggestions regarding the meaning of the reactions. and they represent efficiency up to a certain point —to the limit of mechanical out and testing of the behavior of men and things. just as thoughts. The mflitary geniuses of whom we have spoken saw deeper meanings than rules express. is do the less striking not a miraculous product. It comes. the contributing factors must be isolated quite as carefully. Wisdom. in which things and people behave when we try to do something to them to alter them or their actions and knowledge of the reasons of this behavior discernment of the relations between our actions and their reactions ^is experience. But even close observation of the action and consequent reaction may not reveal the meaning of the experience. looks toward the future and furnishes principles of behavior. Every experience its is a scientific the conditions of an experience as deliberately as of an experiment. It rectly determined. They must be followed by people of mediocre attainments. If we do not plan part which each plays in the final outcome may be corExperience is always prospective. that the lowest termis.

Malthus' Essay on Population would have left Darwin and Wallace floating on the surface of conventional biological beliefs had they not been loaded with intellectual high explosives. and he sees them more quickly. with him. but he was relentless in his experimental criticism of them. Who would be willing to assert that Kepler's "chimerical notions" were not. illustration of the mistake in assuming that genius has an unerring method of divining truth." says . Yet men of genius are more conservative than is sometimes thought. 49 The difference is that the genius sees more meanings than Suggestions are others. They Kepler is a striking pull up many and throw them away. adequate knowledge. All of their ideas do not flower. But this knowledge must be organized so that its variety may not prevent concentration of available portions upon a definite problem. and no amount of information need make him wise. availed him nothing had he not constantly maintained fertile the attitude of the failed repeatedly trier. He and his hypotheses were often dreams of a wayward moment. His contributions to our knowledge of the orbits and motions of planetary masses are so fundamental that one might easily think him the possessor of a special method or "faculty" of discovering truth. The need of abundant knowledge is evident because it is the source of meanings by which the world's confusion may be interpreted. as it always must if it is to contribute conclusions of value. after all. unfitted for application because incapable of being combined into a single imptdse leading toward a definite conclusion. stages in his progress toward truth ? "In all probabiKty the errors of the great mind. A man cannot be wise on nothing. But he had many "strange views" and All of his ability would have fell into numerous errors. the tester.THINKING AND ACTING that of a plodder. the e:!q)erimenter. but one prerequisite of mental fertility is well-ordered. Unorganized knowledge is only wa3rward information. Experience with him meant experimenting.

that in the most successful instances not a . S77. again. . 80. p. have been realized. Harpt-Zs Monthly. p. The meaning of the facts from which they foUow must be Edison. but the erroneous guesses must be many times as numerous as those The truest theories inwhich prove well founded. "exceed in number those of the less vigorous one. by ~V. and here the critical discrimination and sagacity of the experimenter is tested. which illumines them is so brightly that their significance ' apparent to all." ^ "The world little knows. for even to myself my ideas appear only as the shadow of a speculation. 425. the hopes. the preliminary conclusions.' Theories do not reveal their own truth or falsity." And it is the same with those working vention. Stanley Jevons. "how many of the thoughts and theories which have passed through the mind of a scientific investigator have been crushed in silence and secrecy by his own severe criticism and adverse examination. Fertility of imagination and abundance of guesses at truth are among the first requisites of discovery. p. . in the same vein. . and no limit can really be placed to the freedom of hypothesis. Hutchinson view commonly held own Ught. or as one of those impressions on the mind which are allowable for a time as guides to thought and research. ' ' The Principles of Science. Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics." continues Faraday. volve suppositions which are inconceivable. in a paper on ray-vibrations says: "I think it likely that I have made many mistakes in the preceding pages." » Faraday. for example. tenth of the suggestions. in the more practical field of in- once remarked that he could say without exaggeration that he had constructed three thousand different theories with regard to the electric light. elsewhere. understood. "each of them reasonable and apparently likely to be true. the wishes. George Parsons PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Jevons. gives an amusing illustration of the that "facts" carry their Horace G." Yet only in two cases did his experiments prove the truth of his theory. vol. 372.

The recognition of trouble. Lowe" [the Chancellor of the Exchequer] "and Mr. Lowe asked Mr. The cause of the difficulty must be understood before a remedy or a solution can be found.30.'"^ Since the method by which geniuses solve their problems is the same as that used by the ordinary man in meeting the difficulties of his business or profession. while to examine the process briefly. an obstacle in the way of what we want to do all are different names for troubles of one sort or another that interfere with our activities. I. either in something that we are trying to do or in finding the explanation of a problem is only the incentive to thinking. Hutchinson. Busk" [President of the College of Surgeons] "were at High Ehns" [visiting Sir John Lubbock]. thinking requires a cause. Doubt.. which in this instajice is trouble. . Next day she sat in the drawing-room with it. and here we have the second factor in thinking. Lowe was between young Lubbock and Mr. He suggested that she should read the book. "On Saturday evening Mrs. In certain respects this is the most difficult part of the reasoning process. shutting it up with a clap and saying: 'Well. Busk. perplexity. and he is keenly interested in the cause of the trouble. pp. and the conversation turned on the great book. Like everything else. and so she took it up-stairs. Mrs. by Horace G. vol. Busk 'just to explain' why one germ should develop into a man and another into a kangaroo. Darwin after all. So long as an automobile is in perfect running order the driver is not concerned with its mechanism. physical or mental. uncertainty. and finished it about 4. Mr. if I had had his facts I should have come to the same conclusion myself.THINKING AND ACTING 51 " Shortly after the publication of the Origin of Species. But let it go dead. 50-51. because most events are — • Life oj Sir John Lubbock. it is worth First of all. I don't see much in your Mr. it should be observed that if everything ran smoothly there would be no thinking. however. with seventy-five miles to dinner and the nearest garage.

way.52 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK exceedingly complex. by the process of elimination. to dte another instance. perhaps. experimentation is not easy. Some connection between these phenomena was assumed. or lack of ozganization. and the associated incidental factors are so intertwined with the essential elements that it is not easy to separate the essential from the accidental. that air may exist as a liquid and as a solid. Mere observation is likely to be misleading. It would never have shown. for example. in loadstone. must have been observed in ancient times. Certain peculiarities of electricity. Science has a way of meeting this perplexity. but there was no accurate knowledge of the relation until Newton announced the law of gravitation. as in business and social problems. Machines and experiments were needed to produce a continuous supply of electricity of such an intensity as would make it possible to see and test what actually happened. it has been noticed that the tides vary with the phases of the moon. in lightning. In many matters. for example. In others it was too feeble and obscure. exaggerated. however. In some of thes^ cases the activity was too intense and rapid. in the aurora borealis. The ledgs' does not show the profits which the business conditions lead one to expect What is the explanation? Is the cause to be found in the internal organization. the cause of a phenom»ion is ascertained. has long been a matter of contro- . and in certain other substances. also. In the former as well as in the latter the difficulty or obstruction in the way of successful progress in thought and action must be located and defined. or should it be sought among the sales- mai? The rause and remedy of political corruption. Experiments are arranged in which one possible cause after another is In this eliminated. Yet these questions are no less complex and involved than the scientific problems to which we have referred. and frequently it is impossible. From early times. and others.

F. tic 53 The ramifications of this disease of the body poli- are so extensive that it. G. — Napoleon. it is because. before undertaking anylJiing. suspends judgment. Britling say: "Will there ever be a man whose thoughts are quick and his acts slow?" One of the most charming illustrations of suspended — judgment and sensitiveness to suggestion ability to discover meaning in commonplace events is the means by which James Bradley explained the apparent movements — — * Napoleon at Work. translated by G. rare. once said: "If I appear to be always ready to reply to everything. I have meditated for a long time— I have foreseen what might happen. Unfortunately. until the cause of the trouble has been located. Whatever one's ing may be regarding "personal Uberty" and men good. however. for example. Lees.THINKING AND ACTING versy. wise men are tions for and consequently suggestions are acted upon hastily and impulsively before the difficulty has been carefully diagnosed and the cause located. Wells was thinking when he made Mr." 1 type of which H. As a matter of fact. many spring from tions that As this is other social disturbances being written there are indica- ment ideas —the we are soon to try a tremendously big experi- elimination of the saloons. . Yet it is not the way of men who have realized on their ability. is defined. Suggestions conmionly arise before the difficulty The wise man." it must be admitted that this is method is "legislat- the scienillustrates tific of locating the cause of the trouble. this is not the usual order of the factors in the process of tliinking. 7. It is not a spirit which suddenly reveals to me what I have to say or do in a circumstance unexpected by others it is reflection. It is the trial-and-error method on the animal level the hit-or-miss method. however. by Colonel VachSe. meditaEvidently Napoleon measures up well to the tion. This experiment of dispensing with saloons what usually called the third step in reasoning —sugges- remedying the difficulty. p. delays acting on suggestions.

said there had been no change in the wind. observer in the boat which was rest. as if there had been a slight change in the direction of the wind. Ball.'"' in the Kfe of Bradley is ' Great Astronomers. day when Bradley was out sailing he happened to remark that every time the boat was laid on a different tack the vane at liie top of the boat's mast shifted a little. the position of the vane was determined both by the course of the boat and the direction of the wind. London. that as light can only travel with a certain speed. . plained the apparent movements of the stars by the prinin the boat. the direction in which the light actually does come would be different from that in which it appears to come when the earth is in motion. if the earth were a stationary object. 194-196. in a He argued it may wind. After he had noticed this three or four times he made a remark to the sailors to the effect that it was very strange the wind should always happen to change Just at the moment when the boat was going about. that is to say. that the moving along would feel the wind coming from a point different from that in which the wind appeared to be blowing when the boat was at direction of the vane. which he noticed rest. . Provided with this suggestion.54 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK "One of the stars about which he had long been puzzled. like the . reasoning ciple known as the 'aberration of light. which scientists have been so eager to deny lest it remove some of the gloss from scientific thinking. 1907. however. . As a matter of fact. pp. The sailors. Bradley's sagacity saw in this observation the clew to the difficulty which had so long troubled him. he ex. and if either of these were altered there would be a correspondiag change in the This meant. . If the observer measure be regarded were at . This incident comparable in every way to the mythical story of Newton and the apple. In fact. of course. by Sir Robert S. but that the alteration in the vane was due to the fact that the boat's course had been altered. or when it was sailing in some different direction.

and there is easily acquired.pi)." it was made to agree by saying mind is not pleasant. If one were found that did not conform to this "law. and this is the chief cause.THINKING AND ACTING about scientific problems is the cerned with the day's work." Bertrand Russell has said. Kepler used Tycho's own observations to add to the proof of the new idea which the master observer had so stoutly the facts which denied. subconsciously. vigorously opposed the Coper- nican theory. Ninety per cent of the business ventures are said to be failures. relation to the more important is 55 same as that which is conDiscovering the essential its and seeing meaning in questions that trouble one. again. that the circle in which the planet moved described an- other circle. is not always a strong tendency to interpret facts so as to make them fit and justify our beliefs.5f. were utilized by Darwin in his epoch-making generalization regarding the origin lected. "We all believe many things which we have no good ground for believing. An unsettled state of therefore. Men like to decide and act. and so serenely interpreted in support of his erroneous belief. by the irony of hmnan psychology. Failure to suspend judgment imtil the essential factors are discovered." When to the British Goverimient Fulton presented his plans of a submarine boat ^to continue our illustrations of — ^WhyMenF:^ht. to cite of species. and to persevere in the investigation until they are found. thinking. element in a bit of experience. . Tycho. Suspended judgment is not a popular state of mind. planets were assumed to move in circles.* of action "because. is the explanation of many blunders in business and in social reform. our nature craves certain kinds which these beliefs would render reasonable if they were true. The habit of suspending judgment. for example. Before Kepler's day. and. And Owen had patiently col- another instance.

The newspapers and "Langley's Folly" was the joke of small-calibered congressmen. the ruler of the his death air. began to instead of private individuals.— $6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK the tendency to hold to fixed opinions the ministry appointed a commission of five men to examine the matter. but a very recent event comparable in all essential respects to the Fulton incident is the treatment which Langley reThe first achieve. Langley's vindication came.ceived while working on the aeroplane. And of the was hastened by a broken heart because . AVhile under water a reservoir suppKed the eight men with air for eight hours. The submarine boat referred to in the report was large enough to carry eight men with provisions for twenty days. and Fulton himself with three companions had remained under water for one hour. So unwilling. Then difficulties appeared. We now know that Langley discovered the essential principle of aeroplanes. and to think that they could not occur now. however. unscientific editors of science notes in jeer. and with a little more financial aid he would have made the United States Government. however. We are accustomed to say that such things happened a long time ago. since the automobile industry had not yet forced its perfection. chiefly with the engine. were the members of the commisso sure were sion to suspend judgment and investigate — — they of the worthlessness of Fulton's invention that. after many weeks of delay. they gave an adverse report without even asking Fulton to explain his plans and with- — out having any account before them of the tests and experiments which he made. when Glenn Curtis wiped the dust from the exhibit of insanity and made the "FoUy" fly. The preliminary grant was soon exhausted and more money could not easily be obtained to carry on the ludicrous experiments of a science crank. in the spring of 1914. ments of the "flying-machine" brought fulsome praise as success usually does and a government grant of fifty thousand dollars was easily obtained for the continuance — of the experiments.

it is prone to assertion. as though the incident reported of an Italian town during the Middle Ages were represenenrolled tative of town —Siena human experience: freed "The seems to be meant —had citizens of a certain once an ofl&cer in their service who had them from foreign aggression. we are content to suppose that our assumptions have been confirmed. is the scientific method. If these work with moderate satisfactoriness. p. and it is the only dependable > ^ ' Cimlization of the Renaissance in Italy. by John Dewey. 23. Seymour Deming. It would seem from the treatment of the men whom we have named. Ignorance gives way to opinionated and current error greater foe to learning than ignorance itself." ' Yet delay. . settled. . Familiarity. and congeniality to desire are readily made measuring rods of truth. p. common repute. Democracy and Education. Now that he is gone. "is averse to suspense and intellectual hesitation. naturally to short-cut the process of testing. "The undisciplined mind. his name among the memories of the throng who gave their lives to science and died unappreciated." says — . pending inquiry and investigation. speaking of suspended judgment. by Jacob Burckhardt. p. our aversion to suspended judgment. and concluded that no reward in their power was great enough not even if they made him lord of their city. Atlantic Monthly. 587. isfied We are sat- with superficial and immediate short-visioned applications. and treats them as such without due warrant. not because they daily they took counsel but because they are dead. and who are typical of a long list of those who offered something new. Our predilection for premature acceptance and assertion. 222.' And so they did. and then worship him as our patron saint." ^ Dewey.a THINKING AND ACTING ridicule is 57 heaped upon him. 113. how to recompense him." ' Evidently. a recent writer in the Atlantic Monthly was right when he said that "Dead radicals are honored. vol. are signs that we tend were radicals. . It likes things undisturbed. At last one of them arose and said: 'Let us kill him.

he wrote: "Here end my experiments for the present. Following this plan. though they give no proof that such a relation exists. — all At this point. another. but many difficult and tedious experiments yielded noth- conviction that gravity nature. It is the essence of critical thinking. examine it by a few experiments. experiment is the best test of such consistency. Then." Ten years later he returned to these experiments. restaurants in the vicinity. "surely this force must be capable of an experimental relation to electricity. He could not rid himself of the is connected with other forces of "Gravity " he said. having been working upon other problems during the mean- . they do not shake my strong feeling of the ing conclusive. Nothing is too wonderful to be true. and in such things as these. feeling that he had done that he could without time for reflection. the managers of one of the most successful chains of restaurants in large cities are said never upon a new location without having the people pass proposed locations counted at noon and evening In this way one source of error is for a number of days.S8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK plan of action. and the other forces. if not discouragement. so as to bind it up with them in reciprocal action and equivalent effect. Still." So he continued his efforts to ascertain the facts. in a moment of hesitation and doubt. and the business problem then resolves itself to decide who into furnishing as good a meal for the money as is offered by other tion. eliminated. magnetism. Usually problems are not so simple as this business quesand the suggestions looking toward their solution must come through the use of a trained and controlled imagination. if it be consistent with the laws of nature. and in this connection some reflections of Faraday are interesting. existence of a relation between gravity and electricity. The results are negative. he wrote in his laboratory notes: "All this is a dream. electricity is developed in each." He was convinced that as two bodies approach one.

pp. 14th series. p. London. "Let the imagination go. however." Faraday's reflections during this period of experimentation have been quoted at some length. he wrote: "I think we must have been dull and blind not to have suspected some such But he did not allow his imagination to run results. . getting the facts. for a moment his reveries have the vividness of fact. accurate definition of the problem. suggestions the free but guided play of the imagination. circulating currents of the atmosphere." he wrote at the end. guarding it by Judgment and principle." ' in a moment of exultation. and a jusThen. rising vapor. he pictures to himself the planets and the comets charging them- selves as they approach the sun. "The experiments. the smoke in a chimney." he wrote in his notes as a sort of personal censor." rampant. cascades. vol. an entirely new relation of the natural forces. become so many electrical machines. "And then he reflects upon the infinity of actions in nature. Stanley Jevons. 3. the results were inconclusive. rain.THINKING AND ACTING 59 time. because it is doubtful whether a better illustration of the correct method of thinking can be found clear recognition of the difficulty. holding it in and directing it by experiment. "Let us encourage ourselves by a little more imagination prior to experiment. 161. accept them as final. 590/. "were well made. — — > The Principles of Science. an analysis of gravitation. by W. and he of his great sums up rapidly the consequences but imaginary theory. See also Faraday's Experimental Researches in Electricity. I cannot. perhaps tification of the conservation of force. an entirely new mode of exciting heat or electricity." When all was done and experiments had been cleverly contrived to eliminate the influence earth's skill of the magnetism by devices that only his consummate could suggest. the fumes of a volcano. 1900. but the results are negative. in of electricity which the mutual relations and gravity would come into play.

creative imagination again. ."* It has long been known that it is impossible to account for the motion of Venus and Mercury by Newton's law. life. Kepler's discovery. is the mind playing around facts. had to be introduced into the equation. Returning to the method of thinking. pp. 23. Washington University. The strate. 293 /. to take of results of his experiments "seem to indicate clearly that gravitational attraction between masses of matter depends upon their electrical potential due to electrical charges upon them. And there is — no other method Faraday's of thinking. 5. "prior to experiment" was his way of expressing his search for a hypothesis which would stand the test of facts and account for the scientific difficulties which he had discovered. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. guessed more accurately than the methods of experimentation in his day could demona wide leap in time. The way in which a trained imagmation uses facts • to Science. Louis. whether it be in science or in the affairs of every-day scientific imagination. Its value depends upon the electrical condition o. Upon these facts his imagination played. has just proved that a relation does exist between gravitation and electrical action. . and Professor Nipher's work shows that what has been called the Newton gravitation constant is not a constant. no. — was a brilbut his guess was based on facts observations accumulated by Tycho. and the "little more imagination" with which Faraday thought "to encourage" himself.6o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK with its resulting hypothesis suspended judgment. and constant attempt at verification or refutation. that the orbits of the planets are ellipses liant guess. Arbitrary terms. for. vol. and to the end of his Ufe he was ignorant of — any reason why planets should move in such curves. vol. Professor Nipher. the bodies. keenly sensitive to the meaning of his observations. the productive. the meaning of which no one understood. 46.

To be sure. matters of every-day life cannot be subjected to the same rigorous examination as can scientific questions. it is the mental attitude that counts most. We have seen that . It missed the predicted time by two and seven-tenth days. Halley found comet should reappear at the close of the year 1758 or the beginning of 1759. So he proceeded to prophesy. his hypothesis was verified by the reappearance of the expected comet. He learned that a comet had been observed at intervals of seventy-five or seventy-six years. as had previously been thought. 1759. which passed through its nearest point to the sun in March.THINKING AND ACTING discover truths 6i is shown in Halley's study of comets. These several visitors. amazingly near schedule time. Conviction that mere observation is not likely to discover the meaning of a complex situation. he said. 1758. Perhaps. The result of these disturbing influences it is that the comet does not describe the simple ellipse that if the sun were the only controlling force. Let us now consider some of the obstacles to correct thinking which arise out of the fact that thinkers are human beings with the characteristics that have come to them through the process of evolution. would Taking all that known his influences into consideration. On Christmas day. and his disciplined imagination leaped to the conclusion that comets are not chance visitors to the solar system. considering its long journey and the number of alluring attractions that it encountered in its course. are one and the same comet. abiUty to hold the judgment in suspense until the matter has been fully investigated. The disturbance caused by the attraction of planets had to be computed. but always on the basis of facts. portending disaster. will go far toward reducing errors of opinion and decision. but the methods and precautions are the same. The difference lies rather in the exactness of the method as it may be applied in the laboratory. It will be recalled by many that this comet visited us again in 1910. after all.

62 the PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK first ing the difficulty thing to do in defining a problem after recognizIt has already is to find out the facts. the statement is imtrue. as Benzenberg did later. and had they used proper precautions in the experiment they would have shown that. either in the United States or in some near-by neutral country. it may be asking too much to have expected at that time the rigorous care and accurate measurements which would have been needed to demonstrate experimentally. To cite an instance from daily life of the importance of getting facts. that the commodity from the new source is not only as . they — — turned to the fields. they learned not only that this raw material is available. In despair. the Copernicans should first have tested the latter part of the statement of fact. As regards the first part of the objection. men who know —to the scientists in those and then. when the objectors to the Copernican theory said that if the earth were moving. but the sin of hasty conclusions is so common in the thinking of every-day life that the matter deserves further consideration. barring the effect of air-currents. the members of the Royal Society wisely began by investigating the question of fact. just as is the case with a stone dropped from the masthead of a moving ship. Again. the war has forced business men to face certain problems that existed for them before the war but which they did not see until compelled to do so by having their supply of raw material cut off. to their amazement. When King Charles asked the Royal Society to explain the curious "observation" that a live fish placed in a bucket of water does not increase the weight of the bucket and its contents. in addition. been shown by illustrative examples that hypotheses the assumed cause of something that has happened to be worth anything must rest upon facts. but. a stone dropped from the top of a high tower would be left behind. that a stone dropped into a deep well is actually deflected slightly toward the east.

cial scientists — Interpreting facts. the question of whether there are any getting. however. An environment may be rich in its possibilities for experience. abhors a vacuum up to a certain point but no further. this mental blindness is caused by inFacts do not exist for those to ability to see a problem. They modified Torricelli. They did not have the facts.THINKING AND ACTING 63 good or better but also cheaper than that which they had previously imported from a greater distance. It is another illustration of the psychological principle of conservatism and habit the tendency to minimum efort. Before the necessity was forced upon them the manufacturers did not beHeve that uncommercould give business men advice. In thinking. is one test of mental acumen. and mercury only about thirty inches in a glass tube. to take in the facts observed by Nature. is much harder than col- Indeed. and when facts have no meaning there is no problem. This is one way — ^not uncommon —of inter- preting the new in the light of the old. discredited the Aristotelian When Torricelli. Finding it necessary to retreat man makes a "strategic withdrawal. It is said that we interpret new ideas by means of what we already know. by showing that water would rise more than thirty-three feet in a pump. dictum that nature abhors a vacuum. yet yield nothing. lecting them. whether everything bearing on not already known. Only to the intelligent do problems present themselves. they said. facts worth is the matter whom they have no significance. his opponents did not abandon their discredited belief. for example. Many a prospector has failed to read the signs." and then deceives himself by producing mental smoke that obscures the issue. To the simple everything is simple. Analogous cases are observed to-day in such expressions as "Socialism is good it sufficiently . and this is so true that the new is often accepted only to an extent that does not distiurb the old ideas. It requires more than paying ore to produce gold.

Again the Pain was God-given. Doctor James Simpson. and then no violence is the harmony of one's system of thoughts. who knew something about psychology as well as medicine. some But. as with the Aristotelians effect must be admitted. social settlements.64 up PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to a certain point". and. because the moral ideas and habits could not be depended upon to influence action. the ad- mission belief. after long and bitter opposition. must not go so far as to jeopardize the original This unwillingness to discard a cherished belief springs from a strong human impulse to estimate the truth of new ideas by the system of thoughts which one has in part accepted in large measure unconsciously. But a Scotch physician. Such a will would be anarchistic. and any attempt to alleviate it . to illustrate further. classification of ideas preserves consistency change. as models various animals. again. it was said. was an effort to thwart his will. Sunday-schools. Consequently." Those who use this last bromide are forced to admit the application of the law of causality for their "up to a certain point" in order to find a lever. "A man's will is governed and determined by law to a certain point. to fit it A ready-made forbidding by done to With such a classification all that is necessary is on to the new discovery. among the Creator before he had decided upon the best form in which to create the fossils made by When anaesthetics were discovered. brought the startling innovation into harmony with the prevailing system of ideas by writing a pamphlet in which he said: "My oppostock ideas prevailed. in the controversy with Torricelli and the pump. were first when fully other ways. If the will moral fulcrum were wholly unresponsive to causes. and all at- tempts to improve children and adults by bettering their environment would be useless. a storm of protest arose agabist their use. and then freedom of choice occurs. So. found they were explained.

but allowing themselves to be led hither and thither by the successive journalists. caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam. before he took the rib from Adam's side for the creation of Eve.' " have a natural tendency to shrink from the responsibility of standing and acting alone." "The vast majority of persons of our race. 81. . Difiicult. however. Opinions and beliefs are true because we have long been surrounded by them. It is the record of the first surgical operation ever performed. as it is to interpret facts which are unattended by personal bias. From one point of view facts may be roughly divided into two classes: First. ' Inquiries into Human Faculty. The mind of man is like a poorly made mirror.. pp. authority. those which have a purely objective aspect. as facts of and gravitation to-day. they exalt the vox populi. i. e. and that text proves that the Maker of the universe. Interpretation of electricity the first is difl&cult because of the many intricate relations and connections. and. indeed. and custom. to understand those which oppose our cherished convictions. . those that oppose opinions and beliefs held dear. and they are willing slaves to tradition. due to the several members of the nation exercising no independent judgment. . orators. second. 651. into the vox Dei. cipally ." This recognition of the way in which the human mind acts won the day for anaesthetics. They are the views of "our set. those unattended by personal bias. it is much harder. It distorts the facts that it reflects. even when they know it to be the utterance of a mob of nobodies. all but impossible.THINKING AND ACTING 65 nents forget the twenty-first verse of the second chapter of Genesis." Francis Galton once said. The intellectual deficiencies corresponding to these moral flaws are shown by the rareness of force and original thought as compared with the frequency and readiness with which men accept the opinions of those in authority as binding on their Fickleness of national character is prinjudgment.

even the most demonstrable facts. and that in our inmost souls we are fully conSo it is with long association with them. that any statement. . 1906. it is true. they are vigorously maintained. are illustrations. Oxford." says Gotch in his review of the scientific method. but when the inference is logically certain and the opponent is forced to admit his error or stultify himself. but generally he fails to do so. scious of its hopeless character. "an opponent will suffer the inference to be drawn without a violent outburst. was asked whether he • Lectures on the Method of Science. fossils. ideas." One does not need have the to go beyond one's own circle of acquaintances for illustrative examples. and denies everythiag. edited by T. "So long as an element of doubt is admissible. B> Strong. of course. is antagonistic to a strong emoCuvier. We cannot follow a — line of reasoning tional prejudice. produces adventitious tendencies that throw an illuminating sidelight upon several phases of human behavior. however meaningless. but also from understanding these opposing arguments and this is far more serious. maintain a magnanimous silence. It has long been known. unable to see the meaning of and Owen laboriously gathering arguments for which Darwin without understanding them. and this gregarious thinking. It is indeed a curious fact of human psychology that the more unanswerable the arguments the more prone the vanquished is to deny them. There is no greater incentive to unreasonable anger than the conviction that our position has been shown to be erroneous." ^ One of the striking effects of fiixed opinions is that they prevent us not merely from accepting arguments in opposition. he becomes greatly perturbed. When Sumner. acquires significance if repeated They appear true by Then.66 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK for the time to and sentimentalists who happen chance of directing them. to illustrate further. for example. he may. which seeks to maintain views rather than to ascertain the truth. often enough.

a rearrangement of our prejudices. craves consistency. Man. an individual become organized into a system of ideas that decide his outlook and opinions in matters upon which the experiences have any bearing. besides rendering the service of relief from work. The golf complex makes everything relating to the game interesting and the player's thoughts are easily turned in largely determines the course of thoughts The related experiences of that direction. Enthusiasm for golf is an illustration. Enthusiasts display them in their hobbies. But. according . These systems of thought have been called mental complexes. We make believe that we may believe. Gladstone. complex is Then the all but irresistible control of the as unas- adamant. The mental bias setpartially. Thinking is often tles the line that thoughts shall take." Yet we all know to-day that the South believed there was an economic side. Usually more or less emotion is intermingled in these complexes. The belief that men generally know why they hold certain opinions is erroneous. recognition of which might have saved the losses and horrors of the Civil War. he replied. and here they are often valuable because they afforji relief from the strain of work. "There is no other side. If we ask for the cause of fixed opinions we come upon an interesting characteristic of human psychology which and actions. mental complexes are the cause of blind adhesion to parties and "bias" toward all questions to which the systems of thought apply. however. so the usual procedure is first to come to an opinion. and when they are emotionally saturated they become sentiments. and then to find "reasons" for holding it. Evidence is not weighed imsailable as They are the more disastrous to accurate reasoning because the individual is not aware that he has them. These mental complexes determine the course of thoughts and forbid logical thinking.THINKING AND ACTING 67 had ever looked at the other side of slavery.

two opposing systems of ideas are commonly held apart and not allowed to conflict. i2p. . that people who would indignantly deny that they are dishonest will rob the government. But efficient thinking requures that they be kept clear of emotional obscurity. If one were to ask oneself for the reasons for one's opinions. at least super- Since. swindling the heroic. Mr. Speaking of his "pig controversy" with Huxley. ^Memories. Mental complexes unconsciously acquired and colored by personal emotions have established the belief." who had done of France. Thoughts should be kept free from confusing alliances with selffree to move upon one another and interests and desires necessary — make new combinations. . by Edward Clodd." * Mental complexes organized systems of thoughts we must have. know that he has these many And. Office-holders and politicians who accept graft in the form of "favors" belong to this group. . but to Frederick . from them said. He who beof which are suffused with emotions. above all. deceiver. but they would not swindle individuals. We cannot escape them and perhaps it is best that we should not.68 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK York Powell. and since wholly good or wholly bad. or stockholders. self-sacrificing work among the wounded soldiers govermnent in custom duties on is her return to this country a pathetic instance which p. a man must organized systems of thoughts. and the recent case of an American woman "of high moral ideals. in a large majority of cases it would be impossible to find a convincing answer. Powell said: "Gladstone was never really honest with his own mind. Illustrations are more common than one could wish. railroads. the is lieves himself free hopeless as a thinker. Yet to estimate the worth of arguments it is — — that they be viewed objectively. he was a terrific selfHe meant to be honest. It is a familiar fact. is a good illustration. as ficial we have mind demands no one is consistency. for instance.

if done ingenuously. by Edward L. once said of Darwin: "A good sort of man is this Darwin. but with very little intellect. but thinking is negligible in such placid states. p. 69 can be duplicated many times during the year from the Perhaps the most conspicuous example of the present day is that of those business men who give generously to the poor and to the service of the nation. however. yet take advantage of war conditions to rob the people collectively by hoarding and overcharging. that man does not think as much as he fancies he does. opposed to evolution. 230. . We habit of thought. and well meaning. Habits are physical conditions." ^ And Carlyle. and a the reasonableness of the arguments. as we shall see later. illustrative of fixed opinions. but the rearrangement of ideas that follows the agitation is quite certain to clarify the judgment. but. the latter wrote: "In anguish I mourn your altered regard for me. after a long friendship. more than my personal loss. Viewing questions from different sides so as to see their meaning and their relation to other problems. Preventing collision between conflicting ideas keeps the mind at peace. vol. for instance. and it is quite as difficult for man to break ' —the Memories and Letters of Charles Sumner. is likely to produce some mental perturbation. Pierce. again. is a physiological matter tendency of nerve impulses to follow old. politics estranged Felton and Sumner. and that is that prejiidices grip us unawares. Here.THINKING AND ACTING daily press. Sometimes the inability to see the "other side" assumes a humorous aspect. I mourn the unhappy condition of your mind and character. like the tendency of a book to open to the place to which we frequently turn. Prejudice is a habit of thought. and we go on and serenely in settle happy belief that we think out questions them by have observed. When. well-worn paths. we' come upon another characteristic of human the nature." . Ill.

And they are not understood because of the prejudices of our between capital and are not even aware of the existence of some of these problems. sure. or of corporations of a semipublic character. with apparently If prevision of the probable the lower animals. we come we see mean- however senseless it is may be. and then only in matters of detail which have no significance for progress. Man ing in deals largely in phrases—in word formulas." Our environment is full of problematic relations inade- quately solved because they are not understood. We grow into most of our ideas wholly unconsciously. both in the individual and in the race. accept vague phrases utilized by politicians. little more conscious mental outcome of acts than is found in this statement seems too strong let the reader study the history of the conservation of our natural resources. But the influence of early education and social presthere is another.70 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK an established habit in himself as it is to change the habit of the book. The result is that progress. The pension system has not yet reached the stage of correcting past errors. and that is the subtle effect of phrases. This is the animal method of trial and error. The resistance to clear thinking by fixed opinions and habits of thought raises the question of their cause. This tendency to and not . Many men sequent act being directed chiefly at mitigating the mistakes of earlier ones. have already mentioned one —the We environment in which we live. the control of public-service companies. each submental labor complexes. Habits of thougiht and action usually embrace the range of behavior so completely as to leave the narrowest margia for variation. The relation is an illustration. It still continues a colossal blunder. This is because we always hear them uttered by the people who mingle in "our set. the granting of city franchises. is a series of blunders. to think If we hear a phrase often enough it.

Illustrations of phrases with carrying power.'" continues Mr. illustrate this power of empty words to cajole — the human mind into placid assent in the conviction that . but they beg it convincingly. I am." the "big cinch. and to feign an open-mindedness which their writers do not have. it is 71 the reason for the success of a party at list Party slogans. To accomplish their purpose the phrases must be suggestive." Phrases cleverly worded to appeal to moral sentiments. 'Are you in favor of a professed Free Thinker tration of the effect of a word. but they must also be vague enough to enable different people to put their own interpretation into them. Bradlaugh for the House of Commons. Arnold Bennett's Claykanger contains an excellent illusSpeaking of the candidacy of Mr. Bennett. They all beg the question. of the phrases. Acceptance of such word formulas promotes and perpetucal thought-controllers. or lack of conThe habit of not examining critically the phrases that we hear and use cultivates loose methods tent. of thinking.THINKING AND ACTING infrequently the election." "personal liberty. to which we have already of ingenious politi- by no means exhaust the and advertising experts who can coin phrases are in great demand.' There was something shameless in that word 'professed. 'Yes." and the "medical trust. such as "the rights of man. if he had sought to conceal the implication was that the case his meaning in phrases might not have been so bad. ates prejudices by obscuring the content." might be continued almost indefinitely. one of his characters says: "It was not easy at any rate it was not easy in the Five Towns for a timid man in reply to the question. referred. "If the Free Thinker had been ashamed of his free-thinking. — — sitting in the House of Commons?' to reply. This method of directing thought into prescribed channels and damming it up by appealing to human emotions and prejudices is so effective as to constitute at times a social menace.

the vicious depravity of those "awful vivisection of horses" and in goes without saying. Awful Vivisection of Horses . Mocking Delusion? This pamphlet asks: "Can the church allow this deadly moral venom. Ancesthetics the Greatest Curse Vivisectihle Animals.72 it is PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK thinking. any subject of study that instigates murder. or group of men who commit the crime. and to confessions always carry with them the idea further. for instance. Shall Science Do Murder?. was was probably inoculated by the and endeavoring to nor do we assert that the practice of vaccination is "flying in the face of Providence" baffle is a "divine judgment. as was the case with "putrescent matter. as formerly." The fact that the prejudice against vaccination continues in spite of the evidence in its supstrengthened port shows the mystic power of a vague. The titles of a few pamphlets against animal experimentation which the writer has recently received are worth quoting as additional evi- dence of the subtle effect of language in narcotizing reason. must be bad. Naturally. but bad ethics. and the influence of this word is still further by the addition of the disagreeable phrase "putrescent matter. that Job's distemper smallpox. of course. This is good psychology. We do not. The Reality of Human Vivisection. unanalyzed word and phrase to stifle thought. at different periods. The success of such cellent illustration of the convincing of sin." ex- The last of these pamphlets to titles is an power of words. You will observe that. and that he devil." the words used in these titles are disagreeable words words that at once stir our indignation and so arouse prejudice against the acts which the writers are opposing." but we stiU hear that vaccine poison. Confessions of a Vivisector. say. which I wish to call at- tention carries the psychologically effective title rvj'i Christian Mercy a Cruel. The form of a statement with carrying power varies. The — following are some of the tities. And who indulge in the "human vivisection. .

and boys and girls are more important than dogs. antivivisectionists are striving to the investigations which cessfully stifle must be made to combat sucthe new conditions and save the Hves of our sol- boys. and hence." is bad enough to convert any one to the doctrine of antivivisection. is also the best antidote for mental nimibness produced by phrases. to poison the spiritual atmosphere of the souls Christ died to save?" The expression. and each new poisonous gas requires separate experimentation upon the lower animals that its effect and Cure may be discovered. its psychology is unimpeachable. if one has no respect for truthfuhiess or for the English language. guinea-pigs." "trench foot. We have said that understanding the problem and getThis method ting the facts are the beginning of thinking." and "shell shock" have never been met before. we learn that is this "moral venom" "distilled by vivisectors in their laboratories of scientific research to poison the spiritual atmosphere of the souls Christ died to save. then the probdier lem is simplified and resolves itself into the question whether men and women. Let us therefore examine some of the facts that show what animal research has accomplished." "trench nephritis.THINKING AND ACTING distilled 73 by vivisectors in their laboratories of scientific research." "trench fever. but when. While our young men on the battle-front of Europe are dying from new and soporific effect of The national obscure diseases. in addition." surely. If these facts prove that human life has been conserved and suffering relieved by animal experimentation. wp must conclude that no dungeon or torture tillers ! is adequate pvmishment for the dis- such phrases upon thought is a menace to-day when animal experimentation is needed to investigate the medical and surgical problems of the new methods of warfare. rabbits." "trench heart. "this deadly moral venom. . and monkeys. "Shock.

save ia exceptional cases. in addition. p. this same method permits the transfusion of blood. in the one case removed. ^Journal of the American Medical Association. woimds of the stomach during the has been estimated as high as 99 per cent. but. Surgery of the chest. Today "no complications ought to occur. before altogether impossible until failures . some is of these could doubtless be saved were the now almost imknown because of the use of its antitoxin. Tumors and abscesses inside the skull can now be located and frequently. 1912. And as for surgery of the heart and arteries. Serums have been discovered for epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. this reduction problem to a simpler one by eliminating un- essential illustrates a method of clarifying thought.000 inhabitants died yearly from diphtheria. lockjaw. and could have been gained in no other way. with the skin this is now a simple operation. tuberculosis. diphtheria. And this change would have been impossible without antiseptics discovered by experiments on the lower animals." Doctor Keyes reports* a recovery after twentytwo gunshot perforations of the bowels. Suture of blood-vessels. 1886. and typhoid fever. shall briefly refer All knowledge to which we has been obtained by experimenting upon the lower animals.74 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of a complex of the Besides showing the importance of facts. In the United States. Lockjaw is about 27 in the same number of inhabitants. as is well known. as done today through the skill gained by experiments on lower animals. and. also. the use of the antitoxin over 120 out of each 100. an operation mortality from Civil The War many experimental trials and upon the lower animals finally achieved success. . has been revolutionized. Tissues can be transplanted and made to grow. not only avoids the clot that ia earlier attempts obstructed the flow of blood. end to end. and in the other drained and cured. To-day the deathrate and serum discovered by animal experimentation used in time. a wholly new chapter has been opened.

Yet we have only scratched the surface of the proof. again." and the surgeon-general's report for 1916 says that the mortality from this disease during that year was three-tenths of one per cent for the entire army. 11. by W. Keen. 1917. 1917. for example. 1917. change has been brought about by animal experihas. Alden Hopkins. Typhoid and this and national be a scourge to the army. ceased to mentation. They cannot understand and interpret facts because the emotional resistance dulls their critical judgment. is its moral influence upon those who indulge in the spree. Boston. it afflicted nearly one-fifth of the army of the Spanish-American War. regulars guard. . aside from its extinction of thinking. See also Medical Research and Human Welfare. for such people facts have no meaning. Even so clever a available for those thinker in some matters as Agnes Repplier cannot avoid a rhetorical fling at this form of experimentation. Another effect of this emotional debauchery. Nov. since they sent it to the writer. in quoting from the writings of experimenters. 1914.^ the organ perhaps of the People's Council of America. taken from Four Lights. We have dealt at some length with the evidence for the value of animal experimentation to show the array of facts who are interested in thinking this question out rather than in justif3Tng a settled belief. the following by Mary ists wish to give. W. "It caused over 86 per cent of the entire mortality of that war. It is not uncommon for antivivisectionists. illustrates in another way the same mental and and tion 'Those wishing fuller information should consult Animal Experimentaand Medical Progress. ' Signed article in the New York Times Magazine. "August I.^ The ex- planation of the opposition of intelligent is men and women that frequently the emotions overbalance the intellect. Boston. to omit the portions that would deny the statements and conclusions which the antivivisectionAnd.' And the cry of opposition is not stilled.THINKING AND ACTING As entire 75 for typhoid fever. by the same author.

" there be a more charming case of moral perversity than is day. fiercest and least intelligent in the long. i. cruel warfare So far as evolution is concerned. One sweet woman shown by thoughts this characterization of those fighting to preserve —thoughts that lead to a valid conclusion—in democracy? who believe in And what chance have this emotional vortex ? perspective." the paragraph begins. Two things may be said about judgrag ideas by their results: First. and second. This by consequences was the chief reason for the oppoIt was predicted that it would destroy religion and morality. the war has been fought and won. presmnably representing the view of those who beheve that war is ever justifiable. policemen. We picture direful Voltaire. for example. that if they do they may not be as bad as we anticipate..e. . e. that they were the remains of fishes brought there by pilgrims. that the consequences which we fear may not follow. "And for yourself learn to kill a little every is accustomed to ask herself searchingly each night. Imagine what the men of the feudal period would have said had the plan been proposed of intrusting the protection of their estates and lives to a body of paid public servants. 'Whom have I killed to-day?' and Could to fall asleep resolving to kill more on the morrow. was results and condemn the idea. the sight of blood.. so fearful lest the discovery of fossil fishes in the Alps would support the Biblical account of the deluge that he at once seized upon the first (and most ridiculous) explanation which could be offered.76 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK "Accustom your children gradually to moral obliquity. A hopeless argument destroys the moral Another source of error in much of our reasoning is man's inclination to decide the worth of ideas by the consequences which he thinks wiU ensue. The battles which were waged around Darwin's Origin of Species are among the judging sition to evolution. i. and the result is a higher against prejudice.

expressed his opinion about those who are so sure of the disasters that will follow the acceptance of new ideas when he said: " 'Tain't what men don't know that makes trouble in the world. industrial. and seems almost axiomatic because the Besides. Only those who have resisted the desire to preserve the old are aware of that." It is doubtful whether prejudices diminish in number with the advance of civilization. been said. it's what they know for sartan that ain't so. in his quaint way. and the question is decided. They simply vary in kind. when we think of the wearer in connection with our crowded street-cars. anarchistic and socialistic times fear that we doubt will give the acts or opinions. Josh Billings. We are like later those who tie up clothing in bundles and untie these only to take out a lot of antiquated goods. ethical. for instance. beliefs. but it should relieve us of at least a modicum of conceit when we reflect upon the probable remarks on present styles And the same may be said of ideas and fifty years hence. we like to feel that questions are settled. Man thinks that he is progressing merely because he has thrown aside some ideas which were in vogue fifty years ago. One of the sad facts in human . The difference is that we ourselves do not see that our ideas are out of date. Some- appearance of vacillation.THINKING AND ACTING 77 conception of religion and morality. especially. It is like our judgment of the oddity of clothes. and this is one of our mental handicaps. So we classify ideas under headings. as has prevailing ideas appear so self-evident. but the prejudice in beliefs which are fashionable to-day is not so easily detected. It is easy to see prejudice in the thoughts and beliefs of earlier periods because they stand out in contrast with the background of modern knowledge. and when our opinion is asked we need only refer to our mental card catalogue of right and wrong. The political innovations opposition to current social. We see the faults of the crinoline.

. etc. such as industrial problems that affect our business interests." clairvoyance. and that the significance would be clear if they would but repeat it times enough." "metaphysical healing. Obscurity soimds like concealed wisdom to the credulous. in short. the path of truth is strewn with the d6bris of personal interests and tradition. Proof of what we wish to believe is easily obtained. of social imagination. at least so far as seeming to see meaning in it is concerned. In emotional questions. second sight. and religion which draws its inspiration from our deepest instincts. have not found it so. Illustrations of man's failure to think have been drawn largely from science because it would seem as though here Yet we if anywhere open-mindedness might be expected. "Through involution we life or primary .78 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK psychology is that man grows old mentally long before his years warrant his antiquity. and so they readily find evidence.'' The mental ing. I quote a sentence from one of the books that answers fifty this question. "The influence of men and women of generous nature. attitude is often the deciding factor in think- There are those who revel riotously in the obscure. It is here even more than in science that we need to-day above all things. of hospitality to new ideas. The literature of the occult is loaded with meaningless phrases which the devotee believes will yield thought if only he can break through the outer crust and absorb the nectar of truth. as Alice Freeman Palmer once said. About men and women from one of the largest cities in the country recently took a course in "Where DweUs the I Am." These men and women were studying this drivel in the belief that its profundity obscured the meaning." under the direction of the high priest of the cult. They want to believe in "new thought. which is the first expression of love through earth form or upon this earth plane. And they were right. are carried back to the nativity through material form. animal magnetism.

In is no attempt to carry uniformity beyond his own pet. then the usual was not understood. No attempt is made to bring these exceptional cases into conformity with matters of common experience. One of these. cating — — the same way believers in thought-transference or in the prophetic value of dreams will narrate wonderful cases which have come within their own experience. A man's dog does remarkable things much more remarkable than the accomplishments of your dog or mine but these exceptional actions are easily explained. Quite likely yours does not. At any rate.THINKING AND ACTING It is 79 characteristic of the human mind to and impressed by the unusual or sensational. The public. There is nothing mysterious about routine events. indeed. be attracted and to fail to notice events that are daily occurrences. Examination would frequently show that thev were not even exception? . they assimie uniformity and consistency. but they attain it by predi- some new force or cause as an explanation. but his does. Like the scientist. the scientist investigates the uncommon that he may understand the common. A law of nature can have no exceptions. The brilliant temporary star observed by Tycho Brahe interested him only as it suggested problems about the stars which had previously attracted Uttle attention. The myriads of stars in apparently fixed relative positions and visible every night had less popular and scientific interest in the Middle Ages than two brilliant stars that suddenly shot into view and almost as quickly disappeared. If it were an exception to the usual. It is sufiicient that a name be given to explain them. he is altogether There willing to grant you that it does not. however. Consequently. His dog reasons. it is true that exceptional mstances have played a tremendously important r61e in the progress of science. Now. But when the scientist is attracted by the imusual his interest quickly centres in its relation to the more common. is attracted by the unusual for quite a different reason. started Tycho Brahe in his remarkable observations and investigations.

little reflection will A There are various reasons for making the exceptional The unusual attracts our attention not always because it is striking and sensational. As a matter of fact. in- formed the writer some time since that she had a premoniNow. if one were to record the days when one carried an umbrella or failed to do so. thinking cause able. since in both cases the reason for remembering the things that confuse thinking is the impression made. On the other hand. An iUustration of the latter is quacks and prophets who thrive on the psychological effect of There occasional successes among numerous failures. however. is no contradiction here. trouble." for instance. In the case of the umbrella. the statement would be found to be incorrect. revolution so happened that at that time the continuous was in progress in Mexico and everybody there was in convince the reader that premonitions had come true if the merest fraction of his he would be a raving maniac. which in the case of the umbrella was caused by irritation and in the other by pleasure and hope. or I am seriously irritated by the some other way. cause I spoil a rain in new hat. They are forgotten because nothing happened that forced me to think the two facts together. the days when I do not take my umbreUa and it remains pleasant leave no impression. Clairvoyants arrested in Chicago said on the witness-stand that clients came in such numbers that they could not manu- . but sometimes because of its effect upon us. A "psychic. it tion that her brother in Mexico was in trouble. The occasions on which I am caught in the rain without an umbrella are impressed upon me bethe standard.8o in PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK any other sense than that they had attracted an excep- tional degree of attention. is obstructed be- we forget the favorable and remember the unfavor- but in another class of events the reverse is true. with a note for each day regarding rain. "It always rains when I do not take my umbrella" is almost proverbial.

This. By . was defective. cried: "But where are the offerings of those who never returned?" The 191 7 mayoralty campaign in New York City. The public is indifferent to the quahty of government unless intolerable scandals are disclosed. They are interested in turning rascals out. The tendency to fix the attention on the unusual reaches widely into events because. in some way or other. but not much concerned with retaining good officials. reasoning. So the attention relaxes. The truth in this probably hes in the fact that people do not begin to talk much about the weather until the condition is somewhat threateiung. that only the unusual sensational ^in municipal administration attracts the attention of voters. Probably Mitchel's administration was the best that New York has ever had. of course. Hence. Good government is uneventful. and it is true of the hits and misses of others when the hits coincide with our wishes. mark when they hit and never mark when they miss. when shown the votive offerings to Neptune of those who had been saved from shipwreck. on the basis of the results angle. and in attending to two events. as we have prone to asstune the operation of a force to bring ing. is man. But it was a wise old Greek who. has from another — — produced.THINKING AND ACTING f acture 8i " Mai prophecies fast enough to meet the demand. but there was nothing extraordinarily impressive to compel the attention to note its quality. Nothing strikingly unusual happens." Bacon said. about the conjunction. A more common illustration to-day is the belief in some relation between the phases of the moon and rain. many of them affect our weal and woe. one of which follows the other. seen. to illustrate proved again what has been observed repeatedly. "It will not rain until we have a change of the moon" is a frequent statement. vitiates his thinkThe coimection supposed by many to exist between the phases of the moon and the sowing of crops is an instance.

. of all. these I enlarged ia 1844 into a sketch of the conclusions — some which then seemed to me probable. Introduction. Beagle as naturalist." he says. It must be freed from all unessential accretions tors associated with —isolated from the incidental fac- it. and years sometimes needed. as will be seen in the latter chapters of this volume. briefly to survey the field. Thinking. By that time the moon has changed and the connection between the two events is settled to the satisfaction of those who are looking for that sort of cause. tants of that continent. then. that something might perhaps be made out on this question by patiently accumulating and reflecting on all sorts of facts which could possibly have any bearing on it. and in localities in which the proswarrant its discussion the chances are pretty good that it will come within. "When on board H. say.82 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is that time rain pect of rain is sufficient to due. requires that. first the trouble be located and defined. seemed to throw on the origin of species that mystery of mysteries. In intellec- tual matters this usually problem to means a clear statement of the be investigated. Everything bearing on the difficulty should be ascertained. days. a week. and drew up some short notes. These accidental adhesions con- After the problem has been clearly stated we are ready to get the facts. and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabifuse the issue and derange thinking. S. light These facts." Not until facts have been accumulated and ordered are ' Origin of Species.' "I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of organic beings inhabiting South America. On my return home it occurred to me. M. Darwin's method indicates the numberless facts. from that period to the present day" [1859] "I have steadily pursued the same object. After five years' work I allowed myself to speculate on the subject. in 1837. as it has been called by one of our greatest philosophers.

A thought suddenly flashed into Newcomen's mind. therefore stress unduly certain factors We and ignore others. it is completely blocked." as Samuel Butler has said. for reasons lying far back in his past. open mind anxious to see things as they are. "will of the imcertaiaty of his breed in any man a certainty most assured convictions. neces- sary to be continually on guard against diverting and perverting influences upon the course of thought. Knowledge gives the raw material for solving problems. especially those of a social and industrial nature. instead of as we should wish them to be. at times." . On searching for the cause he found that a hole in the piston let the cold water pass into the cylinder and thus caused a rapid vacuum. cut deeply into our personal interests and desires. therefore. and internal condensation by means of a jet was the result. Partly for this reason thinking is diverted into wrong channels and. Newcomen had no emotional bias. but in addition to knowledge there must be a sensitive. While Newcomen was working on the engine which bears his name he noticed that the piston gave several strokes in unusually rapid succession. It is. tends to assume certain relations between events. man. And we should never forget that "Cultivation. but many questions.THINKING AND ACTING 83 suggestions that are worth while likely to appear. for only by unessential and the utmost watchfulness can a problem be kept dear of human factors. Again. Naturally.

Shoes. is invisible. It has become more flexible in certain ways. Indeed. and the wood of a violin of an old master has acquired "habits" of vibrating that make it a more sensitive and delicate musical instnmaent. for example. As a result of the skilful playing of the master the wood has acquired certain vibratory tendencies. habits because of this that we sometimes speak of the habits of plants.— CHAPTER III HABIT IN PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY When we observe an animal or pknt we are impressed with the similarity of its life from day to day. in a sense. one may go much further and refer to the "habits" of non-living matter. it responds more delicately to touch. cats mew beseechingly at the sight of milk and spit when a strange dog appears. external. the ability to adopt new habits—a substance must be flexible enough to alter its 84 . is the same hour each day. and begins his work in the serial The reason for this similarity of action habit. As was pointed out long ago by various are the result of changes in matter. The creases of the shoes that make them more comfortable are visible. The alteration of the wood of the violin. eats for breakfast. It does much the same thing under essentially the same conditions. It will be observed that in some of these instances the changes are. The root of a plant always grows down into the earth and the stem seeks the light. are more comfortable and flexible after having been worn for a few weeks. and a the same time every morning. reaches his office at man awakens at about much the same things order of yesterday. however. It is writers. To be able to adapt itself to new conditions to have the capacity to change.

It must not go to pieces. we ask how habits are formed in animals we must turn to the nervous system for the answer. again. may be said to have the habit of easily becoming irritated. ear. "Tapering off" is another illustration. persons. to speak of these responses of non-living matter as habits. and their exit . They must find an exit. or series of processes. is A sprained arm.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 85 form or its structure without losii^ its integrity. Neither do we usually apply the word to the actions of plants. acquired by an individual. Substances which have no plasticity or which break under alteration cannot acquire new habits. when the change has taken place. Objects and animals alike offer resistance to change. It has taken on new habits and again it resists to modification alteration. again. and. Some The for example. — The justification for making habit analogous to the behavior of plants and the actibn of non-living matter is found in the fact already mentioned that habits are the result of changes in matter. Nervous impulses started through the eye. however. the repetition of which results in greater fadHty — and better accommodation to the conditions that start the process. and in such cases the purpose of medicine is to establish correct "habits" of action. are due to a predisposition of certain organs to ftmction abnormally. We are not accustomed. The purpose of this treatment is gradually to overcome old habits If by starting and strengthening new ones. Functional diseases. the new arrangement acquires a permanency of its own. ever sensitive to strain. The term has been reserved for the relatively settled ways of behavior of animals modes of action which have been acquired during the lifetime of the individual. habit is a relatively organized and fixed nervous process. are prone tissues to sore throat. bronchitis. or tonsilitis. or other sense-organ run their course. If we put it a little more technically. Habit is thus distinguished from instinct.

and being made more easily traversible by the repeated passage of an impulse. What is this change? We do not know definitely. Reconstructive changes are always going on. It is an instance of organic adaptation to demands. but the indications are that At any rate. and there is no reason why it should not be true of the nervous system. as is seen in exercise. This. tissue which must be renot lose its power to function. by which a path once traversed is opened. and in a nerve-unit this demand is for continued and improved accessibility to nerve-impulses that reach it over a previously travelled route. however. and these changes tend to emphasize and "fix" the sort of functional activity prevaiKng for the time. results in —in behavior of some sort perhaps to an emergency. and a habit is thus established." This is the case with muscle. The need .— 86 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK an adaptive response situation. and analogies are likely to be misleading. a path once travit is of a chemical nature. occurs in the path which they have taken Some alteration because of their passage over the route. is an analogy. The reconstruction is rather an adaptive process that tends to meet the demands put Activity always breaks down stored that the organ may upon the organ. These behind them. of course. This restoration. for if it did the strengthening of a muscle would be impossible. Exercise builds up muscle and lack of exercise is attended by gradual deterioration of the tissue. But there seems to be truth in Carpenter's statement that an organ grows "to the mode in which it is habitually exercised. ersed by a nerve-impulse becomes an available outlet for succeeding ones. Psychologists speak of "paths" being formed in the nervous system. There is some to an external nervous impulses in their course leave traces kind of a change in the nerves or in the connections between the neurones. does not reinstate the original condition of the organ. and consequently offers less resistance to the next nerve-impulse that seeks an exit.

perhaps the most that can be said is that there was no special reason why it should not." learning acts of skill would have The lessening of fatigue in habitual occupations is quite evident in physical labor. The nerve centhe functional connection between tres and synapses — . but let these men exchange occupations and both are exhausted at the end.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY for 87 is an uninterrupted course exists. He does not rather than the other. or their conit was at the moment the path of least resistance. A man. has rented a house in the middle of a nections. "set. and there was no urgent need for taking another course. Both cross-streets are equally near to his house and to the car. of habit dress himself try to button his clothes to see the advantage of this. Habit makes movements exact and "sets" them. If we inquire why the nerve-impulse first took the path which began the habit. he always follow the same route in the future. and man would have no time for anything beyond the simplest. most elemental needs of existence. This is not merely a matter of muscles. The bricklayer is unfatigued by his day's work. block. but the first know why he took one will act establishes the habit and. except for special reasons. for example. may The first time that he starts for the street-car he turn to the right or to the left. For reasons hidden in the structure of the nerves. If movements once acquired by practice were not no meanings It would be necessary continually to repeat the trial-anderror method. and the claim made upon a particular nerve-unit because the path has already been traversed. and the store clerk stands or walks about for ten or twelve hours 'with ease. are We now able to state the first practical advantage and also to show its evolutionary significance. and it lessens One need only watch a child who is learning to fatigue. In this way nutritional reconstruction of a neurone whose elements have been depleted by the passage of an impulse tends to conform to the demand of other impulses for free passage.

however. that only so much energy is and we have found expended as its attainment . "No one. Having found a successful reaction." the same with mental activity. An accountant nerve-units is — neither could do the other's ends the day as fresh as the department manager. These "habits" of the species. The same reason that makes a change of occupation fatiguing applies in adopting a new method for the same work. In the species. the organic reluctance to drive through the trenches. habit represents the prudent. of nervecoimections. to overcome the first of this characteristic of the nervous because system that what we effort prevails. and nerve-centres. and its evolutionary explanation is the need of meeting emergencies in a definite manner. the act once performed becomes the line of least resistance. not even a child. and have ergy called the tendency to is minimum Enis required to overcome this inertia and the effort not easily made. and habits are troublesavers. in the way that requires least expenditure of energy. likes to take unnecessary trouble. A certain result is desired. "safe" manner of behaving." was one of Rousseau's keen observations. first line of it is Yet in many instances this feeling of weariness expresses resistance. once the habits that constitute the revised action are established everything again runs When The advantage of habit is the exactness of automatized movements. They are necessary for survival and have been established by the elimination of those individuals who did not conform. In all of these cases it is habit that makes the work endurable habits of muscles.88 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK much It are factors in even "muscular fatigue. Man tends to do things in the simplest way. smoothly. are deeply ingrained in the organ- ism and are called instincts. Subjectively the resistance of the nervous system to an altered response — may have all the signs of fatigue. but work without exhaustion at the close of day.

the methods that secure fair results are continued.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY requires. he could use either pocket without making any mistakes. certain less re- New paths. are illustrations. Consequently. Traces of the old habit therefore remained. . He found that it required considerably less time to releam the old habit than it had taken to accustom himself to the pocket of his trousers. sional and business men wish is The goal variable. or of not taking it. After a month had passed and he had acquired the habit of immediately putting his hand into his right trouserspocket when he wished to ascertain the time. Change of habit is always accompanied by a mental wrench. A man unaccustomed to regu- cannot break away from his ofi&ce. Reactions do not run off smoothly. lar exercise The nervous impulses are accustomed to take paths. It will then be easier to estimate the larger sighificance of habit. and business habits are difficult to change for exactly the same reason. so he changed it to his right trousers-pocket and noted the number of false movements. after the third change. to achieve a certain end. 89 Profes- Illustrations in daily life are common. 1892. " Success " has no absolute measure. may be opened and two or more opposing habits may be brought to such a degree of perfection that each will function without interference from the others when once the cue is given. and of the gait in walking. he replaced the watch in his left vest-pocket. He then alternated the i. He then tried a similar experiment with the inkstands for each relearning ' BeitrSge zur experimentdkn Psychologie. however. One's mind seems out of gear. Let us turn for a moment to some of the experiments which have shown this. The habit of taking exercise. and habits are formed. and when they run through these there is sistance than when they take a new of the pockets and observed that the time grew less until. Miinsterberg' tested the persistency of habit in two ways. He was accustomed to carry his watch in his left vest-pocket.

From two weeks to sixteen days were needed to reach the first errorless day in the establishment of a new habit. Zeitschriftfilr Psychologie und Physiologie vol.. . The one not of these experiments — watch. d. and finally he could make the right movement. They have not been Miiller syllables. effaced. filling first one and then the other and noting again the number of wrong movements. "the errors which the subject was obliged to correct. vol. without interference from the opposing habit. p. and is then relearned to ' ' American Journal of Psychology. . It is a mechanical struggle of habits. Finally he tested himself in using two doors leading from his office to the corridor. or formed associations (or habits) in sorting cards. University. indiless cated that somewhat time was required than he found watch from a certain pocket. Miinsterberg therefore concluded that a given association or habit can function automatically while some effect was kept locked. association remains. show that a strong association had been formed. 6. and Schumann^ experimented with nonsenseThey stated their problem as follows: "When a series of nonsense-syUables has been learned until it can be repeated once without error. opposing. Bergstrom' tested the effect of interference of previously to break the simple habit of taking knife. 6. 433." From his second study Bergstrom concluded that the effect of the interference of an association (or habit) partly established is eqmvalent to the practice effect. P. The result same as with his the old habit remained and resisted change. He foimd that "the false movements" [in sorting the pack in a new order].Qo on PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK his desk. in use was essentially the — of another. 173. p. keys. The earlier habits therefore persist.. and the consequent retardation. s. whichever it might be. Repetition of Miinsterberg's experiments. traces of but it was easier to relearn the old than to learn the new. vol. Sinnesorgane.366. in Washington by members of the class in psychology.

. 24. The tj^jewriter and sorting of cards were used by Culler* The keys of the typewriter were numin his experiments. The interference effect is gradually overcome. The keys were found that the difference between two opposing habits grew less the more automatic the two responses became. the opposing associations have an interference effect upon The interference effect grows each other in all [persons] less and less while the practice effect becomes greater. This agrees with Miinsterberg's conclusion that two opposing habits may be made so automatic that conflict disappears when they are alternated. no.: PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 91 the same extent after a certain interval. perhaps. the interference disappeared. or eight repetitions of each association before the other is resumed. In other words. each of which excludes the other. • Archises of Psychology. and both other ways. several of a series of long-practised stimuli is introduced. Later. an incipient habit as- Bair* attacked the problem of interference from habit. . Culler's conclusions may. will more repetitions be required if in the meantime the syllables have been associated with another sort of syllables?" These experiments indicated considerable interference in the relearning. . and the interference was noted in the additional time required for the writing. no. different fingers were used to strike some of the keys. certain fingers were habituated to the different bered and keys. ' opposing associations become automatic. be best given in his own words "When two opposing associations. four. serted itself. . associated with definite colors. because of the disturbance caused by the secon- dary associations. are alternately practised with one. after both sets of reactions were practised to perfection. by using a typewriter. ' Psychological Review Monograph Supplement. 19. so that either of them can be called up independently without the appearWhen a change in reaction to ance of the other. among He ' ' ' . and finally.

Habit clearly persists. In this investigation Brown' foimd that interference manifests itself to the detriment of success in trying to learn to sort the cards in two different ways. Start another and it does the same. however. in other cases it has a specific effect which causes a repetition of the error in succ^ding trials.. An error committed in practice tends to introduce interfering In some cases associations which will cause other errors. there interference effect. even though there are elements in the two that conflict with one another. In be- ginning either of the two methods of sorting there clearly loss of speed. So learning to do a thing in two different ways need not be detrimental. and it runs its course. This agrees with B air's conclusion that if a series of reactions is well learned this practice promotes learning a new arrangement of the series. interference ^ Warner Brown.92 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is as in the typewriting experiment. Start one habitual series. UniversUy of California Publications in Psychohgy. that as the work proceeded practice in one order helped in learning the other. delaying and disturbing opposing reactions. great immediate in time This is shown by the increase and the recurrence of the former assodatians. voL i. but when two conflicting habits have become automatic. . The experiments show that habits are closely isolated processes." The last investigation of this subject which we shall cite was again an experiment in sorting cards in two different orders. this interference has a general effect which causes various errors. no. was due to the tendency toward conflicting movements.. Brown observed. and interference was also indicated by increase in the niunber of errors. . This experimental evidence that two opposing habits may operate alternately does not refute what has been said about their dominating power. Errors always increased when the order in which the cards were sorted was changed. and those who were most disturbed made the larger number of errors. 4.

and in genFamihes. and retiring an hour earlier by the sun. Aside from the automatized movements of which we have just been speaking. schools. in ways of talking. In the same way. even to the words used. in the manner of walking. but the second one may even be learned in less time than was needed for the first. become automatic. all have their pecuhar habits. After the second has. there is not only no interference between the two sets of habits. in turn. there will be interference between the two views and one will remember neither accurately unless the first is thoroughly mastered before the second is studied. People cannot change their habits of rising and beginning their clock. After the first is understood and learned. work by the . for example. If one thoroughly masters a typewriter with one arrangement of the keyboard. represented business in the similarity of behavior of their members. the two may be alternated without conflict between the two sets of habits. they show themselves in social mannerisms. In a very real sense they are personal reflexes. The daylight-saving plan is an excellent illustration of public recognition of the irresistible force of habit.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 93 between the two disappears. This is the explanation of complex acts involving manysimple movements. In acts of skill the sensation caused by a muscular contraction starts the next movement in a habitual muscular series. Habits in individuals are practically inevitable reactions to surrounding conditions. the second will cause no confusion. and if each is made automatic there will be no difficulty in recalling either or both. before beginning on another with a different keyboard. eral in the mode of behaving. and everything works smoothly. so the clock is set ahead an hour. colleges. houses. if one is studying different theories regarding some scientific or social phenomenon. It is a deliberate selfthen deception by which a whole city intentionally tricks itself into rising) working.

We are now The — — ready to state reduces its second practical advantage. the time indicated should be the hour at which we are wont to leave. This has been illustrated in one of those Uttle doggerels that so often represent the tion to automatic acts that are disturbed. So helpful is absence of atten- when it is given to them tiiey a matter of common knowledge that attention to our manner of walking across a ballroom makes our gait awkward. skill is tion to the delicate muscular not associated with attenmovements. which leg comes after which When you begin to r. If the routine is not disturbed the usual series of acts for that hour will run its course and the desk will be closed. We must not be obliged to reflect upon whether we will leave an hour earlier than has been set by habit. Habit first and then eliminates the attention with which acts are performed. He lay distracted in a ditch. because they do everything at the same hour as before. Habit is evidently a tremendous force which must enter into our computation of problems of human behavior. in fun. Said. These acts will then become essentially reflex.un?' This wrought his mind to such a pitch. Uncertain how to run. also. We have said that habit makes movements exact and "sets" them. Until the toad. and the impor- . and that it lessens fatigue. by the clock." In the handicrafts. 'Pray. It is psychological observations of the layman: "The centipede was happy qviite.94 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK habits of the people are not disturbed. Automatic actions and the handicrafts afford the best illustrations of this advantage. When we look at our watch preparatory to leaving the office. The long discussion about setting the clock ahead it has now continued over two years shows that our custom must not be disturbed.

contentment with the grotesque ' Engineering Education. it is doubtful whether he will ever tellectual make and the discovery and acquire the habit of investigating. their The efforts of the nouveaux riches to simuresult give a touch late refinement. adds greatly to the sigmficance of ethical.000 practising engineers participated in the investigation. vol. when selecting young graduates for their employ.' Over 5. if they are foreign to the earlier life of the young men. . for example. It has long been observed that engineers. A committee of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education estimated the relative importance of the various factors that make for success in engineering. p. if he does not know the difference between facts and assimiptions. to turn briefly to the ethical side of the subject. They want subordinates who have acquired habits of leadership which will fit them to handle men. would be pathetic did not 7.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY known 95 tance of habit in the moral and social virtues is too well to require extended discussion. 125. inquire quite as much whether the applicants are leaders in college and in social service as about their technical qualifications. and industrial habits. in adult hfe. one cannot successfully adopt of behavior to in life. The remaining 75 per cent was accorded to various which habits of one sort or another enter. Childhood and youth are the periods for fixing both inand ethical habits. manners and forms which one has been unaccustomed earlier cannot give the appearance of having been to the manner bom. however. and knowledge of fundamentals and technic was rated at about 25 per cent. If a boy of seventeen has not learned that accurate facts are essential to correct reasoning. and they are of the opinion that these useful habits. social. cannot be readily adopted in the course of the work. A recent report from an unexpected source. Ethical qualities into habits are evidently quite as significant for efficiency as those that are physical.

and house betray the humble origin.96 of PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK humor by to the outcome. We are spinning our own fates. in adult hfe become aware of the terrible handicap of habits against which they are struggling. 127. he may not count it. The drunken Rip Van Winkle. they would give more heed to their conduct while in the plastic state. does the man or woman realize what might have been. Not the slightest doubt of success clouds their satisfaction. Nothing that we ever do is. In early childhood this is largely the business of parents. registering and storing it up to be used against him when the next temptation comes." says James.^ "how soon they will become mere walking bundles of habits. "Could the young but realize. but in youth and early maturity it should be the chief concern of the individual. and a kind Heaven may not coimt it. A good quality of brain-tissue is made inefficient by its tremendous handicap. Down among his nerve cells and fibres the molecules are counting it. vol. • Principles ef Psychology. ! in Jefferson's play. if ever. And one^roof of this is the gratifica- tion of these people with the result. Every smallest stroke of virtue or of vice leaves its never-so-httle scar. and never to be undone. on the other hand. excuses by saying: 'I won't count this time Well. all furnishings Dress. in strict scientific literalness. Some people. manners. which is made it. p. when the hold is too firm to loosen. Success or failure in life is being settled before the boy and girl are old himself for every fresh dereliction ' enough to appreciate the meaning of their actions. vulgar the attempt to conceal and forget Early habits of primitive taste and behavior are too firmly rooted to be eradicated. I. The formation of habits should look toward the future that they may become the allies of our mature purposes and aspirations instead of their enemies. . and only later. but it is being counted none the less. good or evil." So strong is the grip of habit. wiped out.

curiously enough. but he caimot let it go. from the very qualities of habit which in other ways are serviceable. again. ineffective prater. Letting ideals ooze out in vapid sentimentality produces only a tiresome. indecision. resolutions. and the not infrequently caused by this habit of mind.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 97 Resolutions and moral or ethical principles should be determinedly put into action. moments of anguish come. but they do nothing. in this instance. Many get their moral contentment by weeping over sin. The habit of emotional vaporization satisfies their longing to do good. always preparing to break a bad habit. are always making resolutions always promising themselves to begin to work vigorously. He is oppressed with the fear that it will not be up to date. and they bask in its sublime feeling. It is doubtful whether the book will appear during his lifetime. are mightily concerned over wrongs done to working girls in all factories and stores except their own. followed by periods of elation. These people are rich in purposes. between hope and fear. but they never cross the and Rubicon and burn the bridges. and then. They are always vacillating between determinaInefficiency is tion and doubt. that there is something which he will find if he waits longer and hunts. Some people. as emotional virtue again soothes the — — plans. always waiting for a great and perhaps conspicuous opportunity to do a social service. It is this advantage the same features of habits that make and disadvantage of their outcome so be shown. tomorrow. arises. They go on an emotional spree periodically. disastrous effect. The writer has an acquaintance who for ten years has had a scholarly book ready for publication. Virtue oozes from every pore. for example. Inability to act may become a habit as truly as can action itself. This may easily . and they enjoy the orgy. important for efficiency. at once and on every occasion. as the habit of postponement becomes fixed. Some men.

however. Probably they are typical. or with mental processes in bringing information to mind of which we are in frequent need. Short cuts are formed in the nervous system. When asked if a boy at the telephone would not save him time for more important things he agreed. 245. to show that some acts should not be made habitual. Illustrations are not wanting. and in this way highly involved reactionsystems may be organized. One of the speakers at the Tuck School Conference on Scientific Management' said that he found the proprietor of a large printinghouse answering telephone-calls. a great advantage in acts which should be mechanized. p. This is. of course. . should not be overlooked. but it perfects only that which is repeated. Release of the brain from the direction and supervisioli of certain activities is a tremendous advantage. "I am constantly doing things which I have no business to do. These are only illustrations. and the perfection consists solely in "setting" serviceable movements. The route from eye or ear to muscle is shortened by eliminating the cerebrum from the circuit. Of course men differ in their bad habits as well as ' Tuck School Conference on Scientific Management. After the simpler movements have become mechanized they may be combined into more complex actions. Its limitation. after the elimination of those that are useless. but I can't get away from them. It enables the physiological machinery to nm without friction. because it is left free for things that cannot profitably be made habitual. but said that he could not let go of such details." was the way in which the proprietor of another large estabUshment admitted his subjection to inefficient habits. first diminishes the attention with which acts are performed and then eliminates it. Lower reflex centres are called into play and the brain is relieved of the burden of overseeing these activities. however. but they represent the wasteful methods of two men engaged in business.98 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Habit. Repetition makes perfect. we have said.

to illustrate the inefficiency of certain habits in a different .PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 99 in their good ones. however. so far as achievements axe concerned. the person takes short —that cuts and is." This is an instance of the human tendency of which we have self to spoken in an earlier chapter. "is that our business grows faster than those within The men do not keep up with the changes. and when a trial balance is struck he finds that. He was always busy." said the of a large manufacturing plant recently to the manager it. but this merely means that the illustrations of inefl&ciency vary with different men." These occupation-habits. writer. He does not see that minutes are saved at an immense expense of future time. of the need is felt for The attention fixed on the accomplishment of the immediate end rather than on the final outcome. rarely progress after the third year of service. Examples of the "setting" of unproductive methods of work could be multiplied indefinitely. He has not even put himself in the line of significant results. will never enable him to compete for the salary of one who practises the slower touch method and employs all the fingers on the keyboard. He did not include the future in his mental vision. This plan. Consequently. and the habits formed by its adoption. is pleased with quick results. and it is a common complaint of business men that those in their employ "stop growing" too soon. A department store in a large city of the Middle West. grow out getting things done quickly. according to Thorndike. The final stage of the process was ignored. "The difficulty with which we are always confronted. the tendency to adjust onethe lowest level of efficiency that wiU "carry. Teachers. Time looms large the time at the moment. he is bankrupt. This can be best illustrated by an act of muscular skill. yet accomplished nothing. A beginner in typewriting makes the most rapid progress by watching the keys and using the two forefingers.

"Managers want efficiency. lOO Kne PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of business. then. and it suggests the rule This is of action for making habits our allies in promoting per- sonal efficiency."' "They don't want to learn new because "their own way" has become "fixed" in their nervous system. Perhaps a given kmd of work or. in part. then the This puts intelU- E. He had not analyzed the situation. St. At all events." business to get better results in their says one of the most stimulating writers on ways. at least. and he would have been able to readapt himself. To a certain extent. had engaged an unusually successful EastIn a year he had so nearly wrecked the business that the management paid him $60. . It is quite likely that these circumstances had something to do with the formation of the habits. and organic Those lacking constructive. also. A distinction should be made between acts in which that may definite habits are beneficial and those acts best be left free. productive power should be eliminated before they gain control. Getting the Most Out ej Business. He did not know why his methods had succeeded. ern manager at a high salary.. the harmony was. Probably. This. brings us to our third point. that habits to be of advantage should be thoughtfully selected instead of following unconscious adaptation. he did not understand the reasons for his success. If he had he would have known that the method might fail under other conditions. if it should. own way. a matter of chance. Elmo Lewis. but he could not alter them to meet new conditions. he followed the method of the stenographer to whom we have just referred.000 to annul the contract. This manager had acquired certain business habits which were successful where he gained his reputation. He merely grew into certain habits which happened to succeed because they harmonized with the conditions in his locality. should not be reduced to habit sort of habits to be ' formed is important. He adopted the plan that secured the quickest results.

so that the best method of the moment may be utilized. in co-ordination. • Memories and Studies. Human is failure is due largely to the fact that habits get us instead of our getting them. as grandma's remedies and father's policies.. 237^238. p. and he behaves below his optimum. are admirably by James." We have been emphasizing the importance of selecting our habits so as to mechanize only those acts which may be made automatic with greatest advantage to efficiency. The curtailment of efficiency through failure to follow this course. pp. . and therefore complains because the talks of the board of commerce and articles in larged. he possesses powers of various sorts which he habitually fails to use. . for the poor hysteric ' is diseased. his He rules so may reduce "The rule-of-thvunb methods to habits.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY gence into the process. It saves thinkman must have his vision en- he becomes ingrowing. in every conceivable way. in power of inhibition and control. In ele- mentary faculty. E.^ Men." he says. while in the rest cit. and the others kept in a free. else it is the trade papers are not about his business. He lacks the power to adapt. "as a rule. in this class of failures. The human individual lives usually far within his limits. repeating old errors until they become enwrapped in the winding-sheet of sacred tradition. op. After the selection has been mad those acts which can be done best through habit should made automatic.^ "As a type lacking in imagination. because he can only imitate. Elmo Lewis. The wants rule-of- thumb man that he ing. "habitually use only a small part of the powers which they actually possess and which they might use under appropriate described conditions. . and the unconscious adaptation to the lower requirements of life. fluid condition. St. He energizes below his maximum. his Hfe is contracted but with less like the field of vision of an hysteric subject — excuse. Imitation works in a vicious circle. . 35. and to leave the others free." says Lewis.

to illustrate the need of selected habits and adaptive variability in a field too often overlooked. the manner in which the men are treated largely determines human » Louis Agassiz." ' At another time. and feeling that nothing resulted from this elaborate investigation gave it up as impracticable. He astonished his hearers by saying that he had also studied the object in question. as the story rims. Agassiz. to one of his students. He saw clearly that if they remained on the farm they would inevitably adopt antiquated "farm habits. having had it under his eye at stated periods night and day for six weeks. At the end of that time the youth knew something about how echinoderms look. by Charles F. p. associated with capacity to change. is — by — a guest of the Boston Microscopical Club. that James J. Agassiz again sent the young man back to the echinoderm. and he had acquired a habit of observation which he never lost. was called upon. and." In the business world. he kept him looking at this object for a week. The italics are the present writer's- . It was with much the same confidence in selected habits. as in all occupations involving beings. Holder.I02 of us PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK it is only an inveterate habit to our full self —that —the habit of inferiority is bad. with instructions to be prepared on the following day to describe its external characteristics." a higher standard of work —the James An illustration of the effect of reverse side of the shield so vividly described the change produced in the methods of biologists as a result of Agassiz's example a change almost equivaOne evening Agassiz was lent to a revolution in habits. he gave an echinoderm. 99. "when a member made the statement that he had studied a certain form four days. After some discussion the guest of the evening. Hill sent many boys to agricultural colleges that they might acquire methods of investigation. who afterward became a distinguished entomologist. After the description had been given.

education. a State holiday. passed by the be vetoed by the management. the meeting was to hear both sides of the question efficiency of council. The Filene Co-operative Association of Boston is an instance of reversal of traditional business habits. . They secure results but perhaps not the best. may . It was pointed out that a Saturday in the middle and to decide. but if after such a veto the association again passes it over the veto. for the employees naturally were interested in having an additional day's rest with pay. and they are followed. the decision of the association is final. or training. Certain methods have been acquired from the environment. The decision. . the day preceding being Bunker Hill Day. . by a two-thirds vote. may initiate or amend any rule that affects the employees. If this were done it would give the employees a three-day holiday. Yet these managers know no other way. Agitation had been quite intense during the days preceding the meeting. . of the school graduations . the fact that conditions were not analogous. those June was much more valuable and costly to lose than one in July. composed of members of the firm and of all employees.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 103 the success of manager or foreman. . Ine association. The plan made a sudden break from habitual business methods. yet it succeeded. that it was the last Saturday before the bulk of and that much more business would in all probability be lost. A single instance will show how admirably and reasonably the employees have respo'nded. "The question for vote was whether the store should be closed all day Saturday. After those in favor of closing had made opposed brought out an argument few had considered. their plea. When the vote was taken the employees voted by an overwhelming majority not to The firm considers" [the have the extra holiday. Jxme 18. The William Filene's Sons' Company decided to give the men and women behind the counter of their department store a voice in shaping the policies of the company.

it is well known that at a certain point fatigue ensues. employee harmonize. . In physical endurance. "Mental activity. if we persevere. Observation shows that it is but also unnecessary to settle down and adopt habits of ease or tradition. The worth their best effort and they rise to the emergency."^ Evidence of this is seen in the achievements occasionally observed in men suddenly placed in positions of great responsibility. Reservoirs of energy commonly unused reveal themselves in various ways. p. we overcome the resistance and get our "second wind. Then." ^ These practical results from the methods of the Filene Co-operative Association are additional proof of the expediency of selected habits. for example. "shows the phenomenon as not only inefficient into the line of least resistance and in exceptional cases we may find. ' Memories and SMies. perhaps breaking the record." We feel more vigorous than before and push on to a new achievement." is our acknowledgment of his bursting through the barrier. their ability is demand on An illustration of the firmness ' with which habits settle by the firm. beyond the very extremity of fatigue-distress. Under such circmnstances we have clearly tapped a new supply of energy. It was not in him until he broke with his old habits of adaptation to an inferior level of accomplishment. never pass those early critical points. "I did not know that it was in him. amounts of ease and power that we never dreamed ourselves to own. 230. sources of strength habitually not tapped at habitually all.I04 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK "worth many times what it has cost them in and money. because we never push through the obstruction. it and it has made the interests of employer and association] their time is a fact. well as physical. It is no longer an experiment." James once said. usually concealed by the first appearance of ennui and fatigue. Sketch of the Filene Co-operative Association.

To — excite more energy. and. and they also show that when once the amount of energy has been gauged. invariably telling him that they have overworked. The incident also shows the higher level that one may reach when forced to break through the enveloping crust of custom. when in their grip. they are just as correct as when we took twice the time. The critical until insistent beyond which these men could not go demands supplied the stimulus the "early points" to which James referred are usually the barriers — — result of inertia. and I do the work Just as easily as when I had only 9 under my control. Now. Their breakdown was due to the terrible load of unphysiological habits which they had ." he says. again. Few obstructions are harder to break through than the habit of energizing at a low degree of intensity. "most of us are obliged to do double work. 105 and of our feeling. and yet upon questioning them he finds that none of them work as hard as he. " and I never felt quite caught up. The manager of a manufacturing company had the oversight and direction of 9 plants. I have the same oversight of 150 plants. is usually attributable to other causes than excessive work. has just been related to the writer." The president of one of the large publishing houses in New York City relates a similar experience. as captain in the quartermaster's department.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY upon us." he said recently. "Since so many of our men have entered the service of the nation. finst additional and urgent demands are necessary. which may set up another barrier. habit fixes the output. Apparent mental fatigue. We make our decisions quicker." These two instances testify to the relation between energy expended and the resistance to be overcome the tendency to minimum eflFort. so far as I can see. "I thought that I was working to my limit. "A physician of wide experience says that every day men come to him broken down in health. that we are working to the limit of endurance.

and with each repetition resistance is decreased. that the young man hardly knew whether he had been over the ground. the experiences were sufficiently startling to break up their habits of lethargic ease. their day's work just well enough to escape criticism and discharge. there is no analysis of situations. always a tendency to economy in making this adjustment. habit has acquired immense • How to Live. after he was told that his position depended upon more habits. but when the investigator returned the manager asked so many questions about the people. and by the time of their return they were able to move under their own steam. Usually. p. . Fisk. sports. It looked like easy work. intelligent observation. He sent them out to forage for themselves for a week or a fortnight. disturb the smooth nmning of the mental processes that have produced a complacency which blinded their possessor to his inadequacy in thought and Among the contented who are satisfied with doing action.io6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK been carrying—a load so great that scarcely any work could be carried in addition. Shocks. and other things. in the form of sudden responsibilities . however." The manager of a large business sent a young man out to survey and report on a certain territory. always a tendency to repetition. During that time they generally had adventures and troubles enough to bring out whatever they had in them. as he has since informed the writer. 125. If nothing came out they were hopelessly stupid. by Irving Fisher and Eugene L. he became aware of the habits of ease into which he had unconsciously fallen. Sir Baden Powell has told of a similar method which he used to awaken plodding recruits in India. Then."' Sometimes a severe shock is needed to force men to break through these "early critical points. Viewed from another angle. tion of comparative which one feels unequal. always a tendency no appreciatoward ad- justment to existing conditions. wealth. their occupations.

"The fundamental limitation of the majority of men. To-day everything is altered. at the present time. and was quite sure of a satisfactory competence. "consists in lack of capacity to adjust themselves to new . requirements. is concerned with nervous impulses and with the activity of nerve-centres.. we have found.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY significance in the last 107 few years because of the greater come and go. spent a year "reading" law. We of need. pp. is the conspicuous fact in all occupations. 212-222. I find very few individuals making . A young man learned a trade. them habits of doing things. chiefs in various parts of the factory. . Business methods were static." said the manager of a large manufacturing company recently. There is always a selection of movements. four or five subordinate satisfactorily and I can fill none from material in hand. To-day a man's success in the business and professional world depends upon rapid adaptation to var3dng conditions. from the standpoint of availability for promotion. Fifty years ago business methods were settled. become "fixed. rapid change. but this selection is rarely > See Learning by Doing. "set" in instinctive In man the same tendency exists for actions to actions. The function of the nervous system is to co-ordinate and unify movements so as to adapt them to the needs of the individual. or studied medicine with a physician. and habit. Evidently. to a large extent. reaches far into success and failure. entered his father's store.. . by the author." ^ Yet this "material" consists of over a thousand men. ." We then call them reflex. Change. of reacting to situations. any effort to think out better ways of doing things. and scientific knowledge did not go forward with leaps and bounds. In the lower animals this coordination has been. In both physical and mental activity change reduces to an alteration of habits. and this reveals new meaning in the acceleration with which changes utility of habit.

unpleasant consequences of certain actions wiU cause the selection of others. approximately successselected. because so-called "bad habits" usually have a restricted meaning.. as was said before. ful actions and methods are fixed habits. it holds the miner in his darkness. Already at the age of twenty- . How is the selection The determining force is always environmental conscious. Habits cease to change and to become more efficient when no practical motive compels improvement. its social strata from mixing. It alone prevents the hardest and most repulsive walks of life from being deserted by those brought up to tread therein. This relation between habit and practical motives for improvement should be remembered. made? necessity..io8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK In the more delicate movements it is never The question then arises. most precious conservative agent. Obviously. of course. and nails the countryman to his log cabin and his lonely farm through all the months of snow. and with human beings improvement leading to more successful adaptation to conditions and situations has largely supplanted the requirements of mere survival as a driving force. . Success in the Among — business or profession in which one incentive. The implication is that those which do not injure our health or morals are good. Much has been written. It keeps the fisherman and the deck-hand at sea through the winter. because. . is engaged is the remote This. But. creates immediate motives in the various details of the work. viously unfavorable. and soon they become careless paper-hanger makes poor work- men if the employer is satisfied. A Consequently.. for example. the lower animals it is the requirements of survival a relentlessly compelling force—and in man it is also the demands of the situation. in appreciation of the social necessity of habits of thought. we are told. the consequences of indifferent workmanship are not ob- of his apprentices. there is rarely a definite standard of success. "is the enormous fly-wheel of society.. conscious. It keeps different Habit.

the tricks of thought." ^ Al Jennings cites a striking case of habit in a clerk in the Ohio penitentiary. no conservatism. the ways of the 'shop. that habit the tendency to repeat ^is so firmly fixed in man's nature that it needs no support of argument. to have eyery one deserting his post and running off on a tangent. He had learned the habit so young that he couldn't break it even in the transfer of&ce. p. on the young minister. It folds. it is best he should not is well for the world that in most of us. and will never soften again. Of this there can be no question. On the whole. Really it was a habit he had formed while in the shops. "Habit took advantage of attention. When Benjamin Franklin. You see the little lines of cleavage running through the character. pp. no stability." * The truth in this is that it would play havoc in the world to have no consistency. the prejudices. "As he began to instruct me in my duties he talked in a monotone from one corner of his mouth. on the young counsellor at law.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY five 109 you see professional mannerisms settling down on the young commercial traveller. "You could watch the other side of their faces all day and never see a movement. pp. Psychology. for instance." he found that while he was guarding against one fault he was often surprised by another. Conversation was forbidden to all but first-class convicts. 142. 143/. I took it for a little congenital peculiarity. however. When they want to talk they look past the hearer to a distant object and speak from the comer of the mouth nearest" [the listener]. conceived "the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection. from which the man can by and by no more escape than his coat sleeve can suddenly fall into a new set of escape. Beating Back. inclination was sometimes too strong for reason. where he had no rule of silence.^173 f." * — — ' ' James.' in a word. The writer ventures to suggest. by the age of thirty. the character has set like plaster. Briber Count. » . on the young doctor. Autobiography.

the animal which becomes comThis is a fact made clear by a whole sequence of geological types which have seized upon their environmental opportunities and have become specialized sarily grasped .257/. and all-absorbing specialization specific senility. only less to arrive at specific senility specialized and be supplanted by and more plastic types. was ready for a similar emergency. it An in response to its is almost s3Tion5nnous with animal which specializes to the limenvironment becomes a slave to its environment and plasticity. having mastered a series of complex actions in one situation. and those who went back Man. . By F." this author says in another connection. by Henry Fairfield Osbom. in the end. pp. The Origin and Evolution 0/ 1917. would be a good motto business and professional men to hang above their "Different environments. 1916." no PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Habits. ' loses its greatest evolutionary asset of This. 159. whether figuratively or liter- ally ceased to progress. Wood • See." Jones. also. It is racial preparedness. entitled Arboreal significant title for one of its chapters. A recent book. arboreal habits no longer sufficed. Life. "offer varying possibilities of education. Primitive man. early. but the full educational possibilities are not necespletely specialized. So far as they are handed down through generations they preserve what the race has found serviceable.. by in an extraordinary degree to fit their environment.^ has the for to the trees. London. The value of this sort of preparation becomes a disadvantage only when life becomes so complex and changeable that the old ways of meeting emergencies are no longer adequate. for It was necessary them either to change their manner of reacting to dangers or to go back to the trees. do not contain the element of growth.. and this desks. "The Failures of Arboreal Life". When man's ancestors first descended from trees. for example. then. spells the end of progress. returning to their utility for progress. A complete.

A concerned. the soIt is thus possible. that when the Cro-Magnons called Magdalenian. some possibility that the newly arriv- ing Cro-Magnon race may have been familiar with the bow and arrow. though very far from being demonstrated. The Neanderthals were driven from their places of abode and finally entirely destroyed by a race ciently within the superior in culture. The natural history of animals offers many examples of highly specialized failures." ' At any rate. There is. 258. displayed amazing » Men of the Old Stone Age. with their superior intelligence and physique. fought with wooden weapons and with the stone-headed dart and spear. in industry. He lacks the extended view which includes the broader meanings and implications within its range of vision. "The Neanderthals. but he will inevitably fail in meeting the larger. so far as progress man. but there is no evidence that they possessed the bow and arrow. Failure because of adamantine habits produced by this same sort of narrow specialization is also indicated in prehistoric man. at the lithic. during the industrial change. . varying problems of life. and he is wanting in flexibility and versatility beyond the boundaries of his habits of thought and action. on the contrary. dawn of the Upper Palaeo- they were armed with weapons which.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY These specialized adaptations of which the author iir whom we are quoting speaks are habits of the species that have become fixed as instincts. — — period of their aggressive adaptation. by Henry Fairfield Osbom. the new arrivals. for a barbed arrow or spear head appears in drawings of a later stage of Cro-Magnon history. and invention. p. would have given them a very great advantage in contests with the Neanderthals. entered western Europe. and the same principle applies to highly specialized individual will act more effi-* is narrow limits of his special training. with their greater inventiveness and mental flexibihty they were probably the first of the Homo sapiens produced a tremendous social and The Neanderthals. however. no doubt.

The chase even of the horses. Probably their failure in the contest of life. before more flexible and hence more adaptive races. ." But by the time of the arrival of the Cro-Magnons they had reached the limit of their inventiveness and progress. in turn. succumbed. is would be unable to find an answer. without any apparent enA^romnental causes. like the similar decline of certain civilized races. And if he would put the same question tual.112 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK prowess. It also dispenses with intelligence. "There was a very decided disparity between the strength and resistance of their weapons. with its superior flexibility. Habit. This has been shown to be an advantage in certain matters. of a situation that is to be met. and when an emergency arises requiring rapid readaptation such static races are tmequal to the demands. having run their course. . . The habits which meet the lowest requirements of survival persist. Effidemands an analysis of a given piece of work. for instance. to himself he ciency in matters of habit The organic tendency to make adjustments to condi- . unless the habits are selected with discrimination. and were on the decUne. and the strength and resistance of the animals which they pursued. If a business man were ta ask his employees what habits they had consciously formed during the past week he would create a panic among the men. was able to overcome both the severe conditions of the fourth glaciation and the Neanderthals whom they found as enemies. intellec- and martial progress. was due to the inertness that always associated with mental stasis. and prior to the invention of the barbed arrow or lance head. to determine what part of it may best be mechanized and what requires intelligence. after a period of great industrial. we have said. And this is bad. however. It is an illustration of minimimi adaptation. Fiaally. The new race. the CroMagnons. and rein- deer was apparently without the aid of the bow and arrow. wild cattle. eliminates consciousness. as.

is to decide what acts may be most advantageously intrusted to habit. Having once learned to react successfully in a given situation. But. Is it true? Unfortunately. and less and less capable of assimilating impressions in any but the old ways. habit always goes back to the tendency of nervous impulses to repeat themselves." said William James. release of the brain from supervision by "setting" the mental processes. Old-fogyism. no way of escaping from the slavery of habit in thinking? Not altogether. This was because of his low intelligence. and the propensity of nervous impulses to continue. whether it be in acts of skill or in the most intricate processes of the mind." This is not a pleasant picture. the basis of habit is the same. But is there no way out. to follow the path which they first took. "Hardly any of us. but as he developed and life became more complex the mental became more prominent. p. with the consequent reduction of efficiency to the lowest level that will "pass. and in thought. With him reactions were at first chiefly physical. is the inevitable terminus to which life sweeps us on. Marked variation was a dangerous iimovation. of which we have spoken. Briefer Course. subsequently. One of the chief problems in personal efficiency.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY tions with the 113 minimum output of effort. works disastrously. Habit is an organic fact. in short. funda- mentally. primitive man could best preserve himself and the race by repetition. These actions those — ' Psychfhgy. and. with its resulting behavior. Professor James has not overstated the facts. .' "can make new heads" [for ideas] "easily when fresh experiences come. after all." has been found to be as true of mental activity as of the physical. The nervous system underlies both. it should be emphasized again. Its justification is the need for conserving successful reactions. 328. but the important question is. Most of us grow more and more enslaved to the stock conceptions with which we have become familiar.

of the



mechanical type should then be made automatic. exception should be permitted. With other matters the difl&culty is not in formthose requiring intelligence

is always dominant, but in keeping free from them, not in accepting the ideas, beliefs, and customs of those with whom we Uve and work, but in breaking away from them. As long as we consider present beliefs and the attitude of people toward present conditions or novel ideas, the advantage of the argument concerning habit is with the conservatives; for it is difl&cult to demonstrate a better condition, or to prove the value of something that has not yet happened. When we look back over history, however, the view clears. We commonly think that we advance in the ordinary

ing habits, for this tendency

course of events.
said Bagehot,


habitual instructors, our ordinary

conversation, our inevitable

and ineradicable prejudices," "tend td make us think that 'Progress' is the normal fact in human society, the fact which we should expect to see, the fact which we should be surprised if we

did not see.


history refutes this.







not the difi&culty of getting a fixed law, but of getting out of a fixed law; not of cementing a cake of custom, but of breaking the cake of custom; not of making

the first preservative habit, but of breaking through it and reaching something better." * What usually happens is that some one breaks away from conventional, habitual thoughts, is condemned for
his erratic ideas,

and dies perhaps an outcast from "sane" Another age erects a monument to his memory,
in grateful

and people gather there
tinue in the delusion

ideas for which their fathers cast

commemoration of the him out; and men con-

that they are progressive.


who made
our lives

upon which our comfort, our health, depend, have been crucified upon the cross of
the sciences

Physics and PoHHcs, pp. 41, 52-



In what did their crime consist? In offering something new. A volume could be filled with examples of the abuse of men because they did a social service. Harvey enjoyed a large practice before he published his book Concerning the Motion and Uses of the Heart and Arteries, because he was a surgeon of wide repute. But after the appearance of his book he "fell mightily in his practice; 'twas believed by the vulgar that he was crack-brained and aU the physicians were against him." Harvey himself, speaking of the reception of his discovery, says: "These views, as usual, pleased some more, some less; some chid and calumniated me, and laid it to me as a crime that I had dared to depart from the precepts and opinions of all anatomists. I tremble lest I have mankind at large for my enemies, so much doth wont and custom become a second nature." ^ Another illustration of habits of thought is furnished by an instance in the life of Benjamin Franklin, who sent an account of some of his experiments in electricity to Mr. ColUnson in England, to have them read in the Royal Society; but the members did not think them of sufficient importance to be printed in the Transactions. Among Franklin's other experimental contributions was a paper on "The Sameness of Lightning with Electricity," which he sent to an acquaintance, Doctor Mitchel, who was a member of the Royal Society. Doctor Mitchel wrote in reply that it had been read before the Society, but had produced only laughter. Some of these papers were later printed in a pamphlet by Cave. "A copy of them happening to fall into the hands of the Count de Buffon, a philosopher deservedly of great reputation in France, and indeed all over Europe, he prevailed with M. DaUbard to translate them into French, and they were printed in Paris.
publication offended the Abbe Mollet, preceptor in natural philosophy to the royal family, and an able experi-




D. Harris, Popular Science Monthly,

vol. 82, p. 459.

who had formed and published a theory of elecwhich then had the general vogue. He could not at first believe that such a work came from America, and said it must have been fabricated by his enemies at Paris, to decry his system. Afterward, having been assured that there reaUy existed such a person as Franklin at Philadelphia, which he had doubted, he wrote and published a volume of 'Letters' chiefly addressed to me, defending his theory, and den3dng the verity of my experiments and the positions deduced from them." * Again, Doctor Oliver Wendell Holmes' paper on the

Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever, published before the idea of infection had gained sufficient standing to be re-

by two of the leading Doctor H. L. Hodge, professor in the University of Peimsylvania, said in an address to his medical students: "The result of the whole discussion will, I trust, serve not only to exalt your views of the value and dignity of our profession, but to divest your minds of the overpowering dread that you can ever convey, in any possible manner, a horrible virus, so destructive in its effects and so mysterious in its operations, as that attributed to puerperal fever." Doctor Charles D. Meigs, of the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in his book on the nature and treatment of puerperal fever, said, speaking of infection: "I utterly reject and deny it; and of course I shall not be distressed because two very young gentlemen" [of whom Oliver Wendell Holmes was one] "say: 'We think the conspectable,


bitterly attacked

obstetricians of the East.




... of childbed fever ... is a fact estab.' on the most irrefragable evidence. And shall we now go back again to the capabilities of a Celsus, or an Avicenna, or an Avenzoar? Or shall we rather disregard the jejune-dreamings of sophomore writers" [Hohnes and others] " who thunder forth denunciations, and would mark,



Avtobiography, pp. 269 /.




they might, with a black and ineffaceable spot, the hard." ^ reputation of every physician. Galvani was ridiculed as the "frogs' dancing master,"
. .

Daguerre was put into an asylum for saying that he could transfer the likeness of human beings to a "tin plate." Ohm, also, was thought insane, and Florence pleaded for the dust of Dante, whom only a century before she had ordered to be buried aUve. Cuvier angrily threw fossil bones out of his window, and buried their meaning in derision for
thirty years.

Lavoisier proved that meteorites could not

from the

the Bavarian Royal College of Physi-

would ruin the health of the people because the rapid motion would give the travellers brain disease, and Professor Lovering of Harvard demoncians asserted that railroads

mathematically the impossibility of telegraphing Lebon, the discoverer of Uluminating gas, died in ridicule because he believed in "a lamp without a wick." Jouffroy, the inventor of steamboats, passed away in poverty, having spent all of his money in vain attempts to change the habits of thought of the people, and Lardner's essay proving the impossibility of the steamboat was brought over

three thousand miles under the ocean.

from England in the


boat, following Fulton's invention,
his prac-

to cross the Atlantic;

Young, a physician, saved

by anonjonous

publication of his theory of light, color,

and luminiferous


a century after Hooke had



the discovery; Plenciz observed as early as 1762 that certain diseases and decomposition were caused by microit was not until Pasteur's discoveries in 1876 that the bitter controversy was ended. And we are still in the midst of the fight against antitoxin serums and animal experimentation.

organisms, but

' Doctor Osier, in an address before the Johns Hopkins Medical Society, October 15, 1894, referred to Doctors Hodge and Meigs as "the two leading professors of obstetrics in this country" at the time of this controversy with Oliver Wendell Holmes.



These illustrations could be extended indefinitely, but they axe sufScient to indicate the evidraice for the statement above that habits of thought do not need nurturing.
Resistance to habits, or at least conscious selection of those which we allow to gain a hold, is the first principle of

and progress, and this is what Rousseau seems to have had in mind when lie exclaimed: "The best habit to form is to contract no habits whatever." Man, however, as we have seen, likes to feel that certain

questions are answered, certain problems settied.


quent rearrangement of opinions and of ideas, to make them consistent with new facts, would keep one thinking; and thinking is a strain. So ideas are classified and tied up ia bundles, properly labelled. Then when a social or business proposition is laid before us we know at once which bundle to untie. This is classification and "order." Everything is put away in our mental files, and all that is needed to settle a question is to find under what subject it This is a convenient and easy method. Its is classified. only fault is that it leads nowhere. It ends in a blind
alley. An excellent illustration is the comments of writers and preachers on the suicide of General Nogi. Obviously, knowledge of the religion and philosophy of Bushido was necessary for an understanding of his act. The AngloSaxon classification of ideas was inadequate for its interpretation. The explanation of fossils as models of animals upon which God practised, and with which he was dissatisfied, is another illustration. It was an attempt to make the new conform to the conventional classification of causes, of things, and events.
is necessary, of course. This is which the laws of science have been gained. But no classification or generalization should be regarded as final. Ideas should be kept in a fluid state, so that they may easily make new combinations. Settled opinions, "filed away," may be as unsuited to the new condi-

Organization of ideas




tions as were the ideas of


Rip Van Winkle when he awoke. never find your way out," angrily cried the chemist Biot to Pasteur, when he refused to give up his



researches on spontaneous generation.
Biot's opinions were rigidly classified.

That was because

They could not

form new combinations.
of the navy,


Ericsson asked for an ap-

propriation to build the Monitor, Fox,' assistant secretary

and the naval board, condemned the idea. heavy armor would sink the vessel. Their opinions were organized and filed away. They would not even test them with arithmetic, as Lincoln wished them to do. The department store, the cost-


said that the

keeping systems,
charting the






for commodities, adding-machines,

card methods,

these things

condemned by the

classified opinions of business

and many more have been men.


see all organization, with its implication of finality,

death," H. G. Wells makes Mr. Britling say. "What you organize you kill. Organized morals or organized religion or organized thought are dead morals and dead Yet some organization you religibn and dead thought.

must have. Organization is like killing cattle; if you don't kill some the herd is just waste. But you mustn't The unkilled cattle are the kill all or you kill the herd.
herd, the continuation; the unorganized side of

life is


not performance. What isn't adventure isn't Ufe. What can be ruled about can be machined, and there is always a tendency to organize and then to automatize." When the relations between the individual and his environment are definite and maintained, habit dominates.
reality of life is adventure,


Even when

these relations are indefinite and subject to

alterations, habit

tends to





in acts

that involve volition.


Mr. Fox later saw the value most vigorous supporters.

of Ericsson's invention

and became one








sponses carried out
tions," he says,


Barrett' illustrate this.



his description of the


"Regularity in the reac-

"was manifested in every phase of the choice-process, in the manner of reading the" [different] cards" [to which the persons reacted], "in the marmer of reacting, and of realiziag the choice. Automatism entered into every detail of the experiment. Even the experimenter came to perform the various functions in a perfectly automatic way, so much so that the sahent note of the whole experiment, toward the end of the series, was its mechanical regularity. We see that the natural tendency is toward automatic choosing. The times grow shorter, the number of phenomena" [admitted within the field of choice by the individual] "grows less, only one alternative is considered; there is economy in every sense, and finally the motivation reaches such a point that it never, or practically never, deviates from a certain curve or motivation
. . .


In Barrett's earlier experiments those who were being made many remarks about motives, feelings, and

judgments which influenced action, but toward the end they had little to say. "There was nothing to remark. There were no feelings, hesitations, or motives to describe. The mental act had become direct and simple. The will had gradually ceased to expend useless effort. Volitional force was economized. Automatism held sway, and there was nothing to record." That is a pretty good description of stagnation as far as mental activity is concerned; yet it seems to be the final outcome of being possessed by habit. Evidently, if one is to have living thoughts, if, indeed, one is to think at all, it is necessary to set up a determined resistance to the encroachment of habitual modes of thinking and behaving.






Experience gains value to the extent to which intenMoUve-Force and Motivation Tracks, by E. Boyd Barrett, pp. 140, 149.



tional thoughtful variation characterizes the range of activ-

"He who has lived not he who has numbered the most years, but he who has been most truly conscious of what life is. A man may have himself buried at the age of a hundred years, who died from the hour of his birth. He would have gained something by going to his grave in youth, if up to that time he had only lived." Measuring up to our possibilities is a troublesome matter, not because of lack of desire for the vast majority of pe9ple are anxious to do so ^but because of the difficulty of realizing on our abilities, of turning them into achievement. Man, like his forebears, was made on the plan of
For, as Rousseau long ago said:



adaptation, and adaptation


fitting into conditions.

It does not lead to progress, unless external conditions force

such a change. Habit is a preservative. It conserves and fixes those types of behavior which help the individual to fit into his environment. But habit is satisfied with the lowest level of "fitness." It must, therefore, be controlled and directed, else it does not serve us well. We have foimd that habit eliminates^ attention. Only
those matters, therefore, which finally require no attention

should be intrusted to


Consequently, selection



Acts of muscular skill, ethical and social behavior should be reduced to habit; and then no deviation should be tolerated. But even here it must be remembered that there is always a tendency to form habits before a high degree of muscular dexterity or of ethical and social attainment has been reached. This makes the difference between poor workmen and skilful artisans, as well as between mediocre tennis and golf players, and those who can qualify for tournaments; and the same distinction exists in behavior in general. The elimination of attention from habitual processes reveals the activities from which habit should be barred. It is a distinct advantage to relieve the higher brain cen-

It takes us off our guard and registers aU our acts. tres of the supervision of skilful Those who condemned the discoveries of the men to whom we have referred did not know that their minds had become inflexible. so gentle and insinuating their mastery. and beliefs are largely fixed by social groups. Freedom from habituation is relative. to free these higher centres from control of matters that require intelligence. For habit is a treacherous ally. thoughts. and one should not need to wait to decide on acts of courtesy. They beheved that they were thinking and that they were doing a social service. however. We believe that is we see the reason for them. It is disastrous. Its subtlety is seen in our ignorance of the fact that it possesses us.122 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK movements which have been acquired during the preliminary apprenticeship in work or games. and we adjust ourselves to them involuntarily and imintelligently. Then they become fixed as mental habits of which we are no more aware than we are conscious of our professional and family mannerisms. . opinions.

—^measures intel- The lives. Even these acts should not be reduced to habit until they have been perfected and. They are believed to be 133 . to see more meaning in experience ligence. such a classification only indicates somewhat dominating feature. as has been said. There however. sorts of there is a rather wide-spread two activities dififer essentially in their origin. are generally admitted to be improved by instruction. Skill in certain mental arts. Human tal activities may and physical. — is done. and that only those acts should be repeated which can best be performed when automatized. activities. the be roughly divided into the menone never exists without tJie the other. the tendency always exists to mechanize at a low level of attainment. belief that these Now. Ability to continue learning to improve upon what one has already Learning ence. first. is commonly thought to be an exception to this rule.CHAPTER IV THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING in its widest sense is profiting from experiEducation is sometimes said to consist of habit formation. consequently. To be freely sure. higher animals stand in the evolutional scale the the r61e that learning plays in their more prominent In are. may and the method of development. to consider some act of manual skill. and. certain general aspects of learning which be set apart from its narrower applications as maniit is man fested in acquiring facility in it may be well. some of these larger phases of the subject. however. including as The physical they do the manual arts and trades. but we have seen that habits mean repetition.

Recently one of the editors of a large city daily said to the writer that tQ his opinion young men should be taken office. He cannot get a bird's-eye view. And this is exactly what happens to an uninstructed learner. and to emerge from mnate qualities of the mind.124 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK above the slow. a short Other- no one will deny special aptitudes. but also in the various branches of business. trying one device after another until a mode of action has been hit upon that by chance secures the desired result. Little intelligence can be used in the selection of methods of procedure because the learner is not suificiently acquainted with the work to judge their worth. accidentally. laborious process of acquisitfon. This attitude prevails not only regarding literary ability. as he * Boston and New York. He is like a traveller wandering around in the underbrush of a forest. are adopted. Consequently. . wise it would be better to dismiss them and try others until the right ones are found. Charles Francis confusion. have aptitude for it your ability will soon show itself. His methods of meeting difficulties are therefore fallen upon Certainly. He is confused by the underbrush of details. least intelligent expression. Adams is a splendid illustration of this His Autobiography^ is a painful history of opportunities unutilized because of incompetent guidance— a round peg always trying to get into a square hole. as in adver"Start into the work and if you tising and salesmanship. 1916. theless. It is the animal method of blundering along. He cannot see whither the many trails lead." is the advice often given to young men. if he gets into the right path it is largely accidental. directly from the high school into a newspaper If within time they give promise they should be retained. Nevercontempt for instruction reduces learning to its crudest. this If they accomplish the desired end tiiey In this way imeconomical and comparatively unproductive methods become habits.

and thus their errors are continued. and largely uncriticised. Adams as low as he estimates himself. Probably his chief misfortune was that his family had money and social standing." Most of us would not rank Mr. produce the of real badness. and I was born with a decided sense of obligation to myself and to others. that the animal method of making progress is most clearly discernible. but he was a distinguished failure. which. Adams' enumeration of the mistakes of his childhood and youth. I me any ele- ment even recklessness of temperawould have been fatally developed. experience is gained by uncontrolled. trial and error. His mistakes seem to have been caused by unwise advice and direction.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING himself phrases it. With them. He was kept in pedagogical preserving fluids. But I wasn't bad or a daredevil. is That and just situations does. Boys are protected." he rebelled writes. I do not remember having read so bitter an arraignment of unintelligent direction as Mr. Lideed. and it is this absence of intelligent criticism that distinguishes the lower use of the trial-and-error method from the higher. it same It errors as lack of instruction. or ment. Deficient knowledge because of a lack of preliminary study and instruction leaves a weakened substructure for judgment. 125 of meeting problems what the animal method The only difference is that animals in the wilds must remedy their serious mistakes or pay the penalty with their lives. however. He certainly did not achieve that of which he was capable. "I should now respect myself a great deal more. A brief reference to the learning process of lower animals . of course. Under these conditions interpretation of situations is inadequate. except so far as advice puts them in the instructed class. had had in to sea. "if I had then and if nm away from home. and experience is reduced to stereotyped opinion. or to the devil. and for this the unintelligent gmdance to which he was subjected was responsible. is in the "self-made" men.

the correct associations attained sufficient strength to produce the delay. It is well known. may Several connected enclosures . for example. the cess. pulling a string to open a trap-door in the first case. The situation favored or permitted various responses. pushing up a lever in the second. if again placed in the enclosure. or stand on their hind legs. series of effective responses without error or This same association can be established between achave no necessary relation to one another. but he will repeat many of his former errors. he will run about until by accident he finds the path that leads to the exit where food rewards sucstructed learning of will Now. The responses were made at first. If an animal is confined in an enclosure with winding paths. What actually has happened is that a connection an association has been formed between a situation consisting of confinement in an enclosure of definite appearance and following a certain path to food. We say that the animal has learned to get out of the enclosure. By degrees. — — possibility of which was provided for in the instinctive equipment of the animal. and one of them happened to meet the requirements for reaching the exit and securing the Gradually the useless actions were eliminated. The elements of tions that these associations long be increased so as to form a may be made. and food. that dogs can readily be taught to sit. he will finally learn to take the direct course to the food. In the same way they may be trained to go to the corner of the enclosure farthest from the exit and turn around an exact niunber of times to secure food.126 will PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK show how much it has in common with the uninman. the animal not at once follow the direct path to the exit and food. all except one of which end in blind alleys. however. to obtain food. without selection. clijnbing a ladder and going through a hole to reach the third encloalso series. and the animal may learn to pass from one to the other in quite different ways.

When one is imjustified. it is not difficult to show is the cause of the second. In other words.^ The absence of ideas means absence of thinking. There is no recogiiition of cause and — must be made to secure the desired re- It is interesting to observe. of the event follows another they assume that the succession will always occur. .THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING sure. No inferences are drawn. effect. especially the Journal of Animal Behavior. cases the response is made by a In all of these directly to a given situation. Now. by John B. Behavior. In some instances the response to such an occurrence becomes settled as an instinct. Change the setting to any great extent and the responses are likely to be disturbed. the prevalent opinion that man's method of learning is commonly different from that of the lower animals Animals learn by association. For aU the practical purposes of life such responses assume that the first event Now. that some more highly developed among the lower animals seem to select and pay especial attention to those parts that are coimected with the essential element. without the intervention of ideas. Watson. that roan employs this same associative learning ' more Those who wish to make a more detailed study of learning among the lower animals may consult Animal Behavior. Lloyd Morgan. Chickens going to their roosts in the middle of the day during an eclipse of the sun is an illustration. A certain situation is associated with a given response. and changes in its location do not always disturb them. by C. and numerous reports of investigations in the journals for general and comparative psychology. however. though the essential element in the situation the one to which a — definite response sult ^may be quite as conspicuous as before. 127 and finally returning to the point of departure different route to find food awaiting him. the result is not connected with a certain action upon a given object. But this is probably due to persistent and strengthened association rather than to any discernment of the relation between cause and effect.

When this idea was first promulgated by the "science editor" of certain newspapers the unintelligent accepted it and those better informed smiled. he assumes that he is reasoning. Psychological Monographs. no. for correct inferences • Fleming A. and that its necessary connection with the result be discerned. One need not go back to the belief in a necessary connection between phases of the moon and sowing crops for an illustrative example of this sort of reasoning among human beings. The summer of 1915 was cold and rainy throughout the central and eastern parts of the United States and. Perrin. the persistence in another form of the old superstition than reasoned out. ." This belief is. the belief was quite prevalent that the imusual "weather" was caused by the firing of camion on the battle-front of Europe. and ideas were acted upon in an uncritical manner until they were proven by trial to be incorrect. whatever else it means. In those cases in which this process of associative learning seems to carry the learner forward in his thinking. The difference between this pseudo-reasoning and the real thing is that reasoning. there may be something in it. requires that the essential element in a situation be selected from the mass of unessential factors. Adequate interpretations were suggested commonly than way to the learner as the result of prolonged exploration. rather Cues which logically should be utilized were disregarded. 70. however." If the word "rational" were omitted from this account the description would be such as might be written of animal learning. Recent investigation* of the which he solves a maze problem has shown that "the rational processes reported were unsystematic and seemingly futile.128 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK in is supposed. as that of cause to effect. C. when the low temperature and rain continued. "Associative reasoning" assumes that an action or other event which precedes the second has some necessary connection with it. as will be recalled. Later. of course. even intelligent people began to say: "After all.

This human tendency to forget is of supreme importance in the psychology of learning. here was continuous. the same methods of "trapping" continue effective. though the by producing an pheric Naturally. . the tricks of "wire-tapping" to obtain advance information about the winning horse. In man speedy The sorforgetfuhiess is both a misfortune and a boon. human learning comThe latter quickly for- get an event unless it has been worked into their nervous system by repeated experiences or has become instinctive through natural selection. rows of yesterday are submerged in the joys of to-day." THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING that rain can be caused disturbance. 129 artificial atmos"reason" did not give the same conclusion the following summer (191 6) when an unusually high temperature was recorded in those localities which were cold the year before. and when. and an important element in the psychology of the stockmarket is that the pessimism of last week is forgotten in the present elation. even with those who know of them. so far at least as what one learns through experience or otherwise is to be used in reasoning. Were it not for forgetfulness." which is a good illustration of same deception. The "Spanish repetition of the swindle. Were it not so. swindlers would need to be geniuses at invention. In its simplest form it consists of information that a large sum of money awaits one in Spain. new devices would have to be frequently invented to trap them. continue to succeed. But. the rainfaU was considerably less Of course the error is forgotten. though to-day's rise may be made to order. Again. and other swindling devices. the old tricks are usually as good as new ones. But a "small amount is needed to secure the legacy. firing than usual. as with the lower animals. is so old as to have its origin almost lost in the past. Yet it still serves its purpose. also. and right find another characteristic of we mon to that of the lower animals. In man.

Given a continuous succession of more or less random movements. a Study in Comparative Psychology." according to Thorndike. Just how a selection of the efficient method occurs without conscious interference is not easy to say. In speaking of animal learning. the following: Edgar James Swift.I30 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK it was observed that the particular action which produced the desired result was one of many.' "What happens in such cases. or series of movements. "is that the response. The successful movement. Many random movements the cheek of a very are made in the struggle to relieve the discomfort. Learners. was not planned. There seems to be a competition of methods. Animal Intelligmce: Experimental Studies. is boun(^ firmly to that element and loosely to each of its ogy of learning has dom movements • Those interested in the theoretical discussion of this question may con- sult. among other writers. Quite commonly they do not know that they are using these methods imtil they notice that the difficulties are disappearing. Watson. p. Indeed. Behavior. Edward L. vol. It was not even consciouslyselected. Thorndike. in acts of skill. VII. It is the same with the lower animals. American Journal of PsycHology. The others either opposed success or were indifferent to it. by being connected with many situations alike in the presence of the element in question and different in other respects. and some of them will be more effective than the others. At last one of these movements succeeds and the fly is brushed away. 201. 264. A young baby. chap. The successful movement is produced without any further conscious guidance or selection than is supplied by the general effort to attain a desired result. p. the desired result will fly is biting be attained. 14. finally if the effort is persistent. all directed toward a definite end. suddenly find themselves employing definite methods to meet certain difficulties. and John B. a matter of the utmost importance in the psychol- been noted in coimection with the ranto which reference has just been made. and so it is with man in learning any act of skill. Now. .

Psychological Monographs.* Because of the importance of this principle. F. 218^. Roger observed that "a large percentage of the fortunate variations came altogether impremeditatedly." And Book. . found that methods changed and improvements appeared without conscious control. in her study of Consciousness in Relation to Learning. ' Psychological BulleUn. ing it. vol. 158. Ruger. these modifications were noticed.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING concomitants. . called attention to the fact that unconscious adoption of methods of procedure in acts human learning. vol. voL i. practised. p. 95. Batson. Later investigation of the writer* sustained this observation. Ordahl. and improved upon. then purposely adopted it in the future." it. sciousness was gradually freed from details. p. . any element is is bound to any one response that made to all situations contain- and very. Heniy A. 22. pp. p. which may be of skill is fimdamental in called the law of unconscious adoption of method. as confications were continually cropping out. p. American Journal of Psychology. . Book. E. it may be well to quote briefly from some of the later investigators. 2. Louise EUison Ordahl. Archives of Psychol' ogy. L. no. American Journal oj Psychology. University of Montana. 295. 44." Illustrations of this unconscious adaptation to work and games • —the method of improvement in uninstructed learn- Educational Psychology. says that "a second significant fact about learning is that all sciously adaptations and short cuts in method were unconmade. Bulletin no. 53. Unconscious modiThen. 15. William H. 131 firmly Conversely. * W. 14. and recently it has been verified by various investigators. in the first tion of the learning process. very loosely to each of those responses that are 1 made to only a few of the situations containing report* of his investiga- The present writer. no. The learners suddenly noticed that they were doing certain parts of the work in a new and better way. 91. vol. in further verification of the present writer's original report.

The most that one can do is to control the larger muscles stand in the correct position. and there are many. much less consciously controlled. of course. must tations of considerable delicacy. Every beginner knows how little all this accompHshes have begun to make their unconscious adjustments. finds himself obliged to make is various The beginner in golf new muscular adap- That a nice adjustment shown by the exceedingly slow progress of the learner. keep the head still. possible only ia the case of such movements and tensions as can be singled out — — for control when once the adjustment has been made in- voluntarily. involves a nice adjustment and co-ordination of eye. Driving the ball in just the right direction and in a straight line.132 ing PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK ^will — readily occur to the reader. are made imconsciously in the general effort to achieve success. and no learner can designate the time imtil the finer muscles when this occurs except as he.. the learner observes them and then they are consciously adopted and perhaps improved upon. often to his surprise. After these adaptations have been made a sufficient niunber of times to acqxiire some degree of consistency. hand. especially when the course is lined on either side with hazards or with natural obstacles. that the muscular tensions. All of the fine adjustments and co-ordinations. There is probably more discouragement in golf because of the intermittent and frequently This means indiscernible progress than in any other game. This is. the learner's attention except for thought of the larger muscles is upon the accomplishment of the purpose. of muscles is necessary be accurately gauged. These adjustments cannot even be named. force. etc. contractions. and arm muscles. suddenly finds that his good plays are more dependable. give the arms the right swing — — general effect. the eye on the and try to get the ball. In other words. We have said that the law of unconscious adoption of . upon the result.

In entering upon new work. except so far as one is attentive to the result and to the muscles that can be controlled voluntarily. in the writer's opinion. is. then. this is the exceptional mode of procedure. and keeping the eyes on the ball. however. In golf. and persistent reflection. for example. and in situations involving human beings this raw material consists of knowledge of man's response in various Few men have this information. much as they would in an way. This law of unconscious adoption of method has been demonstrated only in acts of muscular skill. their individual peculiarities largely determanner of response. and tell his pupil wherein he fails. They meet the difficulties unthoughtfully as they arise. and its social relations. But the writer is convinced that it has much wider application. The adjustment and other adaptations. And when the learner is this is as it was in uninstructed learning. holding the head still. Besides. This last is of special importance because one cannot observe oneself. as in beginning the practice of law or engaging in salesmanship in a wholesale or retail house. the most that a teacher can do is to give general directions. Knowledge of failure. mine That is. one meets certain difl&culties which must be overcome. Serious A naturally hard task is thus rendered still more difficult. their . too difficult to be popular. involving as it does logical thought.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING method degree characterizes uninstructed learning. As a result men respond to any given situation in what may be called their natural lack discourages thinking. as we have seen. also active it is 133 In a large under instruction. centres the attention on definite details. must still be made unconsciously. Indeed. such as the position of the hands in grasping the club. It is not necessary that these troubles be so conspicuous as to cause the learner to sit down and think them over and consciously decide upon a plan of action which he thereupon rigorously carries out. successful thinking needs material upon which to work.

The success of these responses. suddenly finds that he is performing the details of his work. An investigator^ of teaching has demonstrated the advantage of an accurate shorthand report of everything said in the classroom by teacher and pupifs. And it would be the most profitable moving-picture performance that he could attend. shorthand and phonographic repetition of one's responses to situations would be much like gazing at one's own skeleton. as quality combined with rapidity. of course. by Romiett Stevens. The will habits that grow out of the responses to situations among other things. upon the standard of by the learner. as in the case of muscular act of muscular skill. If he is contented merely with accomplishing the task. on the other hand. This flexibility in habits of performance presupposes an understanding of the signifi' The Question as a Measure of Efficiency in Instruction. It is a remarkably valuable critic of himian behavior. Unhappily. his methods or responses will vary until the standard toward which he is striving is attained. Even before these forms of response to situations have been noted by the person who makes them. in very definite ways. take account of some of the other factors that make for efficiency. depend upon his natural aptitude for the work in which he is engaged. To be sure. but the view would enable one to clothe it more presentably on another occasion. and might well be adopted A man in business. for example. which the beginner has unconsciously adopted. they have become habits of behavior. any way that produces an depend. he would obtain a picture of himself such as no critic could give.134 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK skill. and acting in the presence of certain situations. If a salesman. will. efficiency set approximate result wiU satisfy. . could read a ver- batim report of his conversation with his customers. Should he. the person most concerned is usually the last to discover them.

the attitude taken toward the several problems presented in the situation. And their feelings and interpretations vary because of their different visions. If the writer is correct in this brief analysis of human response to situations. his And this is settled quite as much by a man's permanent and temporary "make-up" as by the situation with which he is confronted. To no a salesman of this type different customers present interesting situations calling for varying responses. The permanent characteristics.problems in the general mass of details. the uselessness many times. above all else. Their response makes their experience. They presuppose no problems. it reveals again the vagueness. The most conspicuous demand characteristic in the sales and advertising managers. This. They see things differently as truly as do myopic people. We their see here. inefficient teacher. The significance of experience in learning is not merely . High standards of achievement therefore demand an inquiring attitude —a state of continually looking for problems in the daily work. or salesman. again. are largely beyond control.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 135 cance of the situation. Now imply uniformity in situations. the need of preparation on the part to interpret situations learner to enable him —to see of the meaning. before tured." For it is a truism that the experience of an individual is colored by mode of response. is their insistent rules of behavior whom the writer has lec- for rules of action. explains why the same outward set of circimistances is experienced differently by various persons. For without this comprehension the standard of attainment will not be commensurate with its possibilities. business mind which is The who tion man. instead of the develop- ment of personalities. For such a teacher the one quesis is that of order. They do not admit differences. of discipline. is the one unable to distinguish the various. but the temporary condition is. again. being chiefly inherited. of "experience.

and in thinking his procedure is the same. they emphasize again the im- portant fact in adaptation and behavior. A man is biassed by the opinions which he has formed as a result of previous experiences. the first is Therefore. this may occasionally produce results. regardless of the quality of salesmanship or advertising. accepts superficial evidence. but also that it determines future experiences by fixing the attitude and method of approach to situations. He has acquired a certain mental "set" which perverts his judgment. assumes that things are as they appear to be. For. He does not see the meaning of action and response. latter. Yet Consequently. .136 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK that it is one phase of the process. the man who does not understand them is beginning a career of failure. other. He fails to comprehend the is In thinking and acting. advertising when a given method in salesmanship or attended by success. teaching consists largely in constructing and in reconstructing experiIn the case of the more mature it is chiefly the ence. It is the animal method on significance of behavior. however. he does not approach the new with an open mind. Consequently. chance thus creates disordered responses. the method is assumed to be good in all localities and on every occasion. instead of examining ways and means with the view of finding the most efficient plan of He action. after all. He misunderstands the hiunan mind. If the instances which have been cited are indicative of human action in general. which human behavior has been grafted. if one event follows an- accepted as the cause of the second. that man adopts the simplest method that will approximate the results which he wishes to gain. is prevailing conditions Since. happy combination of circumstances not likely to be reproduced. and the chance of business tradition and opinions. This is one of the reasons for the importance of instruction. the chance of poor instruction or no instruction at all.

Fortunately. and often unexpectedly. yet for not able to get results. slight digestive disturbance. He may not be "fit. p. and consequently to lower he is At times. on first. 516. yet for some reason he does not advance. again. These periods of temporary arrest of progress are called plateaus in the curve of learning. and the investigation of the acquisition of skill in typewriting to which reference ' Pedagogical Seminary. with occasional intermissions. we find that the investigations have disclosed several facts of considerable moment in the psychology of learning. The meaning is of the irregularities is quite clear. in the one case. advances for a time and then suddenly. Typewriting is an unusually good illustration because it is t3T)ical of much of the work done by the younger men and women in business ofl&ces. the learner feels splendidly. The measure of progress. . He may work as hard as before. was the length of time required for writing the 100 words. or are sufficient to blunt the edge of one's feelings. The practice was continued for five months. a 300-word page of changing material. The two striking characteristics of the experiments were irregularity in the acquisition of skill and occasional delays in progress. successive days. and in the other the 300 words of new matter. vol.^ different studies were undertaken by Hill and These experiments consisted of typewriting. several investigations have been made of the progress of begirmers." fitful sleep A night out. 20. and second. some undiscoverable reason Every one has such days.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING proficiency in 137 Turning now to learning in the narrower sense of gaining some definite act of skill. the same 100-word paragraph. or a new subject of study. efficiency. A beginner in a new sort of work. all of But the physiological condition does not explain the irregularities in progress. Some of these variations are caused by the physiological condition of the learner. Progress rarely continuous. his progress is interrupted. Two Rejall.

for example. both retardation. ten devoted to the work his record was either the same or worse than on the 25 th of November. the drift of the learning process. though not maintained. Improvement is. there were only three days when he reduced the time required for the task. who prepared the experiments for publfcation. the better score becomes a permanent acquisition. but he cannot yet be depended upon to maintain the record. The following experience in golf. One of these improved scores was only seven seconds better than the record for the 2Sth of November." the learner now This new record becomes the it. Sometimes the learner wiU do better. ' Professor Thomdike.138 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK made reveals several of them. however. but between that day and the 6th of December. In a longer or shorter period of time. On all the other days of the November. Rejall's figures several plateaus extending from four to seven dayi are quite evident. Then his new achievement becomes the centre of variation until he is prepared — — to make a further advance. After hovering around a certain record for a time in tj^jewriting several days or a week the learner goes forward. that we have here a period of arrest in progress. therefore.' has just been of On the 25th one of the investigators wrote the 100-word selection in four minutes and seventeen seconds. as it were. but he rarely falls back to an earher lower level of accomplishment. knows that he can make Barring occasional "off days. nevertheless. . inclusive. and also temporary improvement. says that the absence of "any clear plateaus or 'resting stages' is noteworthy. usually intermittent. written friend. It is quite evident. centre. upon their distribution. Intermittent improvement in score indicates the tendency of the learner. around which the score for a week or so is likely to oscillate. illustrates by a shows. and again not so well. wliich appears in the curve of progress as a plateau." The explanation is that his curves were plotted from weekly averages. Whether plateaus would show themselves in such a curve depends. then. in large In a curve plotted by days from Hill and part. which.

but in practice the results were more often disastrous than good. regained the successful drive which I acquired so suddenly and carried on so successfully for several weeks and then as suddenly time." lost. Again I took my position. only one of which was defective. For several weeks I drove with equal success. This time the movements were enlivened with the thought that I was going to hit the ball and see how far I could drive it. Again I took my place and added 20 yards to the drive. Before making the attempt I thought over the directions for successful driving. There was neither pull nor slice. One day I took my usual position for driving. but I had acquired no certainty in driving. and for no apparent reason I topped the ball. The distance was about 160 yards.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 139 "I had played golf with unsatisfactory results for a year and a half and had succeeded in getting good control of the various irons. My longest drive was over 240 yards. Again and again. and I have not yet plain. writer has obtained the golf scores of an enthusiThey are his record for three consecutive . and following through with my club. but what I have done I can do again. As many as fifteen consecutive drives were made. trying to just graze the ground. both that day and on subsequent days. I could not see any positive improvement from month to month in the certainty of my drive. I endeavored to recover the skill which I had lost in a way I could not exSeveral months have passed. It seems to be a case of persistent re- tardation. some The astic player. in one case on links on which I had never played before. After a number of weeks of successful driving I was playing one day. and the ball went almost as straight as one could draw a line in the direction in which I had intended. and went through the act once. and the distance increased until it reached about 200 yards. In order to overcome this difl&culty I had taken lessons and had learned the theory so that it was at my command.

I40 years. but the plays are irregular and plateaus are evident. will PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The scores are given at the left of the curves. . It be observed that there is general progress from year to year.


' Those who wish more detailed information of the psychology of beginning a language may consult the author's Mind in the Making. cause of this retardation? The present writer. shows the same characteristic. He drops almost the foundation immediately to a low level of efficiency which reveals itself What. p. The writer's investigation of the early stages Russian language. p. vol. The learner. p. generally devoted to discussing The new The effort of the teacher is terras are not numerdevoted rather to laying by estabUshing the simpler principles. advances rapidly at first. Consequently. of all acts of skill and of subjects of study.* concluded that these periods of arrest in progress are caused by the need of time for making associations autoIn t)T)ewriting. p. starting at the zero stage. however. In beginning embryology. This initial rapid advance has been foimd true matic. . It is much more irregular than would have been the teacher. for example. 149. in which a large mass of new material is not crowded upon the learner at the outset. slower at the outset than in psychology.^ case had the learner been aided by a Returning to typewriting. ogy the first week or two a few fundamental facts. 297. 199. i. there is httle chance for confusion. then. 7. vol. a large number of new words and terms must be mastered at once. ous. Studies in Philosophy and Psychology (Garman Commemorative Volume). from his study of the learning process in typewriting and in beginning the Russian language. 295.142 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK In introductory p>sycliolis explanation of these plateaus. these associations consist in connections between the letters of words and the location of the corresponding keys of the typewriter. it is clear that after a certain very moderate degree of proficiency has been attained > Psychological Builetin. the curve of which is given below. is the in his curve of learning as a plateau. This natuHis progress is therefore rally perplexes the student. This curve in learning the of learning also indicates the effect of uninstructed learning.


and finally the eye is unnecessary. may strike the key at once. Next the finger. found. This cessation of progress. tain individuals especially adapted to a given piece of work. the amount needed depending upon the number of details to be mastered and upon their dif&culty. meet each emergency as such But such children and men are rare. only apparent. selling goods. occasionally. but not well organized busy making gains. ficiency. This is a very sketchy description of the stages of learning to use a tjrpewriter. to whom learn the multiplication tables offer no difficulties. each of which must. The periods of arrest in progress—the so-called plateaus of the curve of learning—are. for during this dating the information or skill won by is time the facts and information are being automatized for ready use. different degrees of prodepending upon the firmness of the connection between letters and keys. It is not a real arrest. The majority learn with effort. In the case of cerlevel. There are different levels of efi&ciency. but a few seconds will be required to find the right one. the sense of location being a sufl&cient guide. and upon the rapidity with which the associations work. be consolidated before it is possible to rise to the next This consolidation requires practice. then. Young salesmen may also be who do not need to learn the art of They know how to deal with men and can it arises. because it canto be visible to the not be measured and recorded so as accumulated information is only partially Loosely eye. intervals for consoliganize the learner during because he was too his advance. so to speak. however. . may be continuous to a high level of effi- There are children. and from time to time they must stop to organize and reorwhat they have learned. but it answers the purpose. progress ciency. directed by the eye. Quite soon the hand goes directly to the vicinity of the desired key. There are. easily They them and accurately. Progress seems to be delayed. of course. for example.144 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK needed.

and make it more serviceable in one's thinking. advance is attended with a This. In the early stages of learning the real advance is theremade during the periods of seeming arrest of progress. however. that the learner is a zealous worker. the meaning of facts grows as their connection with other facts is observed. but for a long time improvement is intermittent. More than this. 145 It comes to mind slowly and some of it does not come at all until it has been relearned. Progress during these plateau-periods assumes. At times it seems to vanish in a night. The best endeavors seem to fore bring no progress. and in subjects of study they -include facts and ideas which must be both learned and organized. . together with the Judgment of the amount and direction of muscular effort. though slight. is followed by a long feeling of elation. because it is then that the consolidation of details is going forward.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING usable. In acts of skill these details are the finer movements. are only too familiar with the long period of discouragement when they seem to be making no advance. period of discouragement. an interesting feature of this plateau the suddeimess with which it often disappears. This requires time —time for the nervous processes underlying the learning to be- come set and time for new nervous connections which are the basis of recalling ideas to be established and fixed. of course. This explanation of these periods of apparent retardation is illustrated by the experience of those who have spent several years in a foreign country tr3Tng to learn the language. — — for the language The length of this plateau-period ^with their aptitude and is ^but all feel its oppressive- Now. again. and these new relationships give added significance to what one has learned. varies with different persons preparation ness. Perseverance finally brings results. The first rapid. The word-associations and peculiarities of thought-sequence had been automatized during the long period when no visible progress was being made. Beginners in golf.

. Batson.^ Since this is a regular occurrence. • 153- ' ' W. no." ' The length of the plateau. Batson concludes from his experiments that tization is — — when progress requires the organization of different unit. words. it must be accotmted for. as has been said. These periods of delay in visible progress. The latest investigation' of learning adds further evidence for the explanation of plateaus as periods of automatization. during the interval of apparent retardation. 53. a plateau is the visible expression of the time needed to master or automatize the chain of associated movements which. that is. to make what has been learned more usable. work upon ^Psychological Bulletin. no. as the case may be. p. . H. so long as they require individual attention. upon the complexity of the work. Automatization. These details consist of whatever essential to success in the 7. 155. are being automatized for instant use. then assiuning that the learner is working faithfully and intelligently are the days when real progress is being made. ennui. for during that time the skilful movements. or the material of knowledge. University of Montana Bulletin. Psychological Monographs. etc. produce temporary retardation. p. and the explanation of the sudden advance seems to be that something has been going on. means mastering details ments into a - sufficiently to make them is readily usable. 91. excluding physical conditions. will depend upon the nimaber and difficulty of the details which must be co-ordinated and automatized. vol. Book also seems to accept the principle of automatization when he says that "it takes some time for the new way of writing" [on the typewriter] "to become sufl&ciently automatic to allow part of the attention to forge ahead in quest of more economical methods.146 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Evidence that these plateau-periods are days of automafound in the fact that they are always followed by a rapid advance. plateaus represent the move- time needed to In other establish this serial and imitary combiuation.

the man . until. The question may well be asked. This exceptional effort is rarely expended imless new demands and responsibilities are put upon him. as we say. and they have verified and enlarged the results obtained in the laboratory. and this is a fairly complex activity. at least. the apprentice has learned his shows that finally a level is reached above which does not rise without putting strenuous effort into his work. indeed. Plateaus do not occur in every learning process. If progress requires that movements be combined into a series. for example. but this is one phase of automatization.— THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING which the learner separate is 147 engaged. At the same time plateaus are the rule. however. Investigation of learning over long periods of time. activities involved. It is quite conceivable that a learner may have such aptitude for a feat of skill as to master its complexities without any retardation. not merely a matter of the not wholly an objective condition. and the more complex the combined movements the more likely they are to occur. It is doubtful. either simple or complex. this serial activity must be practised until the learner need not attend to the separate movements. however. trade. So far as successful accompUshment is concerned and this is the psychological problem the ease or difficulty with which an individual masters the movements is Complexity. Some of them may be briefly considered. This was true of one of the subjects of the writer's experiments in tossing and catching two balls with one hand. whether they are inevitable in every objectively complex process. It is — makes them for him. Experiments in the psychological laboratory are sometimes thought to be so artificial and unreal a^ to be of little value for the outside world of action. tests of those engaged in the world's work have been made. whether these characteristics of learning are true in the case of those preparing to do the world's work. Fortunately.

It is improbable that these typesetters were exceptional. . evidence has been found' which shows quite conclusively that even with adults who think that they are doing their best. twenty-one. 608. and found that.148 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of telegraph-operators The study by Bryan and Harter' and is showed that a new increase in the rapidity of receiving sending messages begins after an operator from an unimportant office to the main line. This is a phase of the human tendency not to expend xmnecessary energy. under the stimulus of competition and observation they made a marked improvement in the quantity of type set during the four days in which they were tested. 4. Man does not exert himself needlessly. A new stimulus was applied and their level of production was raised. eleven." again. 13. but few reach the Umit of their ability. Aschaffenburg. It shows that man accepts as a standard of efficiency the demands ' of the situation confronting Psychological Review. respectively. 23. 2 » KraepeUn's Psychologische Arbeiien. its subjective influence stiU persisted to such an extent that the total accomplishments of the subject were materially lessened. 6. with nine. of There course. p. and twenty-six years' experience. individual differences in the possible rate and range of improvement. Indeed. vol. him —that he is sub- and vol. Wright. slight incentives materially increase the output. transferred are. Further. i." This investigation is experimental proof of the tendency to minimum effort of which we have already spoken. 27. p. R. p. Psychological Review. and this when they were deprived of standard objectively. tested four skilled typesetters. 345. W. That which produces a result satisfactory to the demands of the occasion is good enough. to which reference was made in an earlier chapter. Wright's investigation has demonstrated experimentally that "through the continued use of a stimulus not sufficient to call forth their strongest efforts the subjects accepted the same as a standard. p. vol. vol.

Rather." Each week's composition was • to be a "chapter. Then learning may be carried to the highest level of which an individual is capable. Most men are upon levels of production above which they could rise if the right stimulus were applied. was shown in a country school. there is no opportunity for disagreement. This lack of a purpose or end in the work of children has been mentioned by Dewey as one of the causes of inefficiency in the schools. which he erroneously thinks represent his ability." describ- ing an "adventure" of the hero. Washington University. The answers are known. The difference between the dearth of interest under these conditions and in the presence of a real problem to be worked out. "Something worth while" assumes an end for which one zealously strives. . then decide upon a definite plan of action instead of drifting into the line of least resistance and expending the minimum amount of effort that will meet the needs of the situation. It is supremely important to find something that one feels is worth one's best efforts. Miss Claudia Lide. contented. Indeed. a graduate of Here was a real end. Of course one may feel that it is not worth the effort. the answer to which the teacher is assimied to know. but in that case change of occupation is probably desirable.— THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING ject to false limits of production 149 and achievement. There is no incentive to achievement except the artificial one of rivalry in rapid work. find something worth while. There were no books for the English class the eighth grade to settle — so the teacher! decided to let the children "write a book. is The human tragedy down. observation has led the writer to believe that a good part of the inefficiency of employees reduces finally to the inefficiency of those who direct them. with an end that is worth while. This is probably true not merely of employees but also of managers. into the animal method of mere adaptation. Questions are asked and problems given. no mental stimulation of discovery.

" * Improvement. I am sure I tried hard." The explanation is that no purpose stirred her till the incentive of authorship took possession. Unused reservoirs of ability were tapped. and Harriet Martineau says of herself: "I was the first of my family who failed in handwriting.ISO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK something worth doing." he says. UnThe increased or fortunately. 188. and why I did remained unexplained. must result finally in certain habits which constitute the form. cramped. "In playing golf. improved production reveals the difference when a vital end or purpose lures the worker on." An end that appeals to the learner as worth while is closely related to Thomdike's theory of the influence of satisfaction and annoyance. vol. and some of the productions were so good as to be accepted for publication by editors of magazines with departments for children's stories. it was observed that the class in the country school. . and the result far exceeded expectations. this is often not the case. p. tensions. something in which originality had Infree play. to which reference has been made. Thomas Huxley hated composition until he reached an age when he had something that he wanted to say. "the satisfyingness of the sight of one's — ball speeding down the course spreads to make the way one held and moved the club a little more satisfying as a response to the situation which provoked the stroke. stead of the usual stupid "compositions" cuUed from encyclopaedias. but I wrote a vulgar. improved markedly in the appearance and neatness of their writing under the stimulus of "writing a book. to be permanent. untidy scrawl till I was past twenty till authorship made me forget manner in matter and gave freedom to my hand. 2. and satisfaction certainly promotes habit forma' EducatioTuU Psychology. It is commonly thought that the work of adults differs from that of children by this ^distinction of an end. these children put their best efforts into the work. and movements. Incidentally.

In business probably the most effective antidote for Blind alleys is to make an outlet for success. The most that interest him. is restless also psychological. monotony Closely related to one's work.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING tion. training. at least. it does much more. Some of these matters are beyond the control of managers. It perhaps the most insidious obstacle to hard to raise the lower grades of work to the level of achievements. 151 Certain obstructions. however. and vocational guidance will justify itself if it merely starts boys and girls to thinking about the vocation in which they would like to engage. law. same person. and commerce to which young men flock instead of going to well-equipped schools are cases in The degree or license to practice is the important point. Temporary any cause. attainment. bad air perature lessen the output if not the effort itself. can be said in favor of such places is that they do what they promise. Were proof of this feeling necessary it could be supplied in abundance from our numerous "finish-quick" institutions. as they view it. and erates drudgery. and business men even from or high tem- . Monotony progress." fatigue Maximum effort is a variable quantity. are not much impressed with the importance of beginnings. The selection of an occupation is. Man. of course. in occupations are discouraging and discouragement genNo visible outlet to one's work. not knowledge. are likely to be in is is the way. however. As a matter of fact. The details do not Americans. in the monotony is the effort that goes into "fitness. emotional disturbance. but not so with the ofl[ice or factory air. "Begin at the bottom" It is is a good business proposition. They finish their students and they do it quickly. a supremely important matter. and skill. at the bottom. The short and altogether inadequate courses in medicine. discouragement. however. are the conditions that breed monotony.

In learning the touch method on the typewriter. They must be . Change of muscular or mental. There is always an inclination to return to a lower order of habits. is difficult. so long as a given situa- tion does not produce the definite military response. one tends to fall back upon sight. of doing a thing is not harder than another. these factors have been found significant. Effort must and continuous until the new habits that further a higher order of skill are established. Civilized man is kept at a prolonged high level of activity by the incentives of civilization. is a phase of adaptation. again. or subject to the series of habits involves strain. and prominent among them is the desire to better one's condition. but business men have not acted upon the discovery. habit that makes the difference. and external conditions should be studiously planned to promote work.152 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK have not given enough attention to ventilation. Then effort is not required to is carry It is them One way out. little reliance can be placed upon the men. The prolonged training needed to produce soldiers is a matter of "fixing" habits. therefore be severe movements. This. So long as there is danger of dropping back into former modes of action. for example. To relax is hmnan. In those cases in which the output has been measured under varying conditions of temperature and humidity. It is easy to drop into a state of partial relaxation. Consequently. The motives are always personal. Human energy is as much a matter of physical and physiological conditions as of the wish to achieve. beginners in any line of work should maintain a high degree of alertness until efficient habits become automatic. Any unhabitual movement. It is an expression of racial indolence. Educators have already learned this. But the psychology of habit also plays an important r61e here. It easier. Flexibility is same physiological restraints. Remove the hope of advancement and efifort drops fo an easier level.

is immensely in- Irregularity in progress is not due merely to physical Progress is conditions to which reference has been made. "Seasoned veterans" means this as is much as it signifies hardened muscles. He sees its use and he applies it. A few days ago he observed. This. for the first time. an act of skill or subject of study as the These difficulties present problems. and to follow through. The writer has recently observed this in golf. and the learner is keen for the solution. It must b^reilex. With the best instruction progress is vmeven. however. is the lowest conception of the art. to keep his eye on the ball. Such only carrying the automatization of complex habits of response to given situations to the highest level of efl&ciency. Certain eflSdent habits are acquired. to hold his head still. and this acquisition has persisted. even though the instructor be learned in the matter. to avoid puUing or slicing. This is the moment when the needed information is welded into knowledge by learning proceeds. It ignores the mental condition of the recipient and assumes that a given morsel of knowledge is equally important to different persons and to the same individual at the varying stages of his progress. has different when it is imparted. the inequahty creased.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 153 trained until they cannot think or act in other terms than those of the soldier. usually by sections. with mediocre. is the function of instruction in learning? usual idea of instruction is that it consists in possessing and imparting the requisite knowledge. among friends . carrying power according to the time Difficulties arise in The same knowledge. The ever. Yet the other no Inquiry less important acts remain imlearned. that his eyes remained glued to the ball. training then. the learner because his mind is at white heat. and this thinking and acting must be instantaneous. while others equally important lag behind. how- What. He has been trying for months to assimie the right form.

There are several ways in which it may influence progress first dinner-party. who was struggling to control her fork at her mind on her knife and let the fork take care of itself. "Then I began to succeed. Ruger' found that "in general. looking back. p. the solutions" [of thinking. . problems] "were not the result of mere straightaway and the consequent formulation of a thorough- going plan of action. is essential to progAssumptions." she said later."'' The mental attitude. by Edwin D. ' » The Psychology of Religion. The scientific attitude of examining a problem before drawing conclusions. cised Belief that the goal is imattainable. Young Richard was quite right when he advised little Una. "The fork was as meek as a lamb if I paid no attention to it. The mental attitude is. and their effect upon the curve of learning has been experimentally tested. p. as further examination suggests new view-points." ' The same observation has been made by a music-teacher who says to her pupils. Their experience has convinced them that certain habits essential to the game are acquired. xmcriti- and unjustified assmnptions regarding the meaning or nature of the work. perhaps accidentally made. to keep her in learning. AU of these attitudes and still others have been foimd in learners. while confidence and a mind unhampered by hasty conclusions favor progress. Stajbuck. while others no^fess needful for success remain stationary. 33. important. op. and then of holding these convictions tentatively so that they may be readily changed. become ress. but were the outcome of an extremely complex interrelation of more or less random impulses ^ Una Mary. has a much wider reach. 117. cause delay and perhaps ultimate failure. however. cit. of course. by Una Hunt. intrenched before the learner is aware of it. and distort his judgment.154 PSYCHOtOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK has given corroborative evidence. and it wiU do itself. after something has been clearly shown and imsuccessfully attempted: " Stop trjong.

be something worth getting enthusiastic over. . and ness it group sentiment. shop. There is nothing that so stirs a yoxmg man as the feeling which accompanies the belief that he is an essential part of a great organization. can hardly be overIn schools it must in busi- means stagnation followed by bankruptcy. and the whole is welded into a sentiment that tolerates no inefficiency.. Journal of Philosophy. stated. they act as a mental stimulant. It is not for practice alone that time is needed. tory. 124. or school. Group sentiment needs content or it is like the superheated air of which one hears in slang. ideals and purposes with carrying power arouse emotions. There must. because. or the enthusiasm that sweeps aside all obstacles. abilities previously unknown even to their possessor are brought into action. as fac- Wright has shown.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING and. The significance of the both in learning and in getting results. and the element of time. Strong." 155 Incentives are also important. In the retail business this feeling pervades the store and gives to it a distinctive tone. this tal attitude raises the work above a task. II. has been found to be the truest guide in the conalertness scious and unconscious selection of methods in the learning process. The hurrah method is empty. Psychology and Scientific Methods vol. be secured as an ally or the work is a failure. But with that is all the organization for efficiency there still remains one factor which cannot be organized out. and Strong^ has shown that moderate distribution of observations of advertisements ' makes a more lasting impression Edward K. ideas. . p. Here also belongs the "spirit" of the office. We shall find later that distributed study yields better results than concentrated work. and in the factory it means a greater and better output. because the menFurther. Yet the increased production is accomplished with less than the usual fatigue. When. however. Jr. It rules with irresistible force. on the other hand.

Applying this to a learner's task in any field. psychology knows nothing of them. . the stimulation has ceased. intervals course. is continuous. continue their activity after At least this seems to be the explanation demanded by the observed facts. the nervous processes that persist after practice or study do not have time to do their work and become "set.iS6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK When four advertise- than concentrated observations. or if an apprentice seeks to cover ground too rapidly. The answer. Stating it in cerebral material terms. when stimulated. agam. is the continued activity of ticed associations Mental processes are dependent upon the nervous system." itself is evidently a factor in learning. When the four advertisements are seen at intervals of a week the four create an impression 90 per cent greater than did one." between the advertisements may. ments of one firm "are seen within a few minutes of each other. explanation of these inferences by unnostill leaves open the question of their origm. If there are disembodied minds hovering about. learner's mind is and not infrequently when the engaged with quite different thoughts. details acciunulate faster than they can be organized and consolidated. but the fact still remains that these inferences come only there is no reason situations —to — after the lapse of time. Association nerve-cells. the four create an impression that is 82 per cent superior to that created by one advertisement. if the study of new Nerve-cells. In acts of skill requiring automatization of movements this need of time has been approximately determined. of So Strong found that when the interval was lengthened to one month the impression from the four advertisements fell to 45 per cent more than that from one advertisement. The be too long. Consequently. and Time to believe that learning to meet human judge hiunan behavior differs in this respect. To be sure. *in the latter case associations that have not been noticed may produce the helpful inferences.

that mental processes never take place unattended by nervous action which is essential to their occurrence. for want of a better name. fancies. at some stage of the developmental process. associating. and prejudices. The belief in seme sort of activity outside (beyond however. and it harbors the springs of all our obscurely motived passions. This view of the decreasing intensity of nervous activity leads. This transmarginal field "contains. of course. * or below) the personal consciousness has recently. and this certainly no evolutionist is wilHng to admit. persua- sions. pp. dislikes. ' See Journal of Abnormai Psychology. de novo. has been called the organic correlate of remembering. 22-58. and with it a corresponding diminution of the correlated mental processes. impulses. we seem forced to the view of a gradual decrease of this nervous activity.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING of ideas 157 is primarily a connection or relationship between the activity of nerve-centres and the resulting nervous This relationship is such that when two brain processes occur simultaneously or in succession. vol. as modern psychology does assume. mental processes have been in some dispute because of the vagarious conclusions which unscientific writers have drawn. is a mental fact for the sole reason that it is a physiological fact. to subconscious nervous processes. the activity of one tends to excite the other. and in general all our non-rational operations.* "such things as all our momentarily inactive memories. There is no other escape from the assumption that "mind" was inserted. again. or extramarginal." The writer is aware that subconscious. etc. processes. until the nervous activity is of so low an intensity that we have what. 2." James once said. p. superstitions. then. some of which may yield results available for consciousness. become scientifically respectable. for example.* Different The Varieties of Religious Experience. Assuming. come from it. Association. likes. convictions. . hypotheses. Our intuitions. 403.

it does not matter whether they are called "physiological cerebration" or "subconscious mental proc- Now that the existence of extramarginal prochas been admitted. it is not necessary to refer to the imusual instances of crystal vision. for cerebral localization and the modern view of mental diseases. and behavior. In using a table to arrive at the figupon which I was quotfound the price figure so high that I used half the price.000. It affecting opinions. The result was a price about half of what it should have been per thousand. there was nothing to arouse su. indeed all of brain physiology. though the person may have been guiltless of thinking of them except as they esses.pido& ures for the unit of the product ing. cannot be otherwise. are unintelligible except on some theory of psychophysical parallelism. The articles quoted on were new to tse and. A few days frequently clears the most perplexing problems. I .iS8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK are applied to is names it various. and h)^notism for illustrations of their integrative activity. and the views an influence upon the personal consciousness. if somewhat hesitatingly. consequentiy. beliefs. Since their occurrence and connection with the facts of consciousness. attitudes." esses occasionally emerged above the level of consciousness only to disappear again as the sales work in hand proceeded. rather than their nature. is the important consideration for our present purposes. and the latter in turn necessarily assumes extramarginal processes. These prices were accordingly wired to two different companies in the afternoon. The prospective sale amounted to about $200. The manager of a large wholesale house recently gave the writer the following bit of personal experience: "A few weeks ago I had occasion to make a quotation on a large quantity of goods. but there exerts of its nature are agreement that in some way general it. When I made my computation I doubled one figure but forgot to double the other. I also found the size so large that I used half the size. automatic writing.

and automatization of details. clarification. the extramarginal field. and definitely different from what he consciously conceives and determines. as were. if the material is put clearly before the mind. and ence for their elaboration according to ordinary psychological • The Varieties of Religious Experience. James contin- "whatever else it may be. noticed that lights out. and the rearrangement toward which all these deeper forces tend is pretty surely definite.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING in 159 my mind regarding the inaccuracy of the prices." James once wrote. 209. like the lost word when we seek too energetically to recall it) by his voluntary efforts slanting from the true direction. any rate a place now admitted by psychologists at ues. after passing a pleasant evening. realizing instantly that I had committed an error of many thousands of dollars on the wrong side of the ledger. and. and his conscious strainings are letting loose subconscious allies behind the which in their way work toward rearrangement. I retired about eleven without having thought of the transaction or of the price." The cerebral processes apparently do their share toward the organization. Certainly no doubt arose in my mind concerning the accuracy of the figures that I o'clock. "A man's conscious wit and will. It may consequently be actually interfered with {jammed. . are aiming at something only dimly and inaccurately imagined. Yet all the while on toward scenes. exist for the is to accumulation of vestiges of sensible experi(whether inattentively or attentively registered). "so far as they strain toward the ideal." ' And again. p. referring to this subconscious it organization of knowledge and experience. had quoted. In the night I awoke suddenly I afterward was about one o'clock house quiet and I pushed the electric button and started for it — — the telephone. the forces of mere organic ripening within him are going their own prefigured result. On going to my home in the evening I fomid company. so far as I can recall.

. in a sudden flash of insight. p. have been arrived at imawares each as the ultimate outcome of a body of thought which slowly grew from a germ." ^ This is probably the explanation of sudden revelations.. Aside from this imperfection. it was thought out in a few hours ^was written — down with such a sketch of its various applications and developments as occurred to me at the moment then copied on thin letter-paper and sent off to Darwin all within one week. it would happen occasionally that one most likely brought to mind by an illustration. cit. Uke the thought of natural selection. would be contemplated by me for a while.. p. as Alfred and be- which come to said. ' ' op." says Herbert Spencer. and the function of the "reason" liefs rather that of criticising the ideas us. . I. "The conclusions at which I have from time to time arrived." ^ The great majority of our judgments and "intuitions" are obtained — — by is this unconscious interaction of extra- marginal. cerebro-mental processes. and gaining from the illustration fresh distinctiveness. "We hardly know Russel Wallace once how or whence. because I had a sense of its significance. however. "as it had come to Darwin. 113. 463. . Letters and Reminiscences. Some direct observation or some fact met with in reading would dwell with me. vol." says Alfred Russel Wallace. . Apt as I thus was to lay hold of cardinal truths. "The idea came to me. those that stand the test.— i6o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK by attaining such a ' or logical laws into results that end ' tension that they may at times enter consciousness with something like a burst. 236. vol.' ". by James Marchant." and of reinforcing The human mind is at best a very imperfect instrument for thinking.. all the data cannot be accumulated at will within a set period Much of it comes to us unexpectedly through associations started in the marginal and extramarginal region during the lapse of time. p. I. apparently. ' Autobiography.

something would remind me of that which I had before remarked. and with further thought about it might occur a recognition of some wider application than I had before perceived. reflection would reduce the vague conception at first framed to a more definite conception. and this subconscious cerebral activity is of inestimable importance .THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING and i6i its bearings observed. there would grow up a coherent and organized theory. but menForce a conclusion or belief back tal confusion never. perhaps of half a year. after an interval. the subject-matter should be systematized to the best of the learner's ability. Again. and mentally running over the facts might be followed by some further extension of the idea. cross-examine it. And thus. preju- dices. little by little. When accumulation of instances had given body to a generalization. below the level of consciousness. then leave it to its fate. and perhaps difficulties or anomalies passed over for a while but eventually forcing themselves on attention. without conscious intention or appreciable effort. experience. Merely loading it with facts. foi learning so far. the matter would be remembered. and before many days its truth or falsity will be revealed. . then. in unobtrusive ways. we have found to be largely an imcon- . A clear-cut error may lead to truth. might cause a needful quahfication and a truer shaping of the thought. . as knowledge. . A week afterward. . possibly. at least. perhaps of a month. Questions and problems must be clearly thought if the mind is to do its share toward furnishing the solution. is an ally of no mean worth. . tear its inferences from it. the organizing activity of brain and mind." Evidently. Whatever thinking one does should be orderly. provided the mind is supplied with the material upon which to work. ever. does not produce the result. against the wall. new view-points. and "intuitions" bear upon our present opinions or the acquisition of Learning. doubt its accuracy. howIn reading or studying.

Efficiency requires that the selection of as well as of ideas telligent. manager of a large business that his chief defect was lack secure the results that will be obtained of leisure moments in which calmly to view his problems. by observing many men. be more conscious and inMethods of improvement will continue to come is accidentally. In mental activities the same unconscious adoption of methods of improvement is observable. in which the useless movements are gradually ehminated. had discovered one element of efficiency which psychologists have found in their laboratory experiments. this Intervals of cessation of progress are likely to occur in complex acts of manual especially important. ways and means. and at The mind should be the practice. — continuously works at white heat will not by one who stops An efficiency expert once told the at times to deliberate. con- servatism or radicalism. for this the nature of the learning process. There should be periods of skiU that the tal activity rest in everything in manual movements may become "set. and behefs. scious process. It includes those of our sodal standing. This expert. A man who . but "our set" is not altogether local. be critical in accepting and adopting them. We should. It is the trial-and-error method. and opinions which surround us." and in mento give new ideas a chance to assert themselves. and in thinking we tend to accept the ideas. in order that errors may time practice is active during be more quickly eliminated and the most effective improvements chosen. ing results are happened The learner then becomes conscious of their value for the work in hand. since only in this way can skill. beliefs.1 62 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK In acts of manual skill new ways of securupon accidentally and adopted. however. The conventional views of "our set" are compelling. progress be continuous. with whose views stantly confronted in the newspapers that we we are con- take and the books which we read. respectability.

but the situation does not demand more energy. We thus act below our ability unless the conditions force exceptional effort. We cease to form new habits when no incentives for improvement stir us. .THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARMNG Finally. a 163 that meets the enables man having acquired a degree minimum requirements of his to hold it. There is always adaptation to the needs of situations. So he does not expend it. but parsimony continually operates. He may be capable of much greater achievements. and the amount of mental energy expended is as much a habit as is the quantity of physical energy applied to doors with check attachments. of efl&ciency position and him settles down at that level.

used-up matter. some of the new food is always being raised into is which really alive. If his pace is quickened to three miles an hour he discharges more than five times as much. Whether the muscle be at rest or be moving. "Did we possess some optic aid. inert. "which should overcome the grossness of our vision. there are parts alive. we should see the commonplace. a downward rush from the living to the dead. so that we might watch the dance of atoms in this double process of making and unmaking in the living body. and then we should see how. and which we call food. some of the capital of living material is always being spent. whether the muscle be quiet and at rest or whether it be active and moving. loosing hands. there is an upward rush from the lifeless to the living. A man gives out more than three and one-half times as much carbon dioxide per minute when walking at the rate of two miles an hour than when asleep. "This is always going on." says Foster. caught up into and made part of the muscular whorls of the living muscle. In every tiny block of muscle there is a part as which are becoming which have been alive but are now dying or dead. This making and remaking of the tissues of the body is a continuous process during life. they slipped back into the blood as dead. changed into dead waste.CHAPTER V FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY activity are always accompanied and disintegration of tissue. there are parts 164 . and when working in a treadmill nine times Muscular and mental liberation of energy by much is given out as when asleep. linked together for a while in the intricate figures of the dance of life. giving and taking energy as they dance. lifeless things which are brought by the blood.

' Michael Foster. it work. 34. the expenditure is quickened. are greatly strengthened by eating chocolate. if the expenditure be in excess of production. the more urgent the call for action. there is a run upon the living capital. and soldiers on a long march. The chief source activity of the protoplasm energy of muscles is carbohydrates. Experimenhas been shown that removal of most of the carbohydrates from the body of an animal produces s)nxLptoms of fatigue without exercise. Recovery may be brought about by feeding sugar. activity. Oxygen and carbohydrates have been consiuned. the sensibility of muscle and diminish its response. ITS PSYCHOLOGY 165 But when the muscle is called upon to do work. during the action. Nineteenth Century. . when it is put into movement. the movement leaves the muscle with an impoverished capital of potential stuff. Certain substances essential to the have been consumed in this and waste products have acciunulated. a muscle treated with either of piece of work.FATIGUE AND living capital. the greater. carbon dioxide and lactic acid." to the body. It is well known that mountaineers. that it cannot be renewed at the same rate. and a period of rest is needed in order that the dance of atoms of which I Just now spoke may make good the loss of capital and restore the muscle to its former power. vol." * Drawing on the capital of living matter. Oxidation of carbohydrates results in the production of certain substances which act as poisons They are spoken of as "fatigue substances. p. 337. investigation has shown. under ordinary circumstances. the capital is spent so quickly. are hostile to protoplasmic acWhen present in considerable quantity they weaken tion. Moreover. brings fatigue. A muscle so affected requires more prodding for a given Indeed. Two of these substances. these substances is "fatigued" without having done any of the tally. of fatigue are chemical conditions resulting The causes from changes within the organism.

accordingly. upon " the accumulation of waste products of contraction. it has been as clearly shown that it is not in the nerves as that it is not in muscle. Bayliss. i.." * fatigue is not primarily in the muscles. II. Text-Book of Physiology. E. Nervetigue in the synapse.. fatigue caused by the consumption of reserve material from which the energy of the nerve-cell is derived."^ and although "fatigue may be artificially induced in a muscle by 'feeding' it with a dilute solution of lactic acid. 259. This is proved by the fact "that direct stimulation of muscle will cause contraction after the s)tiapse between nerve and muscle has lost its excitability.. p. Bayliss. "This state of fatigue is. e. 475. situated in some s)Tiapse. William M. ' * ^ of waste products more rapidly than the nerve-cell A. op. Principles of General Physiology. Starling. cit.. 451. cit. . by the injection of aqueous extract of the fatigued muscles of anothet animal. and again removed by washing out the muscle with normal saline solution containing a small percentage of alkali. op. p.i66 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK factors: First upoa consumption of the contractile material" [of the muscle] "or of the substances available for the supply of potential energy to this material. 209. 209. p. Starling. "In fact it is not possible to demonstrate any phenomena of fatigue in the nerveFatigue. Ernest H. "William M. Schafer. according to StarKng/ probably depends two upon "tlie trunk. 389."^ Although "a state which cannot be distinguished from fatigue can be produced in fresh muscles. vol." ' Considerable evidence has been ofifered for locating fa- "The lines of junction of nerves with other parts seem to be more readily fatigued. ' ' and the accumulation can eliminate than. p. op. Starling seems unmindful of Verwom and Dolley's "fatigue of excitation" and "fatigue of depression"." and second. cit. p. 1915. p. not in the efferent neurone itseK. Principles of Human Physiology." ^ It has also been observed that a motor centre which has been fatigued for one reflex may be imaffected for another." ^ Further. ' Ernest H.

Popular Science Monthly." * Evidence that the nerve-cell is the seat of fatigue has been given by Piper. affecting all organs. ITS PSYCHOLOGY 167 or the fields of conjunction in the central nervous system. igo2. vol. 303. • Stirling. 76. pp. 1912.' "that the main principles of muscular fatigue are demonstrable in other tissues and organs of the body that in them also fatigue is characterized physically by a diminution in working power. so that their al- epithelium ' unable wholly to prevent the passage of »H. pp. It has been some time that fatigue substances act in a manner upon the respiratory centres.* who has shown known for that fatigue causes a decrease in the rate of oscillatory discharge of the nerve-cell. 182. then. William . or in both the nerve-cell and sjoiapse. fresh.— FATIGUE AND cells. 'synapses. originating in one tissue. Outlines of Practical Physiology." so "we may assume that the seat of the fatigue is to be sought either in the central nerve-cells or in the nerve network. this may be. 124^. Elektrophysiologie menschlicher Muskeln. stimulating The primary seat of However fatigue. That fatigue products become a part of the general circulation is indicated by the fact that the introduction of blood from a fatigued dog into the circulation of one that is fresh will produce all the S3maptoms of fatigue. "There is every reason to believe. Diminution of working power is manifested in very different ways by diverse tisGlands in fatigue seem to secrete less than when sues. appears to be either in the nerve-cell alone. The kidneys may be is deranged.' in relation to them. p. it spreads through the blood circulation to other tissues and quickly becomes a more or less general condition of the body." says Lee. seem to be markedly susceptible to fatigue. 300. Piper. and chemically by the destruction of energy-yielding substances and the appearance of toxic metabolic products. and it may be that the action of digestive juices is diminished. quickening the rate and increasing the depth of respiratory movements.

So far as fatigue itself is concerned.1 68 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to the urine. however. This change may be sluggish or it may be rapid if too slow. The explanation of indifference to fatigue is found in the relation between expenditure of energy and the amount on deposit. may become abbrethe tissues and organs viated. and if too rapid. is a relative matter. whether mental or physical. Some men are never fatigued. The intimate relation between the mental and physical has long been recognized. and it is only under the influence of exercise that the circulation maintains its highest degree of vigor. In man. The so-called power of the will is dependent in some degree upon the firmness of muscle. Intelligence in animals is correlated with the range in muscular co-ordination. and sensitive mental response bears a direct relation to vigorous bodily reactions. at any rate. the vigor of these organs is evidently an im- portant matter. and the more complicated the neuromuscular apparatus the greater the intelligence of the animal. this relation is even more clearly discernible. though they do a prodigious amount of work. and will are closely related to alterations in the circulation of the blood in the body as a whole. tissues are broken down faster than they can be rebuilt and bodily — The chemical processes of the body should proceed as rapidly as an orderly reconstruction of deterioration ensues. bumin from the blood dilated. and any means of increasing their endurance has fisychological significance. or. is necessary for referring to muscular exercise in the psychology of the day's work. or resting may become irregular. therefore. feelings. . intellect. period. its A fatigued heart is beats are quickened and and its diastole. Weariness. Incessant change in bodily processes is characteristic of life." SLace fatigue expresses itself in of the body. the tissues and organs of the body are not properly renovated. upon the bodily tone. as well as in the brain. No apology.

is is tion per day. Though the average amount of a man's work is about two million foot-pounds tivity. and the ease and success with which we accomphsh excellent equipment for the usual. Demands are us. Fatigue is a sign that one is going too fast. which is approximately five times the daily average of men. Science. Of course few engage in competitive contests of Just this sort. The heart should be able to resist a high blood-pressure without detriment to its musclefibres or valves. The important quesnot how much one is spending but what is the ratio of expense to one's bank-account. the winner of the 1898 six-day bicycle-race. and contractile power sufficient for both ordinary and extraordinary demands. .FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 169 the tissues permits. performed more than fifteen million foot-pounds of work on the first day. as calculated by Carpenter. p. But it should be observed that the rate of ac- a relative matter. Secreting and excreting organs should be quickly supplied with blood and lymph and capable of quickly supplying their products. But more than this. and he averaged on each of the six days more than nine and a half million foot-pounds. Miller. vol. during the month following this tremendous expenditure of energy Miller again competed. again. Lee. new series. 521. toughness. this time in a twenty-four-hour race. The capillary bed should be capacious. but well-developed organs mean much for endurance in other fields than those of the race-track. Respiratory organs should be capable of quickly bringing in oxygen and quickly eliminating carbon dioxide. since preparation for the exceptional almost every one suddenly put upon come days of strain. Osmotic exchange should be rapid. Vasomotor response should be ready. 29. "Voluntary and involuntary muscles should possess size. To * Frederic C." ^ Preparedness for possible emergencies is is important here as in everything else. and two months later he broke his previous record^ wirming another six-day race.

cit. The reconstructive adaptation of the human body to the calls made upon it is one of the remarkable biological facts. It has long immune logical to toxic substances been known that organisms may become by growing accustomed to Illustrations of physio- gradually increasing quantities. . • abundant and Frederic C. In the same way immunity to the poisons of fatigue substances may be developed. op. in the matter of which we are speaking. and this requires that strength be kept at a high level of vigor. His adaptation to this drug is now so perfect that if he suddenly stops taking it he will die. What tires one is insufficient for the well-being of another. A man may gradually increase the dose of arsenic until he can take enough to kill ten men. But there should always be a margin of safety." • Training consists. in producing resistance to fatigue products. such that when the supreme He who effort is demanded of them they do not succumb. Excess in anything is debauchery. among other things. to accustom him again to the normal conditions of human life the dose must be gradually decreased until his organs have readjusted themselves to its absence. always of others insufficient. but in the matter of physical exercise excess varies with individuals. producing moderate but increasing amounts of fatigue substances. put the tissues into a state of tolerance or resistance. "Moderate but increasing amounts of exercise. In other words. immunity are abundant.I70 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK them depend upon our readiness. is The physical strength of some One should endeavor to extend the boundaries of one's endurance. Adaptation to the poisons of venomous snakes may also be artificially produced by gradually increasing the amount given. Lee. and they are important because they show the extent to which resistance. Such a man may then hve among these poisonous snakes without danger to his life. may be developed. wins is he who can best resist the poisons of fatigue.

digestion. The muscles of the heart should be strengthened by exercise. The night's rest. duced. greatly influence the ability to do work and largely determine the sort of work done. The curve of fatigue for to a certain extent a gauge of the bodily any particular day and mental con- dition at the time. however. For these reasons. just as those of the arm should be hardened. because of its far-reaching effect upon the body and mind. and a muscle stimulated to exhaustion in an atmosphere of nitrogen recovers quickly in pure oxygen. The is test of "fitness" is the capacity to continue active iinfatigued. its accuracy and value. A man with unhypertrophied heart and muscles is a mollycoddle who cannot stand strain when it is put upon him. "The practical importance of muscular exercise upon the processes of oxidation in the body cannot be overestimated in these days when overcivilization tends to weaken the physique and moral fibre of man. is probably exercise. gaseous exchange and takes place primarily in the cell. With moderate exercise there is no evidence that any other substance than carbon dioxide is formed. The copious intake of oxygen that accompanies exercise would tend. but with violent exercise lactic acid is also proof these influences aU A variety of experiments indicate that lactic acid appears with a relative deficiency in the supply of oxygen to the contracting muscle. emotions. There is no . and since muscle in an atmosphere of pure oxygen does not fatigue as soon as in an atmosphere of nitrogen. therefore.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY stopping before exhaustion is 171 little reached. it would appear that the presence of oxygen tends to push back the fatigue-point. and others that are not so obvious. The most important factor in producing fitness. but doing a more the next day. All of this suggests the value of volumes of fresh air in delaying fatigue and of furthering recovery when fatigue has set in. to reduce Respiration is essentially a the lactic-acid formation.

that muscular exercise is unnecessary and perhaps undesirable after a man has reached the sixth and seventh decade of his life. pp. Civilization cannot override in a generation or two the characteristics impressed through countless ages." ^ ing in disguise. when. physical activity is too commonly re- garded as the luxury of play. which will produce such a great increase in the absorption of oxygen and the discharge of carbon dioxide. some but cular classes little become differentiated for . especially in the United States. . . after all. lar activity is The sary. 497/. but the benefits of mus- work are not to be attributed to that alone. work of necessitating muscular activity. The belief is somewhat wide-spread. To be sure. . One the marked Muscu- characteristics of life is oxidation. a comparatively small ' Recent Advances in Physiology and Bio-Chemistry. the popularity of golf has. to a certain extent. and the need of exercise becomes imperative and finds satisfaction in sport. 1908. changed this opinion. but. and one may see in the training for warfare among the highly civilized and especially the manufacturing nations a bless- Should the danger of war ever be entirely removed the only safeguard against degeneration would be outdoor sport. owing to the process of division of labor. co-ordination of all the systems of the body is neces- and all parts are affected. whether it be physiological or pathological. not a simple increase of oxidation. the growth and vitality of the body are favored by the work performed. such a wide-spread effect upon the exchange of material in the body.172 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK other condition. edited by Leonard Hill. is spects muscular exercise of the In these reutmost importance. Unfortunately. Man in a primitive condition is forced to muscular exercise in order that he may obtain food or protect himself from wild animals. or more often from his fellow men. the body is not a machine from which work can be obtained simply at the expense of more fuel and increased wear and tear.

Consequently. and aU the other muscles of the body proportionately. a man 5 feet 8 inches in height. and walking. Not satisfied with this record. Smith Robertson. The effect of regular exercise in developing the bodily organs and in promoting resistance to fatigue. at seventy-two years of age. he walked back from Los Angeles to New York.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY proportion of these older pense. in ninety-five Another striking illustration of the value of exercise is Edward Payson Weston. eighteen years of age fear for his health caused him to turn to walking. One of the valuable contributions of the entry of the • Physical Education. is seen in an instance cited by Sargent. his chest measurement had increased from 36 to 40 inches. The ex- and output of energy needed are resistances to which those advanced in years readily yield. and at eighty. time. 63/. a distance of four thousand miles. about three thousand six hundred miles. of Eau Claire." muscular In childhood he was weak and sickly. and weighing 140 pounds. in a few hours more than one hundred and four days. At the end of this time he found that his weight had increased from 140 to 160 pounds. 173 men play the game. he walked from New York to San Francisco.three years of age he could walk or run almost as easily and with apparently the same elasticity as fifty or sixty years before. began systematic exercise with lo-pound dumb-bells and a horizontal bar when sixty-nine years of age. and walked from four to six miles a day regularly for a period of three years. these men give themselves up to the physical and mental disintegrating processes of age. even in those advanced in years. are felt to be uninteresting. days. Wisconsin. by Dudley A. Sargent. . and as he grew older he displayed no parAt about ticular athletic ability and had little endurance.' "Mr. pp. A few years ago. He worked with this apparatus for about ten minutes a day. as well as gymnasium exercise.

a freer and more buoyant life. might be greatly increased. by capacity to withstand prolonged strains. The brain worker lives too sedentary a life. could be increased in such a ratio. endurance. '^'Experiments have shown that physical endurance can be doubled by dietetic causes alone. wj is the discovery of the on their furloughs so The young men come home completely made over as to be hardly Thin boys have recognized by their friends or themselves. The great majority of adults are far from being 'in condition. Physical exercise as a means of acquiring resistance to and the value of medicine has been overestimated. and a visible increase in the quantity and quality of work per hour. In an ideal hfe fatigue would be seldom experi- . "It is weU known that a man 'in training' has greater endurance than one who attempts exertion without previous systematic exercise or training. or capacity for exertion. and acts. or even his daily output of work. What it does mean is the removal of the fatigue limit. The ordinary man errs either in one direction or the other. They have gained a little sweetness and some hght. taken on the right amoimt of flesh. as measured Could these conditions be remedied. By both together it is not imlikely that it could be tripled or quadrupled. exertion. And with it all has come a hardening of the muscles that has altered their feelings. while the manual worker. In general. it may be said that a person in the 'pink of condition' is fit not only for physical but also for mental exertion. and the fat have become normal.' suffering either from lack of exercise or from too much exercise. it is not meant that the hours of his daily work. thoughts. through fatigue caused by long hours.174 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK United States into the ^lesent value of strenuous exercise. of the ordinary healthy man could be thus multiplied. is in a continual state of overfatigue has received too little attention. or doubled by exercise alone. But when it is said that the endur- ance.

day after day. important Irving Fisher.fatigue. The stress of business and of professional problems to be solved." The difference between being "well" and thoroughly by Fisher. The Swiss guides.. he usually calls himself 'well. a vast difference between such a 'well' man and one in "fit" has been splendidly characterized ideally robust health. p. Bulletin 30 of the Committee of One Hundred on National Health." Probably few ing know men actively engaged in earning their livthe feeling of this buoyant Ufe. while another 'weir man will run twenty-five miles or climb the Matterhorn from pure love of sport. In mental work some persons are imable to apply themselves difference is The or susceptibility to fatigue. while others. one of endurance men caimot run a block for a street-car or climb more than one flight of stairs without feeling completely tired out. fatigue experience. throughout the summer season. 2 Ibid. Many 'well' more than an hour or at a time. ITS PSYCHOLOGY is 175 a daily But in ' most lives. They are unacquainted with the freedom that clears away the mental haze and gives constructive visions and insights which cannot be obtained when the fatigue limit is approached. and the worries of making ends meet. spend their entire time in climbing.FATIGUE AND enced. both serious and minor. like Humboldt fif- Mommsen." ^ The source of muscular energy ' is. however. unfortunately. p. 40. 'marvellous feats of endurance' only shows how marvellously out of training the world as a whole really is. of course. "When a person is free from all specific ailments. They are content with living in the conventional state of "good health. keep them at best bal- ancing on the edge of .' There is. can work almost continuously through teen hours of the day. . 44. A Chinese cooly will run for hours at a That the world regards such performances as stretch.

Kipiani. 1907. 197 /." and not to meat per Experiments on vegetarians and meat-eaters in the University of Brussels gave similar results. As Pavlov has shown.176 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK work and evidence here is in connection with ability to The quite clear. furnished a severe test of the claims of the flesh abstainers. . protein and non-flesh dietaries have far greater endurance than those who are accustomed to the ordinary American diet. it is doubtful whether sudden exclusion from man's dietary is desirable. .^ The tests were As regards largely comparisons of strength and endurance." difference was found. a striking rians and "carnivores. and the other between flesh-eating athletes and flesh-abstaining sedentary workers. and while this excitation may be to a certain extent artificial. eaters in staying power probable that the inferiority of meatis due primarily to high protein se. little difference was discovered between vegetaIn endurance. test the ' ' to avoid fatigue. Similar results have been found in other inIt is vestigations. The results would indicate that the users of low an experiment made to . the vegetarians surpassing the car- nivores from 50 to 200 per cent. by J. . *EnquHe Scientifique sur les VigUariens de BruxeUes. Perhaps the that its safer course is to indulge when the craving is felt. It seems to stimulate the stomach. strength. meat is one of the most peptogenic foods. . Two comparisons were planned. The mistake is in regarding • it as an essential article of daily diet. Though meat does not give the strength and endurance it has been thought to furnish. however. some stomachs seem to require it at least occasionally. Fisher and Fisk report" popular idea that meat is The experiments consisted of especially "strengthening. How to Live. . . loteyko'and V." forty-nine persons representing endurance tests made on The experiments the two t}^es of dietary habits. one between flesh-eating athletes and flesh-abstaining athletes. pp.

Dietary studies all over the world show that in communities where productive power. and the grains and potatoes are starchy foods. there may be building units ia reserve to quickly restore the tissue destroyed. supplies building material. man has instinctively and independently selected Uberal rather than small quantities of protein. under which circumstances the wear and tear on the cell protein is increased." says Benedict. "it has not been incon trover tibly proven that such a diet could be advantageously adopted for all time. p." Lusk also takes a similar view. covering so long a period. 1915. requires the same food as the other cells of Carbohydrates include starches and sugars. 32. conspicuously meat. and civilization are at their highest. seems not yet closed. so that if after physical ex- haustion there is depletion of the glycogen reserves. eggs. to eat noth- Corn and the cereal grains." diet. and the brain the body. on men in various occupations are remarkably suggestive. he says. Protein. fish. . with a diet of so low a protein content following a normal diet. . milk. vol. Graham Lusk. found in lean meat. . "believes that there should always be an excess of . who. and cheese. is one of the causes of fatigue. p.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 177 Chittenden believes that the waste products of foods containing an excessive quantity of protein. His dietetic tests ma. also It contain protein matter. He quotes Rubner approvingly. carbohydrates are the most available source of muscular energy. with the exception of rice. nor that the apparent improvements were due entirely to the low protein. ' would be possible ' American Journal of Physiology." continues the same writer. * This question of The evidence indicates that. enterprise. while muscular work can be done at the expense of any of the foodstuffs. however. protein constructive material. "Nowhere in the literature of nutrition do we find an experiment so painstaking and accurate. Each plant has its own kind of starch. 15.^ "But. Tht Fundamental Basis of Nutrition.

"^ and the repair factor lie the essence of the But fuel and repair do not exhaust that a diet composed of the five classes the subject of nutrition. Theoretically. and fruits. on the other hand. How these substances act five we do not know. and carbohydrates and fats should be taken for energy foods. In the fuel factor science of nutrition. cit. 4. but the system would be overloaded with protein waste. "require fuel to maintain them. carbohydrates. among them tuberculosis. it is better to take both carbohydrates and fats.. and water necessary for the maintenance of Ufe is not strictly true. fats." he says. the workshops of life are in a constant state of partial breaking-down. so the Eskimo and others who live in cold climates eat chiefly protein and animal fat. . Furthermore. ing material.. Those in warm climates. and take the or give rise to some of the hormones which axe ' Op. Fat is also valuable as a food. if the amount of fat in the diet is too limited. p. Fats produce more than twice as much heat as the carbohydrates. .. but for practical reasons. minimal quantities of certain other substances are necessary in order that the processes of life may proceed normally. and materials must be furnished to repair the worn-out parts. These purposes Lusk has put in a striking way. either one of the energy foods with protein would sustain life. because man is more prone to certain diseases.178 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Enough protein should be eaten for build- ing but protein. such as digestion. and a necessary function of nutrition is to furnish fuel to the organism that the motions of life continue. It seems that in addition to the all is that classes of foodstuffs. live largely on carbohydrates. but we must imagine drug-like effect on plac^ of that they have a some organs of the body. of opinion The weight seems to be increasingly favorable to protein reduction. vegetable proteins. salt. "The statement — of foodstuffs is — proteins. but the purposes of nutrition must not be forgotten. "The workshops of life.

The first delay is observexercise "warmed up" to the work. Starling. cit. cit. the best sources from which to obtain them are uncooked vegetables and fruits. respiration. milk. they seek some miracle-working drug. p. fresh vegetables..' " ' ' ' * Ernest H. It is well known "that at the commencement of exercise or muscular work there is often absent even in the trained man that smoothness in the coordination of the muscular contractions. and lead a more natural life. This preliminary warming up is noticed alike in physical and mental work. peas. and in the outer layer of grains. Let us now turn to the effect of normally continuous work. %%2. beans. but many will not be cured of their ailments by muscular work. and is expressed in the colloquial language of the laborer as 'getting into able in the time required to get the swing of the work. and circulation. Leonard Hill.. Sometimes the efficiency may be maintained beyond the normal period by increasing the stimulus. cit. 502. op. p. op. Work creates a craving for food. as they are called. and thus assists digestion and absorption. "Men and horses work best when they are well fed.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY essential for the orderly 179 of the body. are present in the juices of fruits. then continues at its maximum. and feed best when they are weU worked.. But even under stimulus the time finally comes when we are no longer able to keep at a high level of production. We may drive ourselves in one way or another." ^ working of the different organs These vitamines. Leonard Hill. . or the waters of a fashionable health-resort. eggs. p. Since they are destroyed by excessive heat. and if the work is continued one's eflSdency gradually diminishes. where they are unconsciously made to take than any drug. 50X. At first one's power of work increases. is Here a natural stimulus to the appetite. more potent it is known to some." ^ have been considering some of the conditions of We physical and mental vigor. Op. which comes after a short time.

p. first of all. 1883-1884. one of the men was kept busy for the greater part of the day answering questions. strong men perspire until drops of sweat fell upon the paper. who investigated the Seminole Indians of Florida/ has given some interesting information regarding the mental fatigue of these ities. first class of American "They seem to be mentally active. One of the officers to whom Mosso wrote for information replied: "At the class examination at which soldiers have to give proof that they are not illiterate in order to obtain their discharge. At Lecco I saw one faint during the trial. It should be noted." ^ ' ' Annual Report F<riigue. examination. with the effect of practice and skill in mind. of the Bureau of Ethnology. at sight of paper and book. 121. "Occup)dng our time with inquiries not very interesting to him. vivacious. most of the Semibrains and mental fertility. MacCauley. .. The result of the study of these men was of great importance to them because moderate success shortened the time of military service. 493. Often I found by his answers that his brain was to a degree paralyzed by the long-continued tension to which it was subtheir intercourse with jected. demand another but on the threshold. in- vestigated the fatigue of soldiers who were learning to read and write.. ." Mosso. Dniininond's translation. p. that in MacCauley's opinion the Seminoles rank in the aborigines. people. feelin<? better. about the language and Ufe of his people. voluble. as a rule. noles I met cannot justly be called either stupid or intellectually sluggish. In one another they are. I have often seen great." To test the effect of continuous moderate mental activity on people unaccustomed to it. then. he turned pale and fell into a fresh faint.i8o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Practice and skill also reduce fatigue in intellectual activ- Mental work of a very simple nature frequently produces exhaustion in those unaccustomed to using their minds in such a manner. showing the possession of relatively active Certainly. I could see how much I wearied him.

effort to avoid the pain brings into action muscles commonly unused. unfatigued muscle has a certain amount of available energy which may be drawn upon. The difference is much like using one's bank-account instead of withdrawing money from one's But. An abnormal rise in the temperature of the body is produced by excessive and prolonged work under unfavorable conditions. however. Ibid. and work can be performed. Vigorous. 501. the sensations of pain sooner or later. even of a practised and habitual sort. in addition to the muscle exhausting its rebusiness. however. an incen- may may be neglected." ^ "Fatigue is also accompanied by an extravagant metabolism. the nervous system performs its part with a more intense and wasteful expenditure. bears no direct relation to the work done. The Leonard Hill. when the work is done under unfavorable conditions. Under ' these conditions.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 151 Activity. from this cause the output of carbon dioxide may be increased even as much as 21 per cent. or be deadened by drugs. but if shoes or boots are uncomfortable. ci(. nervous energy ' is not merely squandered. Pain is beneficent. the expenditure of energy during the first half of a period of work is considerably less than during the second half. a natural safeguard. but it is extravagant work. it is a warning. It was shown in Mosso's laboratory that a fatigued muscle suffers more harm from a light task than an unfatigued one from much more severe work. however. Walking is automatic. serve of energy when work is continued beyond the fatiguepoint. and apparently causes a further extravagant combustion. o^. and the penalty has to be paid tive to rest.. The truth of these statements has been fully demonstrated by the successes and failures of forced marches." ^ The amount of fatigue. but a fatigued muscle uses energy needed for other purposes. and. Much depends upon the condition of the muscle. tends to produce fatigue. "Work which is is performed painfully by man or beast uneconomical. p. . in the unfatigued muscle at least.

it appears that irritation that the energy for muscular contraction is derived largely from the oxidation of carbohydrates. Since no correspondingly significant changes are observed in the nitrogenous metabolism. and the muscle is able to perform more than double the amount of mechanihalf of a period of . is done. the necessary periods of rest are shortened... Overwork tends to destroy muscle-sub- We said that the expenditure of energy during the first work is less than during the second half. . . and the amount of work finally accomplished is much greater than when the work is carried to the point of ex- treme fatigue." he says. This is true even when more work is done during the first part of the period than during the second half. pp. op. Mosso found in testing muscles that. the time needed for rest is only a quarter of the time required for recovery when . if the final contractions are not made. The energy utilized in the contraction of muscle is derived from chemical changes occurring in the muscle.the full amount of work ." ' the machinery. if the work is reduced by one-half. cit. ««. 449." * Probably this is approximately true of the mind as well as of muscles. That is. stance. "In excessive work. 152/. »0p.i82 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK accompanies fatigue leads to a breakingdown of nervous structures. Bayliss. p. the fatigue is much less. as opposed to normal vigorous work. . that is to say. with longer periods of rest under exception• William M. and muscular exercise increases the intake of oxygen as well as the output of carbon dioxide. work which it would do if it worked to the point of exhaustion with the most favorable conditions for repose. there is evidence of a certain amount of nitrogenous breakdown of the This is due to the wear and tear of structure itself. if work is not carried to the point of cal exhaustion. Further: "From this experiment "it appears that if the energy of the muscle is not completely exhausted.

. Amateur mountain-climbers well know the anguish of the last half-hour. Experience shows that a robust release mind is dauntless. and rest. I went abroad. have spoken additions to the stimulus when fatigued. Francis Galton relates an inter- esting experience of his own. This is also true of the mind. is On when one is Under these conditions even conversation is fatiguing. few years ago I foolishly overworked myself. which goaded to mcreased exertion instead of dictating The consequence was that I fairly broke down. release from even a smaU part of the work is a relief. p. requiring perhaps more labor per mile. In other words. 153. provided the work is within the limit of its capacity. and reference was to the strain of the last part of a mountain-climb. on the other hand. and escape from small matters seems like from an unbearable burden. though I grew much better and could amuse myself with books. When. vol. 2. misled no doubt of the influence of the place » — it was strongly British Journal of Psychology.^ for inmore favorable in hard mental tasks than in easier ones. the energy of a muscle is depleted. There was "A many others have done. could not for some days even look at a book or any sort of writing. the first town where I experienced real repose was Rome. unfatigued muscle is indifferent to the work that it does. as by a perverted instinct. But let one's energy become diminished. stance. found that short rest-pauses are Wimms. Sounds and noises ordinarily the mental side this especially noticeable recovering from sickness. imnoticed are aimoying. But irritability increases.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY ally 183 favorable conditions for repose. the no definite relation to the amount of the striking effect of very slight intensity of fatigue bears of We made work done. and one is slow to get the meaning of what one reads or hears. though the preceding four hours. brought only joy. and. Cerebral activity decreases. Vigorous.

^EngUsh Men ' Associa- of Science. "A man with no interest is rapidly fagged. op. It also weakens the memory. being full of hope. its purposes. cU. It makes an immense difference whether a man enjoys his work or not. Prisoners are well nourished and cared for. An army in retreat suffers in every way. Just as food should be palatable to serve best enjoyable. and there were no petty distractions to fret a wearied eye and brain. the value is not gained merely from using the muscles. First of all. comes the effect of the emotions. what I accept as a full and adequate ex- planation occurred to me— simply. jS. but the service is greatly enhanced by the bodily thrills that come only with zest for the activity. while one in the advance. and the latter draws its energy in no small degree from his enjoyment of what he is doing. so exercise needs to be We have said that fatigue dulls comprehension." ^ vertisements on the walls. may perform prodigious feats.1 84 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK for a long time I sought in vain for the reason marked. again. . In the matter of exercise. but they cannot perform the task of an ill-fed and ill-housed laborer. His ability to put his work through depends upon his working capacity. p. The writer has observed that his memory of facts and names deteriorates markedly after a mountain-climb of four or five hours' duration. 172. Whenever they are forced to do more than their usual small amount they show all the symptoms of being overtaxed and sicken. At length. There are several causes for the lack of correlation between fatigue and the quantity of work done. and of it." ^ The effect of the emotions upon fatigue shows that the vocation which a young man selects means much more than the financial returns. as has already been said. p. Francis Galton. that there were no ad- There was a picturesqueness and grandeur in its streets which sufficed to fill the mind..

because on his return in the evening he remembered almost nothing. when one is change of occupation gives sufficient rest. Work becomes monotonous and we think that we are tired. fresher air also plays its part. Change of scenery clears the mind." This probably refers to a condition of complete exhaustion. Moderate muscular exwalk in the open is The abundant oxygen of the ercise is also stimulating. again. Even another book treating brightens the mind. and people. of a different subject with its new sights. not even after a severe six hours' ascent of Long's Peak. The effect of fatigue upon memory raises the larger question of the relation between different sorts of fatigue. but its deficiency lay rather in failure to recall the details of what had been read or heard previous to making the ascent. is In such cases change of occupation refreshing. though the conditions for work may be no better in other respects. So one finds that "fatigue" vanishes in another town or city. At any rate the writer has not observed it in himself. mentally tired. but ennui. Sometimes. One grows tired of seeing the same persons and hearing them say the same things. For this reason it is mental economy occasionally to pack one's grip and begin anew in another place. then a relief. and one "was obliged to take notes during an ascent. Memory was not normal. Mere change. This is prob- ably true only when fatigue is not fatigue. and sounds. The belief is quite general that. The writer invariably finds that the "fatigue" of the year disappears and that work can be continued with renewed vigor when vacation permits a change of habitat.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 185 tions will not respond under the influence of fatigue that comes over an amateur who must break in his climbingmuscles each summer. Indolence is often taken for fatigue. breaks the dead level of monotony. Mosso quotes alpinists as saying that the events of the last part of an ascent are least distinctly remembered. one has Exercise or a brisk sat so long that the muscles are tired. .

Maggiora tested the endurance of the middle finger of his left hand in Mosso's laboratory. The writer has known of young women afflicted with chronic invalidism who were cured by activity. and for this reason the muscles themselves are weakened. became so interested in a secretaryship which she seciu'ed that the day's work brought no fatigue. though typewriting is not a restful occupation. Work or activity of any sort. Even after two hours of complete repose it had not regained its strength of the morning. to be worth while. This relation between brain and body in the matter of . and worry is the most efficient promoter of fatigue. In the Inoming tests his finger contracted times before temporary exhaustion. in keeping the thoughts from one's "afflictions" and in dissipating worry. The "invalid" who waits till he feels able to work will never begin. The usual periods of rest and vacation will be sufficient to The work-cure closely related to this meet the demands for recuperation. of course. One young woman who could not walk half a mile without exhaustion and whom the slightest exertion sent to bed. In the afternoon he examined twelve students candidates for the doctor's degree during three and one-half hours. Then fifty-three — — he again tested the endurance of it his finger and found that was exhausted by twelve contractions. In several cases it was social-settlement work. change of occupation is likely to augment fatigue. Intellectual activity. When one is tired from concentrated attention and thought. is almost certain to be unattended by fatigue. A part of the value of the "work-cure" consists. But none of these states is fatigue in the proper sense. A tired brain evidently means a tired body. Nerve-centres are then exhausted. in which they were so busy and stood on their feet so long that strong men would have been exhausted.1 86 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK for those with whom fatigue is chronic is matter of change. should be intense. Yet at night they were only pleasantly tired. in which one finds pleasure and success.

instigated by home or class com- panions. is worth a moment's fatigue is digression. Chapman. imposed much too fast for the child to grow to. ig. 15. owing to unwholesome shocks. vol. it should be said that childrei^ rarely study hard enough to become fatigued. One of the problems of how to escape it without uimecessary reduction and for children. no. ' Walter W. 23. "Observations have shown that the pupils in outdoor and openwindow schools are not only kept more healthy. 78. Roach. University. vol. ThornTeachers College. Smith Baker. chil- dren are forbidden and permitted to do the same thing. . p. W. ' ' . Columbia dike. and and conflicts of impulses resulting from the imposition of scatter-brain notions of teaching and discipline. 191 7. 3. * Report of the New York State Commission on Ventilation. Open-Air Schools. until rules of action become chaotic. pp. . no. Fisk. ^ and their work is also more accurate. Contributions to Education. With them what is called fatigue is lack of interest —or more commonly languor it is arising from pro- the outgrowth of nervous excite- ment resulting from the confusion of commands and hibitions. by Irving Fisher and Eugene L. At home and in school. 2. to which reference has just been made. They remove the fatiguelimit to the evening and night. where it belongs. Bureau of Education. McCall." ' The "dangerous fatigue" from unhealthy confinement within doors. and puzzlings. the open-air schools seem to have given the solution.' Recent investigation* of work. at different times. fatigue are overstimulated ambitions or disproportionate pressure and rivalries. L. and J. How to Live. C. or even to comprehend. Educational Review. Bulletin no. at least. according to the momentary mood of those over them. but learn more quickly than those in the ordinary school". Washington. "dangerous fatigue is the result of unhealthy confinement within doors. A.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 187 fatigue is especially important in connection with school work. by E. American Journal of Public Health. First of all. Again. . 35 /. Other sources of dangerous or is confusions.

The small amount of fatigue noticeable during the school-day was more probably caused by improper conditions of ventilation. and to autopoisoning of the nervous system by • W. Untensive test was made by Heck. The work was given at different times of the day shortly after nine and eleven o'clock in the morning. 1913.^ — . and at one o'clock and half after two in the afternoon. hygienic conditions in the school and physical defects. Heck. etc. But whether the effect of confined air is due to its physical or chemical condition. however slight. "representing different nationalities and different grades of social and hygienic opportunities" were tested under the usual schoolroom organization.1 88 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK much to its chemical and respired air components as to its physical features. .. The material was a modified form of one of Courtis' Standard Tests iti arithmetic. Let us turn now to one or two of the latest investigaindicates that the harmfulness of confined is not due so tions of fatigue in school children. supposed to be due less to exhaustion of the energy-producing material of the nerve-cells of the body. too dry. in the children are undoubtedly the great causes of fatigue in most schools. and too still. Confined air is too warm. there is no doubt of its influence in producing the feelings of fatigue. if not fatigue itself. H. . The most recent ex- This investigation is of unusual significance because of the large number and variety of children included. . and the greater wear and tear of work done under unfavorable atmospheric conditions promotes derangement of nervous functions and deterioration of tissues. lighting. than by the school work itself. children in four New York City schools. The results showed that "mental fatigue in relation to the daily school programme is far less than generally believed. Mental Fatigtie in Relation to the Daily School Program. The decrease in quality of work more or of children as the less general in schools. is day advances. and because of the natural conOver i.ioo ditions under which the tests were given.

The length of the test was fatigue. 'Op. Still another test was made by Heck. a vital will and varied curriculum.' The short tests consisted of examples in addition and subtraction.^ this time with 467 boys and girls in the Roanoke. most children in relation to the daily Heck schools. 7. The results indicate that "in • Psychological Clinic." Short tests of ten minutes and also those involving continuous effort extending through an hour or more have been made recently in the grades of the Winthrop Training School. The bored child. A. Continued work produces boredom and continued boredom decreases efficiency.. ' vol. is that normal. With sound bodies. Bulletin no. 2.' also tested 573 children in the Lynchburg. with its lack of vital and varied appeal. Robinson. . proper classification. healthy children in the grammar grades. while the longer ones were drawn from algebra. Virginia. can meet the requirements of the usual daily school programme without injury to themselves or their work. history. on account of the close mutual relation between physiological and mental attitudes. 7. unconsciously or consciously. and Latin. p. in a hygienic school environment. "The final conclusion to be drawn from this experiment in Roanoke Lynchburg and with reasoning-tests in arithmetic. as well as from those in New York with the fundamental operations. and its monotony of instruction and environment. Winthrop Normal and Industrial CoHege. Virginia. lit. L. and live show no problem of fatigue school programme. p. vol. 258." teachers. rebels and does a less correct amount of work. frequent relaxation. zg. increased from ten to twenty-five minutes to determine whether a longer period would reveal The results strengthened the former conclusions. As before. schools. a hygienic school. two periods were taken in the morn- ing and two in the afternoon.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY i8g waste products from this process. than to a loss of interest in school work.

Maudlin emotions threaten to deprive children of the advantages of a busy." have quoted from these experiments in some detail because the information is needed as an antidote to the sentimentality regarding fatigue. dren.IQO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is general there plete idleness. the imwise abuse of sense-organs. and unattracchild to for . . then. a boy sees no purpose in learning he will not learn. "is that a regular day's grammar school does not decrease the ability of the . if children are as fresh after two hours in school as when they entered. if caused by work and not by foul air tiveness of teachers We or nervous irritation. little efficiency beyond nervous it will Experiments on fatigue presuppose that ' always Psychological Review. not on a Creator who made our minds so that work hurts them. but upon the unwise choice of material for study." "A fair claim to tained. p. axid mental activities are more weariness than fatigue in the chilmore necessary than comis Here. the teacher's problem: If How up to provide the proper mental stimulations for keeping the interest in school. . As a matter of fact. vol.. thoughtful life during a small part of the day. penetrating voice..^ in in the make on the basis of the results obsumming up his investigation work of fatigue in school children." has irritation. they have missed something worth while. 7. so is not bad. nor on the public opinion which demands that children shall do a given amoimt of work. shrill. the imwise inhibition of pleasurable activities. The chief responsibility do mental work." says Thomdike. the unwise direction of effort. ex- A ploding with "don'ts. Moderate fatigue. provided school is is forgot- ten on the playground and sleep abundant and undis- Probably one is tigue in children commonly of the chief causes of injurious fathe constant nagging to which they are subjected. turbed. 547. . and teaching. I should be inclined to think. mental exhaustion in scholars falls.

American Journal of Physiology. British Journal of Psychology. at any rate. "causes an augmentation of activity of the muscle. 33. ^3^. and one investigator* thinks that there is such a period when fatigue acts as a stimulant in mental as well as in muscular work. vol. or moderate quantity. Studies in Psychology. 8. p.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 191 reveal itself in the quantity or quality of work accomplished. The result of this rest was a gradual but steady recovery of vigor. 20. for a brief time. be denied. and an increase in the total amoxmt of work performed. p. Gruber. an improvement in the quantity and quality of work. an increase in the height to which the load is lifted. which is characterized by an increase in irritability and working power.rst of these two facts is the stimulating effect of small quantities of fatigue-substances. five minutes after the injection. 170. Gruber* fatigued a muscle with an hour's work and then allowed it to rest for an hour and a half. but at the same time abrupt." ' And again. 4SISmith. And this contribution from physiology has not received sufi&dent attention from investigators of mental fatigue. vol." says Lee.. and Columbia University ' «0/i. recovery of 61 per Subsequent rest for an hour and a half produced cent. Yet there are two physiological facts which seem to deny this assumption. we may then expect. «<. May . 327. reprints. for a brief time. each substance. In another experiment the effect of * American Journal of Physiology. no further recovery. Let us now turn to the second physiological fact to which reference has been made. 1907-1909. If this stimulating effect of a moderate amount of fatigue-substances shall be found true also of mental activity. "If present in small quantity. was a further. p."* This has been demonstrated only for muscle. Then adrenalin was injected. The fi. but the assimiption that it is also true of mental activity is a possibility which cannot. * Charies M. vol. as Bayliss says: "It appears that the presence of a small quantity of products of activity is favorable. p. and the effect.

vol. p. W. Cannon and Henry Lyman. . of "It in is some way. and W." quite conclusive. Is there any arrangement in the body by which adrenalin is supplied and made to serve the same purpose during life ? Experiments have answered this question in the affirmative. Journal of Physiology. The suprarenal capsules are glands. requiring five minutes or less to produce its effect on the threshold" [of fa. Cannon. Journal of Biological Chemistry. The inquiry arises at once then. "In that length of time. Denis. causes a rapid recovery neutralizing. p. Otto Folin. upon the nervous elements or on the region of the neuromuscular imion cannot be denied. situated above the kidneys. 354. R. > ^ W. "that adrenalin. The question whether this is done by transforming. American Journal of Physiology. however. . 44. showing a recovery of 62 per cent. Gruber proved that the effect of adrenalin is a counteraction of fatigue by determining the threshold stimulus for muscle and nerve-muscle in non-fatigued animals before and after He found that in the case of noninjecting adrenalin. That the action may be on the muscle itself has been definitely shown in this" [Gruber's] "paper. 400. p." * The experiments just quoted show that adrenalin injected into fatigued muscle has a remarkable recuperative effect." says Gruber. to which the name adrenalin has been given. result in lowering in fatigued muscle marked contrast with the pronounced and prompt by this agent. in some cases. vol.. it reduces the threshold to normal. . 477. whereas rest would require fifteen - minutes to two hours. B. T. Investigations^ have demonstrated that artificial Op. normal irritability of muscle after fatigue.192 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK after an hour's work. "a adrenalin. vol. 376. its effect. Elliott. Adrenalin acts quickly. This secretion passes into the blood. tigue]. p. 31. which secrete a substance. fatigued muscle there was no lowering of the threshold. B. was substantially the same. 13. or destroying the fatigue toxins is still obscure. cit.

Hunger. and the brain. vol. American Journal of Physiology. 33. 191S. by increasing the arterial blood-pressure and so cleansing the working muscles with fresh blood. p. adrenalin. Gruber.89. 221. and Rage. 132/. is a mechanism by which the adrenal glands can be made to discharge their secretion into the blood. Now It would clear away the waste and fatigue products. p.' that increased arterial pressure would be highly serviceable to animals in times of stress. Here. 2 Charles M. Cannon and L. Later init of increased blood-flow through excitation of the splanchnic nerve. vol. 32. 33S. vol. that the recovery of muscle proved. then. but in addition. as Cannon has indicated. secreted by the adrenal glands and passed into the blood. which acts specifically upon muscles. does this work out in fife? It is clear. . and as a result the adrenalin in the blood is increased. Bodily Changes in Pain.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 193 stimulation of the splanchnic nerves increases this secretory activity. first. 44. pp. ' Walter B. as to whether this explanation vestigation^ verified this effect was sufficient. however. B. "The heart. in part to a specific action of adrenaSplanchnic stimulation is thus seen to promote recovery of muscle from fatigue and increase its action in two ways. p. are in times of • W. 34. then. with artificial stimulation of the splanchnic nerve. Several years ago. does this and more. The investigators raised the question. Cannon. and vol. P. and second. Nice. restoring their working power. by liberating adrenalin." At that time a considerable part of this improvement was ascribed to the increased blood-flow resulting from splanchnic stimstimulation. ulation. as well as the skeletal muscles. American Journal of Physiology. it was observed^ that. and its strength- ened action was due lin itself. 32. B. How. the lungs. a muscle did "for a short period 80 per cent more work than before splanchnic and for a considerably longer period exhibited an intermediate betterment of its efficiency. Fear.

44.194 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK excitement abundantly supplied with blood taken from organs of less importance in critical moments. of course. and there is some evidence for this. and Elliott ^ observed that no greater excitement is needed in animals than the strangeness of new quarters to induce a greater discharge of adrenalin into the blood. muscular removing the fatigue products. a possible explanation for the failure to observe fatigue in school children? know that they are to be tested for something. stranger comes into the school to give the tests. Consequently. Have we not sters here. R. of class The youngThe Perhaps a conditions situation routine are changed. p. Elliott. nervous elements . Further. there is no doubt that the increased arterial pressure flushes the . . T. . vol. and ' this is itself invigorating. It is new quarters for One who has given unknows well how alert and animated also a matter of common ex- perience that the fatigue of adults often vanishes in even mild excitement. We know sure. This has clearly been demonstrated in a cat placed near a barking dog." If the blood circulation of the brain is controlled by the autonomic system. Adrenal secretion is known to be increased during strong emotions. but as Gruber has said: "Its effect upon caimot be denied. usual tests of any sort the children become. Journal of Physiology. then the tonic efifect of adrenalin. appears. is also operative in mental activity." It also tones up the muscles that have become fatigued through continued activity. already demonstrated in muscular fatigue. is The surely as "exciting" as the the animals that Elliott tested. 409. then. the relation of excitement to adrenal secretion is important. this that under excitement the adrenal glands secrete and as a result physical fatigue dis- To be has been proven only for mus- cular fatigue. always accompanies stress and danger. nerve-cells of the higher centres as well as the tissue. Emotional excitement.

and the second is that adrenalin secreted under excitement and passed into the blood dissipates fatigue may acting directly elements. after all. native indolence comes to the aid of children. every school must needs be equipped with an laboratory like Weichardt's antifatigue-toxin Happily. C. Yoakum in Psychological Review Monograph Supplement. . If they did all that they are told to do and did it as well as they are told they should. however. Undoubtedly." as ordinarily investigated and measured. 9. this is a very human demand. Subjects of study should not be made easy. and perhaps upon nervous Thus the condition that is sought disappears by reason of its very presence or because of the animation aroused by the attempts to find it. vol. discomfort from definite relation to fatigue. As one looks through the voluminous literature on fatigue^ one is impressed by the fact that "fatigue. and by F. by increasing arterial pressure and by upon muscles. no. whether fatigue is present in many cases. straight-backed chair. the first is that fatigue substances in small quantities are stimulating. 1915. Children fortunately are endowed with an indifference to the demands of their teachers. but their value and significance should adrenalin factory.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY There are. temporary ennui for the ' The investigations are too numerous to dte. 1909. and they refuse to be overworked. is exceedingly complex and that many times it is not fatigue that is tested but inattention and the inability to ignore sensations. but excellent bibliographies are given by C. they could do much more without fatigue than they actually accomplish if the things at which they are set appealed to them as worth while. 195 fatigue two physiological reasons why in its early stages not be discovered by the tests usually given. then. One may seriously doubt. 46. feelings. and thoughts of one sort or another which have no Sleepiness. Dockeray in the Kansas University Stience Bulletin. S. the hard. And. — be evident to those working in them.

p." The aim gives point and zest to what would otherwise be a disagreeable task. The student may be weary from his previous work. aside from the practice effect. Aimless work is soon reduced to drudgery. and it prevents the sensations. Wright noticed ^ in his investigations that "the fatigue accompanying work is not so great when the person is working under the direct stimulus of a definite aim. "to find myself tainly when feeling. as well task in hand. As a relief from ennui. p.196 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK on account of the ennui. are curves of a good many more things than fatigue. 'mentally tired. and few activities are more fatiguing.i in his analysis of this condition. The sensations of strain and the feeling of effort may be due.' The feeling of lassitude. 13. are a few illustrations from the many that might be mentioned. 547. but not fatigued. again. and this is probably another reason why experiments and tests so frequently reveal little fatigue. and staleness as thoughts of pleasanter activities. ^ W. Psychological Review. . vol. vol. 7. This is always the effect of a purpose in which one is interested. to the disagreeable monotony of the task. is quite commonly the result of lack of physical exercise. also. Curves showing the progress of work." have said. " I was con- stantly surprised. ' Psychological Review. and thoughts mentioned above from arising in the mind." says Thomdike. On at least half the occasions this seemed to be all there was. Pleasure and displeasure. as I would cer- unable to demonstrate in the feeling anything more than emotional repugnance to the idea of doing mental work. It has been observed who engage in vigorous out-of-door work or without overdoing. 35. The more that adults sports. Wright. are important factors in postponing or hastening fatigue. R. mere change is recuperative. require less sleep and accomplish more mental work without fatigue. notwithstanding the fact that he has at the same time produced an increase in the amount of work. feelings.

and Edison. Perhaps this is one reason for the prodigious and at the same time unimpairing work of von Humboldt. clear that disagreeable. the less likely is the mental condition commonly regarded as fatigue to appear.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY immediate and direct the aim and the more it 197 concerns the present interests of the worker. It is not unlikely that the freer blood-circulation feeling attending the exhilaration of plea- and the buoyant sure carries in the is away these toxic products more sluggish condition of ennui. the difference in the effect of pleasant lie in the rapidity with and dreary work would seem to which they are disposed of or elimi- nated. Such men are fortunate enough to have found work in which they could engage with unmitigated joy. it monotonous work fatigues and wears one out more quickly than pleasant occupations. Mommsen. . Since we may suppose that toxic products are always produced by continuous physical or mental activity. more rapidly than At all events.

" The advertisement then went on to inform the readers where they might purchase a memory system with which they could remember five thousand facts. It does not piling come from merely does thinking occur. Information is of value only to the extent to which it enters into one's thinking. Not even when the facts are put together in some sort of order. but thinking is directed toward a definite end. The is first problem in connection with memory. process. for facts that are applied are retained. is not a mechanical up facts. indiscreet long ago one of our leading monthly magazines A man with wild despair pic- tured in his face was tearing his dishevelled hair in a most manner. to a large extent. Memory of so much information as can be used will then take care of itself.CHAPTER VI CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY Not exhibited a tragic scene. The success of such advertisements in selling the lessons indicates that remembering is. It is the raw material out of which thoughts are thinking. like solving a problem or reaching a conclusion. and under the picture were emblazoned the portentous words. therefore. At its lowest terms thinking requires selection of mate198 ." and that people commonly regard information as the most important factor in memory and inteUigence. may An artistic arrangement of facts produce day-dreams. after the manner of the bricks that make a house. But we have seen. to to learn how make use of facts. "I forgot. But what should we do with five thousand isolated facts if we had them? We all have many more now than we are able to use. made. a "lost art.

among is other things. and perhaps could not be. Again. only certain facts from among those actually conserved in memory are desired at any given moment. In this way facj. 199 with reference to its service in promoting a reasonable conclusion. Consequently. understanding an event requires for its interpretation Uie aid of all available infor- mation.CURIOSITIES OF rial MEMORY significance. ber. fre- nificance of the event understood. however.s is acquire meaning and the sigThis. Mere facts have no Only as they have meaning in relation to other facts do they gain importance. This is not true. of course. analyzed. but when he needs the details selection begins. They are the "impressions" left in memory. remember the conclusion reached without recalling calls for extensive the details leading to the conclusion. The use of the material of knowledge and its accurate recall are two very different matters. Information from the standpoint of memory is of two kinds: That which we need so constantly that it must be kept "in mind. then. "Intuitions" are another illustration. selection of material is always for a definite purpose. as we shall see if we go a little further. To a large extent they are the residua of experiences which were not. A . One may. Efficiency requires. quently knowledge and seems to imply that everything which one finds in the course of one's study and reading should be remembered. It as important to forget as to mind be rememis But we must forget the right things. but not recognized as facts of personal experiences. for example." and that which we may look up as occaSome things should not be remembered. Here where lawyer should remember the trend of important court decisions. Their source is much the same sort of submerged all memories as some of the more spectacular instances to which reference will be made in this chapter. that the not overloaded. Evidently. sion arises. But let us go a little further in our consideration of the use of memory.

is that this selection be a thoughtful act and not left to chance. So far as could be observed no system was followed in arranging the hats on the rack. or involuntary. —spontaneous. to describe briefly a few of these singular phe- nomena to show that these conserved experiences. as is so frequently the case. Again. The Story of My Life. a system itself would have been an exceedingly difficult feat of memory. may profoundly affect our thinking and acting. Yet he did not make a as he single mistake in distributing the hats. however. This interest A boy can may tell be you at once the record of national baseball-clubs and the batting average of the individual players. every-day life. What one should remember is a matter of judgment. pp. since the guests did not come out in the order in which they entered. We do not recall the events. and only a few of the diningtables could be seen by the attendant. 63-69. Helen Keller has reported * an incident in her life which of ' memory. Even when we do they may not be connected in our minds as causal factors of our actions. The writer once watched a young negro take the hats of over two hundred strangers as they entered the dining-room of a large hotel. facts. Interest is usually said to be the determining factor in shall deciding racial what one remember. even though we are liot conscious of them. . ences are conserved than many more expericome into conscious memory under any circumstances of normal. The purpose in the present chapter is. first. The important thing. second. Indeed. and. to the rack and got the Many however. Sometimes these conserved experiences affect our behavior without our being aware either of the experiences or of their influence. indicate that interest It is clear that is only a partial explanation. this interest may be acquired from the necessities of a situation.200 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK he knows where to find them. As soon saw a man approaching he went at once right hat.

it is my story. . feeling as if I were walking on air. . Some one asked me if I had read it to have the pronunciation corrected. . "I thought then. had appeared before I was born in a book called Birdie and His Friends. . My . and I recall now vividly the pleasure I felt in the* more beautiful passages. "that I was 'making up a story.' "Accordingly. in one of the Perkins Institution reports. . Anagnos was published it delighted with The Frost King.' as children say. I felt a sense of joy in the composition. "When the story was finished I read it to my teacher. and my annoyance at being interrupted At dinner it was read to the assembled family. title from Autumn Leaves to The Frost King. I had been in Boston only a short time when it was discovered that a story similar to The Frost King. I eagerly sat down from me. . which I did. . I copied the story and sent it to him for It was suggested that I should change the his birthday. called The Frost Fairies. but when I did The two — . for I had not the faintest recollection of having had it read to me. I spoke up and said: 'Oh. Anagnos. no." she says. in a book. who were surprised that I could write so well. question surprised me very much. and to write it before the ideas should slip thoughts flowed easily. I carried the little story to the post-office myself. and . At about the age of twelve Miss Keller wrote a Uttle story which she called Autumn Leaves. stories were so much alike in thought and language that it was evident Miss Canby's story had been read to me.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 201 shows the indelible record that experience may write upon the mind and its irresistible though unconscious influence. and that mine was a plagiarism. "Mr. It was difficult to make me understand this. Canby. and as I thought out sentence after sentence I wrote them on my Braille slate. and I have "The written it for Mr. Words and images came tripping to my finger ends. by Miss Margaret T.

Mrs. . and although the matter carefully. Hopkins had a copy of Miss Canby's Birdie and His Friends in 1888. but I could remember nothing except the common reference to Jack Frost and a poem for children. how could it possibly have happened ? I racked my brain until I was weary to recall anything about the frost that I had read before I wrote The Frost King. . .202 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK understand I was astonished and grieved. and I knew I had not used that in my composition. but she has told me that at that time. though for a long time no one knew it. • Miss Keller's teaches . with the intention of having my teacher explain them when she returned. yet she felt sure that Birdie and His Friends was one of them. . Hopkins was unable to find her copy. tance of Doctor Alexander Graham it Bell she investigated came out that Mrs. the lan- guage was inefifaceably stamped upon my brain. least of all myself. Sophia C. yet I cannot help thinking that I made a great effort to remember the words. . "I have read The Frost Fairies since. I had brought suspicion upon those I loved best. and at last she could not remember reading The Frost Fairies any more than I. but the mere spelling of the strange words was sufficient to amuse a Httle child who could do almost nothing to amuse herself. also the letters I wrote in which I used other ideas of Miss Canby's. And yet. I find . the year that we spent the simimer with her at Brewster. I had disgraced myself. she had tried to amuse me by reading from various books. while Miss Sullivan was away on a vacation. "The stories had little or no meaning for me then. One thing is certain. "Miss Sullivan* or of* the book in which had never heard of The Frost Fairies With the assisit was pubKshed. and although I do not recall a single circumstance connected with the reading of the stories. No child ever drank deeper of the cup of bitterness than I did. The Freaks of the Frost.

and Themistocles could address oy name 21. This is probably not is . Cyrus and Caesar knew the names of all the soldiers \ii their respective armies. But. the memorial achievements of these men. At the time. like many others. but at any rate they indicate that these men possessed remarkable memories.000 Athenian citizens. said to have been able to repeat in exact order 2. the source of which we are often unable to discover. and this letter." Evidently. I was writing The Frost King. Miss Keller's experience reveals undreamed-of possibilities for indirect and incidental training of literary style and for imparting ideas and incentives to action. that everything sometimes made that no experience is which one hears or sees conserved as potential memories. Anagnos. Past thoughts which return to mind —old friends yet unrecognized—exert a pro- found influence upon belief and conduct. incentives which are. there is a good deal of evidence to show that the voluntary most people is hardly one-half efficient. dated September words and sentiments exactly like those of the book. MEMORY 203 Mr. This is one phase of what is called experience. not so strong to-day. The personal factor. There were. and they reveal possibihties which may be approximated if not fully atof long-distance connections. a letter to 29. Probably these stories exaggerate the facts. was probably exceptional. tained. while "forgotten" experiences at times play a leading r61e in mental development. of course. doubtless. loomed larger than in this day of memory Seneca is Nevertheless. perhaps.000 disconnected words which he had heard spoken but once. the mind absorbs vastly more from reading and conversation than has been supposed. The statement is ir-'etrievably lost. We grow unconsciously into opinions. contains phrases which show that my mind was saturated with the story.CURIOSITIES OF in one of them. as is usual after men have become famous. 1891. even after the proper discount has been made.

in very pompous tones and with most distinct enimciation. Sheets full of her ravings were taken down from her own mouth. of course. some years. yet that very . made concerning the pastor's habits. . . A year or two before Coleridge's arrival at Gottingen something happened which "had not then ceased to be a frequent subject of conversation" in the town. He. who could neither read nor write. according to the statements of all the priests and monks of the neighborhood. . at length. and. reported. .204 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK much more remarkable instances are cited which indicate is conserved than is commonly supColeridge has related a case which. she became possessed. coherent and intelligible each for itself. . as She continued incesit appeared. Not only had the young woman ever been a harmless. . and by his statement many eminent physiolotrue. succeeded in discovering the place where her parents had lived and" [learned from an uncle] "that the patient had been charitably taken by an old Protestant pastor at nine years" [of age]. by a very learned devil. "'and had remained with him Anxious inquiries were then. For it appeared that . The young physician determined to trace her past life step by step. is one of the most remarkable of which we have any knowledge. if correctly posed. the remainder seemed to be in the Rabbinical dialect. . . . and were found to consist of sentences. but with little or no connection with each other. . simple creature. but she was evidently laboring under a nervous fever. . . Greek. santly talking Latin. gists . Of the Hebrew. and Hebrew. The case had attracted the particular attention of a yoimg physician. during which. "A young woman of four or five and twenty. a small portion only could be traced to the Bible. All trick or conspiracy was out of the question. and the solution of the phenomenon was soon obtained. . was seized with a nervous fever. and psychologists had visited the town and crossexamined the" [persons] "on the spot.

." he 1 BibUographia Literaria. together with several of the Greek and Latin fathers. As we shall soon see. . At such times no cause can be assigned except the favorable mental attitude. in impressions repeated. and to read to himself with a loud voice out of his favorite books. had been the old man's custom . and the physician succeeded in identifjdng so many passages with those taken down at the young woman's bedside. Among the books were found a of his house into . according to Coleridge.CURIOSITIES OF it MEMORY for years to 205 down a passage walk up and which the kitchen-door opened. is that the woman could not have imderstood any of the sentences which she heard and afterward. but the facts seem to justify some such Sometimes no reason for the description of the process. if correctly reported. Analogies are always imperfect. that no doubt could remain any rational mind concerning the true origin of the made on her nervous system. Under memories certain unusual conditions a flood of "forgotten" may sweep through our mind. vol. stupendous burst of memories can be discovered beyond the impressiveness of the moment. and some of them have been long Such an forgotten. "The course of those thoughts I can even now in a great measure retrace. in the ordinary acceptance of the word. Apparently a channel must be cut into the series of submerged experiences to give the flow an. New York. experience of Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beauford is related by Harriet Martineau. collection of Rabbinical writings." * One of the amazing features of this case. During the brief period in which he was sinking for the third time it seemed as if every event of his past life was reviewed. 234-23$. the events of one's past life sometimes rush with incredible swiftness and accuracy through the mind. outlet. the channels are nervous paths. pp. When one is drowning. I. for example. Many of these details have not been recalled for years. Then some connection with the present mental content is needed. 1847.

my school. and even all my boyish pursuits and adventures. however. the manner in which he would disclose it to the rest of the family. If it continued until he was restored to consciousness it lasted twenty minutes. and a thousand other circumstances minutely associated with home. In some ways it is a striking picture of the mind at its best.2o6 told PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Miss Martineau. in which "lost" memories may disclose themselves. in mere outline. There were filial and moral reflections. cause and effect. the whole period of my existence seemed to be placed before me in a kind of panoramic review. . however. the bustle it must have occasioned. trails Not infrequently uiose ac- customed to follow > through dense W'ssds are unable Biographical Sketches. and the time I had misspent. There are other ways. and each act of it seemed to be accompanied by a consciousness of right or wrong. It will be observed that something more than a biographical review was given." i Admiral Beauford was convinced that this extensive and detailed review lasted only during submersion. and imtrammelled by the restraints and inhibitions of normal. "The event which had just taken awkwardness which had produced it. In that case it was completed in about two minutes. many trifling events which had been long forgotten then crowded into my imagination. 1870. as here stated. indeed. were the place. not. Thus travelling backward. or by some reflection on its cause or its consequences. London. but the picture filled up with every minute and collateral feature. the of reflections that occurred. a former voyage and shipwreck. the effect it would have on a most affectionate father. judging motives. In short. Then they took a wider range: our last cruise. the progress I had made there. and with the character of recent familfirst series iarity. conscious thinking. 219/. pp. every past incident of my hfe seemed to glance across my recollection in retrograde succession.

She at once informed him that. "Several years ago. the journey is a continuous succession of familiar objects and vistas. now rector of Bethnal Green. in Sussex. Wilham B. and while there he one day went over with a party of friends to Pevensey Castle. Yet. being in that part of the coimtry when he was about eighteen months old. in reproduced as a vision. But more striking instances are sometimes observed. she had gone over with a large party. and people on the top of it. that the elders of the party having hood's experience all its details. several years later. . His conviction that he must have visited the castle on some former occasion although he had neither the slightest remembrance of such a visit nor any knowledge of having been in the neighborhood before going to Hiirstmonceaux made him inquire from his mother whether she could throw any light on the matter. Later. As he approached the gateway he became conscious of a very vivid impression of having seen it before. and he 'seemed to himself to see' not only the gateway itself but donkeys beneath the arch. when they again set out upon the same trip." says Carpenter. Here half a dozen trails cross. but a stone or tree. where they would have been seen from below. and had taken him in the pannier of a donkey. or some other familiar object. is — — brought lunch with them had eaten it on the roof of the gateway. was doing clerical duty for a time at Hurstmonceaux. the entire scene. Hansard. Carpenter has given an interesting case which shows how experiences of childhood may be impressed and conserved though the "memory" reveals nothing of them. when a part of the same childis again witnessed.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 207 to recall the paths or direction that they took to reach their destination. "the Reverend S. though so far as the traveller is aware he gave no imusual attention to these landmarks when he first took the trip. indicates the route. which he did not remember ever to have previously visited.

a red and a Principles of Mental Physiology. When Miss X. Doctor Morton Prince has described two experiments in The subject was a young woman. Aside from the apparent accuracy of tie reports. They did not while he had been belong with his personal memories. they are made plausible through the reproduction of forgotten events by automatic writing." Evidently. who at the time was one of Doctor Prince's patients. of the occurrence.' disturbed because she had absent- mindedly torn up two ten-dollar bills and thrown the pieces away. At another time. was a trivial incident of too httle importance for volimtary recall. looked into the bulb. by William B. Carpenter. 21. vol. These latter cases reveal possibilities of conservation and reproduction of experiences hitherto hardly fancied even We cite a few in the most reckless imaginative literature." Brain. including its Afterward. and hid the remainder of her money under the table-cloth.'' to her. ' » . and hypnosis. Some of these facts of memory seem incredible. 431. Hansard's experiences. Under hypnosis she repeated the description time and place. instances for illustration. with the addition of further details. she saw and described a scene which had no place in her memory. she arose in her sleep. who had not been hypnotized. impressions were so deeply made as to be preserved through long years of forgetfulness.2o8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK left ^ on the ground with the attendanis and donkeys. p. however. was substituted. and hence had no meaning crystal vision. She also placed two books. shortly after discovering her loss. A glass ball such as is conunonly used not being at hand. 'Ibid. even at this early age. crystal vision. she recalled the event. 528. and when they reappeared they had no place in Mr. discoimected from the wires. " An Experimental Study of Vision. p. an ordinary electric-light bulb. on carefully going over It the events of that period.

over the place of its concealment. She then saw herself get up. reported on her next visit that she had foimd the money where she had seen it in the globe. but he meanwhile had learned of it while she was under the influence of hypnosis. For. going to the table. 1917. then she saw herself going to the bureau drawer. perhaps. or seen ^which have left their record in just the same way as do ordinary memories.— CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 209 green one. heard. . merely a device which have not recently been active. this reason artificial means of stimulating " ' For the latest investigation of several of the occult " phenomena. see Psychical Research Monographs. covering it with the cloth and putting the red Miss X book and the green book on the top of it. they have never acted in connection with the event that furnishes the motive for the effort to revive them. taking up the table-cloth with the books. i. The writer hastens to add that there is not the slightest evidence for an occult explanation of crystal vision or of automatic writing. " She looked into the globe and saw herself. indeed. The difference between the two lies in the difficulty of recall in the case of so-called "forgotten" — memories. Stanford University. in bed in her room. putting the money on the table. her eyes being closed. The glass ball also aids in concentrating attention and produces hallucinatory visions that start associative processes which may awaken forgotten memories. think of her money. she was greatly distressed. since it was all she had. unable to find this money. The next day. She said nothing to Doctor Prince about her loss. and she would learn what had become of it. vol. .^ These ball used in such experiments is The glass for stimulating suggestions that arouse associations revived memories are memories of actual experiences things that the person has done." — — . taking out her money. . and walk up and down the room. as she afterward found. Without disclosing his knowledge he handed her the electric bulb she was not hypnotized at the time told her to look into it.

the suggestion. after repeated failures. the grammatical construction is less strict than in classical writers. or at least very 'late'. Verrall says. and English were at times mixed. especially of the Latin. the vocabulary is larger. familiar. and in the case of the Latin the whole turn of phraseology is often mediaeval. embracing words unknown to me. especially pp. W. but "I have hardly ever made a pun in my life. is that the language used one in which the writer habitually expresses himself. yet "I am no poet. Verrall's automatic writing was that it wrote Greek and English verse." Again.' Latin. Verrall. and a crystal or electric-light revival bulb serves this purpose. became interested in automatic writing and." An interesting feature about some of Mrs.2IO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK must be employed. some of her automatic script was replete with puns. though often tolerably obvious in meaning and correctly formed. a teacher of Latin and Greek in England. 276/- . Even when she was acquainted with the quotations if they were rarely. ever. and is certainly not the language of the classical writers known to me." These quotations are not always strictly accurate. "and I have great difficulty in producing even a short set of verses in English." she says. 20. the mistakes are frequent. Greek. and here again the resemblance to the defects of ordinary memory is evident. A. A few years ago Mrs. as might be expected of an Englishwomaai fairly conversant with the ancient languages." Mrs. is ^Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. acquired considerable proficiency. "at once more fluent and more faulty than my own. in fact. Her automatic composition is replete with selections which she had "forgotten. 1906. those with which she was most "The Latin and the Greek of the script are. and often of a type quite unlikely to be made by myself. In her pubKshed experiments. Let us now turn to another sort of device for recovering lost memories. vol." she continues.

lost memories were recovered. and then it becomes no more mysterious than ordinary retention.cts of memory. that our eye frequently nms over pages of a newspaper. One. perhaps much. Verrall's automatic Latin composition suggests two interesting observations. or upon which her eye had incidentally fallen. VerraU had read years before. among these re- . about which. But it is otherwise with the automatic script. and. Much of the material she was unable to account for at the time of the writing. does not explain the phenomenon of automatic writing. she afterward discovered in a roundabout way that she had read a book containing some of of years before they were reproduced through automatic writing. was due. It is well known. we may find months or years later that some of it. Another tale. the Garden of the Hesperides. second. which she had read twenty-five years before and had not seen since. however. First. to another literary reminiscence not recognized till much later. but it brings it into line with other more common fa." Further. by the automatic device.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 211 "I do not easily see analogies between words. no one can pretend to very definite knowledge. returns to memory with amazing accuracy. as she was convinced. Verrall wrote stories and tales. but diligent search supplied the source in a number of these cases. to be sure. and. them a niunber though we read little or nothing. Mrs. and I am seldom amused by comic puns. since her compositions were largely composed of selections long forgotten. fulness. The present writer admits quite freely that finding the data of the automatic productions. if not with complete Mrs. and especially of punning upon names. in tales and in other material which Mrs. she felt quite certain. and then she remembered having previously seen it. was reminiscent of the first Idyll of Theocritus. Though she did not remember the refer- ences at the time. It is fond of punning.

and a great many details were given about these and other personages of the time. There are also other ways in which forgotten experiences may be recovered. Verrall's forgotten forms.212 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK vived memories were passages with a noticeable resemblance to mediaeval Latin. Miss C. though many of them were such as apparently it would not have been easy to ascertain without considerable historical research. who lived in the time of Richard the Second. were found on examination to be correct. Mrs. and many English abstract words came to us from the schoolmen through the medium of late mediaeval Latin. p. The subject. Verrall was not accustomed to use these language forms and structures a new element other than memory seems to be introduced. G. 1905-1906. "purported to meet a certain lady. 287. Verrall's revived memories. with which she was not wholly imacquainted. Miss C. . appears to be as follows: mediaeval Latin has a larger vocabulary of abstract terms than has classical Latin. The explanation. 12. without the restraint of conscious selection of words. This lady was described as a friend of the Earl and Coimtess of Salisbury. the details given in connection with them. Lowes Dickinson has reported* an instructive case of recall through hypnotism. A found in memories to be expressed in mediaeval might be expected is the Latin expressions commonly used by college bit of evidence that this students. As Mrs. took the line of least resistance ^mediaeval Latin. Blanche Poynings. The personages referred to. Early college Latin compositions are likely to be literal translations of English abstract words into the Latin from which they were derived and for this reason they resemble the mediaeval rather than the classical. and about the manners and customs of that age. It would therefore be quite natural for Mrs. Mr. and especially the genealogical data. vol. and could not recall reading any — 'Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. In other words. however. had not studied the period.

Miss C. by a very circuitous route. however. received communications purporting to come from Blanche PojTiings. "but she could not remember that it had anything to do with Blanche Po3Tiings. Miss C.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 213 book bearing upon it other than a novel called John Standish. A. which she coloring now recalls. which finally. gave the name of a book by E. C. the source on which she had unconsciously drawn was discovered through a planchette. Doctor Morton Prince gives the following instance which he himself observed: "I asked B. which has been examined and foimd not to contain the information she had given. and with whom she had been conversing for perhaps some twenty minutes. She was unable to do so beyond sa)dng that he wore dark clothes. gave was conThis was exceedingly dull. is the prerequibut even observation. and after much evasion. Ultimately." Accurate observation. I then found that I myself was unable to give a more detailed descrip- . that a good deal of information must have been left in her mind while she was simply turning of the information Much tained in the appendix. over the leaves in the process. as being the book in which she. however. So it is highly improbable that she read it at eleven years of age or that her axmt should have read it to her. entitled The Countess Maud. "It would seem. of some of the illustrations." which Miss C. then remembered that there was such a book and that it had been read to her" [when she was eleven years old]. does not seem to be always necessary for impressing and conserving facts and details. therefore. it is usually said. or with the other characters as to whom she had given information. writing with the planchette. (without warning and after havsite for recall. contain On all of examination. the book proved to the personages and facts she had given. ing covered her eyes) to describe the dress of a friend who was present. Holt. Blanche. and the other people referred to would be found. as we ordinarily use the word.

S3~S4- . cases such as have been given could be multiplied to fill a voliune. It is not uncommon for the sight of a childhood acquaintance to bring to mind a succession of memories which have not been recalled for fifty years. shirt with three little stripes in it." Were it the intention of the author to write a "Wonder Book" on memory. pp.^ 214 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK we had lunched and been toB. Her hand wrote as was unaware that her hand was writing): 'He has on a dark greenish-gray suit. ' The Unconscious. Later in life he forgot the language so completely as to be unable to recall lost to writer. and had to count their coat. Another illustration of the renewal of associations long voluntary control was recently related to the A friend says that her brother spoke Spanish almost exclusively when a young child. Indeed. under the conditions. three buttons on his coat. I had not no- ticed his teeth or the loss of a finger. black bow-cravat. the buttons to partial make sure of their number. I am sure. A. false teeth. C. has been to show the almost incredible extent to which one's experiences may be conserved. The purpose thus far. black laced shoes. however. owing to concealment by the folds of the unbuttoned The shoe-strings. The were almost invisible. is no more enigmatical than their recovery in less spectacular instances. follows (she write a description automatically. a stripe in it a little rough stripe. The release of submerged memories in such cases. although gether about two hours. one finger gone. however.' — "The stripes in the coat written description was absolutely correct. The instances which have been quoted are so amazing that the credulous are inclined to seek at once for an occult explanation. was then asked to tion of his dress. objects and persons wholly unconnected with the childhood events may accomplish this through a similarity so remote and obscure as to wholly elude discovery. "would have escaped nearly every one's observation.

own may occur in automatic writing. stand agape. and hypnotism. and the sensational cases at which the uncritical. he frequently talked intelligibly in the language.CURIOSITIES OF voluntarily MEMORY Yet. however. AU that we can hope to do is to get a picture of one of the possible explanations for these singular phenomena. It is also clear that to be remembered. who are seeking supernatural causes. This record must also be preserved and. when sleeping. experiences must be registered in some way. automatic writing. crystal vision. Let us now try to find an explanation for the loss of memories and their occasional recovery through the strange ways of crystal vision. feeling of familiarity transform an imagined event into experience memory? Recall of events without the knowledge that they have been a part of one's call. Recognition we have had is the experience before — —the assurance that not essential. depends upon in hypnosis. however. that our attempt must be speculative and can yield at best only a working h)^othesis. ^is This when what is recalled is to be recognized as a phase of one's own past life. that you "recall" an event and are uncertain whether you actually experienced it. but Does the corroboration of its later find that you did. finally. however. Rewith or without recognition. Suppose. that a distinction may be made between it and imaginanecessary only tion. It should be emphasized. and . In searching to for our explanation no argument is needed show that ideas which have passed from mind return under suitable conditions. If these less and extensively unusual instances do not explain the illusory more spectacular. it must be possible to reproduce it. Psychological textbooks include recognition in their definition of memory. they at least bridge the chasm between retention and recall of every-day life. 215 more than a few isolated •words. and the ex ceptional manifestations are thus removed from the realm of the occult.

neurones become organized into functionally united systems. nerve continuously undergoes chenaical changes and that nervous irritability is directly connected with a chenucal To phenomenon. what is it that is retained? imderstand this it must be remembered that every mental process is accompanied by a physiological process When we have an experience of any sort a in the brain. and which consequently conserves whatever record of the experience remains after it has passed. Through this concomitant activity of mental and physiological processes. it should also be noted that neurones correlated. 32. and by the correlation of sets of neurones through association. with past experiences are re-aroused by the excitation of associated nervous processes. The American Journal of Physiology. A functionally united system of neurones is a group which has been active during an experience." that "stimulation increases CO2 production. thoughts." are ^ In appljTng to memory the theory that mental processes always accompanied by physiological processes. nevertheless. 107. p. is The action and interaction among their cells the physical basis and physiological accompaniment of the experience in which they originally participated. since this something cannot be the ideas. change is produced in the cerebral neurones. off a definite quantity of carbon dioxide.2i6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK But ideas which have passed out of mind are not retained as ideas. Retention. ' These Shiro Tashiro. These systems of neurones are distinct from other groups only in the functional sense. the questions at once arise: Where does retentioii take place. and association. and. and feelings themselves. vol. impKes something to be retained." and that "CO2 production from the resting nerve proportionally decreases as irritaThese facts prove directly that the bility diminishes. There are indications that one of these changes is of a chemical naInvestigation has shown that "a resting nerve gives ture. . through activity.

and this larger connection constitutes the unity of the miad—of the "self. The truth of this frequently seen in daily a thing as a pencil will suddenly call to mind where one laid some notes for which one has spent weeks hunting. whether produced by hypnotism. makes e. of associative processes. is some- times necessary. the thoughts follow. of association of ideas. This is lem of recall. my The functional connection of these systems of neurones with one another. with amazing accuracy and fulness. like crystal vision or An hypnotism. automatic writing." It i. is to start the associations which is will desired memlife. The mental attitude has much to do with success or failure. crystal vision. The problem. and we see here that it is also the problem These fimctionally united systems of neurones cannot always be aroused voluntarily. But the the prob- trouble is to break through the barrier. If they were they could be made active only from within themselves. since certain facts which cannot be recalled in one stage of hypnosis may be brought back in another stage. however. They are in physiological connection with one another. And this . is not as intimate as their connections within themselves. artificial device. or by voluntary effort. however. is always the outcome ories. Recall. Experiments in h)^notism seem to support the view that there are groups of functionally united neurones. sight of so insignificant The Not infrequently the writer is unable to recall such thoughts even with the aid of the notes made at the time. This experience of breaking through obstructions is at times observed in the normal mental state when one tries to recover a line of thought. awaken the then.. each thought and experience a personal matter experience. But once the cue is found. one after the other. Once a system is broken into by its associative connection with the processes of another system it yields a flood of memories.— CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 217 systems of neurones are not wholly independent of one another.

after looking at various articles and thinking certain thoughts and making certain remarks. This method of recall resembles a condition which Doctor Morton Prince calls "abstraction. the money. by sitting attention upon some phase of the and giving free rein to the interaction of associa- Critical examination of float of memories that any portion of the stream through the mind at this time in- hibits the flow. etc.. of going to a certain shop. fixing his subject. the checks. giving a certain piece of made money and receiving the change in coin of certain denominations. the writer has succeeded in recalling details which refused to yield to voluntary effort." By way of illustration he tells of a young woman. and the authors had been made. "In abstraction she remembered with great vividness every detail at the bank-teller's window. if not. then there came memories of seating herself at a table in the bank. attitude includes. ble. where she placed her gloves. a university student. of placing her umbrella here. if possi- then through the imagination. who had lost some money which she wished to recover. citations The writer has recalled the place of mislaid of books from which at his desk.. of absent-mindedly forgetting her gloves and leaving them on the table. then of going to another shop and similal . physically.2i8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK among other things. The play of associations in this case is promoted by putting oneself in the place in which the event occurred. the marginal as and thoughts. purse. etc. well as the focal nervous activity Severe effort to recall by force of "will" is not always Not infrequently by relaxing the bodily muscles and fixing the attention upon an event connected the best method. she finally certain purchases. and umbrella. and doing other things. with what he desired to recall and allowing associations free play. tions. monographs. her purse there. where. of writing a letter. of seeing in her purse the exact denominations of the coins which remained.

change completely when they find themselves on the spot.CURIOSITIES OF experiences. to answer the first of the e. writing on the investigation of crime. some change also takes place in the nerves themselves. or when there are several actors in the same. At any rate. accessory details and subsequentiy some most important facts. "when. of . "We especially recommend this procedure in by commentators on complicated transactions. therefore. 76. Quite likely. says^ that the best way to help a witness to remember accurately is to place him in the same circumstances as existed when he experienced the events. produced in the nerve-cells as the result an experience. reduce the physiological reThe tendency is. 25-26. . and the part played by each must be . C. translated by J. Gross. . Following this course. the order of events is important. and these changes. determined. looking into it. for example. we often obtain the most astonishing results. the increased permeability. ." * Recall of forgotten details when imder the influence of the conditions of the original experience has been noted criminal jurisprudence. Then she found one of the five-dollar gold pieces gone. p. certain nervous pathways become more permeable because of the experience. toward the re-arousal of the cerebral activity that occurred ' * The Unconscious. two ques- tions asked above." We The are now ready i. and J. A permanentiy altered nervous disposition is established. they recall first the . by Hans Gross. MEMORY 219 of numerous details which she had Through it all ran the successive fortunes her purse until the moment came when. and the conserva- tion of these records occur in the neurones of the braui. . people who in the magistrate's chambers remember nothing. pp. forgotten. with is Some change of their activity during sistance for nervous impulses. Criminal Investigation. Adam.. Where does retention take place? registration of ideas or experiences." he says.

p. Unfortunately.— 220 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK during the original experience when any of these neurones are excited through their associative connections. with little or no intelligible meaning. Archives de Physiologie. Die Mneme. 1904. 6. based on changes in the neurones. it is suflScient to say that memory has a physiological basis. aside from the fact that a subliminal psychological storehouse does not tally with physiological data. H. several answers his followers In answer to the second question What is retained ? have been given. Robertson. by Ewald Upon the Inheritance of Acquired Characters. 256. and from which they — s'ally forth into the realm of consciousness. For our purpose. One proof of this physical basis of memory is that injury of sensory or 'Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. by Eugenio Rignano. 388. vol. and to define the residua left in the neurones after stimulation. Personality. however. of habit. This is a repetition in terms of memory of what has already been said of mental processes in general. these followers could not interpret Myers' blazes. by Richard Semon." by T. Harvey. The result was a repetition of his words. translated by B. igii. 1896. The view which satisfies the psychological and physiological requirements is. RetenIt is the cortical law tion is a property of neural tissue. 4. W. and they would surely get mixed up while in cold storage. C. There would not be shelves enough to hold the countless niunber of ideas. and is primarily dependent upon processes which go on in the cortex. p. vol. Myers' suggestive work at once became strikingly popular and started a host of unscientific writers along his trail. H. Myers^ and — the subliminal preserved in occasionally assume a sort of psychological repository mind in which ideas and experiences are their original form. as we have seen. B. . But. F. ' Human Hering. however. " Sur la Dynamique Chimique du SystSme Nerveux. Various theories* have been offered to account for the changes produced in the brain by experiences. memory is too extensive to be explained in this way. On Memory.

Memory is thus the mental aspect of a habitual response of nerve-centres. One of these there effects is quite certainly the establishing of functional con- nections. second question. later. then. MEMORY 221 is association areas affects memories. The record of ideas and experiences which have mind but may be recalled as memories is thus that it it fastens is upon certain impressions. and the same mental processes that accompanied the original neural activity reoccur. and there imdoubtedly . functional complexes. a repetition of processes which were active in the original experience. and. If recall is successful the same nerve-structures which participated in the original experience are again active. a disposition to react in the same way whenever these neurones are stimulated tendency. As a consequence of this activity some effect was produced upon the cerebral neurones. that the attention is selective.CURIOSITIES OF furnished as in lost. a football-game. e. to reproduce the same mental content. these functional connections facilitate the pas- sage of nervous impulses along the path traversed before. passed frorn conserved as physiological. when the recall of the original idea desired. is Then. ideas. But why is the repetition of these physiological processes so often suppressed? Why do we forget? We are accustomed to say that we forget the things to which we do not give attention.. In this way thoughts. is and that what ignores forgotten. or similar by associated nervous impulses. Further evidence by temporary amnesia from a blow on the head. If the is visual centre Now let injured visual memories are impaired or us see the bearing of these facts upon the i. a when they do act again. and by cerebral localization. What is retained as the basis of first in memory ? When mind the ideas which are to be recalled were the was an accompanying and vuiderljdng neural activity. second. The result of the change caused in neurones by an experience is. first. and experiences are repeated as memories.

and when I had use for him it was fixed in his mind ^wrong. To them I talked just as I had to Pittman. 121/. "I've been hearing a lot of fool talk about my robbing trains and going on the dodge. by Al Jennings and Will Irwin. This is October ist. He never thought to look it up at the time. experience. and clear myself. He and his gang robbed a train on the ist of October. my father. . for the robbery had occurred eighty miles away at noon of October ist. pp. " Going to the saloon of Ike Renfrew. two weeks from to-day. I'm tired of it. "Pittman. and in this way established an alibi for one of his crimes. Pittman was so excited at seeing me and hearing of my intentions that the date impressed itself on his mind only as an inconsequential detail." * Attention. and my brother John." he said. Jennings. the sheriff. The follow- — — ing from Arnold Bennett's Old Wives' Tales appeals to com- mon Paris. I've a few things to settle up first. frequently does not satisfy the requirements of an explanation for memory. "According to expectation. face the music. I'll return. during her sojourn in gave painful attention to the bitter struggle for the ^Beating Back. Sophia Scales. however. Motley was my friend. and no one thought to verify my statement of the date. And as I left his much office I repeated: a note of it this is October ist. then I'm coming in. I intend to surrender. Every one was delighted.222 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK truth in these statements. This made a perfect alibi. On the morning of the 2d of October [the following day] he walked into the office of the district attorney. and I'm coming back on the isth. Mr. getting the false date October ist ^into their minds. October 15th. I now quote from Mr. Pittman. Al Jennings tells an amusing story that shows how he forced a district attorney and several others to fix their attention upon a wrong date. Have your officers ready. I knew he wouldn't arrest me without a warrant. I got him to send "Make — — for Bob Motley.

so neat and prim. She longed to stretch her lungs in Paris. indeed. fightiug. so eager to spare your feelings and to reassure you. as she was leaving. Attention does not explain certain conditions. Freud* mentions a young physician "who timidly and reverently introduced himself to the celebrated Virchow with the following words: 'I am Doctor Virchow. p. always been convinced that 'you never knew where you were' with French trades-people. loo. . so exquisitely arranged Even a butcher's shop in Paris was a pleasure to the eye. with its associated feelings. exhausting Hfe in Paris.' The surprised professor turned to him and asked: 'Is your name also Virchow?'" The young man had evidently fixed his attention on what he would say and." To tit ' ' writer. These people in Bursley did not suspect what Paris was. Freud calls an "ambition-complex. She had always compared France disadvantageously with England. perhaps. which she remembered of old. whereas the butcher's shop in Wedgwood Street. and then said the wrong thing. ishing with what liquid tenderness she turned was "astonand looked back on that hard. Under may pro- duce confusion and cause one to say the very thing or commit the act that one is striving to avoid. the explanation seems to be the simpler one given abovo. on what he should not say.^ Psychopathology of Everyday Life. MEMORY it 223 Yet. We forget the impleasant features of a past experience and remember the pleasant things. even if she had unconsciously liked it." Curious tricks the ! — ! memory plays us. she had never enjoyed it. always resented the French temperament in business. however. Freud ascribes this error of the young ohysician to the fancied identification of himself with Virchow. not merely ia hisbut also in his own life. This suppressed thought of identification. Man is tory. so polite in their lying. And now they flitted before her endowed with a wondrous charm. and which she had glimpsed from the cab ^what a bloody shambles She longed for Paris again. always looking back to a golden age. attention the freaks of memory.CURIOSITIES OF privilege of living. And the French shops. For.

active or suppressed. Another bit of evidence indicative. for I had foimd by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from the memory than favorable ones. of the inadequacy of the attention theory as a complete explanation is that in well-organized minds memories do not owe their existence to their own content alone. 68. in the course of time. After the second marriage. The husband when of one of his friends died and." Nietzsche also noted the tendency of disagreeable thoughts to vanish from memory. they leave the door open to all sorts of emotional conflicts with a resulting repression of memories. This tendency has not ceased even after the lapse of several years. "'I have done that.' says my memory. that whenever a published fact. came across me which was opposed to my general results. . and remains inexorable. Charles Darwin." he says in his Autobiography. It is always a question of the relation of that content to other memories. with his keen. pleasant or unpleasant. Since as- be real or fancied. the widow married addressing her.' 224 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK acquaintance of the writer relates a similar instance An from Ms own experience. again. "I had during many years followed a golden rule. Viertes Hauptstuck. 'I cannot have done that. also. We recall by association. This suppression of thoughts and experiences may nullify the influence of attention. He ascribes it to his fear lest he make the mistake and to the fact that before addressing her he thinks her new name and then cautions himself against speaking that of her former husband.' says my pride. analytic mind. "namely. a new observation or thought. he continually caught himself with her former name half spoken. Finally my sociations may memory • yields. to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once. Her former name is thus imintentionally emphasized." Jenseits von Gut und Bosen. observed this tendency to forget disagreeable thoughts in himself.

pp.. . "is always an unwhich may evoke painful pression in psychic This motive vuiiversally strives for exlife. often utilize the path of faulty actions to express in some way their imdeniably existing force which is not recognized by the higher psychic tistic. . he says. . " » Op. jealous.' CURIOSITIES OF Curiosities of MEMORY 225 reference to getfulness. This is the translator's word. in the opinion of the present writer. Psychopathology of Everyday Life. of the two aspects of this unitary process. counter-force expresses the thought more correctly. and hostile feelings and impulses. painful becomes tangible.. but is inhibited through other and contrary forces from regularly manifesting itself. . abundant evidence in support of the view that forgetfulness is the result of conflict and repression. Recently Freud' has undertaken an analysis of why we forget and has found. In speaking of erroneous actions Freud continues: "The first question (as to the origin of thoughts and emotions which find expression in faulty actions) we can answer by saying that in a series of cases the origin of the disturbing thoughts can readily be traced to repressed emoEven in healthy persons. egotions of the psychic life. "The motive feelings. and in the analysis of the examples one regularly recognizes a counter-wiU^ which opposes but does not put an end to the resolution. instances" [impulses or ' ideals]. The same conflict governs the phenomena of erro. forgetfuhiess probably requires explanation rather than memory itseK." willingness to recall something . of forgetting. the supposed conflict resulting in the repression of the. as he believes. . but. memory would hardly be complete without some of the equally strange instances of forThe two are really one.. A different factor steps into the foregroxmd in the forgetting of resolutions. 331-333- y . burdened by the pressure of moral education. . . cU. ." neously carried-out actions. and.

whom two days before. 4Svol. I believe that it is due to my guilty conscience that even now I cannot retain this name knowing Freud in it at that time. imfortunately.. If a given patient is very tedious and uninteresting. cit. and was asked whether I knew who took up his teachings centuries later. p." continues same connection. 477- » American Journal of Psycheloiy." this efforts. and if a doctor telephones to ask whether I can see an interesting case at that hour I am more likely than not to tell him that I shall be free then. I am very apt to forget that I have to see him at a certain hour." what has impleasant assobeen mentioned by Doctor Ernest Jones: "In ray own Ufe." ' An instance illustrating the same tendency to forget the unpleasant has recently been reported to the writer by an acquaintance.226 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK perience: Freud gives an illustrative instance from his own ex"While taking an examination in philosophy as a minor subject I was questioned by the examiner about the teaching of Epicurus. "I have noted numerous instances of a purposeful forgetting of appointments. particularly with patients. 22. To the question how I knew this I boldly re- plied that I had taken an interest in Gassendi for a long This resulted in a certificate with a magna cum but later. I answered that it was Pierre Gassendi. I happened to hear spoken of as a follower of Epicurus. also in a persistent ten- dency to forget the name of Gassendi. Indeed. time. or on colleagues. p. latide. but stUl has a large amount of work laid out and is ' Op. This man has reached his fiftieth birthday. while in a caf6. I can recall several annoying quandaries that this habit similar tendency to forget ciations has A has led me into. . "I observed that of a great despite all ^ number of professional calls I only forgot those that I was to make on patients whom I treated gratis." he says. I had no business "In former years.

he can al^wishways be depended upon to give one a square meal to 11. 314. . Op. but there is one thing you must admit.' Of course she meant to say pills. presumably for supper. the conversation was centred on the different candidates. p. p. an ardent admirer of the Progressive candidate. I was interested to hear her say very suddenly: 'Please do not give me big bills. vol. An interesting experience is reported by A wealthy but not very generous host invited his friends an evening dance. instead. The disagreeable thought may then be imintention- ally expressed." According to Freud. the same psychological causes underlie the forgetting of proper names. As it was close to election day. they were regaled with thin sandwiches and lemonade. and as the discussion grew warmer one of the guests. remarked to his host: 'You may say what you please about Teddy. 103. To the great disappointment of most of the guests.30. "Everything went well imtil about when there was an intermission. for Even then he has of this date. cit. tact difficulty because he is always uncertain His birthday frequently passes without the coming into consciousness. The unpleasantness of this thought makes it impossible him to remember his age. there was no supper.'"* Freud also cites a similar instance from his own experi- ences: "While writing a prescription for a woman who was especially weighted down by the financial burden of her treatment. because I cannot ^ swallow them. When required to give it he must invariably figure it out from the year of his birth.. and the recalling of trivial. This tendency to repress unconsciously the unpleasant sometimes results in curious displacements and substitutions. irrelevant experiences of childhood instead of ' » Journal ef Abnormal Psychology. Brill. 8.' CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 227 loath to think that he has passed the meridian of life. — ing to say 'deal.

in Freud's opinion. . but which he was sure would actually bore him. 2ig. There was a motive. and instead something The stopping and strayelse comes as a substitute. a tendency which favors one memory and at the same time works against another. In each of these apparently different instances. is the displeasure which the arousal . Despite a long. "that this was wholly unintentional and unconscious. cause. be borne in "A man mind that he did not wish see. and Freud brings these mistakes imder the same general principle. 6cH5i. an instance of forgetting. ' ' Op. repression of certain memories and " In both cases we deal with the failure of remembering. The husband had absent-mindedly drppped the key into the trunk and sprung the lock. p. what should be correctly reproduced by memory fails to appear. in to go. cit. he began to take his dress-suit from the trxuik when he suddenly thought of shaving. as we then. of the suppressed memory would is. . Yielding to his wife's entreaties. Psychoanalysis: Its Theory and op. cit."' resolves itself Forgetting.228 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK the more important ones that profoundly affected us at the time. Freud thinks. was urged by his wife to attend a social funcwhich he not only took no interest. tion in It must. however. substitution of others occur. .. After accomplishing this he returned to the trunk and foimd it locked. in the mislaying. so the couple had to send their regrets."* And this prejudicial factor. 148. A." ^ Mislaying objects of course. Brill. earnest search. He assured me. A. > Freud's opinion." says Brill. pp. On having the trunk opened the next morning the lost key was found within.. Practical Application. "If one looks over the cases of mislaying it will be difl&cult to assume that mislajdng is anything other than the result of an unconscious intention. p. ing of the reproducing function indicates more often than we suppose that there is an intervention of a prejudicial factor. A locksmith could not be found on Sunday evening. the key could not be found.

he could not remember the name of the firm. and was able to give accurate directions for finding it. "when the name touches something unpleasant. So names can be disturbed on this respect. with the fol- lowing results: "Upon concentrating his mind upon the name in question he immediately recalled that some years before he had gone to Putnam's in search of a certain book which he ^Op. sometimes goes astray. when he mentioned the circumstances to me.^ "a gentleman was asked by two or three different people where certain books could be purchased. in of forgetting in general. * Journal of Abnormal Psychology. it is a defense against recalling experiences unpleasant in themselves or which are associated directly or indirectly with disagreeable memories. I was -able to supply the missing name (Putnam). He happened to know that the books in question were kept in stock by a firm of publishers on Twenty. 386. 8. who seems to regard name-forgetting as typical." ^ An illustration wUl make this clear.third Street. Names may be forgotten. p. and we attempted to analyze his forgetting. itself their own account or on account of their nearer or more remote associative relations in the reproduction. .pp. vol.. ' . according to Freud. Ideas associated with strong emotions suppress experiences the thought of which is repugnant to the dominating emotion.. 52-53. In other words. however. This may happen when what we are anxious to forget forms an associative connection with what we wish to remember. or when it is brought into connection with other associations which are iofluenced by such effects. "During the weeks Just before Christmas. but though he recalled the exact location of this store.cit. The associated interaction. and while we wish to forget one thing we actually forget that which we desire to recall." says Doctor Frink. CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 229 into repression of memories through conflict. "A few days later.

contrary to his hopes. red face and wearing a blue coat. together with others of a similar kind. formed a complex of such an undoubtedly painful nature that one might readily suppose it capable of causing resistances against remembering that the above-mentioned firm of booksellers exists. as he did without apparent difficulty. sitting with his younger brother on the floor before this cupboard and playing with a colored picture-book. decided to 'play . with a very red face and a very blue coat. the It was evident. the name of the firm still eluded him. Having obtained the book. But this complex does not account for the fact that after he had recalled the existence of this firm. but he was quite unable to say who Next he foimd himself thinking this person might be. At "After a short pause. during which he 'thinking of nothing. "urged him to continue his associations. she received him and his gift in a manner so cold and forbidding as to occasion him not only extreme embarrassment but also a degree of wrath. he and his brother. that the resistance to name belonged I. "Then there occurred to him the incident by which the When he was about forgetting is apparently deterniined. In the picture-book was a representation of . but. stimulated by the seven picture of the doughty general's exploit. felt that he was had a very vague mental picture of some person with a round. which furnished mortif)dng evidence of his inability to win a high place in the lady's esteem. some complex still undiscovered. years of age.General Israel Putnam. of a tall cupboard in a house where he had lived up to his eighth year.' he stated that he this point he suddenly realizes the identity of the red face. then. "This memory. Then came a memory of himself as a child. to and therefore." says Frink. making his famous escape from the British by riding on horseback down a flight of stone steps.230 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK wished to present to a young lady he much admired. he called upon her.

" rial less It must not be thought that failure to recall is inten- . set up a wail which was no sooner received than put promptly brought the mother of the children upon the scene and placed the elder brother in imminent danger of chastisement. that the forgetting occurred just before Christmas that is. and not only stimulates feelings of affection and good-will. but. also. This happy inspiration into effect. that to drop his brother upon the stone steps would add greatly moment was to the zest of the proceedings. but as a part of great complexes which concern the telling of lies. In view of this latter fact. But while carrjdng out this plan this it occurred to the older boy. who at acting the part of Putnam's horse. in a period which sets the entire 'family complex' on the qui vive.CURIOSITIES OF Israel stairs MEMORY 231 Putnam. could have any effect whatsoever after a lapse of more than twenty years. The small brother. and the malicious pleasure derived from making other people suffer. "To this incident the forgetting of the name of Putnam may. But in this connection it should be borne in mind that the memory must not be regarded as an isolated one. though of evident significance at the time it was formed. I think. one may conceive that the subject's first association may perhaps not be so irrelevant as it seems. For by l3ang with great power and persuasiveness he convinced his mother that his brother's fall was purely accidental and escaped being punished. But in this emergency the same fertility of invention which got him into trouble got him out again. occasionally inspires sraitiments of noble and benevolent character. I realize. the subject's family. suddenly finding himself at the bottom of the steps in a very contused condition.' by carrying each other down the stone which led to the cellar of their house. be attributed. however. It is perhaps worthy of note. that some may doubt whether the memory of this episode. because of the — sometimes painful necessity of furnishing expensive mate- a evidence of regard.

His analysis. We may or may not be able to discover the motive.. for example". may cause him to remember and even to tell of an occurrence which in another would be suppressed. whether correct in particular instances or not.232 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK ' The defensive tendency is a subconsdous process. cit. reveals the amazing causes of action. and pictures certain memory failures as well as The explanations usually ' of errors in speech and given. The desire to boast. as inattention. Moral convictions may. Op. because the wish to do the forbidden act makes it easy to forget the prohibiting law. tend to suppress or recall a memory. It is evident from Freud's analysis that forgetting is not an accidental occurrence.^ "and endeavored to explain them. and this cause involves a motive. may arise in opposition to the suppression of the disagreeable. thoughts. "I have collected the cases of neglect through forgetting which I have observed in myself." says Freud. I have found that they could invariably be traced to some interference of unknown and unadmitted motives or. but it is there." "Ignorance of the law is no excuse" is thus seen to have a psychological basis. and especially emotions. It need hardly be said that the defensive tendency which underUes Freud's theory does not always gain the upper hand. Freud has rendered a service by the clearness with which he has demonstrated the vagueness of the usual explanation. — myself in a position similar to that of being in some distasteful service. intricacies of the mental life. It always has a cause. 163-164. In a number of these cases I found tional. so I showed my protest in the form of forgetting. in a man of low moral standards. I was under a constraint to which I had not entirely resigned myself. according to circumstances. Amid the play of psychic forces. . pp. they were due to a counter-will. as may be said. The reahn of thoughts and emotions is too extensive and complex for that.

Is the motive of forgetting which to may "always an unwillingness to recall something evoke painful feeUngs" ? The writer doubts it. is Conflict. more course it may pride in ostentatious display of authority. however. to conflicts and suppressions causes of these conflicts. some seem. etc. it would be that it is too limited. to be many of which. but have essentially one that motive. indeed. probable.. however. but there are other factors. Conflict there certainly is. lack of interest. and integration are the mental Ufe operative. But be practically the only motive of forgetting makes the mental processes too restricted. for example. impresses one as fitting the explanation to the theory. The instance of the man who locked his key in his trunk. in his analysis of his own memory failures in thoughts and actions. letting loose all of the suppressed desires to dominate the pleasure that — man commanding others. are more common than the others. such as are inclined to be offensive in their exactions. Freud's theory. however. It is well known. has found much evidence to support feels in and repression is due as well. with. that all forgetting . but any one of which may serve as an underlying motive. They usually forget the causes of earlier dissatisfaction practices of their earlier forethis and follow the objectionable men or managers. for instance. The writer. in turn not so simple as to and together. men are prone to become offensively autocratic when suddenly promoted from a subordinate position to one that places them over those among whom they formerly worked. If the writer were to venture a criticism of Freud's theory. It is There of one sort or another. the primitive elation in merely ordering and seeing the orders executed. difference —they Of be said that they wish to forget their former condition of servitude. perhaps. suppression. which Freud quotes approvmgly from Brill. too conthis to sistently uniform. reinforcement.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 233 absent-mindedness. to forget the unpleasant is That we tend assume undeniable. do not explain.

is an illustration in a wider field. 8. It begs the question. . by comparison. then. limits it by definition to the facts which have been in our personal consciousness. by Doctor Ernest found in the British Journal of Psychology. Many experiences which do not become a part of our conscious mental content influence our actions as truly as those of which we are aware. notwithstanding criticism.^ Memory. as when we say that to be remembered an event must be recognized as a part of our past experience. But. but can give no reason for our belief. 'An Jones. he has isolated and examined. with all clear consciousness. In such a case the conflict is between enjoyable thoughts. perhaps the most frequent.234 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK in that case. and one of these motives. only playing with words. The only intelligible explanation for this conviction is that some look or movement. 33. it can be furthered or hindered. made an impression without coming into So-called organic memory. is — The inclusion of conscious experience in the definition of memory. Our "feeling" and "intuitions" regarding We are convinced that a man is not frank and open. conscious memory is only one type of memory. Freud's contribution is of inestimable value. He has gone below the general causes of forgetfulness. and which he is anxious to finish. of its ramifications. is a process a complex nervous process and. As a matter of fact. like all processes. unpleasant. vol. it is entirely con- Whatever was the cause ceivable that a look forward to a social event with keen anticipation. or something else in his past relations with us. and shown that there are specific motives which may be discovered. To say that the greater zest for the man may — one than the other makes one. All experiential modifications of the nervous system which are retained and can be reproduced so as to exert an influence upon subsequent action are memory. may be unusually clear statement of Freud's theory. p. but may also have work on hand that occupies his mind. and the final repression is motived by other causes than the disagreeable. people are illustrations.

some of which have aheady been discovered. some of which are so spectacular as to suggest occult explanations But these unusual to those seeking supernatural causes. This is seen in those spoken to while reading an interesting book. and in which the element of "recognition" did not enter. To this phase of the . A nervous impulse traversing certain pathways is exposed to many interferences. Memory regarded as a process is also consistent with the strange cases of forgetfulness to which reference has been made. subject we accordingly turn. Is this not memory ? Yet few would say that the dog consciously recalled his past experience. and in assuming further rise above the level of consciousness. again. be matched by facts from every-day life which. they may has varying degrees of intensity. Disturbance of nervous processes has been proven in such cases as associative and reproductive inhibition. Considering clear. Feed a dog an appetizing dish made intensely bitter. This view of instances that memory we have brings it into line with the curious quoted. the actions of the lower animals are suggestive. A person thus absorbed does not hear the words. and he is likely soon after to decline the food served in the same way but without the bitter ingredient. variants can because of their commonness. There are all sorts of memory variants. indeed. does not even know that he is addressed. process. all of these facts seem A memory as a nervous process Some are too weak to become factors in consciousness. though they may exert an influence upon the individual. Yet half an hour later he may suddenly become aware of the fact. later. are not believed to require an explanation. is occasional moments when one and repressions we are only enlarging the field of Memory and forgetfulness are evidently subject to certain principles.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 235 Then. known memory can be improved. and to the extent to which they are conflicts interference.

however much they may bear on other questions. And as if heaven paused to hear. « • . . heard. pered. ain't I punished!' she whim. Evan. and other things. or read are important for the matter in hand. oh. seized the soaked garment. discovered Polly Wheedle shivering under a bush in the rain: "Bellowing against the thunder. when horseback riding. for the affairs of every-day the practical question efficient? How may one's be made tive. as it seemed. revealing the features of Polly Wheedle. George Meredith gives a good illustration in Evan Harrington. but is. one cannot fail to observe the devious mental wanderings from the point. • • • 236 . the psychology of memory. "There came a muffied answer. If one will notice the argimients and statements of others. and pulled it back. . that he might lift her on the horse behind him. on a big sob. Evan bade her throw back her garment and stand and give him her arms. Harrington. In answering this question constantly bear in mind that an efficient own memory we should memory is selec- It does not reproduce past experiences impartially. Mr. have no present significance.CHAPTER VII MEMORY AND We life ITS IMPROVEMENT They are significant for have been speaking of certain special and unusual cases of recall of past experience.' "'Best bonnet "Evan stooped his shoulder. the storm was mute. "'Oh. Certain facts which we have observed. "Could he have heard correctly? The words he fancied he had heard sobbed were: .

'"Well. And my gown spoilt and such a bonnet!' "'Who was the somebody?' "'He's a Mr. think. You must know. We mustn't look out of this eye.' '"Mr. or out of the other. Nicholas Frim will be very unhappy. I determined I'd waJk it where he shouldn't overtake me. who's going to marry her some day. Harry to herself like that. but I suppose he's not a bit more selfish than the rest of men. "She didn't like my lady. she's very fond of managing.MEMORY AND What brought you sister ITS IMPROVEMENT to 237 "'And what have you been doing here?' said Evan.' . and on came the storm. Harrington. drying her eyes. — — ! — — ! ' . the Countess. .' "'My Miss Rose —what was I going to tell? Oh ! —my Miss Rose. . and I. did he bring you here and leave you?' '"No. . So Mr. dear me there's such a to-do as never was known all for nothing! "'My good girl!' said Evan. . he wasn't true to his appointment the moment I wanted to go back. be punished? '"Somebody drove me to Fallowfield to see my poor Susan/ returned Polly. I can see that. Laxley. Mr. . that's one comfort. making a face in the looking-glass when I was undressing her last night. Laxley said ^just hke the jealousy of men they I'm sure nobody can tell what we needn't talk of women have to put up with. "'You look very pretty. . half crying. but they're up and oh. though I haven't known her long before she gave up short frocks.' "'Yes.' said Polly ruefully. "'I can see myself a fright. recalling her to the subjectmatter with all the patience he could command. like my Miss Rose did. taking Mr. sir. I should . ." I can't abear to speak his name. to pay him off. and she said to Mr. Nicholas Frim.

A vigorous metabolism. and fatigue obvious. The mind. The psychological significance of what has been said in earlier appreciated tion. The failure to keep to the point to progress in one's thinking and talking is commonly caused by carelessly losing the thread of con- —memory—^need — direction — — versation or thought. improvement of memory requires conform- In the last analysis. recalled thoughts and guidance. pressions.'" Evidently. 'I "'Where was I?' Polly do feel a little cold. lack of exercise. after the impression has been made. from past experience. then refuse to work. is therefore however. Consequently. as chapters about exercise. Naturally. tissue as it is . And it is here that the purpose of the moment plays its controlling part when it is kept rigorously in mind. Every idea has been cormected with many others. we must accept our brainand endeavor to make the most of it. or from temporary fatigue. and with it the memory." The effect of this is when destruction of tissue exceeds construcwhen one becomes "worn out" from overwork. After hygienic living. repetition.238 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK travelled meditatively back. What is it that guides ? It is the thought about which we are conversing the central idea around which related memories should cluster. and by rebuilding the nervous structures. The material from which this selection is made comes. As in other mental matters the efifect of hygienic hving cannot be overestimated. or event that to be remembered are imis Retention. re- cency. but experience is always varied. upon the idea portant. food. determined by the quality of brain-tissue. by rapid elimination of the waste products caused by wear and tear. continually rejuvenates the tissues and keeps them "fit. much depends upon and the number is the intensity of the imof associations focussing and for deepening the impress. vividness. of course. any improvement here is produced indirectly.

t two ideas have been in the mind simultaneously or in immediate succession the recurrence of one of them tends to bring the other in its train. was reached. The writer has been trying to describe a bit of personal experience." however. the event with which the name was in closest association. quite suddenly. Stated in its upon and psychological law of memory is. I must recall it.MEMORY AND ity to rules ITS IMPROVEMENT of the 239 and prmciples that grow out memory process. for a friend will join us soon to whom the man must be introduced. The purpose is of the experiments cited in this chapter to discover memory. as I remember a little play in which we both participated. still it eluded him. are recalled. We were in we had several friends common. may be well to mention. and then it fol- seemed about to come. perhaps. Neither the statement of the "law of association. tha. For this explanation it is necessary to turn to the . The fundamental tions of retention what recall are attempts to ascertain under conditions associations are firmly established with the least expenditure of time and energy. however. the right clew. nor the description of the process gives the reason for the succession of thoughts or for the recall of any given idea. and the investiga- if simplest psychological terms the law of association is. It was a long series of associations and several times the name Finally. of association of ideas. Events long forgotten follow one another in more or less serial order. I meet a man. whose names come back as the circumstances together in a certain town. My mind runs over the period of our former acquaintance. for example. a few of the facts under' lying retention course. then. however. and I do not wish to admit that I have forgotten his name. But some of the principles inherent in before discussing these investigations it briefly. but lowed as a matter of course. whom I formerly knew quite well. based and recall. but whose name I cannot remember. the desired name bursts upon me.

and simultaneous or successive action of the two neurones decreases the resistance of their juncture. at times. The synapse is the point of functional connection between neurones. a time. The change in the synapse.240 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The connection between ideas rests. stated in physiological terms. such as anarchist. and you will find that he has very . therefore. Suggest almost any topic. is the physiological basis of association. no reason for assuming that this perseverative tendency the cells of the cortex —the persistence of the activity of —violates the principle of associa- probably due to hidden associations. to be sure. There are. more permanently estabhshed. The tion. Ideas. or to old associations which have faded to obscurity. So far as we can discover such ideas are uncaused. to a friend. For this reason the excitation of one easily extends to the other. and Upon increased permeability of the synapses nervous system. The law should. trades-unions. There is. to similarities or contrasts of which one is not fully conscious. Associations are would naturally obtrude. resulting from the passage of a nervous impulse from one neurone to another. joining these neurones. We are sometimes obsessed by a word. however. as of habit. Asso- ciation is plies. upon a more fundamental connection between neurones. come into the mind of their own accord. or a face. appear to but intricate manifestations. in the author's opinion. much more complex than it is this so-called law im- not our present purpose to examine its more The important fact to observe here is that memory proceeds according to law and order. ultimately. much more numerous and controlling than we are inclined to think. or walking delegate. when one In such a condition the associations older. the activity of When two be neu- rones have been active together or in immediate succes- one tends to excite the other to action. cases in which memory seems to be independent of association. It is fact that perseveration is especially noticeable is fatigued supports this view. as follows: sion.

vol. vol. American Journal of Psychology. On is strong opinions. Monograph Supplement. pp. p. Jacobs. . vol. T. 52. W. p. p. W. Knowledge is also necessary for flashes of insight. 245 ff. 321. Zeitschriftf. 4. associations are more numerous and intelligible. p. though he may never have given the ideas a moment's conscious reflection. i. 373. but perspiration. Baird. 279. das klass. Sinnesorgane. Die experimentelle Pddagogik. Einfiihrung in d. Alterthum u. Children." Adults are prone to think that memory is a matter of age. the basis for the statement attributed to Thomas Edison. L. L'Annee psychologique. L'Annee psychologique. they say. because it has a richer significance. 3. 55 ^. for which there at present no convincing evidence. 2i. Psychological Review. Decroly and J. Rudolf Wessely. i. Marx Lobsien. The reason. p.* however. p. vol. J. vol. Degand. Und Physiologie d. 170-203. A. PSdagogik. 12 (old series). vol. i. Berlin. 362. 37. O. 13. and knowledge plays an inestimable role. 24. forgetfulness. i. Remie phUosophique. Henderson. is that we see more meaning in what we read and. vol. pp. Bolton. Henri. Neue Jahrbiicher f. is new pomts The mental of view and a great attitude toward the questions raised important here. Bourdon. 127. B. Adolf Pohlmann.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 241 formed wholly unconsciously through the mfluence of newspaper statements or conversations. experimentelle PSdagogik. 151. Binet and V. Winch. E. Knowledge as a factor in memory has received too little The more we know about a subject the more easily and accurately do we remember what we read concerning it. of course.igo3. The associations that give approval or disapproval have been rare occasions they offer discovery may follow. vol. Vorlesungen z. vol. H. Meumemn. translated by J. Lehre vom Gedachtnis. This is attention. Netschajeflf. Jlfiwrf. that "genius is not inspiration. 16. p. The Psychology of Learning. Children seem to excel adults in rote- ' A. p. N. Experimentelle Beitrage z. pp. Perseveration may therefore be explained without recourse to free ideas. vol. 2. British Journal of Psychology. 75. 148. Psychologie p. E. These apparently detached ideas are sometimes bridges over which one passes from memory to imagination. but maturity do not support this view. remember easily causes Investigations. p. 122.

Practice with them is more regular and persistent. willing to have had Mature persons are un- submit to the drudgery of mechanical learning. when it appeared to reach its maximum. using Latin words with which they were unfamiliar. In a few instances twenty-four hours or several days intervened. and it is practice that counts in memory. things. The memory test consisted in associating these words with their German equivalents. or on the other hand. Then. Wessely also tested pupils from eleven or twelve to seventeen or eighteen. Memory in children improves with age. Children. though periods without improvement have been observed. as in other resent memorizing conjugations words. It should be mentioned. in this connection. because they are of memory work. Boys were asked to write as much as they could remember of a poem which they had committed to memory a year or more before. twenty-four hours. and the boys were asked to write the respective Latin equivalents. one week. as adults practice they surpass children. and one month later the German words were given. As soon. The capacity — . An experiment by Wessely^ throws some light upon the relation between permanent memory and age in those under seventeen or eighteen. so far as these boys were concerned there were twenty-three or more in each of the six classes tested ^retention gradually increased from twelve years of age to fifteen or sixteen. rather enjoy such work and frequently repeat in play what they have learned. They lists of and declensions. however.— 242 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK more accustomed to this kind learning. These exceptions seem to occur when the development of organs and functions produces excessive Hrain upon the vitality. and usually the memory tests were given immediately after the material had been learned. The result showed that. that most of the experiments have been made with those of fourteen years or yoimger.

MEMORY AND to retain ITS IMPROVEMENT 243 and recall gradually increased from the youngest. Lyon. who gave the poorest results. some increase in retention was indicated. vol. O. again. Meumann ability to thinks that the limit of improvement in the to five years of age. and the more abstract and difficult the material the later it appears. that memory of material with meaning improves until the period when the mental powers in general begin to decline. memory is reached at about twentyThe few tests that have been made on however. due probably to physiological causes. 622. Archives of Psychology. wealth of associations. Psychologic. D. indicate increasing ability much later in commit Ebbinghaus. for example. 34." On the whole. cit. to those of thirteen or fourteen. with its accompanying zeal to ' ' Grundziige d. The reason with its for the better memory of adults is greater ability to concentrate their attention. no. vestigation ended. At seventeen or eighteen.^ In a more recent investigation' high-school students averaging from sixteen to seventeen years of age retained poetry better than those yoimger or older. Pohhnanni found that children fourteen years of age retain considerably more than one and one-half times a-^ much as nine-year-olds. With prose. however. i. This was followed by a second increase in capacity to retain and rewhich continued to the twentieth year. where his inBeyond twenty years no systematic attempt has been made to follow the relation between percall. this investigation sust^s the earlier conclusions. tested himself at fifty-two years of age. p. and found that he could learn nonsensesyllables quite as readily as he could shortly after thirty. manent memory and age. At about fourteen he observed a decline. life. erste Auflage. Interest in what one is doing. who were the best. adults. wider knowledge. » . the most efl&cient memory "appears much later in life. Op. and the will to remember as represented in their attitude toward their work.

Indeed. But it variations from the rule. It should not be forgotten. 2. the amount of reflection. again. all play their r61e. the best memories. the fault Hes in the absence of endeavor.244 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to eliminate disturbances. on the other hand. indicates that the differences are not sufficient to warrant a definite statement. pertinent to ask whether a good memory of the sort investigated by these tests and good school marks do not largely overlap. Winch foimd a direct relation between memory and intelligence. Journal of Philosophy. remember better? This cannot be answered definitely. however. Another preliminary question regarding memory is relation to intelligence. brighter children Do In the first set twelve consonants were read aloud. concentrates the attention on the work and tends There are. p. 319." Henderson." An examination of Lyon's tests. contrary results may be obtained. foimd so slight a correlation as to be practically equivalent to a denial of any mutual relation. of course. the investigator himself says: "The diEEerences are not marked. and the mental type of the reader. Lyon. . vol. achieve results. Winch* tested boys and girls ranging from eight years of age to a little over fourteen. Upon taking any one form of material. both is safe to say that in the vast majority of those imder forty-five or fifty who are unable to remember what they its hear or read. 74. Pyle. He made two kinds of experiments. children wrote the consonants from after they The memory immediately were given. 9. among adults and children. The power of concentration. vol. Psychology and Scientific Method. that school methods too commonly put a premium on roteleaming. as a rule. p.* testing the members of several college classes. therefore. It is. observed no correspondence between • ' ' Journal of Educational Psychology. concluded' that "the students who rank highest in their classes and who may be classed as the most intelhgent have. however. cU. as indicated by success in school studies. Op.

Ebbinghaus* measured the ability and memory of gymnasium pupils. Psychologic und Physiologic d. Colvin and E. Psychological Review. 451. and a third. KraepeUn's Arbeiten. Sinnesorgane. Those included in his tests ranged from eleven years of age to eighteen. Stephen S. but he did find a correlation among older pupils. p. vol. The disagreement regarding this question is probably due to the fact that there are different kinds of abilities. Sinnesorgane. Myers. ment. They do not make demands on the same sort of ability. Three kinds of tests were used: A memory test of numbers of one syllable in varying order. . an arithmetical test of simple addition and subtraction. Monograph Supple• ' Mary W. no. C. vol. When one looks over the investigations^ on the comparaZeitschriftf. because the memory and intelligence tests do not overlap. Experiments made by Pohlmann also indicate that memory varies with age rather than with intelligence. The omissions were indicated by dashes. p. Jacopo Finzi. Jonas Cohn. Psychologic und Physiologic d. 289. vol. 44. p. 5. p. suited bles to the ages of the different children. 1909. 13. Zeitschrift f. Good memory and unusual intelligence will then be correlated when tiie same or similar mental processes are involved in each. as was foimd by Lyon. Psychological Review.MEMORY AND class standing ITS IMPROVEMENT 245 and memory in the grammar-school. This will also explain the fact that different kinds of material produce varying results. J. Calkins. 161. with occasional syllaand words omitted. 15. ten — This investigation is more accurate than that of Winch. to supply the omissions so as to sters make with the best The results showed that the youngmemory the numbers were to be writ- — down in their order as soon as heard were not the ones who displayed the most intelligence in the other tests. consisting of prose selections. vol. 401. but PoHmann adds that in the great majority of cases high degrees of memory and intelligence seem to be associated. and the children were sense. This difference was quite likely due to the increased ability of those who were older to understand the meaning of what they read or heard and to the more abundant associations. 3.

gesamte Psychologic. L. op. and the third. vol. vol. visual. p. Miiller and A. Lay. experimentelle Padagogik. 297. Segal. according to the convenience or suggestion of the moment. 1910. vol. 602. G. vol. psdagogische Psychologic. Zeitschriftf. f. Psychologic und Physiologic d. vol. C. however. vol. Hugo Munsterberg and A. Sinnesorgane.Psychologicai Review. Miiller and F. W. the second in visual. Whitehead. Adolf Pohlmann. Henmon. How does the manner in which it is worked up vary with the auditory. C. For example.. s. pp. d. Kiikpa. Archives de Psychologic. Sinnesorgane. i. are not predominantly auditory. of articulating nonsense-syllables internally and sentences. 3. second. von Sybel. 81 and 257.. one may think them in auditory images. Lobsien. Bigham. 493 J'. vol. Psychological Review. E. 179 j'. 27. vol. op. Zeitschrift f. 3. Einfiihrung in d. p. pp. ExperimenteUe Didaktik. 21. influenced chiefly. 79. 12. Schuyten. E. vol. They use one or another kind of imagery. 2. J. E. 4. 417. of course. 124. G. again. 34. what is heard or seen. one also finds much disa- greement. So far as the comparative advantage to concerned. logical Review. p. Psychological Renew. Hawkins. 289. VWzec^ttjZeUschriftf. numbers. p. or motor minded. V. Archiv. PsychoF. Psychologic. Psychologic und Physiologic d. d. G. the memory of hear- ing or seeing material it will is method of presenting the is not a certain criterion of the manner in which be imaged in preparation for remembering it. p.tnck. Sinnesorgane. 24. pp. 19. What is the comparative efficiency of the manner of presenting material to be memorized? and. NetschajefE. A. A. by the definiteness of their tendency to one or the other method of thinking what is seen or heard. Schumann. may go through the incipient movements of pronouncing them. 245. p. 351. How is the memory material worked up for reproduction? This last involves the further question. visual. gesamte p. p. . Most people. Zeitschrift f. p. i. J. ygane. A. Psychologic und Physiologie d. again. Erganzungsbd. cit. or. Psychologic und Physiologie d. Psychological Review. vol. Christo Pentschew. 171. vol. p. The problem may be approached from two sides: first. p. M. vol. 258. Kemsies. I. Meumann. a list of words or of dates is given to three men. The Psychology of Learning.246 tive PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK memory effect of seeing or hearing words. cit. Archiv f. vol. 34. A. pp. pp. i. Vorlesungen z. M. P. Zeitschriftf. Sinnesp. 6. and vol. 326. igi £. vol. S3. J. i. E.257.

He used concrete noims. This agrees with the observations of various investigators that children use images of particular objects in their thinking. and what is the influence of the method of presentation. Muller and Schumann. Finzi. Henmon endeavored to ascertain the effect upon retention of the several ways of presenting memory material. or the kind of material employed. instead of limiting oneself to those that grow out of the individual's mental characteristics. Miiller and Pilzecker. Miss Calkins. but Meumann thought them slower. and that too. of the persons were accustomed. women. Meumann. and Meumann found vizuaUzers more accucollege rate than those of the auditory type. His inves- tigation indicates that memory is helped by calling to aid as many sorts of associations as possible. Bigham concludes that visual and auditory memory combined greatly reduce the errors. these several problems have not always been distinguished in the investigations. apparently. and von is heard is retained and repro- duced better than what is seen. in determining the answers to these questions? Unfortunately. regardless. Kirkpatrick. and subcame to essentially the same conclusion. and this is prob- ably one of the causes of the disagreement. An all-around developed imagery would then seem to be conducive to a good memory. Sybel also found that what imagery to which the different Kemsies. on the other hand. The auditory method of imparting the material yielded the best results in the three sorts of tests. and that only after they have gained what advantage they can from these should Uiey be trained . believes that children should first learn to utilize the memory-aids which coincide with their mental peculiarities. The tests were made upon six young men and women. Hawkins. and nonsense-syllables. experimenting with stituting lantern-slides for objects.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 247 and motor minded persons. however. says that school children remember objects seen better than visual words. numbers.

as once on one occasion when the young Liebig's class director of the gymnasium visited and heard his wretched recitation. as we wiU. One is inclined to agree with related Meumann when recalling such instances as the school-days of Justus von Liebig. Finally. 1907. p. or that upon which they react in a motor manner. by Liebig^ himself. because they retain better what comes through one particular sense-organ. He could retain little or nothing of what he heard. or respond in a motor fashion. or to write names which they wish to remember. or see. To be they prefer to see. 2119. June 26. and his school made no provision for individual peculiarities. or motor. We can usually hear. without attention from us. or to hear. At this the director laughed uproariously. But they are not wholly excluded from other sorts of experiences.248 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to improve their memory by enlarging their memory-aids beyond these "innate" characteristics. When the director asked what so lazy and inattentive a boy could do. are not wholly visual. Consequently. auditory. Liebig's father was compelled to withdraw him from the gymnasium because he could not keep up with his In his mature years Liebig said that the cause of class. as was Sight plays a prominent role in most of our imLiebig. also. Liebig replied that he was going to be a chemist. pressions from the outside world. Perhaps this is the rea- They sure. The significance of these investigations of mental "tj^es" for one's daily Kfe and growth is best understood when one remembers that experiences in the outside world are not limited to one sense. . son for the predominance of visual imagery in the majority ^ Das Echo. his inability to do the class work was that he had scarcely any auditory memory. that The story runs. Most people belong to what may be called the mixed class. he told him that he was the plague of his teacher and the sorrow of his parents. individual differences are provided for without any effort on our part and commonly.

His problems had to be given orally. and in twelve minutes he could learn 105 figures by hearing them repeated. board. Only after this reproduction of the numbers did he begin his calHis own statement was that he saw the numbers culation. on the other hand. Inaudi and Diamandi are two reckoning memory-wonders who were investigated by Binet and Meumann. Then. Inaudi was the son of a poor shepherd. employed visual images exclusively. There are. In other matters his memory was poor. He did not attend school until he was fourteen years of age. He was able to recall 42 numbers in a longer series read to him. visual and motor if we accept Meimiann's investigation. was an auditory calculator. but at six his brother had taught him to coimt. He was the son of wellto-do Greek parents and enjoyed the school privileges of His problems had to be written upon the blackhis class. when he could multiply two five-place numbers mentally. of course. So lacking was he in visual images that he was confused by the sight of the example upon which he was working. "as if they were photographed. see little or nothing. nu- merous individual variations. Diamandi. The one "heard" . according to Binet. having looked at one for a few minutes." Inaudi.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 249 of people. and Diamandi did his reckoning visually. Meumann regards the exclusively visual or auditory person as. in a certain sense. as has been said. His marvellous ability in reckoning was observed at seven years of age. A glance at two or three notable cases will be interesting in showing the occasional strong predominance of the visual and auditory bent of mind. not even excluding the "mixed class" to which reference has just been made. from the great portrait-painters who "see" the absent model sitting before them to those who mentally defective. he closed his eyes and the visual representation came. Later in life he was able to multiply mentally numbers each of which contained as many as 24 digits.

186. With Ruckle. and a registering apparatus revealed movements of his tongue and larynx. at all events.2 so PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK the names of the numbers in his calculations and the other "saw" them. and each column served as a unit. so that he could repeat them. as with others. Miiller. He made use of various devices which gave the figures meaning. however. Zeilschriftf. Erganzungsbd. Further than this. But. vol. Ruckle differed from Inaudi and Diamandi in having an exceptional memory for other things than figures and numbers. He could learn a series of nonsense-syllables in less than half the time usually required.i He was able to learn 204 figures in thirteen minutes. s. E. The most famous is calculating a university student memory-wonder on record by the name of Ruckle. Meiunann. the vocal movements were only aids for the auditory images of the one and for the that both used "internal speech. however. wrote ' it out from G. as he put it. and in remembering long numbers he divided them into their prime factors. according to is Meumann. Then. . after recall hearing but once the Miserere of Allegri. P. who gave an exhibition before the Congress for Experimental Psychology at Giessen. Psychohgie.. For example. There are also striking examples of wonderful memories in other fields than mathematics. which essentially the same as Ebbinghaus found the average person. his method was to change what he heard into visual images. Mozart." that hoarseness disturbed visual images of the other. sisted When Inaudi's it by the meaning of the problem memory was aswas ten times as efiScient. says that he found Inaudi had observed him when calculating. Binet's investigation of these two calculating prodigies shows that their memories conform to the same laws as those of other people. was not based on mere memory. he separated them into coliunns. he saw the numbers as clearly as though they were written on a blackboard. as his mechanical memin ory.

Radossawlewitsch. 686^. op. Schumann. . Louis G. Journal. pp. Walther Jacobs. 169 /. Thomdike. Review. Naomi Norsworthy. Psychologie. vol. third edition. 672^. Ephrussi. that rapid readThey retain more of the substance ers do superior work. 3. Starch. for example. op. Some people are born slow. of what they read or hear than slow readers.G. 8. p. and Beethoven produced. 93. E. Grundziige der Psychologie. pp. E. J. E. in his study of reading. American Journal of Psychology. 22. one of the first questions suggested is that of slow and rapid learning. the fast learners had the advantage both in the time required for the work and in the amount — — 'Hermann Ebbinghaus. cit. d. 122. op. gesamte Psytional Psychology. after he became deaf. Miiller and F. again. observed.of Educational Psychology.. 214. 2. Ogden. cit. of course. cit. Pyle. L. 161. 56. Zeitschriflf. 3. 209. cal Review. Psychologie. But in the great majority of cases the rapidity with which one reads or studies habit. Pyle tested eight young men and four women with a selection of easy prose. tliose who wish to make mem- ory more efficient will be interested in the comparative value of these two ways of working. i. Das Behaiten und Vergessen bet Kindern und Erivachsenen. 259 f. vol. D. 45. N. Finkenbinder. but experiments^ do not sustain this view. the Ninth Symphony and the Mass in D. pp. Archiv f. Quantz. op. p. chologie. cit. Whitehead. Turning now to the methods by which memory may be made more serviceable. P. 1907. 24. p. The opinion generally prevails that those who learn quickly forget easily. This is true not only of immediate memory memory tested as soon as the learning is completed but also of permanent retention. O. vol. Lottie Steffens. William H. 311. p. 5. p. 159Ernst Meumann. vol. Henderson.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 251 manory. vol. 37. is an acquired their Consequently. and. among other compositions. no. Psychologie. In certain instances this is. R. Zeitschriflf. 321. vol. Practically all of the investigators have found that rapid workers remember more of what they learn than those who are slow. p. vol. Christo Pentschew. Journal of EducaR. PsychologiP. Leipzig. settled by the nervous system. vol. Journal of Educational Psychology. vol. Monograph Supplement. E. O. p. vol.. Quantz. 15. M. p. Psychological Zeitschrift f. The Psychology of Learning. 2.

and it is continually increasing. then. Where the material is 'illogical' and is memorized by motor associations. report of a department Often one consults books for a definite piu-pose. He must finger many books but he » Op. "remember longest if the material is logical in character. the amount that one must read in law. and after a month had passed the more rapid workers remembered more of what they had committed to memory than those who had learned the assignment with more effort. for example. it does not exceed the speed at which the reader can get the meaning clearly. the converse is true. . medicine. from these and other experiments that. in reading or studying selections of connected thought. for example. If a young man plans to enter business or any of the professions." he says. cit. provided manager as his eye nms it over. But there is stiU another phase of this same question." It appears. Further. Essenthat they retained. A lawyer. was reached by Lyon. Beyond this rate haste would obviously be imeconomical.^ "Those who learn quickly. science.252 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Pyle also noticed that the rapid learngroup with which he worked excelled in accuracy. Miss Norsworthy tested eighty-three students. The discovery that the statement "Easy comes easy goes" is not true has far-reaching educational significance. or analogous cases to settle a legal point. and a lawyer cannot be long in getting the significance of a legal document if he would wia his case. ers in the tially the same conclusion. literature. is looking for opinions. A business man should be able to vmderstand the rapidity is economical. it is of supreme importance that he acquire the ability to tear the meaning from pages at a glance. so to speak. at least for intelligible material. or theology to become proficient is enormous. The young man who hopes to reach a position of importance must learn to cover groimd rapidly and to note the landmarks as he passes. decisions. to secure information about a certain matter.




this re-

has not time to read them through.


quires ability to get the contents of a page at a glance.

does not read it, but he must grasp the substance. Physicians have many more medical journals than they can read through if their practice is extensive. They need
to see the


of the articles as they turn the pages.

For the

lecturer, writer, or general reader


wishes to

be informed, the situation
historical, or other

essentially the same.


through books and journals. The man heavily handicapped. Rapid readers cover half a dozen books in an evening, getting much as they skim along and reading selected portions with more care. Many books are not worth reading through. Yet some of these contain valuable thoughts or facts scattered through their pages. A slow reader wastes a day finding this material, while rapid workers discover it by turning the leaves and reading pages at a glance. The writer often finds college seniors of high-class rank vinable to skim a book and get In some of these cases, at least, it is not slow its import. comprehension, but rather lack of training. Like other forms of ability, this power to get meaning quickly, then to sift the information and to organize it rapidly into knowledge, improves with practice. Despite every effort to remember, however, we still forIt is therefore desirable to notice the rapidity with get. which forgetting proceeds. Investigations' have been

widely scattered who reads slowly

children and adults, and the results are in subagreement. Ebbinghaus experimented upon himstantial self with nonsense-syllables, and found that he forgot very

made with

' C. H. Bean, Archives of Psychology, no. 21, 1912. Hermann Ebbinghaus, Memory, translated by H. A. Ruger, pp. 76 /. E. O. Finkenbinder, E. N. Henderson, op. cit. N. MagnefE, Die Bedingungen des op. cit. dauernden Behaltens, Zurich, 1905. E. Meumann, The Psychology of Learning, pp. 330 ff. G. E. Miiller and F. Schumann, op. cit. Christo Pentschew, P. R. Radossawlewitsch, op. cit. M. K. Smif.h, American Journal op. cit.

of Psychology, vol. 18, p. 504.


L. Thorndike, opi




rapidly the

first hour, proportionately less for the next seven hours, and still more slowly through the balance of the first twenty-four hours. "After a whole month fully

one-fifth of the first

the latter part of the

work persisted in effect." Toward month the loss seemed so shght that

Ebbinghaus was led "to predict that a complete vanishing of the effect of the first memorization of these series" [of nonsense-syllables] "would, if they had been left to themselves, have occurred only after an indefinitely long period of time." There is no essential difference between the The chief findings of Ebbinghaus and later investigations. disagreement is concerned with the rapidity of forgetting, immediately and soon after committing a selection to memory. Ebbinghaus' curve of forgetting appears to fall
too rapidly at the outset.

Most of the tests of forgetting have been made on children or adults who learned either nonsense-syUables or selections with meaning just well enough to repeat them once without error. In the course of the investigations, however, the ability to recall was foimd to depend, among other things, upon the number of repetitions, upon the distribution of periods of work, and upon the number and nature of the associations formed. We accordingly turn to these memory-aids. Repetition fixes memory. Experience shows this. If we wish to remember a name we repeat it. Investigation* of the effect of a nimiber of repetitions have not only justified this conclusion from experience, but they have also
contributed several other significant facts.
First of

during the repetitions the mind should be

A. Binet et V. Henri, op. cit. Hermann Ebbinghaus, Memory, pp. 52 ff.; Grundzilge der Psychologic, third edition, vol. i, pp. 652 f. P. Ephrussi, op. cit. E. A. Kirkpatrick and Abbie F. Munn, Archives of Psychology, no. 12, p. 36. Otto Lipmann, Zeitschrift f. Psychologic, vol. 35, p. igs-




pp. 65


Fritz Reuther,

Gedacktnis, Berlin, 1909, pp. 47 _ff. Adolf Pohhnann, op. Wundt's Psychologische Studien, vol. i, p. 4.
3, p. 21.

W. G.

Smith, Psychological Review, vol. experimenteUe PUdagogik, vol. 8, p. i.

F. Weber, Zeitschrift


actively attentive.
of reading




It has been found that a combination

and repeating gives the best results for memory. Repeating aloud requires more effort and concentrates the attention better than silent reading. The latter is more likely to be passive. Experiments have shown, also, that memory is more than 50 per cent better if the learner is
informed that the effect of the repetition will be tested than when he assumes that there will be no test. Then, again, all repetitions, are not of equal value in
fixing impressions

and ideas. To be sure, Ebbinghaus found that fewer repetitions were required to relearn a
series of nonsense-syllables after twenty-four hours


the original


of repetitions




saving was proportional, in a general way, to the added repetitions during the first learning, provided they did not exceed a certain number, not very accurately defined.




of the relative efficiency of suc-

cessive repetitions, however, has proved that the earlier
repetitions have the greatest fixing power. This seems to be specially true in immediate memory memory tested as soon as the learning is completed. Again, when the repe-

titions greatly exceed the

number necessary

for the first

correct reproduction their efl&dency gradually lessens until

the gain becomes hardly measurable. Finally, it was observed that the value of repetitions varied with their disThis is of. special importance not merely for tribution. students but also for those in the larger outside world of





or two questions will

clear the groimd.
Is it better to

commit a

selection of prose or poetry to


at a single sitting, or is it advantageous to distribute our efforts over several days? Which plan brings the desired result with the least expenditure of energy?

Quite a number of investigations' have been

made and

Bancels, L'Annee psychologique, vol. 8, p. 185. C. H. J. Larguire des Bean, op. cit. M. Browning, D. E. Brown, and M. F. Washburn, American



there is general agreement that a distribution of periods of study gives the best results. Ebbinghaus found, in committing nonsense-syllables to memory, that thirty-eight repetitions distributed over three days produced the
tions at a single sitting.


results as sixty-eight repeti-

two students. They of which worked ten minutes at a time twice a day for six days; the second group twenty minutes at a time once a day for six days; the third worked forty minutes every other day for six days; the fourth did the entire task at one sitting of two hours. The results showed a great advantage for the shorter, more widely distributed periods. The two-hour period of work at one sitting was a bad fourth. The advantageous periods of work in this experiment seem short, but the occupation consisted in associating numbers with letters, a task which would quickly
cause fatigue.
Jost carried these experiments much further than any of the other investigators and proved that neither fatigue nor inattention explains the advantage of this distribution
of time.

Starch experimented with fortywere divided into four groups, one

Having eliminated these two factors, he undertook to determine the best arrangement of periods of work, and he found that twenty-four repetitions, distributed over twelve days with two repetitions a day, gave better results
than less distributed periods. He inclines to an even more extended distribution. If we accept Jost's view, that the

Journal of Psychology, vol. 24, p. s8o. Hermann Ebbinghaus, Memory, p. 89; Grundzuge der Psychologie, third edition, vol. i, pp. 657 £. John Bigham, Psychological Review, vol. i, p. 453. Alfred Binet, L'Annee psychologigue, vol. 10, p. 116. W. F. Dearborn, Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 1, p. 273. Adolf Jost, ZeUschrift f. Psychologie, vol. 14, p. 436. E. A. Kirkpatrick and Abbie F. Munn, op. cit. J. H. Leuba and Winnefred Hyde, Psychological Remew, vol. 12, p. 351. O. Lipmann, op. cit. E. Meumann, Psychology of Learning, pp. 265^. G. E. MuUer and A. Pilzecker, op. cit. Max Offner, op. cit. Nellie L. Perkins, British Journal of Psychology, Adolf Pohlmann, op. cit., pp. 82 £. Fritz Reuther, op. cit. vol. 7, p. 253.

D. Starch,







advantage of distributed practice and study' lies in the greater effectiveness of old associates, Miss Perkins' results^ "indicate that this process of consolidation continues
for at least forty-eight hours,


stiU longer


four or


readings are

Putting these investigations into general terms, the experiments show conclusively that an extensive distribution of study periods for a given piece of work is advantageous both for
[of practice].

made on each day"

rapidity of learning and for permanent retention.


period favorable for one sitting and the length of intervening time will depend, among other things, upon the nature of the material and the difficulty of the task, with its



instead of finishing

The economy of distributed study, what one is engaged upon and theii

dropping it, may then be considered established. Jost next sought to determine why it is more advantageous to spread study or practice over several days instead of finishing the work at one sitting. He came to the conclusion that older associations those which were established earlier are more easily renewed than the more recent ones. This explanation, however, still leaves the question Why? unanswered. Some find the explanation in the effect of activity upon the nutrition of the organ exercised,^ and in the dropping out of interfering associaThis would be a satisfactory explanation were contions. siderable practice always involved. But the same advantage of distributed study is observed when the selection is read but once each time. A "setting" or "fixing" of associations, on the other hand, apparently satisfies condiThose that are older have had more time in which tions. Since it is difficult to imderstand in to become "fixed." what this "fixing" consists, unless it be the result of cere-


Jost experimented only

upon learning and releaming,







p. 581.


by G. T. Ladd and R.



we seem
at present compelled to

bral nervous activity,

take this view.

This explanation of the "setting" of associations during is also indicated by experiments in releaming skilful acts after a long interval without practice.
periods of rest


writer at one time acquired considerable proficiency

in tossing

two balls with one hand, one ball being caught and thrown while the other was in the air. More than six
In eleven days he greatly exceeded the

years later he again tested himself in this feat.

which he had acquired six years before after forty-two days of arduous practice. The following curves show the progress during the original learning process, and during the test in relearning the same feat six years or more later. The curve of relearning is on the left. The rate of progress is shown at the left of the perpendiculars, and the days required in each case are indicated under the base line.^ The practice in which the skill was first gained was finished six years before this memory test was made. After the conclusion of the first investigation there were five monthly tests of the effect of intermission of practice, and one memory test two years later. With these exceptions there had been no practice
during the six years. The writer has also determined the effect of intermission of practice on the typewriter.^ In this instance, the mem-

ory test was made more than two years after the close of the first experiments by which a certain degree of skiU was attained. During the intervening two years he had not used any style of typewriter. The original investigation covered a period of fifty days, while in the memory test, two years later, only eleven days were required to reach
the degree of proficiency with which the original investigation closed.
'This curve
p. 17.


reproduced from the Psychological BuUetm,



Psychological Bulletin, vol. 3, p. 185.






short time needed in both of these inskill,

The remarkably

vestigations to regain the former

after the long inter-

val without practice,

shows the persistence of neurostill

muscular memory.



significant fact, however,


by the curves

for ball-tossing given above.


be observed that in eleven days, after six years of cessation of practice, the experimenter acquired much greater skiU than that with which he closed his experiments of forty-two days, six years earlier.

upon the nutrition and the dropping out of interfering associations do not accoimt for the persistence and rapid improvement of skill after such long periods of inactivity. The astonishingly rapid gain in skill in ball-tossing beyond

clear that the effects of activity

of the organ exercised

that originally acquired indicates not only a "fixing" of nervous and muscular associations, but also, during the long interval, some sort of integrative nervous activity by which the skill was further improved. At present there is no other tenable explanation. Batson, in his investigation,^ also observed improvement in skiU during intervals of no practice. "After a long rest period," he says, "the subject is found to be in a condition to improve very rapidly. In some cases the results show that they have actually gained power during the rest period." The matter of "rest periods" has wide application.
Jost's investigations, as well as the others to



ence has just been made, emphasize the value of repetitions, but always with an interval between them. book, a legal opinion, an investigation in medicine or in science, which one wishes to remember, should be read again, but


not at once.



always important, however, that the

meaning be as
that gives the

clear as possible in the first reading, because

of elaboration rather than of

memory a freer field; and, when it is a matter memory alone, the recon^Op.dt.

struction of the thoughts, as a result of cerebral proc-

One now sees meaning in what before was unintelligible. should be as rapid as following the thought permits. for accumulated repetitions within a short time have only a temporary effect. association of ideas is . but mere confusion study. observations. One reason for the meagre results of cramming is that reduced to their sequence in the text. however. Children who "go over" the lesson just before class are acting upon this principle of dis- tributed study. As a practical deduction from these investigations it and be said that students would save time and effort by keeping at least one day ahead in their studies. after the lapse of a day misty statements become. Had the reader stopped with the first reading nothing would have been remembered. if Error be corrected. may That which is learned in this way vanishes quickly. And an intervening day gives better results than an immediate rereading. in addition to reinforcement of memory impressions. a book. but now the confusion takes an orderly form. To older persons. at any rate. may seem or two. but this is hardly sufficient to explain the increased significance that a second reading produces after an interval of a day or so. Deepening impressions by repetition might account for the greater clearness. and the last reading. Something is indicated. ful rarely ever clarified without further These investigations also make conscious and thoughta method which has been followed instinctively. or. "Cramming" is clearly unpsychological. selves. quite imintelligible when read clear the for the first time. unconsciously. however. It seems to be another illustration of the integrative nervous activity to which reference has just been often amazing how made.MEMORY* AND esses. like the earlier ones. Upon second it is reading. The wider meanings do not have a chance to assert themThe bearing of Elssodations upon memory may. ITS IMPROVEMENT may 261 has a better is start. or chapter.

z. Associations may be strictly or they may artificial and mechanical be significant and interpretative.000 in gold weighs 3. and I. or c soft." the writer of this system . "The and that you fear to forget.000." continues the writer of the book from which we are quoting. the number of pounds in $1." Another of these mechanical memory systems is based upon visualization. is represented by s. "What does the mental picture of scales suggest? The statue of justice. One of these systems which has been long in the market teaches the purchaser to remember nmnbers by translating them into letters of words. ih. What do you weigh with ? Scales. [mirabile dictui]. "sup- pose you wish to memorize the fact that $1. and catch or gush for 76. i by /.685 pounds. "We must not impress upon the memory mere wordsj'but turn our attention and train our minds to see the objects or ideas they represent. You go about it in this way: "How much does $1. Double letters in a word count only as one. "Statue of thing justice. blindfolded and weighing out award and punishment to man. what is this statue of justice but the image of law ? and the words image of law translated back from the significant letters m. give you 3-6-8-5.000. be best illustrated by comparing those at the two extremes of usefulness. "All the other letters" [of the word] "are simply to fill up. or d. Memory systems o£fered for sale are of the first sort. justice. associated or combined in mental pictures. for example. /. Consequently. image of law. Zero." Tkis or dizzy would then stand for the number lo. is the weight. Finally.000 in gold. "The process is simplicity itself" you wish to recall.000. "Now.000 in gold weigh? "Weigh "Scales — —statue of scales. you cement your chain of association to the idea which is most prominent in your mental question.262 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK perhaps. g soft.

." Suppose. can be avoided by having the first object much larger than the second.MEMORY AND says. Consequently. that of exaggeration. now. ITS IMPROVEMENT 263 A list of a given. "See the hat and the hen in the picture together. "A combination picture of a mop chair will represent 3964. picture the mop larger than the chair." we are told. of the purchasers must feel that they receive value for the The explanation seems to be that if a man is price. Its associative machinery is so crude that the rattle is distressing." Letters are to stand for figures. . . . "We may form strut about. In the case of 3964. See a large hen four feet high." But there are also other associations in this is system. such as errands. now put motion ." Of course there is no fault to find with any of this except with the whole of it. The danger figures. into the picture. . that we wish to buy stamps. . or any dear combination of stamps and hat. instead of transposing of 3964. but use one strengthening principle of imagination. "Trustees similar in sound to rusty. Put the black silk hat on the hen's head. and see the hen Knowing our index words will enable us to remember a number of varied items. The more conspicuous and striking the picture. so if we make gap is it all trustees suggest rusty. the easier will it be to recall it. Yet these systems are That they confairly representative of those on sale. but by and a goes back to visualization of the objects represented the "code" words. sufficiently interested in improving his memory to pay an exorbitant price for a "system" he will continually keep the thought of remembering in mind. a picture of a large hat decorated with postage-stamps. by recalling the picture as chair —mop 6439. and visualize a rusty can. the bridged. some tinue and multiply indicates buyers. "Do not see a hen of ordinary size. He will also observe details and repeat what he wishes to remember as he never did before the expenditure made it worth while. of which hat hundred "code" or "index" words is and hen are the first two.

The value of associations with meaning is emphasized by the results of the grotesque memory systems from which we have quoted. and a poor memory for others. his memory would be marvellous. may be trained is erroneous. The to secret of remember —to think memory is to it. in general. It should not be forgotten. he will become an authority in legal cisions as isolated facts. may be able to recall the dishes served at a score of dinners to which she was invited. similarity and dissimilarity. he learns to work out the formula he will remember it. not a memory. yet be unable association. such as those of time. We in certain by practice in those lines. however. A woman. syllables. cause and effect. but he wiU forget it after twenty-four hours. men and women have a good memory for certain kinds of facts. however. be. We have memories. not remember them long beyond the trial of his case. place. process which can be put through a course of training and afterward be good for aU kinds of material.264 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The basis of a good memory is to discover valid relations. or rather physiological. If he would be half as diligent with real relations between ideas as he is with these artificial ones. for example. In x)ther words. will and he matters. They show that if one works hard however mechanical one will obtain observable results. think about what one wishes as we have said. Naturally. In the same way a lawyer may study court dewithout reference to their causes. however. But if he study the earlier decisions out of which they grew. improve our ability to recall lines read. but the common belief that the memory. enough on any system of and meaningless it may to remember any historical facts that she has may. that memory is not just one mental. A student may learn a mathematical or chemical formula as he would learn a series of nonsenseIf. after payiug twenty-five dollars for lessons the purchaser works at the system so as to get the value of his money. in connection .

cit. H. and that the more "sense" or "meaning" one sees in what one is reading the longer it will be retained. 2. W. Bergstrom. generally causal. Experiments' have shown that prose and poetry can be learned with vastly greater ease than an equal number of disconnected words. P. 19. 1. BeitrSge zur expeiriogie. Darwin has told us how organization and classification of knowledge attained results with himself. Henri. 4. puts the matter very inadequately. Smith. and it is only after considerable points. Binet and V. Miiller and A. vol. 685/. therefore. p. s. Monograph Supplement. vol. E. University of Montana BulleMary W. op. 1896. op. Organization of knowledge is essential. vol. no. temporal. "I have no quickness of apprehension or wit which is so remarkable ia some clever men. Book. Calkins. 436." reflection that I perceive the weak upon the value of and effect. 1902. American Journal of Psychology. F. third edition. but we know that memory depends upon association. vol. Psychological Review Monograph Suppletin. Pilzecker. 7. Memory. Bair. for instance in Huxley. and that it will be remembered much investigations bearing directly relations with meaning. p. vol. have been made. His retrospect also shows the value of rethinking what has been read that memories not at first available may have a chance to assert themselves. no. mentdle Psychologie. p. Hennann Ebbinghaus. American Journal of Psychology. cit. of course. G. when first read. ." he says in his Autobiography. has a spatial. Information that is referred to principles is easily remembered. A. A. "1 am. W. and this organization proceeds with reference to the successive phases of the problem upon which one is working.MEMORY AND ITS it IMPROVEMENT 265 with other facts with which prets it. 69. no. or other relation that gives it excites my admiration. Psychological Review J. a poor critic: a paper or book.3S6. 433. meaning and interThinking presupposes a question or problem which one wishes to understand. such as cause No longer. Facts are classified under general principles which in turn explain or lead to the interpretation of the question under consideration. J. ment. S3. ' This. L. Grundziige^der PsycholHugo Miinsterberg. 6. p.

. of the noticeable causes of is many hours. memory obstruction interfering associations. makes the selection of the first book to be read or studied a matter of supreme importance. proficiency in one thing has been attained. must underlie the superstructure.ory. other hand. For example. Until he has acquired sufficient knowledge and skill to live upon the country he must constantly return to his base for suppUes. a new kind of work with opposing responses may be undertaken without observable interference. can be read in a short time. of course. that this interference is especially likely to produce confusion. The significance of this in the acquisition of knowledge is obvious. in the early stages of learn- however. Economy in memory has many points of approach. one may learn to write with equal skill on two typewriters with different keyboards provided one becomes an expert with the first before starting to use the second. This. An entire chapter. it is important that he be substantially provisioned with the fundamental necessities as an aid to memeign language should be ory. and decide upon his strategic movements. because it is to be the base of operations from which the reader goes out to survey the terrain. The to mem. In science and history one point of view should be thoroughly mastered before passing to other opinions and criticisms. Consequently. To commit is memory verbatim would require It One ing. and then combining them? This is an important question for public speakers. This has been observed both in acts When. so we turn now to the manner of committing prose or poetry Is it better to read the entire selection through rnitil it is learned. and idiomatic constructions of one for- made automatic before beginning a second. Declenconjugations. this to and the substance repeated on the following day. or is the work done more quickly by committing limited portions. A sohd foundation sions. on the of muscular skiU and in mental activities.266 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK or more.

4. Die experimenieiUe POdagogik. the economical method is to read the whole through from beginning to is end until everything memorized. Ernst Ebert and E. the final question is. Psychology of Learning. and when he has started ahead to return again to the first few lines. 61 J. pp. f. . third edition. 233 f. Ephrussi. op.MEMORY AND discourse of ITS IMPROVEMENT 267 investigations^ are quite decisive. P. This is true of both adults and children. Meumaim. This is true of nonsense-syUables and material with meaning. but aU divide first part. Hermann Ebbinghaus. vol. Memory.Max Offnar. vol. cit. cit. Christo Pentschew. immediately progress while the be In addition. d. 4. the human disinclination to move on to attempt the new and strange causes the learner to keep repeating the first part. op. vol. In learning connected any sort. Which method produces requires for the result to "whole" method more time — — the firmest retention and the most accurate reproducJ. the object. Miss Steffens found that individuals differ widely as to the manner of distributing their repetitions over the selection. But it is more noticeable in the latter case. Gfinter Neumann. i. and neglect the latter part. or lists of words. p. 669 f. E. Psychologie. Mexunann's experiments show that the time and repetitions required for memorizing a selection increase with the number of parts into which it is divided. But more important than the saving of time and labor is the better retention. pp. cU. 63. it into sections with undue attention Children especially waste time upon the first few lines by continued repetitions. op. ap.. Arclm. The "whole" method requires fewer repetitions time than the "part" method. p. x. gesamte Psychologie. cit. isS. since retail is rial to be learned increases. eit. ' Larguire des Bancels. The chief reason for this practice of both to the adults and children is probably that learning in sections noticeable produces observable. Grundz-iige d. And the advantage of the "whole" method is greater as the amount of the mateOf course. op. Lottie Steffens. pp. What is learned by the less and "whole" method is remembered longer and reproduced more accurately. Meumann.

Archiv. must be connected. vol.f. Not merely the contiguous portions. C. Opinions expressed on one topic by several persons. but there is another closely related question. also. for associations work in both directions. gesamte Psychologie. even though one immediately follows the other. Psychology 0} Learning. p. 297.268 tion? PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK And in these respects the "whole" method again excels. Knors. so that it is not merely one word or line that recalls the next. E. We have been considering economical memory methods. ' . The larger the quantity to be learned the relatively fewer repetitions are learned uniformly. for example. Later investigations. pp. 8. In the "whole" BreaJks between the sections of method the learning selection is is equally distributed and the entire By tihis method. have shown that this is not altogether correct. These associations impede continuous reproduction. p. 17. i. assoformed between the parts. backward and forward. One of the objections to learning prose or poetry Is by sections that interfering associations are established. and time and effort must be expended in suppressing them. Does the difficulty of memorizing increase proportionately with added quantities of material? Ebbinghaus* concluded from his experiments with nonsense-syllables that the number of repetitions necessary for memorizing increases with enormous rapidity as the number of syllables increases. however far they may be separated. d. pp. Zeitschrift f. Meumann. 46^. vol. F. 27s /. The end a section is associated with its beginning instead of with the first few words of the following lines. but rather the imity of all that precedes and follows. and that is. experimenteUe PSdagogik. but also those remote from one another are influenced by associative bonds. ciations are ^Memory. Weber.^ however. tend to be recalled because of their numerous connections. but conversations with different persons on varying subjects do not recall one another.

on the other hand. to the resistance. the desire to save time leads to immefeel diate and persistent concentration period of "warming clination — up" —overcoming of attention. Without the pressure of resistance. no outstanding facts which special attention is given and around and principles to which related matter is grouped. as one of the iiiyestigators puts it: "Our ability to memorize increases with the demands made upon it. — a few little memory no is troubles begin here. The the initial disin- ^is are strengthened. and it can be gained in no other way. A survey of memory from the vantage-ground of its strength and weakness brings into view certain facts and First of all. In other words. fits his demands—to it the obstacles. Then. With a larger amount. efforts to the Man. And in memory. one that calls for the best that can be given. a sort of organic adaptation. however. relaxation sets in. without something to overcome.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 269 needed to memorize it. Not principles. their In committing to memory a short selection one does not that much effort is required. there ." One explanation of this fitting of memory to its task is probably the general ten- dency to adjustment. Individuals values. not try to remember everything. He does not do consciously. We should. shortened or eliminated. adults can no longer accuse their age for their memory failures. men reveal power only in response to pressure from without. as in other matters. The mature can remember better than children if they have more knowledge and use it. if the man has adequate reserve power he uses it because the result is worth the effort. If one's abilities are to be tested it must be through a bigger job. Unwillingness to recall related knowledge and to make the application cause many lapses of memory. and the associations In this way the work is accomplished in a proportionately shorter time. as we have It is seen. make Conse- or distinction between memory no mental emphasis. quently.

however. and facts are many. and many details are matters of Engagements are of only temporary moment. of course. quite apart from their content. be needlessly encumbered. figures. of which explanation. . The memory should not Dates. and these reasons involve relations with other facts —relations of cause and effect. and should be written down. But the repetitions should not occur at once. their stories have another humorous aspect. The is that these people are inIndeed. and then there should be no dall3dng. its comprehension will require special attention. In science. tions with other ideas Interfering associations are likely to occur recall unless the thinkiag is accurate and obstruct and clear. or similarity and These relations are interpreting connecby which the thought that we wish to remember acquires meaning. or literary interpretation. should not be overlooked.270 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK have said that much of the infonnation which we We expect to use can be readily found in books of reference. thing that is Repetition.' statistics. Surprise is often expressed at the ability of some men to remember humorous stories. contrast. the next move is to understand it. But imderstanding has a wider reach than is usually attributed to it. There must be reasons for the conclusions and interpretations. contiguity. and besides. If it is historical. for which comparatively few dates are needed. scientific. conclusions and principles should be remembered. They are few. Findiag meaning is the basis of thinking. this sort. Historical information should be grouped by landmarks. of succession. So their retention is not difficult. and through this wider significance it is later recalled. veterate story-tellers. and thinking guarantees retention. After material has been selected as worthy of a place in memory. Anyworth remembering deserves the effort that wiU fix it. principles will usually carry with them essential details. and thinkiag is fundamental to memory. Intervals of a day or more should separate them.

The repeating is so fixed that they tell the stories several times to the same persons. It is subject to law and Some of its laws have been determiaed by the investigations to which we have referred. Associations ^not artificial ones but those with meaning in them ^we have found to be the compelling force through which ideas are recalled. with care for the methods of improvement. Memory. The problem of memory therefore resolves itself into getting the right associations and "fixing" them. — Repetition fixes the stories. associations reach out further and include all related thoughts. freakish process that it is sometimes thought to be. also. — — to memory the associations are given in the text. indirectly they may be influenced by severe attention to what has been selected for retention. the "whole method. Here." with as rapid reading as clear comprehension permits. It is with the "fixing" process that the investigations contained in this chapter deal. When. In selections to be committed order. on the other hand. in favor of it. but no effort is made to remember those to whom they have already been related.MEMORY AND habit ITS IMPROVEMENT 271 the envied narrators are not conscious. or. and after a time I can generally recollect where to search for . getting the full meaning with all its implications and organizing the knowledge thus obtained are the foundation for remembering. In this case. and tries to get the import. one reads. yet hazy: telling it suffices to make me by vaguely me that I have ob- served or read something opposed to the conclusion which I am drawing. and also knowledge of one's personal memory deficiency. however. Therein lies their success and failure. Training coimts for much. repetition should not be neglected. then. and in repeating new meaning will be discovered. Although the impressionability and retentiveness of improved directly. is not the capricious. But here. Darwin says nerve-cells probably cannot be of himself: "My memory is cautious extensive. should be the plan.

." ^ Montaigne also speaks of his poor memory. AtUobiography. my So poor in one sense is my memory that I have never been able to remember for more than a few days a single date or a line of poetry. They organized their minds and work to retain the information they needed. he will man with smaller only apply the principles is upon which a serviceable memory ' built —and think. but neither with him nor with Darwin does the defect seem to have been a serious handicap in what they set themselves to accomplish.272 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK authority. tasks And the more humble if may do as well.

and in the answers are revealed some interesting peculiarities of human psychology. what are the chances for a truthful narration. Jester had three young deer in his wagon. at the homesick and sold his outfit to him that he might hasten 273 A . with their animals to meet expenses. and in the social world the narration of conversations or events often disrupts a The community and destroys the happiness of all concerned.CHAPTER VIII THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TESTIMONY AND RUMOR is accuracy of reports of what has been seen or heard a matter of wide interest. Assuming an earnest desire to relate the facts as they occurred. and Gates a buffalo They decided to travel together and give exhibitions calf. and does the feeling of accuracy assure a reasonably correct reproduction? These questions are fundamental to court testimony and to social intercourse. he fell into conversation with Gilbert Gates. was that he became tion. Perhaps these questions may be best approached by a concrete case. While fording a stream near Emporia. preliminary hearing. Missouri. In 187 1 Alexander Jester started east from Kansas in a light spring wagon with canvas top. few years ago the writer's attention was directed to a rather remarkable criminal trial. Gates had disappeared. In courts of justice it decides the liberty or life of the defendant. a yoimg man who was returning from homesteading land in Kansas. as the horses were drinking. drawn by two small pony horses. Young Gates was travelling in what was then known as a prairie-schooner drawn by a pair of heavy horses. When they reached Jester's explanaParis.

with his wife behind him on the same horse. when the "saw" the things which they related they were not aware that a crime had been committed. would observers. for unusual observation ? Second. a little over six feet. and at a time when no reason existed. one was taking his wedding-trip on horseback. vmder these circumstances. so far as known. powerful physique. as will be seen later. was seen leaving Paris driving Gates' Later lighter team tied behind. especially in a blinding snow-storm. after the lapse of thirty years. as carefuUy as the subsequent testimony indicated. the harness of the . and color of all the horses. would any one note. the minute details of what they had seen? The incidents were of the unimportant. terfered with accurate observation. weight about one hundred and eighty pounds. and. Two preliminary questions thus suggest themselves: First. But let us turn to the testimony. heavy team the heavy horses and various other articles known he sold home by Jester with his own have belonged to Gates. since. but rather to call attention to certo purchased. of the witnesses two women described the size heavy team.274 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK rail. the figure and appearance of Jester—height. snow-storm at the time when the crime was supposed to have been committed. Jester was soon arrested but escaped. with a Jaook-nose. be witnesses remember. this would have in- Further. until 1901. of course. the peculiarities of a chance traveller on the road. uninteresting sort that were likely to frequently experienced at that time. gray eyes. and large the trial When was held. and was not brought to trial. but which he claimed were It is not the purpose of the writer to decide the merits of the case. tain exceedingly interesting psychological features. Even the prairieschooner could hardly have been exceptional enough to attract special attention. there was a blinding called upon to testify. Thirty years had therefore passed since the events concerning which witnesses were Besides.

His description of the shirt agreed with that of Mrs. nor the man who helped start Jester off. wagon of a and though they were riding at a canter in the face heavy snow-storm. being on his hone3maoon. A man of thirty-six. It is interesting to note. with veils tied over their faces. and the dog. that Jester's horses were trotting past. they saw lying in the bottom the outlines of a human form with a buffalo-robe thrown over it. during the thaw and heavy rains of spring. the wagons. he and his father saw the body of a young man of eighteen or twenty years of age floating down the stream. described the horses attached to each wagon. 275 first They as it further testified that. and that. in this coimection. the canvas blew back and he saw the body of a cut. Gates of a shirt which she had made for her son. when they passed buffalo-robe A farmer swore that the still was covered with blood. looking into the approached. and was taking his wife behind him on his horse to their new home. A man who had just been married. . who consequently was six years of age at the time of the crime. when the events transpired. notwithstanding they were twelve and fourteen years of age. said anything about their observations until Gates' disappearance and Jester's arrest had been pubUahed. and tinother wit- ness that. and this in spite of the fact that his own horse was description of the The going at the "single foot" gait. and said that he had on a bluechecked shirt and blue overalls. that it was snowing hard. respectively. thirty years after the crime. other thoughts and interests would seem to be occup5ang his mind. testified that later. man with his throat body was that of young Gates. and the horses which they met were travelling at a fast trot in the storm. that neither the father of the six-year-old boy nor the girls who saw the outlines of a human form in hair the wagon. and they gave this testimony confidently. while helping Jester start his wagon.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR hands. He described the color of his and complexion.

' to whom the writer is indebted for the facts in the case. . They could be relied upon both in word and the highest terms of these witnesses. a prospective witness said that there was a buffalo-robe in the wagon the detectives would ask if it covered the outlines of a human form. after a lapse of thirty Yet it would be imfair to years. It was a firsttivated the information ments to those with whom news story.276 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK whatever the merits' of the case. The pictures were based on what witnesses said they saw. pictures of the horses and wagons. Joseph S. the testimony of these witnesses. Pictures were published. The detectives. when I was looking up evidence wanted to be entertaining truthful. Pinkerton detectives were employed and seven or eight leading criminal lawyers of Missouri and Chicago were engaged to assist the prosecution. The man would think it likely. "They and they were very friendly to me." preparatory to the then was the explanation of their remarkable exactness. speaks. After Jester's final arrest. a practising Saint Louis lawyer. me overnight trial. as they secured one fact after another. culnoticeable and least interesting details? mystery lies in the way in by suggestive questions and statethey conversed. and reportorial imagclass Jester ' Mr. Of course the case was featured in the county newspapers. assume that they were dishonest. It is quite evident that. Mclntyre. and what the detectives said they must have seen. was amazingly exact." he says. the best people of "They were among Monroe County. pictures of the dogj and pictures of scenes in the chain of events leading to the alleged crime. even in the smallest and in some instances least What The key to the which the case was worked up. When. in the publicity that it received. for example. pictures of and Gates. and soon that it did. The attorney for the defense. and in human psychology. All of those from whose testimony we have quoted were people of good standing in the commimity.

even as a possible fact. Then he believes that he saw or heard it. The he had with him enumerated. there are many ways in which the memory may be disturbed with- out the individual being aware of the alteration. the facts to which certain witnesses would swear were told to other witnesses and reported in the newspapers. all the events of the crime as it was conceived by witnesses. As an illustration. VI and 6. Despite the best intentions of truthful people. whose "memory" is more accurate than that of the others. until fact and fiction were indistinguishable. A few. The undetected vagueness of memorydetails of the witnesses furnished a fertile soil for the growth of imaginary pictures. reporters. and detectives were portrayed and described with much the effect of a. It is a well-known principle of psychology that if you tell a man something often enough he finally accepts it. wiU Mnrite the All. it ends by becoming fijrmly fixed. These alterations of memory have a bear- . movingpicture representation. Yet. and a brief reference to some of the causes of these memory dis- tortions will reveal the fickleness of this reproducer of past experiences. We must not forget that all this happened thirty years after the events. Indeed. ask a group of persons to indicate the kind of a figure six which is upon They will be found to divide between their watch-dial. will "remember" seeing the figure.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR ination supplied whatever 277 clothing of was lacking. recalling that the figures take their line of direction from the centre of the dial. the there is no six. The attempt to see faces in the moon is comparable to their experience. in watches with a second-hand articles Gates was described. With a dim outline. and as he continually repeats it. usually with what is in one's mind. or a sketch with several possibihties. the peculiarity has already been called. except those to whose attention figures upside down. there is always a strong tendency to fill in the outlines.

the The lady. So strong is this inclination that if there is nothing unusual in the occurrence the ing than the truth. first telling we may be fully aware of the distinction. promised to look at the note she had made ten years previously of the transaction. vol. The tendency to enlarge upon a story is human. however.278 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK ing upon reports of events given either as sworn testimony or in social intercourse." that we be participants in the events. The note was examined. the fiction expels the reahty from memory and It is not necessary. be strictly Prinoiples 0} Psycholegy. illustration James quotes a from Carpenter's Hours of Work and "It happened once to the writer to hear a most scrupulously conscientious friend narrate an incident of tableturning to which she appended an assurance that the table rapped writer being confounded when nobody was within a yard of it. Such accoxmts we almost always make both more simple and more interest- quote what we should have said what we reaUy said or did. is This is is especially true when the marvellous involved. One of the causes of unintentional perversion of is memory the constant talk that an exciting occurrence produces." says James. ere long. There is always a tendency to say what we wish might have happened. and all are intimately related to the psychology of the day's work. reigns in its stead alone. by this latter fact. and was foimd to contain the distinct statement that the table rapped when the hands of six persons rested upon it I The lady's memory ' as to all other points proved to i. story-teller transforms the We common into the imcommon.i "is the accounts we give to others of our experiences. Man good Play. pp. saturated with the mysterious. "The most frequent source of false memory. This is especially true when we ourselves participated in the events. and in the or done rather than But. 313 J. . though fully satisfied of the accuracy of her statement.

and then allowed to pass intct the hands of the medium. Afterward the cleaning is remembered as having been done just before the writing.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR correct.. hopes. and trying to recall whether they occurred or not. In all cases "in which a Ta. in descriptions of occult phenomena where unusual care Many times the slate has is needed to detect deception. and his memory is likely to be wrong. We think of what we wish had happened. been cleaned by the sitter. We may have performed the act. however. he forgets that he has only imagined a thing of which his thinking. and sometimes fears. i. and soon we are unable to distinguish between things that actually happened and our thoughts about what might have occurred. much . through a confusion of what he at first rranembered and what he afterward often imagined. usually ends in their recollection. Again. It may be. for example. we. he is very apt to come in the end to seem to remember clearly things of which he was at first very doubtThis happens ful.a. insert this act later in the memory This is especially noticeable series. The reasons behind this are much the same as those that produce this result through much talking. and the slate as not having left the sitter's hands. are the controlling factors. but not at the moment when we locate it in the chain of events. At times this takes a form that may be called retroactive memory. that we examined the ground where an alleged crime occurred. of possible interpretations of actions. it may be a transposition of events. In other words. but our examination was made before the hour of the crime. Knowing what we ought to have done on a given occasion we think the action into the memory series.n frequently thinks over his experiences. faith." 279 good and in this point she had erred in entire Closely related to the effect of fluence of much talking is the in- Long-continued pondering over details which one feels must have happened. after the crime. Our wishes. e.

finds striking departures from the truth. Boswell. 39s/." he sa)^. Johnson. 90. taken on the very day. commenting upon this influence of t3ie imagina- tion. translated by John and J. Adam. It is difficult to believe how far the imagination of emotional. a warm imagination often leads one to believe that events have been experienced when the only to suggestion." Moreover. p. pp. vol. His memory. Boswell's Life of Johnson. JMurphy. vol. F. We must not think. I am persuaded without any consciousness of error. and at last can no longer distinguish between what they have really seen and what they have only imagined. it if and then remembers what he were a real memory of an actual fact. note. though he is entirely oblivious of inaccuracies. easily emotional persons can be made to relate occurrences which they have never seen or heard.28o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK certain. referring to his first meeting with Johnson^ gives an illus- "Mr. sire to stick to the exact truth. and that without . though highly intellectual." ' The old soldier with his wonderful tales of events in which he participated. has given an account of this meeting considerably different from mine. Criminal Investigation. B. has undoubtedly deceived him. i. is the narration This of course subjects the "remembered" facts to all the inaccuracies of hearsay evidence. but which never occurred as he relates them. any recourse In spite of their earnest defirst opportunity they strike off to the right or left. he says. One has only to note how persons will carry them. pp. In my note. 453. and he supposes himself to have been present at a scene which he has probably heard inaccurately described by others. . "in his Essay and Genius of Dr. in which I tration' of this. i6.^ "that an honest witness will at all hazards stick to the truth. memory was not has imagined as is an illustration. Hill. the Life on ' ' ' Kuhlmann. at the end of near thirty years. on the source of information concerning them of others. . L. American Journal of Psychology. 77. edited by G. . Gross.

and the coin was then placed near the others on the ground. and coins two feet from him dance around. note.. and would be regisAgain.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR am confident I is 281 marked everything material that passed. he said tba/ he had taken a coin from his own pocket and placed it op J^'^ juggler's own coin. referring to Mrs." Mr. as if she herself had been present. . from recollection. as of many others." Piozzi's account of escaped her. leap from the An officer who was ground and strike one another. Boswell says:' "Mrs. vol. when the fact is that it was communicated to her by me. p. has given an erroneous account of this She pretends to relate it incident. It made may easily be imagined that this. An illustration of this tendency has been related by Hodgson. made a strong impression on my mind. with all its circumstances. 385. and in present at dinner in the the course of the conversation the officer described the marvellous trick which he had witnessed in the afternoon. 4. of this gentleman. ' Proceedings 0/ the Society for Psychical Research. in her Anecdotes. an incident and conversation between Doctor Johnson and himself. p. 2. after which it displayed the same propensity to gymnastic feats as the or three other travellers were evening of the same day.* A Hindoo juggler was sitting upon the groimd making wooden figures. cit. Two 1 Op. present "drew a coin from his pocket. and the true point has tered with pecuHar attention. Referring to the movements of the coin. "and asked the juggler if this coin would also jimip. my first in- terview with Doctor Johnson. vol. The juggler repMed in the affirmative." Another cause of false memory is that the purpose to do something at the moment may later lead us to insert the act in its proper place in the series of events without our being aware tiiat we did not do it. She has represented it as a personality. and I am sure that I should not have omitted one so well known in the literaryno mention world. Hodgson says. Piozzi. 216.

We not only allow our attention to be distracted by actions which are or are not intended to produce the distraction. however. and appealed to me for confirmation. To the preceding causes of defective observation and memory disturbance we must also add biased opinions. They almost iavariably lead one to overlook details opposed to one's personal interests or convictions. received the coin from the fingers of the ofl&cer as the latter was stooping down. but had allowed the ofl&cer himself to place it on the ground. the trick. the juggler leaning forward. The officer had apparently intended to place the coin upon the ground himself. and laid it close to the others. and then we fill in the gap by some conjectured or imagined events which form a juncture with the contiguous portions of the memory series and from that time on they appear to be an integral part of our memory of what happened. but in some way they are repressed by the opposing ideas that . but we also forget that it has been distracted. but as he was doing so. These interpolations account for many of our distortions of facts. or is in opposition to opinions which one holds and perhaps has already expressed. but the ofl&cer was emphatic in repeating his statement.282 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK this coia ground himself." Evidently. yet that had indulged in the samt His wife ventured to suggest that the juggler had taken the coin and placed it on the ground. and in a most unobtrusive manner. mistaken. the ofl&cer's imagination of himself as placing the coin upon the ground suppressed and finally obliterated the impression made by the juggler's action in receiving the coin. I had watched the transaction with freaks as the other coins. would have been frustrated. This is a phase of the tendency to forget what one prefers not to believe. as actually performed. dexterously. If the juggler had not thus taken the coin. He was. special curiosity. as I knew what was necessary for the performance of the trick. hopes is not true. A person does not intentionally forget these things.

" he says. Most of the sitof the robe was drawn into the cabinet. Scores testimony of believers — » Op." Hodgson relates an incident which came under "At a materialization stance given his own observation. "a supposed 'spirit-form' appeared. would make a comparatively deep and lasting impression upon consciousness.. pp. When the figure retired to the cabinet. and trying to recall whether certain things happened. earlier chapter to more ing beliefs.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR are 283 Reference has been made in an Darwin's observation of this failing in himself. Long-continued thinking about matters which have a controlling personal interest. a 'believer. the door closed upon a portion The door opened again slightly. Every one is susceptible to this subtle force. by Firman. draped in a semi-transparent flowing robe so transparent. and in courts of justice the testimony of interested witnesses is subject to this defect. " Events that under ordinary circumstances. at which I was present." ^ Bias naturally prepares the way for the influence of suggestion as a mental disturbance to any one giving testimony or "repeating" conversation. Because interested witnesses are persuaded of the justice of their case they have dominatcongenial. and the end of the robe. and imagination readily supplies the evidence for their truthfulness. 38^-390- . or if the witnesses were intent upon discovering a trick. waving it to and fro. but one. This mental attitude renders the in the "occult" valueless for "supernormal" exhibitions. cU. simply because of the absorption of the spectator's interest in the supposed 'supernormal' manifestations. that Firman's bare arm was visible behind it.' averred conscientiously that the fabric was not withdrawn. is likely to end in the recollection of the desired circumstances. ters perceived this clearly. but an acquiescent state of ndind enables the effect to be produced more easily. and that he saw it slowly melt away. in fact. glide past or are swiftly forgotten.

for the case caused great excitement. vol." as D. So ideas were planted in the minds of those to be called to • Instances can be found in various books which reveal the methods of "mediums."" Since the "medium" frankly says that he wrote both messages with his own hand. ' S. "and after the lapse of of gaslight. confiding state of mind is is all that is needed." And again. Then an A conjurer. was being written. "were not only characteristic of my beloved sister while in the form. as well as. by published pictures and newspaper stories. produced a slate communication from the sister of a sitter. The suggestions in the Jester case were given by the questions of the detectives and reporters. "a short communication from my mother. Abbott's Behind the Scenes ivilh the Mediums. Proceedints (4 the Society for Psychical Reseofck. to my mind. "but the handwriting so clearly resembled hers that. there cannot be a shadow of doubt as to its identity. brother. We then joined hands. It was a common slate. husband in the same illuminated mask. p. washed clean and placed "flat upon the table with a bit of pencil about the size of a pea underneath." the same recipient insisted. 4. or pectant." the recipient said. No mortal has faculCharlotte. P. Davey. J. and by conversation in the country stores. under the tion that full glare we tinctly see the slate undulate. in her own handwriting. posing as a medium. a and hear the communicacopy of which I herewith strive in vain to unlock append: 'My dear Brother: You the hidden mysteries of the future." one deception is easy.284 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK have seen the face of a departed sister.'" These lines ties to comprehend infinity. Here illustration. more directly. about ten could dis- minutes. It was widely and daily discussed. "was found plainly written. the resemblance to the writing of his sister and mother must have been imagined by a submissive mind yielding to the suggestion that he would receive messages from them. of those present states. or Hereward Carrington's Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism.^ An ex- of people wife. 405- .

they will never be called upon to make a deposiIn the laboratory. for it makes the other party stick the less. once said: "It is a good point of cunning for a man to shape the answer he would have in his own words and propositions. drawing on a number of investigations. Consequently. . Lord Bacon. pp. enforces this view. "is greater when statements made are answers to particular questions. is not the case with what they see or hear on the street or in social interinvestigation of observation course." he says. . i6." It should be remembered in compar.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 285 the stand. so far as they are aware. tion regarding what they see or hear. with that keen insight into human nature that he always showed. "and this tendency to false memory is the greater the longer the time since the original experience and the less carefully one has observed. and for this reason the results are more favorable to memory than in matters of every-day life when events come suddenly and unexpectedly upon the observers and when. Further evidence of the influence of suggestion » is ob- Essays ' " Of Cunning." ^ Experiments have proved that. in general. "Memory illusion. ing the results c^btained by the experimental method that in most of the laboratory tests the subjects know that an and memory is being made. vol. again. and when planted they grew. about one-fourth of his statements are incorrect. when the average man reports events or conversations from memory and conscientiously believes that he is telling the truth." : American Journal of Psychology. . and this. and they may as frequently suggest the wrong thing as they do the right. 395 /." ^ Kuhlmann. subjects are on their guard against such extraneous also. the influences as suggestion. they are more observant. than when the statements are made spontaneously on the part of the subjects without special questioning questions are always more or less suggestive in the first place.

as. We made inquiries and watched the newspapers any such accident.' When. "when suddenly a runaway horse and wagon came dashing by. a so-called spiritualistic tained from the study of reports of different witnesses to a series of events." he said. the testimony indicated. we asked two preliminary questions regarding the value of some of the evidence given in the trial of Jester: First. with few if any corrections. We rushed to the comer to assist the injured. for unusual observation? Second. are written tion of Whenever by the different observers. The inference from these two facts is strong that the "remembrances" of the co-signers of the account are greatly aided by the suggestions of the written report placed in their hands. Reports of observers of other performances reveal the same disagraement." As will be recalled. especially at a time when no reason so far as known. Another form of suggestion was recently reported to the writer by a physician. as carefully as but were unable to learn of and I are considered close observers. turned suddenly into another street. have already been made. and then apparently stopped with a loud crash and shriek. My sister and we would have been wilKng to swear that the wagon was demolished and that some one was severely injured. will show this. ' the pecuHarities of a chance on the road. however. But to our amazement no horse or vehicle was in sight nor was there any evidence of a collision. traveller existed. the account is usually indorsed as written. without commimicaany kind from the beginning of the seance till the separate accounts of the same sitting reports have been finished.the accounts of to which reference the several witnesses of Davey's ejthibitions. the witnesses are never in agree- ment even regarding critical matters. . waiting for a car. "My sister and I were standing at a street-comer one afternoon. would any one note. for seance. and citations A study of . the report is written by one of the observers and then passed to the others for criticism or approval.286 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK example. The horse ran rapidly for a block.

4. vol. Indeed. 399. to which reteence was made above.. in Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. Speaking of an abridged account of a stance. second-hand accounts and those told or written some time after the events have occurred are still less dependable. and psychology replies definitely. will plastic Hodgson says' that "a series of incidents which indicate. experiments discredit positive statements many made in reporting experiences or conis versations even Interest if the information given shortly after the events occurred. to be sure. Unrehable. cU. 405. But persons are often called upon to give information regarding matters that attracted no special attention when they transpired. how the chief trick was performed. for memory is exceedingly and prone to error.^ 1 Social gossip. as I think. as in the Jester case. not assure truthful accounts. and it is always exposed to the deflecting influences of repeated narration. The keenest interest and closest attention. as memory based on observation may be. No. which according to the original re- port is described as having been obtained on an ordinary described in the later version as having been ob- slate. are entirely omitted. with its generous mixture of error. of course. . to both questions. however. p. but the answers bear upon reports of events in general. as will be seen later. and writing. » Op. intended actions not carried out. and suggestion. and attention. continuous thinking about the affair with numerous fictitious insertions. For excellent examples. see article by S. is tained between sealed double slates. biased opinions. together with the substitution of events which did not occur. however. tend to fix facts and descriptions in memory. Davey. are evidently the rule in mem- ory rather than the exception. p.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 287 would observers be likely to remember the details of what they had seen after the lapse of thirty years? These questions were asked with reference to a particular case. J." Omission of things that actually happened.

"I have every reason to think. transpositions. that they had been told the things by detectives. Certain things are reported to have been said or to have occurred. and it was so with the witnesses in the trial of Jester. fit the substitutions. that the general belief in the and the fact that the witnesses had talked over these details for talked to many years." says the attorney for the defense in the Jester case. convinced. say. and interpolations without mental disturbance. though their stories were told and their testimony was given thirty years after the events which. and soon it is assumed that they happened. I am guilt of Jester. and that they had seen many pictures of the events. all produced such a psychological effect upon the witnesses that they confused what they remembered with the creations of imagination. This observation. and that they thought they actually saw all of the details which they related. has been verified by my subsequent experience in trial courts. however. or witness. that they had been would swear. Does the feeling of accuracy assure a reasonably correct reproduction. As for the more general and fundamental question. even the man who was six years old when the events occurred and who described minutely the color of the shirt naturally into the series memory and overalls of the body floating down the stream. Then they become a part of the recollection. did not have the element of interest needed to fix even the attention. when an earnest desire to relate the facts as they occurred is assimied? the answer of psychology is equally definite: the feeling of accuracy is no proof of a correct reproduction. feels that he is telling the truth.288 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK prepares the stage for innumerable omissions and substitu tions. "that all of the witnesses. I have seen many witto which others . I may. believed that they were testifying truly. The honest narrator. The omissions are forgotten. when they were observed. however far his statements may deviate from the facts.

TESTIMONY AND RUMOR nesses 289 telling the truth but who unquestionably thought they were who wholly failed to do so. Statements are misunderstood. views are perverted. much is forgotten. in every-day life. The writer is aware that. Honest witnesses are subjected to the same sort of cross-examination as is applied to those under suspicion. in American practice. The mental attitude at the moment. and inserted the of events observed. transposed. the attorneys too often try to confuse the truth. and conversations Actions are in Observation is unreliable. and suggestion are always exerting their influence. however. the judge is merely to decide on its admissibility. toward the one is a large determining factor. personal bias. Practically. are given. Then the task of separating truth from error to the jury. and those opposed to confuse them. . and every effort is made to confuse the memory instead of to assist it in recalling. Then that which memory is replaced by products of the imagination. and has been lost from — say. and reports of conversations are subject to the same inaccuracies. or toward the whole situation. substituted. the personal attitude whom we are quoting. so far as court rules and decisions permit." fickleness of the The which this attorney menaory of well-meaning witnesses has observed in court trials is equally true of the reports of events. obtaining and producing evidence is the duty of the parties' attorneys. and in this last. The speaker is made to say what we think he should have said what we would like to have had him opinions added. series omitted. The attorneys for one side endeavor to nurse remembrances. memory has not Unfortunately. Suggestions. or falsehood of is left which is too often composed distinctions and drawing inferences. abimdant proof of the wa3nvardness of altered the practice of trial courts. the purpose of men who are inexperienced in making in the trial is to lay the facts before the jury. actions. Theoretically. qualifjdng remarks pass unnoticed.

E£p." ^ And. 22. Justice Swayne. referring to the effect of much thinking and of the imagination... another judge says that courts are "fully aware of the ease with which honest witnesses can persuade themselves that they remember some bygone circumstance which they are ingeniously induced to think that they remember. 289. B and A. « 33. Antisdel. be it highly improbable that any witness the single day it accurately. Referring to errors of A few quotations will show memory from some this. of the causes discussed under the Jester case. said: "The confidence of the attacking witnesses is often in proportion to the distance in time that one is removed from the other. S. S. Rep."* Judge Choate. Their imaginations are wrought upon by the influences to which their minds are subjected. and beguile their memory. 143. lo. judges in their decisions are taking some of the facts of psychology into account. Cos. giving the opinion of the United States Supreme Court. — success is striven for regardless of its consequences to others. It would seem as if the time had come when it should be some one's duty to discover the truth rather than to obscure it to promote JusThough in court practice tice rather than to win cases. 284. in evaluing memory after a long period of time. in the nature of things. Pat. Rep. Justice Brown. Mr. per Shipman. once more. 275. thinking also of the element of time. Quoted in Hawes v. ^ 143. 922. U. It is sometimes said in praise of a criminal lawyer that he has secured quittals than more acany other lawyer. Pe''.. expressed the ^pinion that "the ' ' * J. Justice ness of interested parties to Brown twenty-five years expressed the opinion that "after the lapse of it would.. said: "Witnesses whose memories are prodded by the eagerelicit testimony favorable to themselves are not usually to be depended upon for accurate information."^ who saw this fence for was exhibited would be able to describe Mr." ' And again.290 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is Their aim to acquit or convict. 924. . 275.

341. The instructor in charge definitely till ' 4. 349. says: "Some. Rep. if we can determine. 741V. but which are supplied only by the imagination and the associaof the influence of And. again." Now." * When a matter becomes serious enough to be a persistent subject of conversation it assiunes an importance in the minds of those who were present which it did not possess originally. That we do not observe events and the persons engaged in them as accurately as is commonly supposed is often proved in matters of every-day life. S.. 730." ^ gives the result of his experience with witnesses quite as when he says that "things are told to persons they verily believe that they witnessed them. U. 42. .. the residue of fact left in the memory after an experience. from defective recollection. Observers then become possible witnesses. The regular work of the class was in progress. one of the young women being engaged in making a report on an investigation which she had made. yet people continue to have perfect confidence in what they "see. 52. Rep. Fed. approximately.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR effort of the 291 memory often supplies circimistances harmonious with the general impression of a fact or event. between what may be expected from the memory and that which is the product of the imagination stimulated by suggestion and the other mental excitants that have been mentioned. and as they think about it and talk it over." ^ And still another judge tion of ideas.. Justice Field. in the utmost sincerity. speaking much conversation about a case. and we repeat events until we are ready to swear. we shall be able to strike a balance between truth and fiction. that we were spectators of their occurrence. » MUler Gotten. s G«. With this purpose in view the following scene was enacted before a small class in psychology. ' 4. will blend what they themselves saw or heard with what they have received from the narration of others. Mr. they imagine that they gave it closer observation than was the case.

It ex- ploded with the intonation usual with these children's Fourth of July torpedoes. This package contained a brick so that the occurrence might not be too inconspicuous. fell back. AU then hurried out the open door. Miss T.. The only member of the class who was aware that anything out of the ordinary was to happen was the young woman who was to give the report. The entire scene occupied less than thirty seconds and it was startling to the class. flourished a large yellow banana as though it were a pistol. protesting at the interruption. Miss R. and as he arose he threw a small torpedo on the floor. immediately after entering. He stood up at once. custom when his students give reports. H. "I'm shot. violent interruption of her paper might give too serious a nervous shock. few moments after the beginning of the report an altercation was heard in the corridor. believing that riot. then the door burst open and four students." and was caught by Miss R. It was feared that an unexpected. dashed into the room. so she was informed just before she began to read that there would be a sudden interruption and that she should not be dis- —the writer—was turbed by it. But it also produced a condition of ." This assurance cut out at once tbe element of reality. where the writer A was sitting among several members of the class. K.292 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Since this is his sitting with the class. it was a real Some of the "witnesses. and aU struggled across the room to the side opposite the door. all of whom jumped up and crowded back against the waU. it caused no expectation of anything unusual." especially the young women. two young men and two young women. picking up the brown-paper package which had been dropped near the door by Miss R. crjdng. dropped a brown-paper package on the floor. were in such a state of fright that it seemed a wise precaution to reassure them with the information that the scene was "made to order.

Let us now see what was observed with sufficient accuracy to enable the "witnesses" to record the information at once. but definite instructions were given to name the participants and to describe their clothing as accurately as possible.. prominent in college activities. None of those who took part were in any way disguised and the brief scene was enacted in full view of the spectators. If the reader will turn to the "scene" it will be noticed that only a few things were done and that these few things were quite definite and conspicuous. Yet — — . after they had finished writing. and weakened the force of the one or two suggestions offered by the scene. This adds greatly to the significance of the meagre observations. women. and returned to their seats. The third. Four persons burst into the room. Three of those who burst into the room were members of the class. was not a member of the class but she was a senior. The effect of the announcement was at once observable.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 293 comparative mental calmness. and the events occurred within the circle. and since the class was small there were twenty-nine students in it they were well known to their associates. and all of the class knew her. Miss R. To avoid uncertainty regarding this the observers were asked. enabled the observers to review the events more clearly. since they were seated in an irregular circle. Blankbooks were immediately distributed and the members of the class were asked to write down what they had seen. They were Then there were two men and two readily discernible. It is doubtful whether an arrangement of persons could be planned more suitable for easy observation. The "play" was not overloaded. whether the names and faces of any of the participants were unfamiliar to them and they all said that they were not. as was usual with that class. Care was taken not to make any suggestions. Those who had crowded back to escape the "danger" breathed again. This number was not so large as to be confusing.

for recognition by elimination of those present played its r61e. some characterized them as "a crowd" or "a mob. to a few less than four. o. narration was supplemented by what was essentially interrogation. 4 recognized Surprising as these figures that. In doing this the "witnesses" were forced to face the question of numbers. favorable to observation and memory. the results are nevertheless too . Though the class four participants were well known to the all of and no disguises were used. inadvertence.294 of the PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK twenty-nine "witnesses. but this left three vacant chairs. therefore. no one recognized them. though without suggestion. This could not well be avoided without taking chances of having the unknown to members of the class. and probably participants some of the "witnesses" unintentionally noted the absen- . but to the majority more. they could recognize an acquaintance whom they had seen at least three times a week for eight months. To the others it was an indefinite number. may seem to those who think even under excitement. This is important because. in this respect. It seemed the better plan. The result so far as concerns recognition by the twenty-nine "witnesses" is the following: 7 recognized 3. II recognized 7 recognized 2." That only three actually observed the number was conclusively shown again when they tried to name and describe the participants. to select the actors chiefly from the class." only three 1 knew that four These three also realized that two were young men and two were women. Failures and omissions were therefore quite clearly due to inability to comply rather than to persons dashed into the room. i. It should be emphasized that the "witnesses" were definitely asked to name and describe the actors.

AU except one of these were women.. one.. as to mistaken identity. and. three who sat in the second row of the circle. 295 though they were requested to rely wholly upon mem- The writer is of the opinion. and who never have an article of dress out of order. The next largest number of descriptions of any one of the actors was six. the object of these descriptions. since this by time they were greatly interested in the experiment. They said either "dark suit" or "blue suit. a yoimg woman who had never been in the class and was not present was "saw" a member of the class "seen" by two. and one "saw" that his shoes were muddy and his face dirty. that the ob- servers tried honestly to conform to instructions. and others two or The largest number of descriptions of any one actor was eleven. two noticed a conspicuous red tie." the Only color of another suit that H. he is one of those young men who are always neat. those three. a former member of tlie class who had withdrawn about three months earlier. and a . by one. Some "described" only one.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR tees ory. by one. These descriptions referred to Miss T. neither of which statements was true. Eight "saw" persons who not only took no part in the performance. Of these eight. still another young woman. who wore a green skirt. Only thirteen of the twenty-nine attempted any sort of description even of whom they recognized. but who were either not present or who sat at a distance from the place where the scene was staged. The descriptions of clothing were so general as to be worthless for purposes of identification. H. and on this day his shoes were polished as usual. As a matter of fact. Now. had occasionally worn. again. a member of the class who sat at a distance from the scene. however. but none of the eleven made that distinction." with the exception of one who gave "bluish gray. wore a dark-blue suit. white chiffon blouse. likewise not a member of the class and not present.

but four "saw" a red one on her." Neither The young men was painted.296 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Only one of the six described her skirt as green. she. One clothed later was "remembered" as the only color." And finally. No one noticed her black hat. . She was described by three. which was true of her brown hat." And again. was described by three. "I saw a man all painted. Evidently. which was not true. was the only observer who noted the tie of one of the young men minutely enough to recall its red of the of handkerchief on his neck. without mentioning her white blouse. who wore a greenish suit. K. and neither wore any sort Recall of the "red and green striped tie" on one of the young men is interesting because. One saw her in a long grayish coat. As a matter of fact. she wore none. other attempts at description were either with mistaken recognition or without recognition. and another in a tan coat. green left an impression which black hat. That the "de"Mr. and a brown hat. No one noticed that his suit was green. "both of the boys had on dark suits and one of them a green and red striped tie. All of these said that her hat was black. white blouse. and still another. nevertheless. and no one observed that his coat collar was turned up. "the [identity unknown] "wore a light suit. Three said she wore a green suit. This was the color of the hat which she had worn in class up to this time.. her in a brown skirt. One said that he had a black eye. a dark gray." young woman" [this observer saw but one] "had on a large. dark hat. and though she "recognized" one who had never been in the class and who was not present on this occasion. Another. with a red handkerchief around his neck. wore a black skirt. though this observer saw practically nothing but confusion." scriptions" may be complete I' will quote them. One said that he had on a dark-blue suit. with coat collar turned up. Miss R. two of them putting a feather on it. the young man dark clothes.

and it she and the young All this woman sitting next ex- changed the seats. side-light An illuminative upon the kind of things observed. These descriptions of the participants are all that were given all that the "witnesses" were able to remember after the excitement through which they had passed. of an unplanned. trivial incident. . an abundant crop of imaginary pictures and scenes will be readily grown. and without suggestions of any sort. Examination and cross-examination. The descriptions illustrate the rough sketches mentioned above. "saw" several things that did not occur. 297 Evidently. Of even greater importance. however. I do not mean that lawyers deliberately set themselves to the task of bringing out false testimony. They fit scores of men or women who might have been in the vicinity of the "crime. and who. and with soil so admirably prepared for the purpose. for example. seen shortly after the events. even under excitement. are in their very nature suggestive. was observed and recalled. Their inadequacy for — purposes of identification is apparent. and the mind's imaginings are the material that gives Hfe One who was and reality to the picture. newspaper reports. women identified scribe the clothing in addition. inability to recall and deis scribe certain things not necessarily proof of the worth- lessness of all observations of a witness. which can be filled out in a variety of ways to satisfy the bias of the witnesses or the needs of the prosecution. and by a witness who was unable to deof any of the participants. One of the young women in recovering in her excitement dropped her purse. Rough outlines which can be filled in are the structures out of which illusions are made. as was afterward learned. however. is the fact that the indefiniteness and vagueness of these descriptions indicate a state of mind that makes a fertile soil for suggestions in the form of questions." quite as well as they apply to the actors themselves. is an accurate description. and innuendoes in court trials.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR and green stripes.

This. "I saw the blaze. "I know some one fired a pistol because I saw the flash." wrote one of the young men. who did illustrates the tendency to fill in the outline memories. The persons who were not present at the scene were inserted by some of the Conversation with spectators for one reason or another. this must have had its origin in a stray dog that had been wandering around the quadrangle during the morning and which these two witnesses afterward remembered having seen. and.. pick it up as she hurried out. The yellow banana and then pointed at H." This was aU that was said during the course. staggered back. Five heard or saw a pistol-shot. was able to describe the package as a brown-paper parcel. of was the result of suggestion. Only one of them. . At that moment the toy torpedo was exploded and H. while one thought it was H. however. and finally as present at the time.' Several things done plainly in front of the witnesses were Six saw either not observed or were wrongly observed. however. of these. was flourished ' Those interested will find abundant illustrations in Illusions. all that impressed these six in this connection was that something was picked up. suflSicient incitement to produce in an exceedingly interesting Two of the witnesses Since no dog was present interpolation man"saw" a dog in the room. crying: "I'm shot. Apparently. by James Sully. might be sufficient to cause his insertion into the scene as one of the participants. or merely the sight of him." was the statement of a young woman.298 is PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK thought of in connection with them. but five of these This said it was Miss T. No one saw Miss R. and the word was not used. Three of the five saw the flash. That sight alone is "memories" was ghown ner. Six saw some one pick up the parcej. some one shortly before entering the class. one of the young four noticed women drop something it.

" "All were beating H. to quiet him. Finally.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 299 performance.) "H. The description is that of a young Italian who had been a member of the class earlier in the year. by the question. and the others seemed to be pursuing him. was short." "I recognized only H. except as the instructor protested the presence of the "rioters.. taken in connection with the things mentioned above. tators but Hence. H. was throwing his arms about wildly." This evidently refers to H. named the Italian among the participants.. but who withdrew several months beLater. since the other young man had hght hair and followed H. whom they dragged out of the room. Further. and Miss T. not what they heard. It is another instance of interpolation." though she did not wear one and had not been accustomed to do so in the college. as he seemed about to fall. "Mr. one of the yoimg men wrote: "They were attempting to hold back a man with long. caught H. into the room. H. Besides.. As an illustration of the different ways in which the same thing is seen by several witnesses.'s necklace. black hair. the pistol-shot was not suggested Several other things seen by the spec- which did not correspond with the facts are also worth recording since. the "witnesses" were asked to report what they saw." "They seemed to be pursuing H. I will quote the statements of those who described the entrance of H. was trying. One "noticed Miss T. entered the room first. except . this witness in his deposition fore the experiment. when the "pistol" was fired he was the one at whom it was pointed. however." "They appeared to be trying to subdue H. looked as though he had been seriously injured. they reveal the illusory possibilities of the hxmian mind." (U." and ordered them out.'s hair. and he seemed to be a kind of leader." This was suggested by the fact that H." "Mr. One short report is worth quoting in full because. U." "H. was a member of the class. came rushing in and fell on his knees.

dark hat and a white shirtwaist. and confusion. five of the reports did not contain an item of truth or fiction." The young men were not below the medium height. a young man rushed in with a young woman hanging on his arm." she wrote. The young woman had on a large." The testimony of the only member of the class who had been forewarned-^the yoimg woman who was to have given her report on an investigation ^is especially interesting because surprise should have been largely absent in her case and fear must have been wholly eliminated. The young men had on dark clothes. I don't know who he was. "was Miss T. Finally. She had been told that she would be interrupted and that she should not be disturbed but should observe what happened. "I heard screaming. I cannot tell who the people were. there were two women though she saw but one. and. They appeared to be below the medium height. Six otfiers were unable to testify to anything more than the identity of one of the participants. all else was a blank. To these. Yet it contains nothing of evidential value. . with hair standing on end. "All I saw. and with a red handkerchief around his neck. These witnesses saw nothing except a mob bursting into the room. the "witness" for the recognition of unintentionally reconstructed the scene from her imagination. as we have seen. certain things were definite and these are the ones short scene and being sure that as planned. The writer is aware of the difficulty of arranging even a — it is carried out exactly In the one of which we have been speaking. They were followed by a young man. was that of an intelligent young woman who calmly viewed an exciting scene in a more or less impersonal attitude. Then I saw a man all painted. the struggle was followed by a report that I thought was a revolver. however.300 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK one of the participants. They went right in front of me. with a tin bucket in her hand." therefore. "the door was pushed open. Her "testimony." she wrote.

p. Yet it would have been accepted because they were eye-witnesses. 71. Their minds were therefore prepared. who had followed the rehearsals of the scene. d. threw the things thief. when caught and brought back was at once recognized as the robber by the wife of the janitor She also identified the defendant as of the apartment. color of clothes. yet they were surprisingly incompetent as witnesses. two men swore that the defendant was the man whojji they had seen carrying the ' Arckk. The number of persons bursting into the room. A case^ in a German and police-court illustrates this transfer of identification also indicates that such mistakes may not be infrequent in actual court cases. Further. and positive recognition is persons by well-intentioned. was accused of having stolen cerThe evidence showed that the tain articles from a house. in away. was present to see that nothing was omitted and nothing done that was not provided for in the programme. Identification is. gesamte Psychologie. The "witnesses" had little definite knowledge of what actually happened. Had a crime been committed their testimony would have had shght value. and that Zinny. for purposes of control. A seventeen-yearold boy. dropping of the package by one and picking it up by another these are aU matters con- — cerning which there can be no uncertainty. the yellow banana. to recognize one against whom there might appear to be corroborative evidence. In our drama-experiment the observers were well acquainted with the participants. unless the aUbi is convincing. their identity. 9. Only a few identified actors.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 301 upon which we have judged the evidence. had the affair involved a real crime. and in several instances these identifications were so uncertain as to be readily transferred to some one else under the influence of suggestion. . named Zinny. fundamental in criminal cases. Further. uninterested commonly accepted. vol. of course. a departmental instructor. the attempted flight and pursuit. Ziimy. the thief.f.

seemed perfect and no witnesses were Before passing sentence the called for the defense. He took Zinny's place to show the judges how little reliance can be placed upon testimony regarding identity. therefore. and a subordinate court official. that one of the prosecuting attorneys in the trial of "Zinny. The and who was pursued and caught. Returning now to the general question of observation and its evidential value. and the judges could be convinced that the testimony of so many honest folk was erroneous only after the real Zinny and the jailer were brought before them and had verified Nowakowski's identification of himself. in the opinion of the complex they test observation of details that could hardly be expected imder excitement. several drama-experiments similar to the one described from the classroom of Washington University have been enacted purpose. It was then learned. professor of criminal law in. by others for the same Some of these scenes.302 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK identification things out of the gate. The explanation of this farcical ending to a serious trial was that some days before Nowakowski had been convicted by testimony which he knew to be false. the University .ter are Von Liszt. He had. to the further discomfort of the judges. are too — who la. and yet did not recognize him when he appeared before them as defendant in the assumed r61e of Zinny. yet all conform reasonably well to the conditions of an actual writer. arranged with Ziimy to exchange r61es in the court proceedings. had participated in the original case against Nowakowski. To the amazement of the court he replied that the verdict did not interest him in the least because he was not Zinny. judges asked the defendant whether he had anything to say for himself. The court felt that its dignity had been trifled with and its feelings cruelly wounded. but Nowakowski." one of the presiding judges. though perhaps not intentionally untruthful. crime thrust unexpectedly upon the attention of witnesses called into cow^t to testify to what happened.

"If you say another word " exclaimed the first.l-Kyi'lMUJNY AJND of Berlin. who still be- lieved that they had witnessed a real quarrel which just missed being a tragedy. He insisted that all questions. 183. and the real actors were made to do things that had not occurred. Those who took no part were made participants by word or deed. staged the following RUMOR scene^ 303 in his seminar. even the most innocent. von Liszt seized the dropped to the level of the breast of his adversary man's arm. Stem. Zur Psychologit d. the revolver and was fired. Aussage. such as have been outlined. "I wish to discuss Tarde's docfrom the standpoint of Christian ethics. W." shouted the second. still until you're spoken to. "Drop your hands. convincing evidence of the subtle influence of suggestion. suggest details to the witness which he then honestly befirst tried ' L. 12. drawing a "Keep — revolver and thrusting Professor it into his face. Drama-experiments. advancing with clinched fist. no one saw and heard what had happened. "That's an insult. in- The members vestigations. p. of the seminar were discussing Tarde's Professor von Liszt asked: "Has any one floor to the first something more to say before I give the speaker to trine sum up the results ? " One of the students arose and was given the floor. 2 La . and others at varying intervals of time. The members of the seminar." "That's all nonsense. they had better write down what had occurred. vol. As was to be expected. SuggestibiUiS. Some of them did so at once." exclaimed another student. rising excitedly." shouted the first. Reviewed in L'Annee psycho- logique. jumping up." cried the second. were because of rather startling attacks upon the value Binet had previously published^ a mass of of testimony. since the affair would doubtless be investigated in the courts. were then told that.

" Again. as if he were called away. . by a row of alms-houses. and he was talking mighty eagerly to them. 'Tis turned back' till at length he persuaded the people into so firm a belief of it. the posture. though they vanished like • Journal of the Plague Year. they force the memory suggestion rise to self is combined with the forcing process the errots 38 per cent. ' ' . well known. finally to believe The growth and spread of suggestion is. disappeared on a sudden. and the movement of it so exactly that it was the greatest matter of amazement to him in the world that everybody did not see it as well as he.' Then. and as many people as the narrowness of the passage wovild admit to stop without hindering the passage of others. 27. but Defoe gives such a good illustration from the Plague of London that it is worth quoting. gives 26 per cent of errors. and. and. through London at the beginning of the present war. He described the shape. In this narrow passage stands a man looking through between the paKsades into the burjdng-place. After the witness has committed himthere is a tendency to adhere to the statement and it. now it comes this way. every one remembers the Cossacks tiptoeing . 1900. p." he says. Binet's opinion. Binet ters that are vague and uncertain. then to another. and then the ghost would seem to start. On a sudden he would cry: There it is.304 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Even if they do nothing worse. and affirming that he saw a ghost walking upon such a gravestone there. of course. considering it was in so narrow a passage. .^ "Another encounter I had in the open day also. When a moderate Keves he observed. and pointing now to one place. till Bishopsgate clock struck eleven. to cite a more recent instance. foimd. They were "seen" by many. and thus he came every day making a strange hubbub. "and this was in going through a narrow passage from Petty France into Bishopsgate Churchyard. and another fancied he saw it. in to be exact in matForced memory. that one fancied he saw it. . London.

may escape the attention of the control-witness.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR ghosts. He is not altogether immune ' L. They are concerned. with events and "adventures" in which emotions play a leading part. facts similar to these that led Binet and Stern' to doubt the accuracy of much of the testimony that is given. at Stern's request. if in a less degree. BeitrUge zur Psychologie d. their 305 number was variously estimated from 35. and the change escape the observation of the participants. The conclusions from these experiments were sufi&ciently impressive to attract the attention of jurists. however. picture-tests have demonstrated a number of things in the psychology of testimony that probably could not have been singled out and dis- picture for a minute. As a matter of fact. it was said. these errors in the production may be to a great extent eliminated by having some one present who knows what should be done. Stem. to the psychology of other observers. Besides.000. W. prepared and staged the drama-experiment to which reference has been made. but it was maintained that the picture-test is a long way removed from the conditions of every-day life with which courts have to deal. Scenes. So von Liszt. are difficult to stage exactly as prepared. . Picture-tests easily lend themselves to scientific accuracy. Some of the experimental results so-called picture-method. were obtained by the The "witnesses" examined a less. as was the case in the writer's dramaexperiment. and to undertake the experimental examination of evidence. But even then something regarded as important may be slurred and the defect in the performance ones. even short Something be inadvertently introduced or omitted. then. this control-witness is subject.000 to 1. and then wrote a deSometimes they were questioned about the things they omitted or upon which they only touched. scription of it more or from memory. To be sure. covered in drama-experiments. It was.000. Ausiage.

3o6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK moment. vol. vol. and that they would be asked to write what they remembered. and averaged lo per cent in the subsequent Out of two himdred and dghty-two reports only seventeen were correct. Archiv. the errors were nearly 6 per cent in the reports written immediately after the observation. Mile. > . See also Arthur Wresdmer. and there were no suggestions either by questions or by conversation among the participants. the observers were intelligent persons in the best years of their mental vigor. allowing them to examine a picture for forty-five seconds. gesamte Psychologic. Yet. cit. p. descriptions. fourteen. 148. They were then requested to write immediately a description of the picture. Further. and thirty-one days. the test was devoid of excitement and of personal prejudices. they naturally examined the picture in detail and with great care. It is generally agreed that questions increase the range there of testimony regarding is less what has been observed. 'Archives de Psychologic. Let us then briefly consider a few of the results of the to the contagious emotions of the clusions picture-tests. These descriptions were repeated at the end of five.f. p. Borst^ found op. even imder these exceptionally favorable conditions. All investigators agree that accurate testi- mony is the exception and not the rule. but acqjuracy than in free narration. Stem^ tested a number of unistudents and professors. 3. Since the observers were forewarned that it was a test of observation. So the confrom picture-tests must supplement those gained from scenes more comparable with the events of life. 298. The imagination helps out the versity memory. Moreover. i. and fifteen of these were among those written immediately after examination of the pic- tures. from seventeen to forty-six years of age. Theire was the maximum of attention. For these reasons the results may be regarded as revealing the least average errors for observation in daily life. d.

Colors. quantity and quality of testimony are frequently in inverse ratio. Borst. therefore. Narration. with keen psychological insight. p.. cit. for example. but the 307 a few more correct statements when the witnesses were number of replies in which errors were mingled increased in a greater proportion. > Op. but it should be remembered that the choice of what is important is a personal matter. It should not be forgotten. The experimental investigations of this question are probably too favorable to delayed evidence because the "witnesses" were usually asked not to discuss the matter with one another. the tidiness is size. observes that for- one condition of reliable testimony. and there were no personal or emotional factors involved. and duration of time. One is always prone to tell more than one knows.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR questioned. Indeed. however. and unlimited freedom to talk himself out gives valuable evidence regarding his accuracy. getfulness is and in this connection Mile. especially when the case is one that causes much talk and gossip during the interval. provided aware of his tendency to forget. was less reliable than in free narration. yet evidence regarding these matters is conmionly unreliable. however. accuracy seems to decrease at a rate which may seriously discredit honest testimony. are often funda- mental in court cases. The net result. and this selection is based on the relative importance of the details. A thing has only the importance that one gives to it. on the other hand. and every question is another temptation. As personal or public interest in a matter increases. 301. As to the effect of lapse of time between observation of an object or event and testimony regarding it. that the credibility of a witness is one of the things to be settled before accepting his testimony. there is not complete agreement.^ Attention is rigorously selective. Its significance as evidence may be quite different. . is thought by some to give too loose a rein to fancy.

It is already too extensive to treat in a single chapter. is of the opinion that. Its social coimterparts are repetition of conversations. Another pigeon is perched on the roof ready to fly down to be fed. spreading of rumors. written three weeks after the observation of the picture. A small boy stands at his left. p. vol. In this way his article is made more interesting but less Illinois valuable. The statement.3o8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK this subject of Another approach to influence of the oath. and their social function gives them a peculiar in» ' 2 op. VAnnie psychologique. vol.^ after reviewing various investigations. Professor Wigmore. One of the "sworn statements" obtained by Stern is worth quoting. 214. The boy himself was being fed with a spoon by the old man from a dish held in the man's lap. in general.* Testimony is a solemn affirmation. . Aussage. and Larguier des Bancels. a young man. usually given imder oath in courts of justice. He is watching the old man feed a pigeon. 313. and reports of scenes which have been heard or read. 399. Those who are interested will find 127 titles at the end of John H. the successor of the BeitrUge zur Psychologie d. Wigmore's popular article in the Law Review. testimony is the The manner of administering the oath in these investigations is to ask the "witnesses" to underline the statements to the accuracy of which they would be wilHng to swear. a tenth of the honest evidence given imder oath is untrue. runs as follows: "The picture shows an old man seated on a wooden bench. 12. occupied the eighteenth place in the list based on the percentage of errors. 3. This witness." As a matter of fact there was no pigeon in the picture. attempt has been made to cover the literature of this subject. angewandte Psychologie. has followed the lawyer's method of confusing the issue with much irrelevant matter. These latter differ from testimony chiefly in the occasion that prompts them. Borst concludes* from her investigations that about a twelfth part of sworn testimony is false. p. p. Subsequent investigations are listed in various numbers of the Zeitschrift f. unrestrained by a judge. Stern puts a lower value upon it. No ciL. Mile.

and declares that the vessel must have struck a mine. According to this report. All. of this error the arrival of aid was delayed and the number of victims was increased. of course. both the leaders and members of the several groups. The first corresponds — — "A to the first paragraph. 309 Let us therefore see how accurately such reports are reproduced. of course." but it seemed best to to further take the large conspicuous features. then wrote it down: Greek naval ofl&cer who was on board the crossChannel steamship Sussex when she was damaged by an explosion made a report of the occurrence in which several Greeks lost their lives. this selection was divided into six statements. "The officer asserts there is no reason to believe that the Sussex was torpedoed. that the first officer gave the wrong position by wireless. which were not sufficient to accommodate the passengers and crew. the second to the first sentence of the second paragraph. gave the story-teller the advantage in estimating the accuracy . and the first officer. "The captain of the Sussex was killed when the explosion occurred. on sending out a wireless call As a result for help. victims was increased. possibly one of British make. In order to test memory of a short narrative the following newspaper item was slowly read to six college students. gave the wrong position of the ship." In estimating the accuracy of memory. that the captain was kiUed by the explosion. members of the beginning class in psychology in Washington University to which freshmen are not admitted and each of these six immediately repeated it from memory to a group of five. The last paragraph was divided into three statements. the Sussex carried only four lifeboats. and the third to the second sentence. This. subdivide the "story. and that as a result of the delay caused It by this error the number of would have been easy.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR terest.

Evidently. Since only the the hearers would remember the wording. however. It should be emphasized that these students knew that their thirds. counted as They of the story. Of the leaders of the groups. another interesting question connected with this matter of reports and rumors. one of fifty per cent. nimiber added incidents not contained in the selection. In computing the results. to whom the news item was slowly read by the instructor. There is. one fifty per cent. four thirty-three and one-third. the figures are essentially correct. Among the members of the groups to whom the leaders repeated the news story immediately after it was read to them. and he believes that they are fairly representative of the accuracy of stories in the second and third repetition by different persons. Through how many mouths must a story pass before it loses its identity ? .3IO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK errors. and two of thirty-three and one-third per cent. In such cases the percentage of correctness had to be. This was especially noticeable with those who remembered little or nothing of what they heard. was neither whoUy right nor wholly wrong. This increased Yet. substance of the statements was required the results are rather startling. at times. however. of the story their attention. three made a record of sixty-six and twothirds per cent of correct reproduction. estimated. omissions were but a statement was regarded as correct It was not expected that if the central thought was given. therefore. even with this added incentive. memory of what one has been told should always be regarded with suspicion. twelve sixteen and twoof the reports. The writer is aware that mathematical accuracy cannot be ascribed to these figures. four made sixty-six and two-thirds per cent. their reproductions were not remarkable for accuracy. in part. and who wrote it down as soon as they had repeated it to their several groups. In the writer's opinion. Recollection. and two failed to remember any zero. were. marked A memory was to be tested.

with frequent changes in the aliases. The trial will come in a week." evidently because of the The story now becomes: story heard two days before. He was arrested on Monday night in a saloon. were some of those stolen by yeggmen a month ago from a Post Office in St. which the man was accused of passing at department stores. McCarthy was held in $10. It is as follows: "There was a man named McCarthy who went by the name of Bumey. He was arrested last Monday night in a comer saloon. He tried to pass checks formerly used by Leighton in the department stores. was arrested for forgery. He went by the name . "Thomas McCarthy. The seventh report was so far reduced as to be worth quoting. who has also used the names Burns and Hopkins. who formerly gave the name of Burr and Buss. and so on to the end. had better be quoted that the readers may see how it started down the line. he (or she) immediately wrote it down.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR To test this the following class 311 newspaper clipping was read to who. perhaps. As soon as a student had heard and repeated it. The Assistant District Attor- ney said yesterday that the score of money orders." Nimiber eleven lost the surname and changed the alias to "Sussex. was arraigned yesterday on the charge of having conspired to forge and pass stolen money orders. He forged a check for $100 and was arrested. The orders had been filled in for varying amiounts. His case was adjourned for a week. " There was a man named Thomas. Since none of the amounts were over $100 he was let out on $1000 bail before the district at- torney. repeated it at once to the next." The first paper. in turn. It will be observed that the story is shorter than one member of the the preceding: "Thomas McCarthy. Louis." Beginning with the second attempt at reproduction of the story there were continuous and increasing omissions and additions. none of which were more than $100.000 bail.

The second question was. There was rivalry to see who could remember most accurately. We have found observation itself exceedingly defective and unreHable. Second-hand reports are undependable. These students were interested in the experiment. of Sussex. in intervals of several days. like the prean advantage that it does not ceding one. what are the chances for a truthful narration of that which has been seen or heard ? Clearly. and when to the inaccuracy of observation there of conversation is added the disturb- ing effect of intervening time. Expectation of an act may cause it to be seen. and the final outcome is likely to be so different from the original as to be ahnost unrecognizable. gave memory have in matters of every-day life. and suggestion from questions. they are quite certain to have little or no resemblance to the original that with which story. Here the This test. Does the feeling of accuracy guarantee substantially correct statements in testi- . us refer again to the questions asked First. let at the beginning of this chapter. Yet the results were chiefly remarkable for their omissions and additions. the testimony of witnesses becomes ex- tremely undependable. Imagination reconstructs events with many omissions and substitutions. and after they have passed through three or four mouths. the chances of even a reasonably accurate narration are small. in conversation or when on — the witness-stand.312 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK He forged a check for $ioo and escaped. They concentrated their attention to the Hmit of their ability. In conclusion. and intention to do something translates the thought into deed. with the deflecting influence about the events and the excitement of the imagination." story may be said to have lost all resemblance to number one began. Suggestion is always operative suggestion of actions when one is an observer. We do not usually expect to be called to account for our information. even of fact. Hence we are less attentive.

course. upon the feel- knowledge of the inadequacy of observation and of the possibility of error memory. operative both in observation and in memory. 313 or conversation? The evidence and experiments again enter a denial. and conviction self are the best guarantees of truthful reports. Confidence and assurance signify A man may think an occurrence so intensely in it con- nection with other events that assimies a place it among Bias. by oneThe most be positive witnesses and narrators of conversation are to regarded with suspicion because of their very assurance of accuracy. . Finally.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR mony little. exerts a powerful influence and at the end ing of accuracy. He is then "remembers" that it happened. of them.

interests. We readily distinguish between ourselves dividuals. Brinkley was speaking of the Pasmer family but with special reference to Alice Pasmer. the "self" moment we try to describe difficulties arise is but and its various. Mrs. but my that half the time they're the other thing. this was Stevenson the observer of human nature. natures that contended in the I saw that of the two field of my consciousness. No girl has." Rather." CHAPTER IX OUR VARYING SELVES It could hardly have been Stevenson the romancer who made Doctor Jekyll say: "It was on the moral side. to a generally. Our feelings.' she exclaimed. Howells has graphically described these varying selves in the same person through the observation of one of his characters in April Hopes. shared. 314 They may be . it was only because I was radically both. ters Nobody has. thoughts. and otier inand emotions. possessed much of psychology and a bit of philosophy for the reflective moments of his characters. who in common with all great novelists. that I learned to recognize the thorough and primitive duality of man. " 'Neither do I. are also distinctive. She has no fixed character. even if I could rightly be said to be either. —^more characters than gowns—and put them on and them off just as often for different occasions. ruffling her feathers defensively. is We all have twenty different characI take know you think each person experience is permanently this or that. I don't think that's her character. '"Oh. " 'The Pasmers are the dullest and most selfish people in the world. and in my own person. contradictory characteristics become apparent.' We the all of us think that we know what it.' said Miss Cotton.

Perhaps. Just for that reason a survey of alternating selves in the same person seems profAll is grist that comes to your mill if you once itable. it is in action. It is the intention of the writer to consider only normal variations. 315 that by makes them others. tagged for any length of time. and this defense has passed over into law in the distinction between premeditated and unpremeditated homicide. At times the variations pass beyond the normal and an individual exhibits peculiarities so diverse that they have no common bond. himself at any moment. the outward expression of our varying and conflicting emotions. history. Just because people are prone to think themselves more consistent than they are and because the opinion is rather prevalent that only under pathological conditions do varying personalities dwell side by side in the same individual and reveal themselves successively. and ambi- tion conflict with hiunility. not even that of memory connecting the varying selves. your friends. but our own radiate a warmth Here. or its more modern counterpart. material prosperity with social and ethical ideals. self-preservation. Even the crowned heads of Europe offer a crop for the garnering. and family. eat a peck of salt with a No one can be labelled and No one completely reveals before Proverbs such as man "You must you know him" in- . "I was not myself when I did that. biography. except for one case of pecuUar interest because it approaches the parting of the ways. diversity -within Self -appreciation personal. Some recompense for the effort may be a quickened understanding of human nature and a keener appreciation of its incongruities and consequent frailties. that the contradictory character of the "self" is most noticeable. begin to consider this question — all literature. A bit of reflection will soon convince us that we are a strange composite of selves. neighbors." is a frequent excuse. the "self" becomes evident. though. self-advancement. with the rights of others. too.OUR VARYING SELVES certain extent.

environment. "Had the measures recommended" [by himself] "been carried into effect the war would have been closed in less than one-half the time and with infinite saving of blood and treasure. fatigue. twenty characters "I pray every neither deI night and every morning that I pressed may become success." ' There is even evidence that he so far forgot "the good of my country" as to permit thoughts of a dictatorship to flash through his mind.3i6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK human Sometimes we reveal alternately different selves. Just how far the control of the self is possible to conduct fit is will be touched upon later. we possess two selveg strug- dicate that the experience of the race confirms this characteristic. but perhaps this was another way of saving the country from the inefficiency of the other generals. by disaster nor elated keep one single object in view the good of my country. We may dismiss briefly the influence of physical wellbeing and fatigue. either consciously or unconsciously. and mood. and what its relation But first let us turn to some of the to many types of personalities that refuse iQto an orderly scheme and yet are not unusual. The familiar amiabihty after a good The dinner and the distorted mental vision due to fatigue or pain are generally recognized." ^ And. age. besides." Compare this himiility with the attitude expressed in the following passages in which modesty has entirely vanished and his view of himself is immensely enlarged. companions. Brinkley thinks every one has. self may change with physical conditions. Again. and the necessity of reckoning with these factors has become axiomatic. ambition. General George B. or conflicting gling for the mastery. McClellan's cellent illustrations of Own Story ^ contains ex- two or three of the that Mrs. and that I had struck them harder blows when in the full prime of their strength. "How — by and that may . he tells us of the acknowledgment of generous enemies "that they feared me more than any of the northern generals.

so that his own work and others' work would not be thrown away. 15. Stanton seems at times to have exhibited even more striking contradictions. he exclaimed: "Much has been said of military combinations and of organizing victory. p." he is is reported to have said their love to one very near to him. which thrust contradictory. by Charles A.streams without overflowing their banks and mingling with one another. " Recollections of the Civil War. are not aware of the contradiction because the two systems of thought flow along in parallel. They commenced in infidel France with the Italian campaigns and resulted in Waterloo. driving energy. he saw that every part was in order. ' Union Portraits. p. Quoted by Bradford from Piatt's Memories of the Men Who Saved the Union. . I hear such phrases with apprehension. "From the moment he took hold of the war machine." ^ This is interesting from one who devoted tireless energy to organizing victory. like those of the McClellan type. Who can organize victory? Who can combine the elements of success on the battlefield ? We owe our recent victories to the Spirit of the Lord that moved our soldiers to rush into battle and filled the hearts of our enemies with dismay. written in February. And back of the labor. 1862.— OUR VARYING SELVES these brave fellows love places in 317 ' me. by Gamaliel Bradford. Dana. "and what a power there to prevent my hands ! What my taking hands?" Could one ask for two more widely var5dng selves? Yet each was apparently unaware of the existence of the other. Sometimes the two clearly sets of ideas or beliefs are more People with such conflicts. was the animating soul. p. In a letter to Dana. 7. 294. an enormous. the system. A study of McClellan's life has convinced the writer that he was earnestly desirous of serving his country at the cost of any personal sacrifice and that the other self the self-aggrandizement came into no noticeable conflict with his self-sacrificing the government into my — loyalty. the insight.

the slaves being treated far worse than cattle. as it turned out—was raised by — popular subscription. 154. in such pain.Verified in all essentials by letters from Mr. Stanton sees it and gets men like Haupt and McCaUum out of civil life to do feats of engineering which command the admiration not of America only. and sometimes a certain complaisance. people of some scientific knowledge. 'December 15. pital for indigent sailors. The money over $1. . . sailors led him to devote his fortune to founding a hosyield. Murray and from the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals." ^ The truth of this observation is supported by a news item in the daily press ' immediately after the • ' Union Portraits. are misled by an orgy of sentimental sympathy through the phrase "cruelty to animals. Yet this fortime was made in the slave traffic in which on his own boats and with his knowledge the most atrocious cruelties were practised. p. would not turn back. pp.400. i88 Jf. Consequently. 1917. but of the world. by Gamaliel Bradford. the charter of the Society would not have forbidden the collection and use of the money for relief of the sufferings of human beings. Impressions and Comments. . would not The would not falter. As an instance of the curious separation of personalities in some of these people. had the Society so desired. who surely realize the supreme importance of human life." to oppose animal experimentation for the relief of human suffering. Again as we have fomid. even pleasure." Sir John Hawkins offers another illustration of this conHis love for his fellow tradiction of ideas and beliefs.3i8 right PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK . Havelock Ellis remarks: "I have often noted with interest that a passionate hatred of pain infficted on animals is apt to be accompanied by a comparative indifference to pain infficted upon human beings. very life and heart of the war depends on railroads. on through obstacles and difficulties." ' This does not look like trusting to the " Spirit of the Lord that moved our soldiers to rush into battle and filled the hearts of our enemies with dismay.

! OUR VARYING SELVES Halifax explosion. Chairman of the Animal Relief Committee. Yet these good people are not by nature brutal. 319 "R." the communication says. be- . women. The gift. Murray and was deeply appreciated. and babies were dying of cold and himger.000 from the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. As though bullet-holes in heart and lungs could be closed by thoughts Yet these persons accept scientific values in other matters than bodily injuries. when himian beings were suffering indescribable agony from their injuries. is quite up to the The same irreconcilable conflict not infrequently exists between altruistic and business ideas. A man may be hard and even cruel in his business dealings yet give generously to philanthropic organizations and to his church. though well aware of the bacterial origin of certain diseases. H. children. Turning to a different type of var)ang selves. bodies of soldiers by the action of the mind. there are people who. It is just an amazing exhibition of two selves which are not allowed to intermingle so as to make one consistent self. Murray. when out of hearing of their enticing average. And their manner of reasomng. The Massachusetts Society has also sent two of its trained agents to assist in the animal rehef work. "announced to-day the receipt of a telegraphic contribution of $1. The report of the commission has not been published. believe that bacteria can be thought out And they would also treat the woimded of the body. and sufficient money could not be obtained to relieve the anguish. siren. It is doubtful if it ever will be. which is to be used in caring for animals injured or made homeless by the disaster." And this money was sent for the relief of homeless animals when men. came as a great surprise to Mr. The recent investigation of vice in Baltimore is an extreme illustration. They recognize cause and effect in the external world.

is given by Al Jennings as a part of his experience as a convict in the Ohio penitentiary. "I'How many pounds do you turn out?' he proceeded.' I repHed.— 320 cause PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK it would expose the double personality of too many men high in business. Not long ago a $6. social. By the end of the month I had earned — if I remember right . I have lived two lives.' I replied. as I was driving my machine a well-dressed stepped up beside me and watched the nuts hammering out into the box.' he said." When he sat down the other defendant. exceptionally convincing illustration of the business as distinct from the social and reHgious selves. an auditor of another large corporation. arose and said that he also wished to plead guilty. sir. "'If you'll speed this machine I'll give you a quarter of a cent a you make over ten. I quote this and the following figures from memory. No free man imderstands what that means to a fourth- — up without breaking it pound for every pound That meant perhaps ten class manager of a large company. soraetimes as much as thir- '"What ' " teen. he had an interest "One day man in the contract. and must be sped up cautiously. and religious Hfe. a respectable one and that of a highwajonan. and ran it almost to capacity. but it gave me an object in life. I nursed it like a baby. I may have them wrong. Twisting a screw a sixtieth part of an inch too far might smash all the tools on the head-block. "The nut-machine was a delicate thing. "'Sometimes only eleven. Fourteen pounds an hour. is the capacity of this machine?' he asked. I recognized him. cents a day only a little. An self. who was accused of being the leader of a gang of highway robbers. suddenly rose in court at his trial in Brooklyn and cried: "I am guilty.

He looked sorry for me as he said: '"I don't want to hear any more about that. On pay-day I presented myself in line for the money. but really. Mr. pp. sir. mals. by James F. speaking in a similar vein." she replied. The clerk stared at me he couldn't find my name "I copiplained to the general on the list." ^ Gideon Wells. they did. vol. It is the mental side of the adaptation. but elevate them above their former masters. It's an old trick. sir. manager of our shop. Rhodes. ideas arrange themselves so as This is a phase of man's imconsdous adaptation to his environment. They would be uncomfortable if Consequently. the facts of this and other similar cases do not justify this view. man recoils from the unpleasant and seeks that which produces an agreeable feeling. once said: "Sumner would not only free the slaves. Such men often have good intentions but they do not allow their moral ideas to overlap and disturb their business methods. 24. "Oh. VI. .'" 1 It may be said that this contractor could not have been a respected member of good society but. it were. the senator from her State. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. So far as his thoughts are concerned this is accomplished by allowing them to arrange themselves in more or less isolated systems of ideas which. as dijfferent selves. unfortunately. constitute separate personalities An instance of isolated systems of thought is reported of Charles Simmer. yet. Sumner takes no interest in claims unless they be from black people. "I did. with all his studied philanthropy and love ' ^ Beating Back.— OUR VARYING SELVES 321 aomething more than two dollars. A poor woman whose claim had been rejected by the Senate was asked why she did not take it to Sumner. Like the lower anito cause the least possible discomfort. He did it to prove that you could speed up the machine. 204/. p.

however. 1. vol. (The italics are the present writer's. 102. "by which a concentrated and individualized BritKng — did but present a larger impersonal Britling beneath. and so on. The variety and interest of his talk was largely due to that persuasion. He had a subconscious suspicion that he had let it cool and that it had addled. Wells. He in whom the contest is waging may not even know that anything is happening. himself he may see the joke or the tragedy. p. Britling. Britling Sees It Through. and now the other. upon his capacity to take as impersonal and objective a view of his own actions If he can stand off and look as he gets of those of others." ^ After Mr. and the Dower House he had made. carried with it a duplication of his conscience responsibility. . worried almost to distraction about the troubles of England and his own affairs. or. it was a perpetual attempt to spread his mental feathers over the whole task before him. describes two of these opposing selves as they manifested themselves in Mr. in his picturesque way." he says. though he thinks he is. including his pleasant though naughty little love ' •Dtorjr.32 2 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK unwilKng to fellow* for the negroes in the abstract" [he] "is ship with them. The world from the latter point of view was his egg. 502. p. He had an urgency to incubate it. He had a subconscious delusion that he had laid it. which comes to the same thing in the present instance. at H. but to his impersonal conscience he was answerable for the whole world. Now one gains the upper hand. G. To his personal conscience able for his private honor and his and sense of he was answerdebts. Britling had lain awake for a long time one night.) Mr. in the consciousness of the person. His ability to know himself depends largely upon his sense of humor. another group in which two selves fight for supremacy." In the instances given above it would seem as if the contradictory natures existed without even a struggle There is. "This double refraction of his mind.

But I managed to control these impulses. Now. 'Had a good night?' he said. I kept the better nature dominant until the killing of my brother Ed. with a sort of ironical directness. He was pink from his morning's bath. no bitterness.'" Victor Hugo once said that at times he felt two natures struggling within him.. and. It didn't happen all at once. In the bath room he had whistled like a bird. the reformed trainrobber. as time went on. and Al Jennings. 242 /.. There should be no abuse. . in commenting upon this. with my new hope. He would put things so plainly that squabbling folly would have to cease. they became weaker and Apropos of our struggling > less frequent. only a deep passion of sanity. reference may be Beating Back. He was going to write certain 'Plain words about Ireland. "He of tea. Irish this returned to his desk stirring the lemon in his glass He would write the plain common sense of this situation. felt matches on his bedside table. Only I believe that in me those two natures are more widely separated than in most men. ^ when I felt the yearnings to break loose and run amuck. says: "I worked that out for myself before I ever heard of Hugo. 323 he suddenly threw back the bedclothes. I had my bad days. 'That's famous.' He lit his study lamp and meditated about it until a sound of water boiling called for the him to his tea-making. pp.OUR VARYING SELVES intrigues. . Britling came into Mr. "What mobile? is the good of grieving over a smashed auto- "The next morning Mr. It should be done austerely." natures. So did I. . "lit the stove and then strolled to his desk. From then on the worst nature ruled my actions. I found the worst nature going down and the better coming up. Direck's room.

His early literary experience made was the agony of failure. received the manuscript for publication. ' "Then there would have been no 'Philistine' and no gospel jokes.' Mr. besieged the leading maga" Strange. After a man is dead it is comparatively easy to estimate him with calmness and justice. and published the essay over his own signature. that there were two Elbert Hubbards. Boston Evening Transcript. a conclusion. It was a real Elbert who took the threadbare clergyman to Chicago. would have and none But in his bitter disappointment the other self appeared. Hartt. "that no editor had the intelU- gence to appreciate Hubbard. According to one writer. The fact that he cannot talk back and defend himself urges even his bitterest enemies to fairness. both real. and an occasional interpolation. as Mr. Harry Taber was the author of "A Message to Garcia. She believed. with a frightful warfare between them.324 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to Elbert Hubbard. and preached a glowing idealism even after the highly ' Rolliii Lynde Hartt." says one of his reviewers." The sage of Aurora. . His better of those very Roycrof ty perhaps his real self. witty. 1915. "On the other hand." A fair-sized volimie could be filled with other unlovely acts reputed to this exponent of beauty. May 5. During the hf& of Fra Elbertus the best that one conamonly heard said of him was that he was Of the original. there were many. of protest." continues Mr. "wrote an introductory paragraph. unbeautiful things said. just as I do now." with his wit and dash and originahty. He zines but his manuscripts were always rejected. and befriended the ex-convict. From a lady formerly employed at the Roycroft Shop I learned that he had times of bitter repentance and would go and hide in a hut where no one was allowed to come near him. "I have Kstened as cordially to accounts of the man's nobler side.' self. Hartt tells the story. and a great advertising success." persisted. who represents a phase of human psychology by no means rare.

And there are many such things especially if one uses vague phrases which arouse emotional effervescence instead of thought. was a real Elbert who announced himself as the 'American successor of William Morris. nevertheless. it was a moral revolt. I recall a letter that said hotly: 'How can you traduce that good and great man?' "Good? Yes. The struggle of a suppressed self for expression takes various forms in different persons. rare in our day. to stand up for his ideals in the very face of his known failures. striking at whatever the multitude would enjoy seeing hit. Turning aside from varjdng types of personality. Hartt has rightly interpreted him. exposed as he was exposed. let us .' while exploiting the sort of woman who would 'pay twenty dollars a volume for a book like that. over his weaknesses. capatearing his hair ble of generous purposes an(J fine deeds. After his failure to get a hearing in the leading magazines. Hubbard refused to. wishing to God he were rid of them. conceived the idea of a magazine of protest. and yet lacking the moral vigor that would have destroyed them root and branch. would have shut up about sweetness and light and the Ufe beautiful. Most men.OUR VARYING SELVES peculiar 32^ and re- circumstances It attending his divorce marriage. "At the same time give him credit for a courage. If he could not be what his best self earnestly wanted to be he could fight in behalf of his best self's aspirations. with which he was richly endowed. if Mr.' It was a real Elbert who won the undying loyalty of his admirers. and it was not hypocrisy. In Hubbard. doubtless — ^better than most of us. Hubbard understood hxmian nature well enough to know that people enjoy a So he fight so long as they are safe within the side-lines." But his pretensions made him very vulnerable. and he continued diligently to expose himself. emerged with all its imloveUness. the business self.

much less measured. The differing selves of maturity. self and the teachings and habits of the individual. and the influence of the forces that contribute to the final response of a human being cannot even be estimated. tional vortices. when the better impulses of a weak man with high ideals occasionally assert themselves in opposition to the pressure of environmental influence. an intricately complex process. consciously simulated attitude which finally becomes so fixed that the original personality reveals itself only when taken off his guard. of impressions Racial factors are continually in evidence. They consti- tute the undercurrent that always influences the flow of thought. and the nervous system is not less easily affected. of course. Constant dropping finally wears away the stone. but these alterations do not exhibit contradictions. however. It is. always brings the changes of development and advancing years. In emo- when thoughts run madly round and round. which alternate with more or less regularity are a composite product of the natural endowment of the individual and the social or commercial environment. in the present instance. and hence play a hidden r61e in action. . as in the case of one who tries to act a part. or. Environing conditions are probably quite as responsible for the behavior of other men as they seem to have been It is not correct to say that in the case of Jeimings. and the apparent demand for cerThe result is a consciously or untain views or actions. Growth. his convictions and aspirations assert themselves." but psychology forces us to admit the all but resistless power and final triiunph of the the man is which comes to the same thing from the outside world. summation of stimuli. "every man has his price.326 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK briefly consider some of the explanatory influences. and sweep ideals In cahner moments the individual's past life. of course. or. but in stress and strain it is a contest between the forces of the racial these racial tendencies rise to the surface aside. the surrounding opinions.

86jff. Defaulting bank cashiers rarely. small amoimts which they confidently Soon. follows. Weed men. and tried to win all classes of Adams Seward was ardently antislavery and expected to live in history as a great philanthropist. Seward.. thougtitful disinterested statesmanship and opportunism. croft's estimate' of — — kept in close relations with the party organization. II. Only the strongest characters can withstand the effect of summation of stimuli. two selves manifested by Seward. Theodore Parker. take large simis of money at the outset. he watched the plans of the politicians. with its accompanying publicity and ruin." One cannot help wondering whether this continuous battering of the stimuli of political of the life is the explanation if Frederic Banhim is correct. if ever. It is probably this fact in human psychology which Stevenson had observed that led him to make Doctor Jekyll say: "All things therefore seemed to point to this: that I was slowly losing hold of my original and better self. Speaking of the two "voices" to which Seward was always listening radicalism and conservatism. vol. It was John Quincy Adams Seward who uttered the telling phrases and made the severe arraignments and was the hope of the radicals like Gerrit Smith. Thurlow Weed Seward ians.OUR VARYING SELVES 327 In moral actions a man's better self. after a long period of continuous battering. of the GarrisoaOn the other hand. the resistance lessens. pp. and becoming slowly incorporated with my second and worse. but. the stimuli from lower ideals are usually victorious. ' Life of William B. he continued to act two distinct r61es. his family heredity and early education. lofty patriotism and self-advancement. his biographer says: "Seward continued to hear the two voices ^in fact. and then the final defalcation. at times. and. aggression and caution.. . changed the program to suit conditions. . at first assert themselves. They begin with expect to return. however.

A man wishes to be honest and upright. . as most men he continues to justify his actions to himself on the ground that it is good business. A statesman in character and purpose. to realize his ideals is the way he sometimes puts it to himself. Indeed. they would deny such a utilitarian thought. Some of these are the strong characters who override law. . he said: "Considering myself as the instrument of the Lord. among others. without being misled by the views and opinions of the day. is the supreme thing and they are the ones appointed to achieve the result. But the good as these men see it. However. nothing of which absolute knowledge is impossible is more certain than that he was never consciously live in the . who regards himself as the viceroy of God. again: "It is a tradition of our house that we. common clay unilluminated by the In a speech at Koenigsberg. . and consequently incomparably divine spark. They do not put it in that way. are appointed by God to govern and to lead the people whom it is given us ..328 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Seward was determined to control the patronage and to White House. They are the beneficent monarchs." the prosperity and peaceful developAnd. are. no one is composed of just one set of ideals converging toward a definite. either in reality or in thought. inconsistent. in their little realms. the HohenzoUerns. If the man is well-meaning. this In group is the German Kaiser.. belong those to whom the end justifies the means. is not illegal. Here. lead to attempts to secure their fulfilment. conscious end. straightforward and fair. as opportunity offers. in 19 lo. he was yet a consummate opportunist. or it will enable him to benefit his fellow men. superior to those of I go my way alone for ment of our fatherland." As we have already shown. but he also desires to have the money needed to make a good appearance in society. These social aspirations occasion the impressions and thoughts that.

. for their well-being 329 and the advancement of their material and intellectual interests. with a good education. each in his separate way. Don Dickinson. .' OUR VARYING SELVES to rule. cU. Bebel. both of whom labor for the benefit of the realm. . ' George Sylvester Viereck. . William was genuinely amazed that such an unnatural crime could ever have been committed.. He is the legitimate offspring of Romanticism and Modernity. He read and re-read the papers in the case with the closest attention. tive as the Inquisition. pp.. containing some animadversions upon himself. one belongs to the twentieth centiury. And yet how do you explain this? this insult to the Anointed of the Lord? Strange Strange " At another time. with clouded brow and flashing eye. ' The Kaiser. but his children He is a mystic are reared with bourgeois simplicity. unconscious of heterogeneous intentions. .' "He loves pomp. and secreThere are two Kaisers. himself in a respectable walk of life. and finally said to the waiting official: 'It would seem that this man hitherto has not been a criminal son of respectable parents. one is silent as the sepulchre. . perhaps too freely. he turned to the officer in attendance. one democratic. One is despotic." The Kaiser's attitude toward those who dare to disagree with him to whom God has transmitted his wisdom throws an illuminating side-Hght upon his self. p. . and a rationalist." — — — ! ! ' . 165. . Shortly after his accession "he was requested to sign a judicial sentence committing to prison one of his subjects who had been found guilty of hinting something disrespectful about his sovereign. . one to the Middle Ages. by Asa *0p. . Of his two natures. 165/. "after reading a speech of the Socialist leader. One talks freely. and remarked in a voice trembling with passion: 'And all this to me J To me I What is the country coming to?'" ^ The Kaiser's two selves have been analyzed by one of his devoted admirers..

' includes much within its sphere of Opinions. to hazard myself in the experiment. I was at one time on the point of refusing nay. I get only a living. and even permanent.— 330 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK following letter The by William H. I beheve that I can endure as much as anyone. Seward. But a distracted country appeared before me. The tramp does it." he has left off The environment influence. though considerably diluted. I do not help to make others rich. 45. p. They But are not so vociferous in proclaiming their all must justify their actions to themselves. employer will keep the rest of what I produce. I did not dare go home or to England. and leave the country to chance. so human is this need for self-justification that illegal. I did refuse. in drift easily. and that it shall be peaceful. for a time. not so strong.. and I withdrew from that position. "If I work. are a part of it. "Why My men who talk continuously about uplifting others should be held under suspicion. II." Indeed. Life of italics are WUUam H. Seward also reveals the beKef. and maybe I can endure enough to make the experiment successful. the present writer's. and by Frederic Bancroft. less whom the thought of benefiting those in their charge is whom a wise Providence has put consciously. Besides. and I can get my living without working. and the bank president. They are trying to satisfy their consciences. At all events. "The President is determined that he will have a com- poimd Cabinet. should I work ? " said a tramp to the writer. Impressions affect them more virtues. vol. who is la37ing away a snug little sum by means perhaps not altogether does it. that he alone discerned the right and had the wisdom and power to execute it. They are talking to themselves quite as much as to others.) (The 1 . of hypocrisy of which They have not yet reached the stage Samuel Butler spoke when he said until that "no man is a great hypocrite knowing that he is a hypocrite. for example." ' Others.

were they alive to-day. and they constitute a by no means insignificant part of the "self" we know them. But opinions and beliefs are a matter of time and place. it is requisite that great nxunbers should be ignorant as well as poor. they are the never-failing nursery of fleets and armies. besides that. They constitute an integral part of the self even though they are shared by one's fellow countrymen."^ These men probably would not know themselves in their antiquated opinions. Indeed. without them there could be no en]03rment. for.OUR VARYING SELVES 331 opinions are conspicuously temporal and local. p. Samuel Butler. Yet men are not aware that there is anything peculiar and personal about This is a phase of the psychology of the their views. the surest wealth consists in a multitude of laborious poor." National customs and tastes offer a further illustration." He has altered his personaUty so completely as to be no longer recognizareform. To make the society happy and people easy under the meanest circumstances." One's opinions are so clearly true that they require no demonstration. According to ' Francis Adams. as that keen observer of himian nature. once said: "We hold most strongly to what we are least capable of demonstrating. and the fewer things man wishes for. he ble except through the face that clothes his thoughts. History of the Elementary School Contest in England. Knowledge both enlarges and multiplies our desires. the more easily his necessity may be supplied. "self. Some time ago the opinion of a large body of respectable men in England held that "in a free nation where slaves are not allowed of. so vital a part of one's "self" are one's opinions. 46. and no product of any coxmtry could be valuable. Like the cut of clothes they are settled by fashion. . If one who has always been admirably conventional and never indulged in the of acquaintances as foolish practices of reflection so destructive to authority and respectability suddenly becomes an enthusiast for is said to be "beside himself.

if all Do you have that doing or sayor said before. They live the lives they picture. rors conjured up by their instincts and fear the and forebodings. in Compton Mackenzie's Youth's Encounter. a sort of curious dampness inside me." said Chatoi:.332 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Robert Louis Stevenson. feeling ? I'm still more surprised. anything holy. Do you ever have it?" "I only have it when you start me off. Sometimes I feel as if there wasn't any me at all. 'But if I drive it away it comes back in tie middle of the night. when the Prince of Wales's marwas celebrated in Mentone by a dinner to the Mentonese. "I have a queer feeUng just after sunset. Then often I feel as we were ing at a certain moment had been done Then at other times I have to hold on to a tree or hurt myself with something just to prove I'm there. Yet these imaginings make up a large part of the selves of children. and the guests were served with roast beef and plum-pudding and "no tomfoolery. "But it goes when we sing ." Michael agreed dubiously." "Yes. Do you ever have that feeling?" . I have all sorts of queer feelings. But when I see a letter . it does with me. I fed absolutely great as if I were Shakespeare. Children have their peculiarities of self of which adults have no knowledge except as it is imparted by a sympathetic understanding of the ways of childhood. And then sometimes I think nothing is impossible for me. riage experience the adventures of their fancy." Allied to the alterations in personality through opinions are the changes that come from growth and development. So strangely imreal to the mature are the fantastic day-dreams of youngsters that they seem like tales from Gulliver's Travels when related by Kenneth Grahame and Coningsby Dawson. ter- "Funny thing. I've written. the dishes of the coiintry were pronounced impossible by the-British managers. and I'm surprised to see a letter come addressed to me." said Michael to Chator. .

Wien&r medizinische Wochmsckrift. vol. To what extent. It is the stimulus for Higher up. but the interpretation of this stimulus alters and becomes richer as the child grows into the adult." Returning. The nervous system needs time to develop. At any rate. 775. have become adapted to one kind of stimulus. either to flee or approach. 45. and the excitations are interpreted in limited. not suddenly but gradually. definite ways. Functional response is also elaborated. there is ' Kaes and Vulpius. In between things that I have to do as a public officer.OUR VARYING SELVES 333 This feeling of unreality is not so common with adults. p. with dogs. but President Wilson is reported to have said. a matter of general observation. and with man the possible interpretations are much more numerous. however. MUnckener medizinische Wockenschrift. if at all. 1734 and 1770. Time for maturation of nerve-elements is evi- dently needed. Far down the scale. in animals. movement in objects means but one thing. for example. It is. because I never have had any sense of being identified with that office. pp. 23. in his address at the National Press Club: "I really feel at times as if I were masquerading when I catch a picture of myself in some printed description. Functional connections between nerve-centres must be made. it may mean flight. as well as of scientific knowledge. The nervous receptors. 43. It is necessary to speak guardedly in ascribing definite changes to the nervous system as development proceeds. to the feelings of childhood. Certain investigators* seem to have found a new growth at about seventeen or eighteen years of age. because known facts do not justify positive assertions. new fibres appear after early childhood. is difficult to say. vol. in the course of evolution. however. AfckitfUr PsychitUrie und NenenhrankheiUn. p. vol. that. . a change comes. growth in complexity of the nervous system keeps pace with increase of intelligence. 100. Animals low in the scale respond to fewer stimuli. I never think of myself as the President of the United States.

Boys who have endured many minor indignities with childish submission flare up with the unexpected anger and resistance of maturity when the insult passes the limit of forbearance. This was the greatest. Arnold Bennett gives a good illustration in a scene between Edwin and his father. the stimulus is applied abruptly. and he was suddenly animated by an almost murderous hatred and an inexpressible disgust for his father. Darius. xmless ye're a mighty lot cleverer than Where did ye get it from ? Ye don't mean I take ye for. and his eyes smarting. He could feel his cheeks and his hands growing dully hot. Sometimes these changes in the self appear to come suddenly. 'Loathsome beast!' he thought savagely. "Darius turned on him glaring: 'I'm tr3dng to get at where ye got the brass from to buy them three books as I saw last night. but at times the adequate stimulus which would reveal the man in the youth has not been at hand. but that is because whatever produces the alteration of personality of childhood and youth is gouig on below the surface. . "I thought we were going out to have a good time. . when his mother was dressing him in his best clothes for a trip on a steamboat. !' to teU me as ye saved it up "Edwin had had some shocks in his life. who in the grossness of his perceptions and his notions had imagined his son to be a thief. the child becomes a man.334 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK no doubt that new paths are opened and functional connections established. . Where did ye get it from? There's nowt wrong here. in Clayhanger. the unexpected reaction is startling both to the actor and the one who calls forth the response. remarked sadly. selects his necktie with scrupulous care. Observation usually detects the transition. . for such an excursion. under these circumstances." is different from that of the same boy at fourteen who. Then the break seems to be sudden and. The nervous system of the boy of nine who. in a moment. When.

They were very close together. a touch of malaria. Darius saw that his son's face was all drawn. except in rare instances.OUR VARYING SELVES " ' ' . so far as the characteristics of the self axe concerned. pushed violently past his father and. sticking his hands deep into his pocket. because I am living absolutely alone in San Francisco. $35 What do you mean by calling me a thief ? Edwin and Darius were equally startled by this speech. I may say I am almost changed into another character. — Much is written to interpret the thoughts. . strode into the street. The destinations of different persons. and because from two years of anxiety and. according to the doctors. The selves of childhood and of youth have a common characteristic the wide range of their possibiHties. the same comments would give an accurate description of each. Edwin snatched his hat off its hook. but those of old age appear less difficult to describe. "I have the more interest in beginning these memoirs where and how I do. their uncertainty." Perhaps it is just as well to pass from early Ufe to its This is an especially happy method in the present instance because a passage from the unfinished autobiography of Robert Louis Stevenson pictures in his inimitable way the terminus to which life sweeps us on. close. and. but persistent is health had much the same effect as advanced years. '"Let me come out!' Edwin shouted. . bear a striking resemblance to one another. and even of human curiosity. I know only a few neighboring streets. and am content to sit here by the fire and await the course of fortune. the self of The sketch touched with the quaint humor that the artist did not lose even when too weak to finish his drawing. I seem to be cured of my adventurous whims. Probably this is because the course of life narrows as the end is approached. Stevenson was not ill an old man at his death. After weeks in this city. I know. myself that he draws an old man . Indeed. and actions of children. emotions.

The best example that I have been able to find is an instance related by Nathaniel P. with its organized beliefs. I hope I have the more chance to look back impartially on all that has come and gone heretofore. and he talked mighty fine. In the latter case one spreads one's own self to cover the ideas and experiences of others. I heard him harangue t'other one today for haK an hour. The self. he had pretty much the same ideas that we have. The Mormon driver was observed to give close attention to the stirring passage. poor material or else they do not exist at all. Langford in Vigilante Days and Ways. voL 4.o one another. One's ideas and classifications are the known factors and the points of departure. though we criticise it severely *. the youngest of those men in my wagon. in company with Samuel T. afterward governor of Montana. the one that always carries that doublebarrelled shotgun." of the journey Curious ways the self has! Strange inconsistencies! Our town or city is so much a pu/t of our selves that. This is true of all ages. 2. Hauser. and as I am changed in heart.356 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WOliK no longer. "^ People calculate human equations from the conditions given in their own selves. p. is a powerful talker. And. after all. both. He can overlay Orson Hyde and Parley Pratt. ' Vol.'' Mr. 13. and soon after they had camped for the night he was overheard sajong to a brother teamster: "I tell you. was making a trip from Bannock to Salt Lake City in a Mormon "freighter." To while away the dreary monotony Langford recited to Hauser Milton's description of the meeting of Satan and Death at the Gates of Hell. Those who hold views that radiate from a different centre are ex-centric. we become ^ The Cornhill Booklet. . is so sufficient and compelling that one cannot conceive easily of other selves constructed out of Either such selves are made out of different thoughts. and I rather think it would trouble Brigham Young to say nicer things. Langford. 55. p.

is Stranger still.' "Mrs. bee-/ — .OUR VARYING SELVES indignant the it. of course. again. when. And is It for a son or brother. Bellew's frank confession that tions must end. once for all. but I don't now. which made so words which should have ~a wonderful a difference vast. Of course one wants one's is relatives appreciated. not infrequently. are a part of Our are not appreciated others it is The members part of our self. For how can others fail to share one's own regard? Yet indifference is desired. Galsworthy gives a splendid illustration in his Country House. Pendyce's anger. "'Well. I think it's quite time you did. "Mrs.' "Mrs. but intimacy resented. as a curtailment of one's "self. Pendyce was much disturbed over the attention which her son George was showing Mrs. we deny and justify to others the very faults that are admitted in private. and as she smiled she seemed to become a httle coarser. denial of affection the face and smiled. I don't love your son. If they a personal matter. BeUew looked hei. was a shock and. Pendyce stammered: "'I don't understand. she was tired of George and did not love him. because of the impossibility of such indifference to her son it aroused Mrs. I told him so It is — yesterday. Bellew was to blame the other one always is—and she called upon her to say that the friendly relaBut Mrs. I did once. Mrs. and cease. also. unpleasant for social reasons. She was sure that Mrs. at times. friends. Indeed. 337 moment an by outsider says anything against our selves. a reflection on that part of one's "self" represented by the members of one's family. of our family. are an integral here a curious attitude sometimes a feeling of resentment and." though the intimacy one is anxious that it arouse indignation. Pendyce heard these words. Bellew. of jealousy at the regard or affection shown by another discloses itself.

the ease with which trait. people what they are come to acquire an assurance of being what they assiune. Bellew. "This woman tire of George! Tire of her son! She looked at Mrs. does not apply to elderly ladies. They act the part and through deceiving an interesting himian feigning By themselves think that they deceive others. hmnan "My re- I hope." In a moment every woman in the church had removed her hat. with eyes that had never before held hatred. At times this selfdeception takes another form. of course. as in the case of a Pittsburg congregation whose pastor requested the women to remove their hats so as not to obstruct the rear. please. for example. that the young women will do me the favor.338 like PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK wafer in a wilderness spirit flaxaed — ^with a sort of horror.'" Intentional adoption of a personality for «provisional effect is. least there exists Such play-acting multiplies a real and a seeming self. view of those in the pastor. Pretense of by women advanced in years is a never-failing source of amusement to those who see below the surface of the color-mixture. man not. This adoption of a make-believe personality originates do not see what one tries But it is interesting to observe that to hide from oneself. youthfulness. on whose face was a kind inquisitive compassion. and all her up into her eyes. it is also an adaptation to the tendency to accept a man at his face value at his own appraisal of himself. quickly added: quest. "'You don't love him?' she cried. This in the himian belief that others — . however. is this fetage effect usually involves Indeed. the self —at common. But the knowing something of psychology. a partial self-decepdeceives himself But tion. Only a few complied. "'You have tired of him? You have given him up? Then the sooner I go to him the better ! Give me the address of his rooms. " She felt only a blind sense of insult and affront. of course.

The more worldly self. gloats over its conquests. obscure. in many instances.OUR VARYING SELVES is 339 It depends true. and the carr3dng power of a suggestion is largely determined by the confidence and self-assurance of the performer. The ease with which bankers are deceived by personal appearance and demeanor is often a matter of comment. when in power. and we have found them numerous and. Every one knows of ambulance-chasers and quacks who started out with good intentions. We have been trying to discover the motives underlying variations of the self to indicate a few of the explanatory influences. and the more spiritual. are reverse side of the pictiure — . dropped his work. Suggestion plays its part here. in turn. Either he must be thoroughly convinced that he is the character which he assumes or else he must be a consummate actor. Conversation with a number of these has convinced the writer that some of them. Man seems to be a reservoir of Of possibilities that is drawn upon by the environment. course every one has his individual limitations. because it is much easier to fall than to rise. graduated from a high-grade medical school. laments its weakness. of course. only of certain individuals. the number who succeed is sufficiently large to establish a rule of ac- tion for social and business charlatans. but within his range the combination of qualities that make him what rate. at any realize his higher aspirations not altogether at peace of mind. upon the skill with which the man carries the part. A man may have failed to and have yielded to the lower impulses in his efforts to get on in the world. Which It is is the true self in this contest of personalities? not always easy to say. Yet it is a part of their training to assume that a stranger is not what he represents himself to be. became disgusted with himself. A view of the is not so easily obtained. but a number of years ago a physician began deliberately as an advertising quack. and is now one of the leading surgeons of his State. Nevertheless.

Here the philosopher revels in verbal luxury. We it is have been considering the varymg life. and the man who. many a his reputation. on the other hand. by Elizabeth Sharp. At times he (W. in his presence. In society it is difficult to recognize the stem man of affairs All of what a recent writer or the thoughtful moralist. Yeats. are temporarily laid aside to be brought out again at a favorable juncture of the stars.340 he PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK seems countless. has called "instinctive idiocies" comes to the surface. William Sharp's two selves have been described in the absorbingly interesting book by his wife. See Una Mary. when they will win creditable admiration. His other self was rather the cry of himger from a starved soul. by Una Hunt.) was really to all intents and purposes a different being. S. man soaked in respectability and yellow with the golden pollen of eoimtless virtues becomes one of "the bo)^. ' Quoted by Mrs.* With William Sharp. How real this alternating personality was may be gathered from a letter of Mr." He would "come — • 2 William Sharp : A Memoir. is noted for the prominence of his imperceptions draws on the unearned increment of Among rou6s.* "Fiona Macleod was a secondary personality as distinct a secondary personality as those one reads about in books of psychical research. Shajp. among the thoughtful. is on the border-line between the normal variations commonly observed and the abnormal.' The condition is unusual for adults. the moral or intellectual revolt which we have observed in some of the other cases did not exist. . and the vivid reality of his second self is not uncommon in children." is k when those "I think thoughts worth while not an uncommon remark of who usually think in terms of conventional ecstasy. swollen almost to bursting. selves as they occur in every-day An that instance has recently been of special interest because made known." His moral principles. however. but in no other sense abnormal.



sit down by my fireside and talk, and I believe that when 'Fiona Macleod' left the house he would have no recollection of what he had been saying to me." The vivid earnestness of Fiona evidently led Mr. Yeats

into the error of thinking that amnesia existed between the
personalities. As a matter of fact this is not necessary even in abnormal cases. "It is true, as I have said," writes his wife, "that William Sharp seemed a different


person when the Fiona


recollection of

what was

mood was on him; but that he had said in that mood was not the


That he did not imderstand
could not be

is true.

For that



at will.

Different influ-

ences awakened

it, and its duration depended largely on environment. 'W. S.' could set himself deliberately to work normally, and was, so far, master of his mind. But for the expression of the 'F. M.' self he had to wait upon mood, or seek conditions to induce it." This was not an attempt on the part of Sharp to write on different topics. Fiona Macleod was not a pseudonym. She was a personality. "My truest self," he wrote in a letter, " the self who is below all other selves, and my most intimate life and joys and sufferings, thoughts, emotions and dreams, must find expression, yet can not, save in this hidden way." The Sharp personality seems to have been an unnatural growth forced to develop by severe economic William Sharp's style was calm, uninspired, conditions. critical, prosy; while Fiona Macleod wrote poetic prose in an extremely imaginative style. Descriptions of nature, Her themes full of color, with spiritual phrases, abound. were the life, customs, and superstitions of the Highlands,

while Sharp wrote chiefly biographies and reviews.From the time when "he stifled the critical, intellectual
of WiUiam Sharp to give play to the development of new-found expression of subtler emotions, toward which he had been moving with all the ardor of his nature there was a continual play of the two forces in him, or of






the two sides of his nature: of the intellectually observant, reasoning



vant, spiritual




of the intuitively obser-

dreamer, which differentiated

more and more one from the

and required
. . .


conditions, different environment, different stimuli, until he

seemed to be two personalities in one. He was wont to say: 'Should the secret be found out, Fiona dies.'" Fiona seems to have had a life of growth and development altogether independent of William Sharp, passing, as Mrs. Sharp puts it, from youth in Pharais and The Mountain Lovers through maturity in The Barbaric Tales and Tragic-Romances "to the greater serenity of later contemplative life in The Divine Adventure, The Winged Destiny, and Where the Forest Murmurs." At one time he wrote: "Sometimes I am tempted to believe I am half a

woman." But each

of his two natures had its own needs, desireg, and friends. For a time there was such opposition between them that it was difi&cult for him to adjust his life to the two conditions which were equally imperative in their demands. "His preference, naturally, was for the intimate creative work which he -knew grew out of his inner self; though the exigencies of life, his dependence on his pen for his livehhood and, moreover, the keen, active interest 'William Sharp' took in all the movements of the day, literary and political, at home and abroadrequired of him a great amount of applied study and work. The needs of each were not always harmonious one with the other, but created a complex condition that




led to a severe nervous collapse."

we look

for the source of this dual personality in Sharp,

any rate, in early childhood. an extremely imaginative child, but he was also a real boy who loved the activities and adventures that appeal to boys. "About the dream and vision side of his life," his biograf^er says, "he learned early to be silent.
find its beginning, at


He was

of the confused


soon realized that his playmates understood nothing memories of previous lives that haunted him, and from which he drew materials to weave into stories for his schoolfellows in the dormitory at night. To his surprise he found they saw none of the denizens of the other worlds tree spirits and nature spirits, great and small so famihar to him, and who he imagined must be as obvious to others as to himself." "In surveying the dual life as a whole," says his wife, " I have seen how from the early partially realized twin-


'W. S.' was the first to go adventuring and find himwhile his twin 'F. M.' remained passive, or a separate

self. When 'she' awoke to active consciousness 'she' became the deeper, the more impelling, the more essential factor. By reason of this severance, and of the acute

conflict that resulted therefrom, the flaming of the dual

became so fierce that 'Wilfion' as I named the inner and third self that lay behind that dual expression ^realized the imperativeness of getting control over his two separated selves and of bringing them into some kind of conscious harmony." Yet, notwithstanding this conflict, each personality was

complete in


Each preserved its own pecuKar charThere was no interference or confusion; no

exchange or overlapping of natures. This consistency of Fiona Madeod is important. It is what makes her a personality. Consistency in matters necessary for identification may be assumed and maintained for a short time. But it finally breaks down. There have been fairly wellauthenticated instances of the substitution of a spurious "long-lost" son, who played his part successfully for a A somewhat similar deception is illustrated brief period.

by men who

seek to justify a reprehensible act
their, defense,

have had time to prepare



when they by false


in all such cases something



do not, fit, and inconsistencies are soon discovered.



is impossible to feign successfully what one is not, to play intentionally the part of two widely varying characHabits of thought and action are too controlling, ters. too compelling. A man cannot be constantly alert. The


on the attention is too great, and it lapses before aware of the change. So one is unable to be continuously mindful of what one says and does. Impostors

are surprised out of their security.


it is

a well-

known method

of lawyers to lead a witness peacefully

along until he feels mentally comfortable, the attention meanwhile losing its edge through adaptation to the feeling of satisfaction with the answers, and then suddenly, when he is off his guard, to spring a question, the plan usually succeeds. In the more common matters of life
this variation in the efficiency of attention is

observed in

the difficulties of conversation

good impression. How one would gladly recall.
not "ourselves."
effect is disturbing.

when one wishes to make a often one makes remarks which The usual excuse is that we were
to produce a favorable

The very attempt

like walking.


does not

follow automatically reveals its awkwardness.

Some one

has said that nothing can replace wisdom, though silence But in playing a part one cannot is the best substitute. be always silent. The consistency of "Fiona Macleod," then, is the most important bit of evidence in establishing her claim to perHer interests, her feelings and emotions, her sonality. thoughts and style are too diametrically opposed to those of Sharp to permit the assumption of intentional adoption. His early topics and mode of treatment were the
surface response to the


of the reading public as

Dependent, as he was, upon his pen, literary criticism, for which he had taste and talent, offered the quickest and surest way of earning a living. But there was a deeper self, a personality suppressed for a time by his economic and social conditions. Had this

he interpretaled them.

submerged have risen


might never was more truly himself than the austere critic that represented WiUiam Sharp. So it asserted itself and finally became the controlling force of his life. That memory, at tunes, seemed almost discontinuous indicates that we have here a border-line case between the common variations in the self and the condition of double personality which is so far from the Hne as
less real,


less vital, it

to the surface.


to be called abnormal.

Returning now to


more common



the illustrations have disclosed startling variations in the character and purposes of the same individual.

always rivalry and conflict between the different one gains control, and now the other. It is not always possible to say which Hne of conduct most truly represents the man. In some it is the baser acts, and the nobler deeds are done with conscious purpose to maintain a social position. Fortunately, such men are rare. Most people have good intentions, and their failures are due to moral weakness influenced by social or psychological causes. Man desires, at least, a satisf3dng unity in his life. Every one Ukes to feel that he is true to his ideals; and the strugis





is seen in the excuses which are from the higher code of action. Consequently, man is prone to deceive himself with the conviction that his acts are justifiable because others do them, or because they wiU enable him to do counterbalancing good in other ways, or else he drifts and finds excuses afterward. These by no means exhaust the categories. Man's actions are exceedingly complex, as much more complex than those of the lower animals as is his nervous system, and for just

gle to secure this feeling
for deviation

that reason.


action of animals


usually predictable.

It always

to one

who knows




are severely con-

Inconsistency, curiously enough, comes with development, at least with a certain stage of development.


this is


due to the

fact that

development means,
of reacting to


other things, multiplying



superficially the




sees a greater


of possible reactions ^more ways of behaving with reference to external situations than do the lower animals. Primitive man, also, was consistent imtil he learned inconsistency from contact with his civilized




of possible responses are con-

Putting them in order reqmres the organization of information and moral principles, as well as insight into the effect of acts; and thinking in terms of cause and effect is a comparatively new instrument of behavior. The man of good intentions, however, who yields to moral weakness has moments of keen remorse. But the
effect is





sins again.


people have the repentance habit.

They gain a

and even joy from the excitement. It is a sort of emotional debauchery in which they indulge periodically,
their sorrow in drink. This is one which the emotions ooze out ineffectually instead of producing action which is the phylogenetic justification for their existence. In time, inaction, with such people, becomes a fixed mode of behavior. They are continually making resolutions which are never carried

just as others


of the




This feeling of remorse easily leads to the self-deception
to which, as

we have
that he








more naive
does not

in this than are those


observe him.



practising self-deception though
This, again,


may have

—seeing quite clearly in acquaintances what one
be a selection of the self to which that I would not, if I could,"

observed this trait in others.

does not discover in oneself, though it may be patent to all the rest of the world. It illustrates a certain human
Finally, there should


yield submission.


says James,


"be both handsome and fat and well dressed, and a great athlete, and make a million a year, be a wit, a bon vivant, and a lady-killer, as well as a philosopher; a philanthropist, statesman, warrior, and African explorer, as well as a 'tone-poet' and saint. But the thing is impossible. The millionaire's work would nm coimter to the saint's; the bon vivant and the philanthropist would trip each other up; the philosopher and the lady-killer could not well keep house in the same tenement of clay."

One or the Which?

other will finally dominate.




"It looks so good that


my mouth




common saying; and it is not merely a figure The mouth actually does water at the sight of

of speech.

since the



the flow of saliva begins.


food has not been tasted the cause of this flow must be
altogether different from that which stimulates secretion

when food is actually eaten. Evidently, the mind is at work here, with its expectation of approaching pleasure;
this anticipation is

one of the psychical contributions

to digestion.

Its effect, in the feeling of the
is offered, is

mouth when

a matter of common experience. It is not so generally known, however, that visions of pleasant eating also make the stomach "water." As long ago as 1852 two investigators* noticed that the sight and smell of food started gastric secretion in the stomach of a hungry dog, and twenty-six years later Richet reported^ evidence of a generous flow of gastric juice in one of his patients when such substances as sugar or lemonJuice were chewed or tasted, though the act of swallowing could not be completed on account of a closed oesophagus. But the importance of these observations was not understood at the time, and the investigations were unproductive. More recently, however, a Russian physiologist, Pavlov, repeated the experiments on dogs, under improved conditions, and demonstrated the significance for digestion of the
appetizing food
psychical factor, desire or appetite.
'F. Bidder and C. Schmidt, Die VerdauungssSfte und der Stofwechsel.
Leipzig, 1852.

Journal de VAnatomie


de la Physioloiie, vol. 14, p. 170.


reappeared in exactly the same manner under the influence of psychological conditions that is to say. a secretion either immediately appeared or it did not appear. previous experience has shown that the substance offered not taste good. Thus. if On the other hand. the saliva dissolves the soluble constituents of food. the glands begin at once to pour out their secretion abundantly. as the introduction of the stimulating substances into the buccal cavity. when we pretended to throw pebbles into the dog's mouth. . in accordance with the properties of the substance which we had previously seen ' The Work of the Digestive Glands. In of swallowing. or. starts the digestive process. The advantage of this is to moisten the food and render easier the act Animals deprived of the parotid saliva swallow dry food only with the greatest difficulty. is put into the mouth saKva begins to flow. and. If the animal has found from past experience that it tastes good. Thompson. this or that when we offered it kind of food. H. Then the saliva begins to flow. Of course when food. no saliva is will secreted. namely. or to pour in something disagreeable. addition. or to cast in sand. such. Now Pavlov has shown experimentally that it is not necessary for food to be put into the mouth to excite the salivary reflex. p. finally. making them perceptible it to the nerves of taste. 152. As might be expected. "In the course of our experiments. with the saliva. in certain articles of diet. i5>»o.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 349 But let us begin with the first stage of digestion." says Pavlov. AU that is needed with a hungry dog is to direct his attention to the food.^ "it appeared that all the phenomena of adaptation which we saw in the salivary glands under physiological conditions. for instance. when we merely drew the animal's attention to the — substances in question. traonslated by W. and see what this mental co-operation means. the success of the experi- ment depends upon the anticipation elicited by the sight of what is offered. and especially dry food.

illuminated circle be finally excite If an shown with food the circle alone will the reflex. 375. Anything that is regularly connected with it at an enjoyable meal will be sufficient to stimulate the reflex. p. p. 10. irrespec- have the same —the sight of will the bottle containing the acid that starts the secretion chanically. p. distinguish certain colors. to produce the flow. But anticipation reaches far beyond the sight or smell The food itself need not be present. vol. If the acid is dark. rpa. then me- in the bottle of the like effect. ' Pavlov. vol. The attendant who feeds the animals. Journal filr Psychologie und Neurologie. Indeed. vol. consequently. cit. in furthering of the phases of digestion with which saliva is concerned. footsteps." of the juice when In other words. wiU be sufficient Curiously enough. expectation of a pleasant taste plays an important r61e in promotto regulate the quantity all ing the flow of saliva and. i. Nicolai. ." ^ Since a difference of a quarter of a tone produces no result.' same color as the add water produce a Since it is the color that exerts the influence. eral does • A. of pleasant food. substances which effect stimulate the reflex in a purely mechanical way. Journal fUr Psychologie und Kmt- rologie. W. "If a definite musical note be repeatedly sounded in conjunction with the exhibition of meat-powder. Siace an illuminated quadrilat- not have this effect. dogs. 85. p. Similarly with the exhibition of a brilliant color. the dog seems to make this distinction. Rundschau. for example. Wien. after a time the sound of the note alone is effective. op. dogs appear to distinguish between these figures. Meisl. his taking the dog into the room where he is wont and the any one of these to be fed. kl. according to Pavlov. 6. 17. Whatever has been associated with the substances that physiologically excite the salivary secretion may arouse it psychologically.. furniture of the room. the vesSel usually containing the food. tive of enjo3Tnent.SSo PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK and nature physiologically excited to flow.

These per- come to represent the cause of the ex- This connection between the salivary reflex and objects whoUy unessential to gratification of the appetite. perhaps whoUy accidental. p. i Abteil. "Any ocular stimvdus. Repetition of these simultaneous perceptions strengthens the union between them and soon into an integral part of the sign is identical with the food. any desired sound. as. by reason of association with The latter has its explanation in the evolutionary biological history of the species or The psychological reaction occurs because of a relationship established between the excitation of the sal- ivary reflex and certain definite perceptions. property of the object has thus ^ Ergebnisse der Physiologie. although they were all of them at one time supposed to be insufficient for such a purpose. either by mechanical means accomplished by applying these stimuli simultaneously with the action of the salivary glands. for example.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION Pavlov found that this 351 animal can be so trained that his salivary glands will respond to any excitation by associating the stimulus with food that gives pleasure when eaten. ceptions finally citation. p. Huxley Lec- . race. This was selected. 177. but nevertheless made it by the conjimction in time of the two perceptions. or by forcing certain substances into the dog's mouth. 3. of. 1906. a musical note. second. and. 1904. have in our hands never failed to stimtdate the salivary glands. An unessential. 2. is a temporary asso- ciation. any odor that might be and the stimulation of any part of the or by the application of heat or cold. first. vol. of another perception wholly imessential to the satisfying quality of the first. this action having been evolved by giving certain kinds of food. vol. It was formed by the simultaneous occurrence a taste so pleasant as to excite the salivary reflex." its secretion ^ In considering the "psychic" flow of saliva before the food it is actually tasted —^which means — must ^we remember that occurs only the physiological response. skin. British Medical Journal. ture. 871.

contoiu: of the land. In the same way danger may be associated with a given territory. By such means functional activity is better adapted to the siuroimding conditions. Avoidance of dehcious bits in traps because of incidental connection with odors of himian hands. value to the organism. Trappers seek to avoid such associations by this case the furnishings of the country — — removing odors. "It would appear." * Illustrations of the ftmctional activity way in which these associations aid and promote the adjustment of the animals to their surroundings readily suggest themselves. Undoubtedly. the association may be based upon the characteristics of the region. . cit. The estabhshment in this way of temporary relationship between external objects and important hfe processes. or olfactory perception of these accidental qualities of substances pleasant to the taste influences the salivary centre through the various and cir- cuitous nerve-paths which lead from the several senseorgans." Pavlov thinks. . readjustment is readily permitted when the conditions alter. and by giving the location of their traps ' Op. on the other hand. the connection in being between the food and what may be called the trees. etc. p. when thrown into action by the becomes a point of attraction for influences from all organs and regions of the body specifically excited by other quahties of the object. are matters of very considerable "as if the saUvary centre. offers illustrations of olfactory and visual associations.. these perceptions reinforce one another with a strength approximately proportional to their associative bond. or with certain appearances.352 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is become. while. As before. The association of food with a region. and association of the locality with the call of food-animals are cases in point. 86. reflex. or upon one or more animals which are feared. . concerned. so far as the animal self. simple . the object it- The visual. auditory. as well as the ease with which they are lost.

which are meaningless except in the overwrought mental complex of their possessor. these incidental and accidental associations may establish habit-psychoses the periodic recurrence of which produces obsessions. The feeling for proportion is lost. This repellent association may even exist between a favorite food-animal and a certain region. tions of which we have been speaking between objects or of the —chance connections —are fvmdamentally In the latter same sort as perverted associations. and other animals desert a section of country. this condition may be a passing phase due to the temporary presence or hostility of dangerous animals. This is seen to-day. squirrels. It should be added that fanaticism is a matter of degree. as of man. to observe that these associaqualities of objects It may be well. in passing. When the cause of avoiding the region is removed. killing when them. the animals in whom the repellent association existed return. Human behavior and consequently the world of action ^is too complex for so cure all social ills own special — . can house the explanation of any himian problem. thereby serving as a protection during a transitory period. From these "imperative" or "fixed" ideas arises that state of mind which characterizes fanatics —the men who seek to square the by their circle or to brand of religious elixir. When the idea becomes dominant such a person sees the world of thought in a perverted form because his ruling idea is always the centre of reference. case perceptions are overemphasized and applied indiscriminately." he approaches fanaticism. To the extent to which a man ties himself to one idea and allows it to become "fixed. and no one idea. as in the closed season. When carried over into the realm of thought. deer. As an instance of readjustment.— THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 353 a natural look with shrubbery and other devices. but return later after man has come to find pleasure in their presence instead of hunting and again. however much truth it may contain.

In any individual case. this decision revolves on the "imperative" idea. It is not set off by merely putting something into the mouth. however. But to return to our theme. this physiological process is not purely mechanical. . and so the vicious circle continues its satisfied whirl. Evidently. These associations. Only that serenity in error which admits no doubts. possessor from understanding other ideas because thought relationIn the past. A mental factor is involved. If they arouse agitating emotions they interrupt certain physiological processes in the same way as we shall find anger or fear does when an animal faces opposition or danger. but that this expectation of pleasure is carried over to whatever is associated with the food that promises pleasure. On the other hand. and consequently allows no conflict. It depends on the attitude of the animal or man toward the food. Even food does not always accomplish the complete result. Anything which prevents a person from seeing things in their right proportion disturbs digestion to the extent to which it brings him in conflict with others less insane than himself.354 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The "fixed" idea prevents its simple a solution. if one is to contend one should be quite certain that the argument is worth gastric disturbance. like those of which we have been speaking in the lower animals. are incidental in the sense that they are not a necessary part of the conditions or circumstances. religion has admittedlyships are disturbed. We have seen that anticipation of an enjoyable meal not only excites the salivary glands to action. anti-inoculationists. indicate a rather alarming widening of the range of association-psychoses. and pacifists. the reflex does not respond to food or other substances which do not awaken expectations of enjoyable sensations. Consequently. but to-day anti-vivisectionists. to mention only a few. furnished the largest number of this particular aberrant type. is compatible with a healthy digestion.

Anxiety. It is impossible to be very definite in account- ing for this inhibition. It is clear then that the mental state profoundly influences the secretion of sahva. interferences If of another sort.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION But which tion 355 in addition to the inertness of certain substances. only a certain amount of nervous energy is available. There are. one of the physical characteristics is a parched mouth and throat. fear. In fear. and then to eject it for judicial examination. In India those suspected of a crime were compelled to chew consecrated rice for a short time. The one who ejected it dry was declared guilty. which for the time is the . may or may not be food. which is The explanation must be by anal- never quite satisfactory. Pavlov observed that if flesh is shown to the dog the secretion of saliva ceases. Now. It is too dry. and that the nerve impulses are likely to take the line of greatest activity. The sight of flesh has. and anger. We know that. all stop the secretion of an angry person at dumer will turn psychological investigator for a moment he will notice how difficult it is to swallow his food. again. in some way. At the sight of bread the salivary reflex is excited. ogy. after a generous flow has started. It is not merely the greater desire of the dog for flesh that causes the inhibi- tion. for the secretion started at the sight of bread is also quickly stopped if the animal sees another dog eating the same food. at a given moment. The dry mouth tration. interference with the secreof saliva may also be set up. As in many other primitive ordeals and ceremonies the gods received credit for a psychological principle which has slowly proved itself in the experience of the race. the "watchful waiting" to hear his name called is an illus- This psychological effect of suspense has been utilized by primitive people as a test of guilt. It has long been known of the inexperienced public speaker during that in certain mental states the saliva refuses to flow. however. inhibited the salivary response to bread. worry. saliva. however.

and when once the appetite flow begins the physiological processes continue the secretory activity with increasing vigor. and so other bodily Consequently. It could also be fed as usual through the mouth. But interferences may occur to delay or inhibit the process. Action. The anticipated pleasure of the meal presses the button that starts the physiological machinery. and in the second. is paramount. and reflex reactions which by the contribute nothing to their strength or skill are delayed. The dog could now be fed either through the neck opening of the oesophagus leading into the stomach. The muscles call for blood and nervous energy that they may perform their function.3S6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK In both of these cases a motot is path of least resistance. and glandular action concerned with it. The muscles. It is much the same as when an animal fights or flees. centre is excited. experiments have shown that the salivary reflex is set in motion by a psychical factor. and the nervous impulses are directed toward making it as vigorous and efl&cient as possible. Digestion. In an emergency the organs needed to meet the situation are the ones that the blood and nervous discharges hurry to assist. other activities 3deld to their demand. An opening was then made into the stomach. . organs are drained. directed by the motor area. or through the direct opening into the stomach (gastric fistula). Enjoyable surroundings promote this pleasure by creating a mental attitude of expectancy. therefore. and still connected with it. This shown in the first instance by the vigorous efforts to obtain the flesh. must wait. Briefly svmamarizing the results of these investigations. but when this food was swallowed it feU out of the exposed end of the oesophagus in the neck tric Juice. efforts to reach the other dog and take the bread from him. are the centre of influence. We turn now to the psychic effect upon the flow of gas- Pavlov divided the oesophagus of a dog and exposed the two ends. All of the available energy is directed to vigorous muscular activity.

and proved that the gastric juice secreted in this smaU stomach was in all re- spects representative of that produced in the entire organ. The effect of this "sham feeding. the food that he swallowed passed out at the opening in the neck. In this way all the plfesures of eating could be experienced and their effect upon the flow of gastric juice accurately determined. Pavlov also produced a miniature stomach. He was tity thus enabled to estimate quite accurately the quan- and quality of gastric juice secreted as the result of different methods of feeding. of course. enjoying every minute of the period. fluences. and some of the dogs lived in ease and comfort for several years. continuing to flow as long as the animal was "fed. of the purest gastric juice were secreted. a cul-de-sae." So the persistence of the psychic effect can be measured. When Pavlov fed the a dog with divided oesophagus through mouth he ate greedily but. He can go on eating indefinitely without feeling "full. though not a particle of food had reached the stomach. whatever gastric juice appeared would be the result of psychic influences alone.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 357 instead of passing into the stomach. This dog was contented and happy. mouth did not reach the stomach. the appetite —a psychic among other in- factor." the pleasant sensations of the enjoyable taste. are evidently transmitted to the gastric glands by nerve-paths. and in that time 7cx) c. He observed further the changes produced in the gastric juice by varying sorts of food.c. the comfortable feeHng that comes from well-being Since the food taken through the is essential to the success of the experiments. "Sham feeding" has the advantage also of never satisf3dng the animal. All of these experiments included." This secretion produced by psychic influences Pavlov called "psychic" or "appetite" juice. . at the cardiac end of the stomach. Yet pure gastric juice at once made its appearance and steadily increased in quantity. One dog continued eat' ing for five or six hours. Indeed.

The food is evolutionary significance of this is clear. but. As with the salivary glands. judgment. Getting not merely a physiological matter. or and then the taste. reflex will greatly enlarge the flow. however. secretion. to a large upon a psychic factor which starts a physiological The physiological activity underlying digestion is thus shown to be a very complex reflex act. The pleasant taste increases the effect of the agreeable feelings aroused by the sight of the food. The dog with divided oesophagus process. therefore. Only by this be brought in solution into contact with the taste organs. for food can be tasted only when means can it dissolved in the mouth. the first and strongest excitation for the gastric reflex is the sight. so far as he knows. The effect is. involving the co-operation of a number of organic processes. is of immense importance for gastric Consequently. lov's feeding. The emotional conditions unite both re- . and the gastric juice flows abundantly. he actually eats it. some of which are psychological.. Either sight or taste may start the "psychic" both together disturbances. The gastric secretion obtained during the hour and a half sight of the meat was somewhat greater than that produced by sham smell. So he eats greedily. There is no disappointment in what he is doing because the food tastes good. and the will to obtain. Taste. As an illustration.3S8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK stimulation of the nerves of the gastric glands The extent. by the act of chewing and swallowing depends then. anticipation. juice. Desire. He was then given a sham meal. but Emotional on the other hand. selection. aU play their r61e. one of Pavdogs was excited by showing him meat for an hour and a half. cumulative from both points of view. that inhibit the salivary check the gastric secretion indirectly by blunting the taste. and he swallows it. emotional states stimulating to the salivary reflex should prevail at meals. not only imagines that he is eating food.

" as Pavlov says. "so important to life and so full of mystery into a to science. 209. were sufficient to excite the gastric glands. found ' ^ a relatively slight and incon- Adolf Bickel and K. F. by Anton Julius Carlaon. vol. And this impulse is the craving of a hungry animal for food. p. If the dog was hungry the appearance of the attendant. and. vol. vol. 1829." We found in discussing the psychical response of the any object or action regularly connected with obtaining pleasant-tasting food is soon associated in the mind of the animal with the meal itself. Deutsche medizmische Wochenschrift. "Thus appetite. A. several investigators'^ Pavlov's observations on dogs have been verified by on human beings. Carlson. 31. something that gives it meaning in relation to the organism. at least so far as the effect of tasting pleasant substances is concerned. Delicate response to stimulation of those organs that sense from a distance is not stifl&cient for the preservation of the species. The same observation was made on the secretion of gastric juice. Homborg.— THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION flexes. Cade et A. Sasaki. to check or stop the process. Lataxjet. p. and becomes transformed from a subjective sensation concrete factor within reach of physiological investigation. in the other. Journal de Physiologie et Pathologie General. here at length assumes a tangible existence. and Joined with this anticipation is the physiological preparation of the stomach to receive the food tiie reflex response of the gastric glands. * The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. The psychical aspect of this longing tion is the desire and expectaawakened through the excitation of the distance receptors. A. There must be some point to the response. and any movement that he salivary reflex that was wont to make when giving food. p. in 359 the one case to aid digestion. something that drives the animal irresistibly in pursuit of that which promises pleasure to the taste. however. pp. Skandmavisches Archiv fiir Physiologie. even his footsteps. 221. 15. . 7. 237/.

he says: "It is possible that in this young woman every gustatory and olfactory stimulus when manipulated by the investigators led to thoughts of food through idea associations. But Pavlov observed great variation in this respect in his dogs and. the man whom he himself tested may belong "to the group of individuals in whom the taste of food is the aU-important factor in the psychic secre- There is. In referring to the observations of Kaznelson and Bickel. the psychic- the sight and smell of food. set up inhibitory processes. there p. so that he might partake of the food. but the expiration of the experiment." Psychic influence is emphasized by Carlson in explaining the findings of several investigators. that any olfactory stimulation induced secretion of gastric juice in the resting stomach. secretory As we mechanism is especially sensitive to inhibitory influences.36o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK stant secretion from merely seeing. cit. or thinking of food in the man with whom he experimented. cit." for the failure of Carlson's man to secrete gastric juice at shall see. op.." he says." * Among the confirmacase of his patient. however. and it is quite possible that the routine collection of the juice may. Carlson himself suggests this in the "It is probable. as Carlson suggests. which he was unable to confirm. and which may account tion of gastric juice. tory evidence of the influence of thinking about eating the observation of secreted in is Cade and Latarjet* that gastric juice was a young woman when her favorite food was the differences there is subject of conversation. . smelling. another element which must not be overlooked. Whatever individual effect of thinking ' about food. 230. or possibly his main interest was not in the food. may be in the very general agree« Op. " that under these conditions the primary and normal effects of seeing and smelling the food are inhibited by the consciousness of the experiment. for example. by the very disagreeableness of the experimental procedure and irritation at delay.

where there is no appetite this is absent. therefore reduces • the problem of ere* op. the pleasurable sensations caused by the smell. Except in stomachical dis- ease one probably never has the first without the second. 23s. taste. A good appetite ia eating gives origin at the outset to a vigorous secretion of the most active juice. "The mere act of chewing indifferent substances and the stimulation of nerve-endings in the mouth by substances other than those directly related to food cause no secretion of gastric juice. agree with Pavlov when he says that "to restore appetite to a man means to provide him with a large stock of gastric juice wherewith to begin the digestion of a meal. The question as to whether one should eat when one is not hungry. but rubber brought no secretory response. and he is of the opinion that "the significant appetite secretion in man is that induced by tasting and chewing good food. ." We caimot. It is the initiator of the secretory process and digestive activity. then. and not merely of having something in the mouth or of chewing.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION ment regarding borg's care 361 the influence of taste. cit. or thought of enjoyable food serve as a stimulus to the gastric reflex. and the second is comparatively meagre without the itself to p. a factor itself bodies in means gastric juice.. as in the lower animals investigated." ^ Evidently. it is a matter of taste and enjoyment. secreted in the stomach of a boy who Gastric juice was came under Horn- when he chewed agreeable food. however. We are therefore justified in sajdng with Pavlov " that appetite is the first and most potent exciter which emsomething able to compel the empty stomach of the dog during the fictitious meal to secrete large quantities of the strongest juice." In man. This has been verified by Carlson. Carlson foimd that "the secretion is proportional to the palatability of the food". first." Rather should we say that appetite of the secretory nerves of the stomach.

both of which had been operated upon in the same way. In the dog without sham feeding. the meat was withdrawn and weighed. We have said that appetite means gastric juice. are primarily psychological matters. and consequently without interest in the process. during which the dogs were left alone in separate rooms.362 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK As will ating an appetite. In both cases the pieces of meat were attached to a string. while the animal's attention was diverted by patting and caressing so as to keep him from seeing the food. The same weight of pieces of meat was then put into the stomach of the second dog through the direct opening. rare inphysiological. Pavlov next took two dogs. and dislikes —except Food habits also — ^likes in certain comparatively. but at the same time he was given a sham meal. is stances of physiological repugnance. and that little gastric Pavlov demonstrated this by two experiments First. while in the case of great importance. Besides. A glass rod passed into the food of the stomach came out dry. the flesh had been reduced by only six grammes. its digestive action was weak. Flesh excited some secretion. and only secondarily The meaning of this in the rearing of children reserved for later treatment. he introduced bread and coagulated egg white directly into the stomach of a sleeping dog through the opening that had been made. Into the stomach of one pieces of flesh were introduced through the direct opening. food without interest produces comparatively secretion. After an hour or more not a drop of juice had appeared. said in an earlier chapter be seen later. and after an hour and a haK. but its appearance was considerably retarded. . The difference in the loss of weight through digestion was striking. all that has been about exercise has psychological significance in this connection. and it was scant during the first hour. In order to show that the loss of value of food without attention and desire was not caused by the fact that the animal was sleeping.

In one case when feeding lasted for only five minutes the secretion continued for twenty minutes. cU. the importance of the psychical factor. .THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 363 of the one who was given a fictitious meal when the meat was put into his stomach there was a loss of thirty grammes. rep- resents the digestive value of appetite. p. It is the tonic effect of appetite upon the alimentary canal." The vagi and the splanchnics "are nerves which increase or decrease chic tonus is ' Op. Pleasure in what one gastric juice.. says: "Tonus as an essential factor of gastric peristalsis is first given by vagus impulses. and lack of interest delays the process. and later maintained by the stomach itself. of the interests of the one in what he was eating. The difference then. both on the motor and on the secretory side is in fit handle the ingested food. cU. developed by the taking of food.i who observed a generous flow of gastric juice in dogs while they were being given a the sham fictitious meal. realized by the pleasant taste of masti- Cannon. is eating starts and pro- motes the flow of gins." he says. speaking somewhat more technically of the tonic effect. in the case of these two dogs. ."^ Both factors "psychic" juice and tonus ^are evidently present in keen anticipation of interesting food. lessens the quantity when the secretion be- and seems to reduce its digestive value. Carlson emphasizes another phase of this complex psychophysiological process of digestion a factor big with psychological meaning. and his desire for it. . It shows. and each is greatly increased when condition — to — is the expectation cation. ' Op. Pavlov's conclusions have been verified by Bickel and Sasald. "The significance of — hunger and appetite for digestion. "is apparently not so much in the actual yield of appetite gastric juice as in the fact that when these sensation-complexes are present the entire gastro-intestinal tract. in other words. 247. and in that time a large quantity of pure gastric juice was collected. Probably a psy.

The effect of the previous state of excitement continued and checked the flow. Inhibition has also been observed in the secretion of gastric juice. s.364 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The absence of the tonus of gastric musculature. however. in states of exhaustion. vol. only a few drops of a poor quality of juice appeared. p. Oechsler^ has also found that Che secretion of the pancreatic juice is suppressed in animals by anger. and after the gastric secretion again bringing the cat into the room. be explained by the failure of vagus impulses. The dry mouth during nervous tension was mentioned as an illustration. Both conditions result in absence of gastric tonus. of the salivary reflex. The animal became furious and struggled to reach it. and thereby affect peristalsis. for fifteen became violently angry and struggled ag£iin at Though the secretion had been well under way minutes. can stomach movements. in a calm dog. The cat was then removed and the dog was given a sham meal. yet little gastric juice was secreted. 250. So rage checks the secretion of all the juices that are essential to the chemical ^ changes in food American Journal of Physiology. the dog his chain. As was well started before. while Pavlov. Twenty minutes after the meal ended only nine cubic centimetres of juice of a rather poor quahty had been secreted. p. had secured from twelve to fifteen cubic centimetres of pure juice in from six to ten minutes. ' Internationali BeitrUge zUr Pathologie und Therapie der EmiUirungtlor- icngen. attention Disturbances of one sort or another may." ' terrupt the anticipation of interesting food. Bickel and Sasaki then continued the test of the effect of anger by giving their dog a interferences may sham meal. vol. 1. for example. and in emotional states by the presence of splanchnic impulses. . He was hungry and ate ravenously. 29. Bickel and Sasaki brought a cat into the room of one of their dogs. inIn speaking was called to the fact that be started and the process inhibited.

by preventing the secretion of gastric Not anger and rage alone have this effect. inference may be drawn from these investigations which greatly increases the significance of these striking results. as the iavestigations of Bickel and Sasaki led them to conclude. Indeed. The same observation was made by Bogen. 117. It is clear then that not only are pleasurable emotions favorable to digestion. vol. the secretion was not disturbed. on the other hand. no gastric juice was secreted. when he was calm and the food had been given to him. Timidity may give the same result. We are now able to understand why the child upon experimented failed to secrete gastric Dogs. Le Conte found that. With his animals inhibition occurred when they were tied. in dogs. became so angry at the sight of food which was withheld that.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION during digestion. ArchivfUr d. cit. tion ceases. It will be remembered that gastric secretion when well started under favorable conditions may be quickly checked and stopped by anxiety or anger. H. than those that promote » * Op. but also worry and anxiety. Bogen. a boy with closed oesophfor the agus. 365 For some time violent rage is after a But fit of anger digesnot needed to produce the inhibition. 136. After the dogs became accustomed to the restraint. fear of strange surroimdings delayed the secretion of gastric juice. then. but those that are unpleasant retard the process juice. gesamle Physiqlogie. p. all depressing emotions delay digestion. Clearly. and gastric fistula. . stances. imder these circumJuice at the sight of food.^ One of his patients. however. are eager to be fed and they dance around joyously. and prevent it from being carried on with A further its customary vigor when once it has started. became angry and began to cry when shown food that he was not allowed whom Homborgi moment to eat. emotional influences unfavorable to digestion are stronger it. The child.

and be exposed to a wide area of the intestinal wall for absorption. Bodily Changes in Pain. motion is again abolished for some time. American Journal of Physiology. igiS. and guinea-pigs. vol. 6. and "during that time not the slightest beginning of peristaltic activity appeared. stops peristalsis for a variable length of time. ' » . American Journal of Physiology. Hunger." ^ Cannon found that the same changes occur under similar conditions in dogs. When a cat becomes infuriated." ^ • Walter B.* Fear and distress in the cat had the same effect as rage. Cannon. p. IS* Walter B. yet the only visible indication of excitement in the animal was a continued quick twitching of the tail to and fro. Cannoa. Op. 1916. "the activities of the stomach and intestines are stopped. rabbits. Walter B. yet they do not close the story. vol. so likewise there is probably a psychic tone or psychic contraction of the gastro-iatestinal muscles as a result of taking food." if "But Cannon watched the stomach of a vigorous young male cat for more than an hour. in addition to the external manifestations of rage. p. Address at Johns Hopkins University. April 17. p. and Rage." Investigations have sustained Cannon's conjecture.366 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK All of these facts are immensely important in the psychology of daily Kfe. p. 18. Fear. saj^ Cannon. ciL. cit. 251.. 15. however gentle the experimenter may strive to be. ' John Auer.^ that "I was led to infer that just as there is a psychic secretion. The movements shortly appear again. stopping aU movements in both the large and small intestines. or if it the animal be startled in any way. 347. Cannon.^ But violent excitement is not needed to inhibit the movements. « Op. 13. To insure proper digestion the food must be carried along through the alimentary canal so as to be acted upon by the digestive juices in different parts of the canal. Auer* observed that the handling required to tie rabbits to the board. struggles. It was while studying these mechanical aspects of digestion. p.

Finally. because of the however. p. "Like the peristaltic waves in the stomach. should be emphasized that the "psychic" starts digestion. 1634. and the all cease whenever the animal shows signs of emotional excitement." And "some peculiarly constituted persons." they add. no. 899. Among them all. MUnchener medizinische Wochenschrift. and Roosbach^ has established the stoppage of intestinal peristalsis in man from the same causes as those that produce it in the lower animals. He noticed that small dogs placed in strange surroundings frequently showed no contractions of the stomach for two hours or more.. inhibition of gastric motility. the "psychic" juice initiates rapid digestion which is afterward aided by the • Felix Lommel." Appetite is thus seen to have a wide physiological reach. p. and that other emotional conditions inhibit the movements. It touches digestion at various points. the peristalsis and the kneading movements" [segmentationj "in the small intestine. cannot eat anything of consequence until their day's work is ended. 323. With meat. Report 0} the British Association for the Advancement of Science. it pleasure which this food affords dogs. op. cit. " ' Cannon. 1899. as Pavlov found. * « How to Live. p. Fisher and Fisk sum up^ the more recent investigations by sajdng that "the X-ray has detected the arrest of the peristaltic movements of the stomach and intestines because of a strong emotion. p. Essehnont' likewise con- cludes that majiy emotional states stimulate peristalsis. . and the significance of this in proJuice moting the continuance of the process cannot be overestimated." ^ Auer found that irritating odors also produce temporary reversed peristalsis in the large intestine. "who take their work and obligations with a kind of seriousness that amounts almost to fear.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION Lommel observed ' 367 the same effect of slight degrees of ex- citement. 1903. j6. The digestive processes seem to be at a standstill until then. Deutsche! ArcMvfiir kUnische Medizin. 46. p. vol. 2.

368 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK by this first excitant. and bringing them into connection with the physiological processes^ simimarizes the results for physiology as follows: The normal of "due to the co-operation and most important is the nervous secretion. . In such cases the appetite juice digestive process. 6gsff. p. 12$. will there for a long time without the least appearance of change. determined through the vagus nerves by stimulation of the mucous membrane of the mouth. .'"! Starling. op. Ernest H. igniting material The 'psychic' juice here plays a similar role to that of the which sets the fuel in the stove ablaze. factor. Starling. The first The second the arousing of appetite in the higher parts of the brain. the digestion of these foods proceeds spontaneously." * 'Pavlov. 1913. or by gastric secretion is two factors. and for this reason it has been called by Khizbin 'igniting juice. The juice secreted in the second phase must vary according to the quantity of gastric hormone produced in the pyloric mucous membrane. Human Physiology. which acts as a chemical messenger to all parts of the stomach. With seems even more lie "Bread or egg white eaten without appe- or introduced into the stomach unobserved. is further secretion caused The stay of food in the digestive canal thus shortened.. which provides for the continued secretion of gastric juice long after the mental effects of a meal is have disappeared. cit. and therefore with the nature and amount of substances produced in the preliminary digestion of the gastric contents by means * of the psycliic juice. estimating the conclusions of Pavlov and others. tion in the pyloric chemical. is the sole initiator of the When started by its assistance. certain other foods the "psychic" juice indispensable. pp. of the various secreting and thence exciting the activity cells in the gastric glands. being absorbed into the blood. . . and depends on the producmucous membrane of a specific sub- stance or hormone. tite.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION It is 369 clear then that digestion is not merely physiological. and to this discussion we now turn. have different nutritive value. the more substantial foods. The science consists in determining the suitable dietary in a given case. There are other high places this side of Heaven from which they are barred. in many cases. This is the physician's The art lies in planning conditions that shall pro- mote the physiological processes favorable to digestion. but they are not the nutritive foods. adjustment of one's personal life to the facts disclosed by these experienter the ments is imperative. Henry Ward Beecher's epigrammatic cry that dyspeptics cannot many Kingdom of Heaven was not a joke. ' . digestion is not second'. The is very complex and includes psychic factors which precede and initiate the physiological action. and the latter are the things that would often be omitted by choice But they are if one consulted only the vagaries of taste. In interpreting these investigations for guidance in the psychology of Hfe the first thought Ukely to come to the amateur thinker is that he should eat only what he wants. the also the foods that the body needs. Foods. This would naturally lead to the elimination of the less palatable and. and of men and women in their personal arrangements. Simply taking food even the right food does not fulfil the process — — requirements of nutrition. Consequently. science task. and others are designed to furnish an agreeable end to the meal. There is no doubt that they increase and prolong the secretion of gastric juice. however. For health and happiness. Some are worth eating for what they give us. among these. Successful eating is both a and an art. and. and intelligence requires conservation of aU the factors that contribute to health. EjEciency means first of all efl&cient Hving. These conditions are devices to produce the anticipatory mental states which start the "psychic" juice and this planning is primarily the function of the home-keeper. Desserts have immense importance in the psychology of eating.

after being advised is a skilled physician. or walk five miles a day. It quickens and improves metabolism by a more rapid circulation of blood and an iucrease of the oxygen supply. After one has produced a vigorous appetite tiiis advice regarding eating. the body will demand substantial food and the — appetite will crave it. likes and dislikes are due altogether to . "Eat what you want to eat" depends upon what you want. ride horseback. and the more rapid circulation of the blood aids this elimination and promotes a vigorous metabolism. but for the anaemic. Here then is seen the further significance for appetite.370 first PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK dietary problem for an adult. and consequently for digestion. of exercise in the open air. The sight and smell of roast beef with vegetables wiU then be more enticing and therefore produce more "psychic" juice than the most delicate meringue air-bubbles. to to create by an appetite rather than humor it. Many more persons than are commonly supposed suffer from intestinal intoxication the acctimulation of toxic products from undigested food. r61e in Training in childhood evidently plays an important producing likes and dislikes for food. Barring is physiological repugnance. In its milder forms this causes lassitude and headaches. Much of the value of osteopathy and massage consists in giving passive exercise to the organs and muscles of the body. which is far less common than usually thought. headachy. when given by an intelligent physician. pay to have it exercised. Exercise in the open air tends to eliminate these toxic products through the various excretory organs. Exercise purifies the blood by increasing the intake of oxy- gen and the output of carbon dioxide. and then eat what you want. toxaemic man or woman the first admonition should be: "Play tennis or golf. Those who are too indolent to exercise their own body. is good." Having taken exercise in the open.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION eajly environment insects eaten 371 and training. Regularity in meals is advocated because the digestive organs need rest." juice. which a man does not anticipate entering and in which the surroundings are disagreeable. It is Every nation has its not necessary to refer to the whose diet is by certain primitive peoples abhorrent to civilized races. as frogs' legs. This is surely important. when This prepares the saJivary and gastric reflexes for stimulation. eels. Women. and by defeating the first it greatiy weakens the second the continued production of gastric For the "psychic" juice is the "igniting juice. which is to excite the digestive reflexes. This is especially the case when one anticipates naturally turn to eating reason it is something pleasant to the taste. peculiarities in eating. and calves' braias are abhorrent to sight and taste before the liking has been acquired. defeats the first purpose of taking food. The foods that shall appeal to the man and woman. Some of the choicest delicacies of the modem epicure. When meals are served at definite hours. who eat a "picked-up lunch" are in much the same position as the dogs into whose stomachs food — . Saliva may even be secreted at the thought of the hour. A noisy restaurant. and that women in the home have the table prepared and limcheon served in quite as interesting a way as if they were to have guests. caviare. If one observes oneself at such a time one will often find the mouth watering. again. but there is also a psychological argument ia its favor that has a bearing upon the secretory ing. and excite the salivary and gastric reflexes so as to prepare the way for vigorous and healthy digestion are decided in the homes of boys and girls whose mothers are often more mindful of the moment's indolent ease than of the future welfare of their children. For this important that business and professional men have pleasant places in which to lunch. activity of which we have been speakthe thoughts the time arrives.

The absence of attention and interest in the dogs prevented the secretion of gastric juice. modern life produce much the same ways. The sedentary fife of business and professional men in the strain of the world's work lowers the physical vitality and raises the threshold of appetite. which are the beginning of appetite. so much with unusual foods as with delicacy and attractiveness in the manner of serving. wholesome foods. Their tastes and emotions are diseased. The knowledge of what is to be served also has the same effect. thing is The important that the anticipation be "normal" and find its gratification ia weU-prepared. and the food remained long undigested. The sensitiveness of their digestive reflexes is dulled. They are pathological — — gastronomists. On the other hand. Satiated by superfluity and novelty they are like the children in such families to whom the usual toys at Christmas bring no joy. Probably here also in lies the explanation of loss of appetite some women who do their own housework. Not. but these are relative terms having reference to the value of their content. This is the explanation of the importance of the grade of the luncheon restaurant. the vulgar rich those who display their wealth in sensuous indulgence ^who are continually seeking some gastronomic novelty soon lose pleasure in foods they should enjoy. so that when the meal is served it fails to start the "psychic" flow of the salivary and gastric juices. and previous pleasurable thoughts of the meal defeats the psychology of digestion shows that eating without its end. We are accustomed to speak of higher and lower thoughts.372 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK was introduced through the gastric fistula. It is well known that excellent quality of food and cooking fails . conditions of effect in other The So the taste must be tempted. Excess has blunted the sensations liiat should arouse agreeable feelings. The longdelayed anticipation and the continued odor of the food fatigues and duUs the taste-secretory mechanism. however.

like ideas. Social likes and dislikes will take care of this. for hiury. Pleasant conversation with choice friends adds to the zest. Even though anger does not arise. then contagious. In any case. The psychology of the crowd also plays its and a few congenial friends ia animated conversation is always make a psychological crowd. is inhibiting in its effect A fifteen-minute limcheon is a business blimder as well as a psychological error. Heated discussions. the subjects should be those in which the group ested. In part. On this account the associates should be selected with some thought. but there It would shoTild be agreement upon the place and hour. it is the psychological principle of the summation of stimuli. is inter- The conversation should be in lighter vein. by setting up interferences. Naturally. This is the psychological reason for the abolition of "shop talk" at meals. the tension of too serious discussion tends to inhibit the reflexes and check the secretion of gastric juice. Business efficiency consists in taking . however. again. and partly. Appetite. without the excitement of fixed convictions. Investigations have shown that moderate excitement of a disagreeable tone quickly reacts upon the bodily activities. r61e. like worry.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION to 373 tempt if the service be not neat. a too active mind starts resistance to the action of lower reflexes that in their very nature are sensitive to obstructions. should be avoided. taking care that the members be congenial. would arrange be well if business and professional men their luncheon groups with much the same thought as they plan a dinner. One's business is too serious for table talk. Manyagreeable sensations working together have more value in brightening the emotions than their sum when applied separately. but the interest should be of the amateurish sort. Time enough should be allowed to avoid the feeling of hurry. In digestion the effect is probably produced by draining off nervous impulses through the excessive activity of higher brain-centres.

They would save more time. The atmosphere of these places is hurry. and some things are expensive at any price. and gradually lose Because of loss of appetite they limit them- selves to the lighter. hurry their appetite. and the pastry is swallowed with a gulp of coffee.374 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK all account of the factors that enter into tfae result. Indeed. This is feeding but it is not eating. them. stomach does not necessarily mean digestion and nourishThose who eat in cafeterias might as well stay in their offices and be fed through gastric fistulas. and some one is waiting for a vacant seat. They eat much the same things each day. and digestion is certainly one of these factors. Some things not usually thought of in connection with appetite are important in starting the "psychic" flow. men often go across the street to a cafeteria that they may think about some matter which is troubling heavy interest deposit to the credit of business. At the noon-hour they are crowded. and their shortened life appetizing. The psychological effect of change of clothing is an illustration. and in America this . We have seen that putting food into the cafeterias are psychological monstrosities. and from the belief that cheapness is altogether a matter of dollars and cents. and money they save by is and frequently less doctor usually gets the this economy. more The on the accumulated minutes which they In these places there is no incentive to keep the mind from the work one has just left. The importance of appetite for digestion shows that Their popularity springs from the mistaken notion that minutes are all that count in business efi&ciency. Conversation with those who lunch in these eating shops has almost iuvariably brought the same reply. coffee. ment. Efficiency depends more upon one's physical condition than upon anything else. Bustle begets nervousness. The stage should be set to create both the bodily feeling and suggestion of pleasure. through so as to get back to business. digestible foods.

and that produces a different feeling. Change of any sort usually some alteration in the feelings and attitude of the individual affected. alwajrs down to dinner. this much the same effect. Feel- much a matter of clothes as of on the body is altered. just as it Business is of the business attached to garments is connected with the office. ticeable when the environment is altered. and it is well known that even slight relief from friction is refreshing. the important psychological factor here. Change in refreshing. tired. and the digestive reflexes respond more readily to the psychic influence. Besides. The friction association that makes common. are good digestive and business proposiVacations are abhorrent to some merely because tions. psychologically. And removal of business clothes rids thoughts and worries associated with them. The relief that comes with change of shoes when one is fatigued from walking is a matter of common knowledge.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION is 375 too largely overlooked. one sees oneself differently. of course. at any rate. Change is. The clothes look fresher merely because one has not seen them during the day. The influence of change on digestion is stiU more noVacations. the familiarity of prolonged ings seem to be quite as mind. All of this puts one into condition to be pleasantly affected by the sight and odor of food. This is true even when the shoes do not fit so well as those removed. when camping. and. but they are different. Familiarity breeds contempt in more ways than one. If it is not exactly contempt in the present instance it is. one of many even short ones. that change to an equally disreputable suit has freshens causes body and mind. The clothes may be no better than those that were removed. they require change of habits. But that is the reason for . The business or professional man comes home raiment is He makes sits only the toilet that cleanliness requires. The smoothness of the and dumer clothes seems to iron out some wrinkles of the body. The writer has often observed.

He chanically. Response to stimulation. "Do the next thing. or rarely. the old takes on a new look. A startling change ia environment. with its necessary alteration of habits. If it does not kill the body it blunts its sensory edge. and his digestion works meThe writer once saw a motto on a business man's desk which read. no discrimination of values. Other things settle themselves. Probably this is due to stomachical tonus chiefly of psychological origin. does the "next thing" mechanically. goes to his office mechanically. both bodily and mentally. and it kills the mind. on returning. . throws one out of gear for the moment. The worries of business are not as troublesome since he sees that some of the matters are not so important as he thought when he stood facing them. and the man begins his work with a more alert judgment meals. That is its value. It has been observed that sometimes at a banquet one can eat vastly more than the stomach would take care of under routine conditions. and the mental refreshment puts one into condition to anticipate one's Later." Now one who does "the next thing" never gets anywhere. Their magnitude diminishes with distance. Change of scene animates the mind by relieving It of the weariness of "the same old things". one awakens the following morning mightily refreshed. A physiological jolt benefits the organs and improves digestion. Routine kills. takes a vacation does things mechanically. is slower and less ef&cient. when the experience is not repeated too frequently. and. both internal and external. The distinction from bodily death is that he who is mentally dead thinks that he is aHve.376 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK taJdng them. A man who never. There is no selection. So a man is able to view them objectively. Habits are stultif5dng. The things that one has been doing are no longer a part of oneself because one can no longer do them. sees proportions more clearly. He has a better perspective. acts beneficially and this mental composure re- upon digestion.

devoid of humor. by saying that change is so important that even a spree has its value. Any break in routine is refreshing. in the onslaught of fatigue.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 377 because his metabolism is improved. James once shocked certain Puritanic. in addition. digestion plays a prominent rdle in the drama of Ufe. to control. Digestion. Its delicacy is not noticed during the vigor of youth by those who lead a free. They function together and derangement of one exerts a powerful influence upon the other. naive people. is Indigestion sometimes an organic habit produced in part by the of sameness. is a marvellously sensitive process. And quickening the bodily activities arouses the appetite and promotes digestion. then. and the shaiper the break the better. active life in the open air. But in years of maturity few are unaware of the frailty of the machinery by which food is changed into the energy that produces the day's work. An active attitude of anticipation produces both psychological and physiological results. healthy sult of determination to and an totally separate and different. has a tonic effect upon lie whole digestive tract. whatever philosophical difficulties may arise in defining this relationship. in our thinking and acting. This gives a keen appetite. Mind and body are not active. In determining our reconstruction will of the conditions to which we adapt ourselves. creating a tonus that promotes the proper treatment of the food. and here the significance of outdoor exercise." promotes a vigorous metabolism. It causes a greater preliminary flow of "psychic" and. becomes apparent. . in the habits that we form. The psychical factor yields readily mind. Clearly. digestion is never a silent partner. So we see that the mental juice. with occasional change of environment. whether the rebe pleasant or of the bodily care that improves the "feelings. monotony stale is of immense importance in the digestive process. and even in the selection of the "self " that is to control our Uves.


INDEX OF SUBJECTS Ability. King. principle ^53. 4/. 69. 31/. "OeverHans. success of. Cromwell.. general. 69. Rear-AdmiraJ Sir Francis. M.. 71. 93jf. 257/.. 38/. 136. unreflec6/.. Jean B. 144^.. and environment.. 32/. 52. Cuvier. 12. 356.. Coimt de. Charles. i. 136. 55. 224. 145. 55. Beethoven. 27. 268. 10/. Crystal vision. 126/. 3S. 39/. 80. 86. Daguerre. Adams. 2.. 104/. Bradley. 17/. Billings. 147. Edith. 369. and digestion. sij 66. Dalibard. 184/. 157. 24. James. 269. experimentation in. 149. in United States. 271/. 24. Coincidences. Baron. 118. Charles. I. 88. and adaptation.. Death-rate. 27. Darwin. intelligence. Attention. Curtis. Charles Francis.. 79. from organic diseases. blunders in. of infants and chil- and habit. 117. 4ff. Henry Ward. 119.. 44. and memory. Glenn. 124/. Automatization. 30. Cavell... and education. Charles the Tenth. Clairvoyance. 208^. and memory. 48. Louis. interfering. 24. King.. 62. 265. and fatigue. 379 . 78. CsBsar. Behavior. 23. and 353 f-i physiological basis recall. 124. 30/. 240. reasons for increase of. Beecher. 107^. Aptitudes. 77. 38/. and efficiency. Adventures. 142/. in Europe. 160. latent... 82. Colorado penitentiary S3rstem. Adrenalin. 203. 23/. 38/. Dante. 21..32. 63/. Cyrus. Julius. 156/. BufFon. 4. 86. 62. 257. 329. Agassiz. 115. 270. 28/. dren. 3. 152. Bradlaugh. 13. Johann. Carlyle. 217. Ludwig. 266. 30. 58.. and efficiency. Tycho. 4/. Business problems.. 216^. perverted. Bushido. 348^. 55. 249/. 262 _^.. 56. ing" in animals. 38. Oliver. Josh. 7j5. Biot. of.'3o^. 283. and "reasonis. Charles. 16.. and learning.. 94. Thomas.. and habit. 102. 208/.. 33.. Aristotelian theory. of man. 60... Diamandi. tive. 28. value of. 66... 203. Automatic writing.. Bebel. 30^.. i. 18. of animals.. 149. 20s/. 131/. 239 jf. Advertising. 117. and adaptation. 32.. Louis. 117. Brahe. significance of. 115. 271. August. 191 Jf. fixing. Beauford. 29. Adaptation.. 321. 20. 49. 62. 24/.. 53/." and 26. 134. 17. 17. 100 Jf. Copemican theory. and habit. Association. IS9of. 12. 217. 3/. Benzenberg. 221 _^. 121/.

and daily life. 184. Facts. 4S#-. importance of. sSflS7_ff. 368.. 33.. Genius. 348^. Eliot. bias in. 184.. 181 _^.. and adrenalin. variance of energy in. Germany. on animals. 168. Forgetfulness. 181. and pl^urable emotions. 19s. 22. 67/. 181/. stimulating. 253/. conservatism _ of. and efficiency. 35. need of and habit. 134.. 176. 151. igi. Galen. 88^... 176/. Benjeunin.. and response. 22.... Captain. 283. 31/. Firman.. and endurance. Diseases. 49.. of. 18/. 40. E. 119. 30. 42/'. 105. s. tendency to minimum. 24. uneventful. 67. 22. 104... Environment. 3S6/. 165 jf. 88. 44.. 197. and diet. 3sf. 162. learning. Diet. 38. substances. 107/.. lack of. 38/. General... Sir John. ^sjf. 191 Jf. psychic secretion of. appetite in. and practice. 51/. cause of. 12/. and effort.. importance 170/. busi- ness 61. 115. 52 Jf-' in science. Efficiency. Exercise. 370. 176^. 377. and exercise. 24.. 148^. rapidity of. 7. 52.. and fatigue.. and work. 50. i94#. 24. adaptation to. 3*8. 20.. of. method of. and rest. and 176^. George. 104.. and energy. 103/- Endxu-ance. 75. Fryatt.. measure in. 364/. 70 jT-. muscular. 86. 49 Jf. and adaptation.. 196/. Energy.. Gastric juice..38o INDEX learning. Emotions. 183/.. 63. I2S. 180.. 18. and and experience. 197. 76. and W. 20. 184/. 3S6/. effect of. and monotony. definition of. of man. 168. 67/. and exercise. 48. 87/. 7°. /. 13s. social problems.. 188/. Thomas. 174 #. motive in. 14/. change in. ig. Fox. 117. 27/. John. 137^. 365^. and digestion. 373 FalkenhajTi. 42. of animals. and thinking. of Germany. tric juice. blunders Gladstone. 20. v. frugality of. 39. indifference to. and unpleasant emotions... Galileo. Robert.. 22.. classification of.. G. 19. and fatigue.. and school work. Franklin. 241. 174^. 176. 232 _^.. 36s. 23. 148 Jf. 88. 13.. Franklin. causes of. 1S2/. 48 J". 55 f-. and i. reconstruction of. and endurance. 87. 114^. meaning of. 369/.. 47. 23. Faraday.. interpretation of. Michael. 24. and of. Ericsson. and memory. 152. and emotions.. Digestion. Fulton. 113.. military. i2j.. Fatigue. and prejudices. and Extramarginal processes. 3/. 70. 45^. 168^. 13. mental complexes.. and incentives.. 6g. i(>sf... and psychic secretion of gasof. 24.. 72_^. 369^. 196. 4/. 65. and education. character of. 119. 179/.. and digestion. 170 J^. 184. habit. Education. 181/. Galvani. 364/-. 18s/. 117. 38. r. 13s.. importance Experimentation. 225. 66. conserved. 7. 162. Fixed opinions. stimulus EfiEort. enjoyment.. 8^. .. 12. 370. loi. 9. and psychic secretion of saliva. 152. 63^. 66 Jf. Experience.. food. i77. Edison. 25. S3. and change. 361 J". and Filene Co-operative Association. "experts" in. 200 _^.

Hawkins. 85. Doctor Oliver Wendell. 9.. 98 jf. 162. the periods for formation of. Claude F. 316/. 136. 67. Hypnosis. 153. 276. Philippe. General George G. Joseph. 121. Elbert. Lebon. 212/. 251. Harriet. Samuel T. Learning. 269. 134. 128/. and 104^.. 59/. Lincoln. and nervous activity.. and learning. 49. Will. Langley. and mental attitude. Memory. function of. Habit. S. D. Sir John. Kaiser. 156^.... General Joseph.. 123.. least resistance. 2.. 149. Imagination. and instinct. advantages 87/. and memory. 17/. and . Edmund. 381 286/. 55. 69/. S. 39. Doctor. Joseph S. time ^t 155/-. 150. Liszt.. John. Henry. 152. 135/. 22. 239/. 21. ijo. Keble. racial. 163. Johann. 25. 113/. IS5. 132. 88.. 60.. 107. Hubbard. Irwin.. 153. Stonewall. 324/. Lovering. 46/. 153.. 105^. 266 j^. practical motives in. of. Meade. 96.. 39. 23. 305. General George B.. Lardner. 222. 147/-. 121.. no/. 153/. U. 46. Mai thus. Jouffroy. and instruction. physiology of. 302. Hooker. 83.. General Robert. Intelligence.. 117.. 241 J^. Johnson. P. 116. 107." 160/. 156/. 149. 162. 119. 46. S. portance of. and 44. 273 Jf. 130 ff. Fiona. 2. 221 f. Lee.^. Mclntyre.. Grant. Hansard. 244/. 97 jf.40. S. 18. 47. 199. in. Inaudi. 45. 117. 142. and adaptation. Hauser. Thomas.INDEX Golf. and attention. 137 jf.. no Halley.. Patrick. Reverend S. Hill. Abraham.. Martineau..... McClure.. 102. 323. of individuals. 257/. and Jackson. measure of. 85. McClellan. 149. Kepler. 207/. progress in.. 340 J^. 262/. Claudia. 6. 122. and prog- Knowledge. Alexander. 23/. and effort. 150. 284. and habit. von. 279/. 208/.. man.. Inefficiency. 217. imin 49. Jeffsrson. 117. 139/. I47jf. Huxley. selection of. and association. 249/.. Hooke.. Holmes... 241. 124/. 265. and experience. 336. eco- nomical method of. Hugo.. 152/. 88. in animals.. and tendency to forget.... 271. 328/. 124/. 113/. German. Humboldt. 117. 126 f. unconscious adoption of method. 85/.. "Intuitions. 197. 280/. 151. Instruction. of. 333/. 93. 129. Antoine. Victor. Robert. 154/.. Lide. Lavoisier. and monotony.. 49. rapidity and reasoning. and memory. Professor Joseph. Macleod. 123. 117.. 20. incentives to. age. Health. Massaria of Padua. 32/. 117. £.. and nervous system. ress. association. 175... 61. 47. 95 Jf. 290. of thought.... 88. iioff. 68. 56. 88. 318. Jester. Indolence... Instinct. James J. 163. 151 f. Professor von.

40.. theories of. and mental attitude. Mental complexes. 236.. and learning. and interest." 11. 240." and retention. 167. Louis.. 16/. 302. 200. and fatigue. tions. 328/. Captain L. Seward. 38. 250.. factors in. 69/-. S3Natural selection. Powell.. 69 J^. in. Piozzi. 77.. Sir Richard. General. Mozart. 70^. 269/. and repetition. Mommsen. William H. 333/... types of. and imagery. Pasteur. 340. 240. Reasoning.. 181 /. 215/. 251/. abnormal varia- Nowakowski. Theodor. and sources Mollet. and recall. 281. 78. 156. Plenciz. 115. and Nervous system. 340. 262/. 54.. and intelligence. 219/. 200/. 2'jijf. Resistance. 60Nogi.. changes from develop- ment. 216^. 272. in criminal jurisprudence. Sharp.. selection 239/. 117. 3. 156/. 47. Thomas.. 287.. Wolfgang. Selves. 66.382 fatigue. Montaigne.. 339/. Abb6. inconsistencies of> 33^ff-t make-believe personality.. Owen. 46. Sir Baden. IS.. 308.. INDEX and forgetfulness. Napoleon. Riunor. 119. 326/. 23gjf.. S4. Phrases. 20. and vigor of body.. Retention. Recall. 78.. 238. Plateaus in learning. 271.. 234... 218. 215/. 271. 38. 106. 242/. 270. 283/. Physical deterioration. 85/-.. sjrstems of. 4sff. psychological effect of. 240. physical basis of... 270.. 271. 260. Alice Freeman. 203. 225/. 309^. Prejudices.. 267/. fatigue. 2i6jf. 348^. 250.. 253/. 184/. Doctor James. Smith. and habit. 266^. 254/.. 271. Palmer. 270/. Seneca. accuracy of. illustrations of. 67^.. 80. disregard of rules. conflict between the.^. JT. 338. Observation. Ohm. Georg. 76. varying. Military achievements. 244/. 216. Robertson. 67/. Neurones. 238. 271. 221. 246 Jf. mrai- Pinkston.. General William T.. 118. 21. 98.. 346... 240.. 175. 173.. S&mces. psychic secretion of. 55. 268/. 234/. 234.ff.. Simpson. 197. 34S^. 27. warfare against. Robespierre. Sherman. 94. and rapidity of learning. 2S7. 271. 117.. Newcomen. Ruckle. and memory. Psychophysical parallelism. Fremont. 269. Prison-life. 76. 117. and fixed opinions. 267/. "Psychics. and associations. 264 _^. 330. 83. 241. 257. 315/. Nerve-cells. P. 332_^. of to-day.. 221. Older.. Mrs.. 64. 257. 17. and quantity of material.. physical basis of.. 34 tal eSect of. SI Jf. Sir Isaac. 45. 36. 216 f. 283. associative. and voluntary effort. 219.. 217. 158. Reflex actions. Saliva. Michel de. 327. 238^. 2is^.. 344 #. 128. 291 _^.. value of. 220. William. mental complexes. 137^. 52. 2^. of error in. 216^. and knowledge. Newton. Marcus von. changes in. 107. and "rest periods. 198 Jf. .

313. Survival of fittest. 28. 48_#.. geniuses. 48.. picture-tests. ob- Torricelli. bodily organs. 306 /. 283/. factorsin. 303/. Sumner. and feeling of accuracy. Wallace. 289.. adaptability of. 309 J. lapse of time in. 28/. Viereck. 76. and biassed opinions. 24. 288/. S3. 87. Wilson. mental attitude in. Themistocles. Thackeray.. 42. 71. 41/.. 66. Testimony.. 333. 166. Wells. 162. Edward Payson. stacles to. i6. and thinking. 27. Suspended judgment.•. Yeats. Charles. 38. 58 J'. 308. 173. method 61^. accuracy of reports in. George Sylvester.." 8/. and reasoning. 2^^f. 289. fatigue. 282/. 29r^. 42. B. former Governor.. 289. Thomas. 312. 39. influ- ence of oath. in trial courts. West. transfer of. 283/. Suggestion. Stimulants. 10. Weston. 301/.. experiment J.. Alfred Russel.. 15... 324. 321. 30s/. Voltaire.. 35/.. 137/. W... and Tynan. Harry. 63/. 198/. 329. 18. President.. "Trial-and-error method.. 53/-. 78^.. 88. narration and questions. and memory. 321. Young. Gideon. 340/. 203. SI Jfv 82. W. M. 170. 53Synapses. 49. identification. WUl. of. 117. 383 Thinking. 303/. 69. 277 Jf. 312/. Rudolf.. 273.. memory. in.. Taber. illustrations of... . association of ideas. observation. 125. 312. and talking. 307/. Warden Thomas Typewriting.INDEX Slogans. and 240. Virchow. 223. and and suggestion. 301/. 279^. Zinny. 289/.


Aschaffenbm^. Charles A. A. 265. 131. 222. 303/- W. 187. Hermann. 348. Bidder. M. L. Batson. 212. Dickinson. . Carrington. Carlson. Lloyd T. C.. 290... 267/. Cohn. 192. 286/. Defoe. Edward. 280/. 256. Chapman.. Wm. Dawson. Sir Carpenter. A. 247. G. 204/. Doctor George W. 265. 260. Mademoiselle. Calkins. Dana.. Hereward. i6. C. 331. H. J. S. 265. 227/. Boas.. 246/. Smith. A. Jonas. C..INDEX OF AUTHORS Abbott. E. Decroly. F. 46. William B. 177. 332. Cade. Lowes. 177. Asa Don... W. Deming. W.. David P. Edward. J. 330/. Browning. F.. W. F. Jacob. Dodge. 146. Gustav. 255Benedict. C. Gamaliel. Colvin. BriU. Brown. Adam. Bickel. 148. George B. 182. Wm.. Arnold. 329. 187. J. 91. 241. Bair. 267. Frederic. D. Warner. H. 241. 24s. Choate. 243.. and J. Judge... 245. J. Coleridge. Brown. 256. S4- Cave. Binet. 250 /> 253/-. 207/. John S. J.. 36. 255. 241. 255. Samuel. Samuel T. 24r. 29. Bryan. sS9f- Baker. Bradford.. 90.. Justice. 38s Brown.. Cutten. Bogen. J.. Burckhardt. Theodore A. 245. 114. Franz. 327. 3r7. 166. Crile... Mary W. Adams. A.. J. Boyd. S7... 245. 131. 265. 146. L. 92. 284. 334. 120.. T. 26s. 10. 57. 2SSMr. Bourdon. M. C. Borst. Larguier des. Robert S. 241. Bancroft.. 363. 365. 363/. Bennett. 115. Boswell. 253. Walter. Book. James. Russell H. Cannon. 57. 308. F. O. Ball. Bayliss. 249/. Auer. Chittenden. Daniel. John.. Anton Julius. 219. 149Dickinson. Bergstrom. 317/. . B. 366/.. W. Bean. Bagehot. H. Davey. 71. G. 191. Dearborn. Brown.. 192/. Degand. 284.. 290. 33. H.. 86.. 83... Coningsby. 68. Bigham. Seymour. 234. 46. Baird. 306^.. J. Butler. 241. Denis. 46. Clodd.. 148. Abbott. 359/. 265. Bolton. Bancels. 91. Francis. Dockeray. 256. E. W... 304. Alfred. Adolf. Ebbinghaus. Culler. 284. John. 366/.. F. Stephen S. 195. Arthur J. 359/. 330. Dewey. B. J. Barrett..

Liebig.. M. 50. 252. 332. 109. 340. W. Jones. 189. Lyman. Freud. loteyko. 320/. Holder. C. 251. 283. Justus von. 51. 251. M.. W. 15. W. 268. 157. Helena. Harris. 260. 20. 183/. Leuba. R. 104/. INDEX T. Benjamin. 175 f-> 187. Hartt. Howells. Kingsley. 244. 2S4. Latarjet... Gross. 192.. 109. 66. H. 246. Johnson. A. 115. IS9. Finkenbinder. 102. Helen. Doctor Ernst. Keen. Doctor H. 65. 318. Faraday. Livermore. F. 113.. Michael. John. C. 254... Donald. Kipiani. 336. Hill. D. Lay. 181. 247. 246/. William. A. Lathrop. Kaes. 256. R. Franklin. Ladd. Elmo. Ewald. Jacobs. 165. Hans. Wm. E. 148. 253. Mr. 257. 241. 25. 188. Hering. Sigmund. 229/. 5°. G. 367Folin.. 256. 267. Gruber. Hodge... D. Langford. E. 314.. V. Kaznelson. L. R.. V. Jost. 241. 96. Field. Henri. Mary W. 256/.. 177/. 176. Stanley. Havelock. Galsworthy.. Lommd. 291. Hill. J. 281.. 360.. Fisher. 26s. Francis. Henry. 191. . W. Finzi.. 256. 106. A.386 Ebert. Frink. 361. E. 365. 222. i. Homborg.. Harvey. Henmon. Doctor W. 251. Irving. 17. Hucthinson.. 137/.. 116. 50.. D.. O. IS4. 278. Chas.. 245. 34. W. 194. Heck. F.. 113. Owen. Jones. Jevons. Keller. Ellis. Lusk. T. E... Winnefred.. 347. Elliott. Thomas. Otto. Jacopo. Foster. 267. Justice. Harvey. 179. Lewis. Gotch. Adolf. James. L. Kirkpatrick. Kuhlmann. J. 337. A. 377Jennings. 351. Harter.. J. 232/. F. 246/. loi. St. 192. 287. B. 26. O. William. Esselmont. Francis. Leonard. Huxley. Horace G. P. 2ig.. Hopkins.. George Parsons... 109. Frederic C. Charles. 75. Otto. Ephrussi. 223. Lobsien.. F. Lyon. 253. 367. no. 172.. 241. 225/. J. 254. 75. 176. 100/. N. Roliin Lynde. 34. Grahame. F.. 280. Hyde. H. 359/- Hawkins. 220. 246. 191/. N. 359. 58^. V. 167. 59- 367Fisk. Doctor H. Kenneth. Gal ton. Eugene L. B. 192. Graham. Wood. 200^. Una. E. A. 256. H. Th.. Ernst. 106. 280.. Lee.. 324/. Knors. Al.. 187.. 367. J.. Walther. 251. 246. Hodgson. 176. 234. 226. Nathaniel P. 254.. Charles F. 44. Michael. Jacobs. C. 241.. Hunt. 220. A. Felix. Henderson. 169/. 243/. 333. Lowrie. 246/. 248. Lipmann. Kemsies.

Louise Ellison.. Edward L.. 241/. 267. Rousseau. Perkins. Charles. A. K. 246/. 205/. Mackenzie. 26/. E.. Meigs. 116. Fairfield. 253. 187. 166.. Radossawljewitsch. 55. 253.. 256.. Richard. Repplier.. 265. 256. 256. F.. James F. Pierce. H. J. 387 246.. 253. Wm. Robinson. 367. Rubner. 244/. Stefinsson. 30. H. Doctor William. Ordahl. P. Rignano. Adolf. 246/. 90. M. A. 180^. 245.. 254. 246. 31/. May. Christo. Stanton. C. Eugenio. 363/. 69. 241. 256. 265. Miiller. C. McClellan. 253. 160. A. 251. Semon. Smith. E. 89^. Fleming A. O. James. 254. 256... J. Netschajeff... 256. R. Pilzecker. Moon. Ogden. Schumann. 348. N. A. 267. Ruger. Smith. Prince. Rhodes. 90.. C.. Oscar. 256. Rossbach. 265. Schuyten. 350. 321. E. Magnus. Richet.. O. Nice. Magneff. Harriet. Powdl. 267/. K. Rejall. Herbert. A.. 254... 246. F.. E. Smith. Schafer. W. Murray. L. iio^. 177. 191. W... E.. Bertrand. 60. R. 185/. Marchant. 253. Max. Nellie L. 75.. 251. rsi. Henry Osier. Hugo. Friedrich.. Agnes. C. Smith... Francis E. Edwin D. Ivan. Martineau. 246.. Sargent. 267. 359. Meisl. E.. Rittenhouse. 137/. Pohlmann.. Myers.. Sasaki.. 348 jf.. Doctor Charles D. G.. 220. Walter W. Abbie Miinsterberg. Fritz. Reuther. 246/. 166.. Myers. B. 251. 220. 224. Compton.. 189. Nietzsche.. 253- Max. 316/. 251. Lloyd. 167... Frederick Y. /. J. Nicolai. Segal. Hugo. R. Gfinter. 241/. 246/. 251. 253. Meredith. L. Osbom. Dudley A. Clay.. Noisworthy. . 121. 68. F. 173. 256/. 251/. 317. 251.. 318/. Neumann. W. 117. 348.INDEX MacCauley. Morgan. 218. 193. Ernest H. Nipher. F. C.. Maggioia. Edwin. R. 254. 332. Vilhjilmur. i8o. George. B.. Mosso. D. Roach. Starling. 220. 253. ii8. 12^. 187. 213 160.. Pfungst. 250/. Starch. 256. Doctor Morton. A. 154.. Meumann. M. 36. 246. Russdl. 2^6 £. A. Naomi. 179. H. CMEner. 127.... 9. Piper. A. M.. Pyle. 9. 350. J. Stafbuck. W.. M. Robertson. E.. 340 J. McCaU. 246. !o8. 220.. 251/. Jean Jacques. Sharp. G. SpencCT. 32. 368.. 254. Pentschew.. 131. T. Pavlov. Henry A. 186. Quantz. Munn. Elizabeth. Perrin. General George B. r54. 176.. Schmidt.

Vulpiu!. H. A. 2g8. F. 241/. F.. Mr. Thompson.. 130/. W. 308. 333. W. A. 166. 327. 244/. "9> 322. 99. H. Wigmore. 53.388 Steffens. 246/.. INDEX Verworn. Stem.. Oscar. 8. 267.-'^ Sybel. Yoakum. Justice. John B. 254. 349. Wessely. Verrall. 253. 196.. Woodworth.. Edward L. 255Watson. Sully. Robert Louis. M. Arthur. Stevens.. Wirt. Wright. 251. Wimms. Wells. 127. 130. 257. 190.. Max. 196 Vachfie. Rudolf. 134. 306.. Romiett. Winch. _/. S3.. 138. R. 210/. 23. 241. Wm.. 251. H. ISO. James.. Swift. 290. H.. 160. Tasliiro. Lottie. 314. 23. 246. J.- Swayne. Wallace. Edw. L. . Stevenson. Jr. 251. .. Colonel. 183. Shiro. 167.. Wreschner. 308... 305/. Edgar J. Wm. 130. W. Weber.. K. 303. Washburn. 148. R. 155. G. G. C S. Strong. Thomdike. 268. John H... 141/.. S. W. W. von. Mrs. 26. 155. Whitehead L. 216. 332> 335Stirling.. Alfred Russd. 187. ig$.



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