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Psychology and the day's work

3 1924 024 882 809

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BY EDGAR
MIHD
A
IN

J.

SWIFT

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK

THE MAi:iNG

Study ia Mental Developmeat

TCOTB AND THE RACE A Study In the Psychology
lescence

of

Ado*

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
A BTUDT IN THE APPUCATION OF P8TCHOLOQT TO DAILY UFE
,

SAI^IT LOUIB NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 1923 .PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK A STUDY IN THE APPLICATION OF PSYCHOLOGY TO DAILY LIFE BY EDGAR JAMES gWIFT FHOTESSOB OF FBTCHOLOQT AJdD EDUCATION IS VABHINQIOS CNIVEBSITT.

September. 1918 Reprinted November. December. March.COPYKIOHT. BY CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS Printed in the United States o{ America Published September. August. September. 1920. 1923 . 1918. March. 1922. May. 1918 February. 1919 January. December. 1921 February.

TO MY WIFE WHOSE DEVOTED ASSISTANCE IN THE PREPABAIION OF TBIB BOOK HAS BEEN UNFLAOOING .

.

A science is made no less scientific by applying The chemist and botanist are not conits discoveries. in habits of life. efficiency —the strategy and tactics of life. results finally in —the — not a in^if They to the conditions in which one lives. insensible to misfits. It is his of physiological conditions. of business. yet industrial chemistry and economic botany are rendering incalculable service to related lines It is well. in short. This adjustment represents the capacity of man for achievement. in habits of work. And through all the adapting process nms the influence and the effect of their changes caused by the manner of life and the advance of years. again. or. Psychologists have only recentiy extended their investigations into lines directly useful in explaining and interpreting behavior. from time to time to take an mventory of stock and try to discover the significance of the facts and principles of human behavior which investigation has revealed. ways of thinking and acting. ^people. make up the situations that he meets. The adjustment may be mechanical and rigid. in some sort of adjustment and this adjustment culminates in social and moral habits. Behavior dividual's way of dealing with these situations complete failure. without power to readjust as conditions alter.PREFACE Psychology considered vior is as the science of human behaconcerned with man's response to the impressions made upon him by objects. Yet their contributions in several fields vij . it may be flexible and adaptive—capable of new adjustments as circumstances change. cerned primarily with the practical application of the results of their work. and events. then.

psychologists have offered relatively little of interpretative value. thinking and acting determine achievement. Yet these experiences make up the day's work. Yet knowing oneseK reaches far into success and failure. is largely personal. whether in the life of social intercourse or in the business and professional world. The topics that could be discussed extend far beyond the limits of a single volimie. and to-day and psychological tests are being made in the army to deter- mine the fitness of men to do the work to which they aspire in the service of our country. therefore. as well as phases and causes of behavior. in the psychology of adyertising. Washinoton University. Mo. The choice. however. They determine its quantity and quality. in legal psychology. of course. 1918. in the hope of interpreting a few of these personal experiences of daily hf that this book is written. and there is no other way of understanding the behavior of others. It is. that are fundamental to thinking and acting. they have made noteworthy additions to the store of knowledge. Lonis. but the writer has tried to select types of conduct. Much has been written about making others efficient. in experimental pedagogy. but comparatively little about one's own method of thinking. September. In psychopathology. working.. . Edgar James Switt. And after all. Concerning the more conunon matters of every-day life.e viii PREFACE of the world's work are already impressive. St. and acting.

Organization for Mental Efficiency . . 164 198 236 . VII. Thinking and Acting 41 Habit in Preparation for Efficiency 84 123 The Psychology of Learning Fatigue and Its Psychology Curiosities of V.. IV. 314 X.. Memory Improvement Memory and Its The Psychology of Testimony and RtmoR Our Varying Selves The Psychology of Digestion Index 273 IX... in. VIII.CONTENTS CHAPTER I. 348 379 . PAGE i n. VI.

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She was a sweet-faced old lady. more sight of the person whose response to new adaptation influenced by the force of habit. familiar his alert. I asked the invariable question: "'How do you dare stay here?' "'Where would I go?' she said. however.. and nothing more. In a broken street.. pp. in addition. "To all her. . The ' outer world was something uncompreThe Spirit of France. pressing itself to demands and. growth. to leave home meant the end of things. "and yet hxmaan beings were there. whom should we happen upon but a postman delivering mail to a woman who rose cautiously from her cave. untroubled and resigned. satisfies When the response results in the immediate. We select an illusconditions unreflective trative example from the many suggested by the present war. with a helpless little look. 103 /. leaving only the roof hanging like a suspension bridge. this was within fifty yards from the house which had been literally blown away." says Owen Johnson. efficiency is perfect. the ability of a man to react effectively to his daily problems may is be gauged by cumstances. "It did not seem possible that hiunan beings could brave these haimted streets. Remember. adapts ress. and progIn other words. as to the rest.' speaking of Arras imder bombardment. change. . flexible adaptation to changing cir- —the is The other side of the shield. where one shell had literally disembowelled a whole house.CHAPTER I ORGANIZATION FOR MENTAL EFFICIENCY Man's response measure of his behavior which to situations in the day's work is the efficiency.

where occasionally a village would be devastated. so that it is not surprising that this daily grist of news of — — — . or the nervous system gives way under the strain. that prefers any risk rather than exile. and the ability of the individual to continue his normal. when I was in Turkey. the nervous system cares for that. Either it becomes inured to the frequent mental concussions. who might at any time become victims. I had a selection made from these papers which gave a criminal record of Chicago for the winter and revealed an appalling situation. Those who could not adapt themselves to the awful conditions had left or become insane. went about their work quite calmly and indifferently. the children killed and women tortured. which finally lose their power and cease to produce a response. hended. S.2 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK terrified her. habitual reactions in horribly abnormal situations! The nervous system cannot long continue to respond to repeated shocks. "In the winter of 1905-1906 the Chicago papers were filled day by day with news that revealed Chicago as a semibarbarous community in which life and property were imsafe to an extraordinary degree. short of an absolute order. that people will become accustomed to almost any environment. but. fortunately. Adapt themselves they must if they remain. which The military authorities have done everything possible to enforce the evacuation of Arras. that people in an adjacent village. It is rapid and inexorable selection in which the sight of dead and maimed friends and the constant prospect of sharing their fate are the tests of even temporary sxirvival. which I have observed. everyday illustration ^is related by S. McClure from lis editorial experience. Another instance of adaptation a more common. and yet they are met at every turn with this terrified clinging to the threshold. I remember. This daily crop of news would be duly accented by reports of horrible crimes." Adaptation and habit adaptation to terrifying conditions. Now it is a fact.

of course. commented upon by zool- Usually animals must adapt themselves to a rigid environment. could not have arisen had it not been for the atmosphere which surrounds the earth. Had the earth and atmosphere. 1914. It is entirely conceivable. The essential nature of their habitat has altered little even through the ages. at times. an air-breathing mechanism quite different from the limgs might have developed. . observed. forms a circle within which the organisms live. Adaptation is perhaps the most significant influence to which organisms are subjected. May. so far as conformity conditions their life. then. however. Such moderate alteraselves to conditions as they are. to such incredible acquiescence ? All variation by which an individual or a species is ad- justed to the surrounding conditions organism. or perish. determines the kind and range of variation? For the lower animals it is natural selection acting through strucAnimals must adjust them^ tural changes and instincts. The character of the surroundings. would bear little or no resemblance to present forms. What. Within the limits set by the physical environment. that is possible. In the unicellular animals the circle is small. living creatures. and adaptation to electricity could not have been made were it not for the prevalence of electrical energy. Lung-breathing animals. been different from what they are. fitness for must be made by the t)rpes of variations mu3t exist in the environment.MENTAL EFFICIENCY 3 the Chicago crimes was accepted by the citizens as a matter of course. Conse' McClwe's Magazine. but these instances of control are sufficiently rare to be ogists. tions of the environment as the damming of a stream by beavers are. great variation for instance. To be sure. if they could have existed at all. with all the kinds of energy manifested in or through them. for example." * What is the explanation of these adaptations which lead.

Few extent before adapting themselves to made over he has practically The changes growing out of the natural sciences have been stupendous. A certain equilibrium must be established between external forces acting upon the individual and his responses. possesses greatly increased ability to reconstruct their environment to it. Any change that takes place upon them by the tions. these simple animals have vindergone change. re- from the attempt to maintain harmonious relations between the organism and its environment. But let us see how adaptation works out in the actual affairs of life. When a young is career he man starts on his business or professional at once confronted with certain obstacles be overcome. but in many other matters his "thinking" has been largely lines alter his environment. and the reasons for this are the pressing demands for immedrifting. Their surroimdings have put upon them few new requirements which called for adaptive reconstruction. diate adjustment which is as much a human as an animal requirement. and the fact that reconstruction of the environment to enable the adaptation to be more intelligent caUs for an expenditure of energy which man is loath to meet. on the other hand. Man. exigencies of their surrounding condi- any great and any reconstruction that they make is explained by some earlier adjustment which has become fixed in them as an instinct. because of the superior development of his brain. The history of animals from the lowest to man reveals continuous. It is the same sort of involuntary. Now efficiency requires that the quantity of intel- ligence in human adaptations be increased.— 4 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK little quently. seen that strict conformis forced Among the lower animals we have ity is the rule. If difficulties to he is a lawyer the obstacle . though sulting more or less interrupted. In certain the world in which he Kves. Maintaining this equilibrium is what is meant by adaptation. imcontrolled adaptation that is characteristic of the lower animals. changes.

was is in the lowest tiird of those made by the salesmen in the organization. for instance. The human environment is not static. "There is no standing still in the business world to-day. Soon this form of behavior toward witnesses becomes an established adaptation." said the president of a large manufacturing plant recently. If we say that we know when we succeed in what we are engaged upon. A certain summer school. however. And. and one acquainted with human personalities knows that certain methods are successful in dealing with some men and worthless with others. that the young attorney will adopt a method that expresses his own personality rather than that of the witness. the writer happened to know. It is almost certain. "Everything is in continual change. leading the witness kindly to unforeseen admissions. Yet the surroimding times as many territory should furnish two or three students as the school ever had.MENTAL EFFICIENCY may S be the unwillingness of a witness to reveal facts with which he is familiar. celebrated an increase of twenty-five students over the preceding year. Now there are different ways of approaching a witness. again. There is. the statement must be qualified by adding that the standard of achievement may be low. to illustrate further. his attitude and manner of questioning will be an unconscious adaptation to the difficulties that arise. however. This is shown by the fact that lawyers are often described as relentlessly severe or as gentle and insinuating. so . the selective force in deter- Since this relative success mining the adaptations it is dear that the result may be altogether inadequate to the needs and possibilities of the situation. In other words. Many college students. For them it is sufficient to have just missed the lowest passing mark. a salesman recently said with great elation that his sales for the year exceeded those of a fellow traveller whose record. "succeed" if they obtain the "gentleman's grade" of mediocrity. a further fact of immense importance to adaptation.

This was the case in the overlapping of responsibilities in the furniture factory to which we have referred. solution Then the several ways that suggest themselves may be thought through so as to determine how they would work out in practice. and in the end no one was satisfied. Success in business. work satisfactorily and promptly. must readapt himself fall behind the more Those who The management it sat still while other companies brought cial basis. that a tions than he One of the versatile.6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK man no sooner adapts himself to one set of condito others. Such inefl&dency produces continual finanpiece of cial loss and frequent dissatisfaction both within the or- ganization and with customers. those conflicts may that are pressing for solution at the is moment. mous amount of A large furniture manufactory spent several days trying to determine the responsibility for failure to do a given co-ordination. and the first method that seems to meet the exigencies of the situation is usually adopted. as in other matters. requires that be adjusted and difficulties overcome. cannot do so largest manufacturers of engines failed to grasp the significance of the steam-turbine. related conflicts are not adjusted. a man commonly uses neither of tJiese methods." to a successful commer- Methods of doing the day's work also bring their prob- There is an enorlems of organization and overlapping of duties and responsibilities. Now the be delayed until the problem is thought out. Each department concerned blamed another. But the exigencies that are met are the immediate ones. Again. As a matter of fact. The idea in mind is the somewhat general notion of success. ask what determines the selection of the plan or method of meeting difficulties that arise in business or When we . The result that the more remote. one of the more promisiag solutions may be put to the actual test of a preliminary trial to determine what errors had been overlooked. however.

situation Now it is significant for efficiency consciously adopted. The other four used methods which soon ended in failure. which was the they were trjdng to meet. where we shall see it playing a leading r61e. In both cases they are attempts to meet in acts of skUl. A . The is urgent and there is always a tendency to meet it with an economical use of energy. It is a phase of unreflective adaptation to them. This frugality of energy does not indicate intentional slighting of difficulties. and the method employed is commonly the human first one that promises to attain the desired result. unconscious as those which have been noted in acts of muscular skill. 7 fact in we come upon an important psychology. So a business man attends to a matter of detail. is of six young men learning the juggler's feat of tossing two balls into the air. this adaptation is so strictly imconsdous that the learner is not aware of the particular method which he has adopted for meeting a difficulty until he finds himself using it with more or less success. To explain the matter to a clerk would require more time and energy at the moment than to do it himself. and soon attention to This adaptation is quite as details has become a habit. The plan unconsciously adopted to one very small matter may be the determining cause. Unselected actions follow the line of least resistance. the writer found that only two adopted successful method unadaptation of not always the best. Out that the devices for avoiding "collisions" in the difficulty air. is usually the meet an emergency. In the acquisition of skill. All six found themselves employing devices before they were aware of the attempt. The obstacle that confronts us must be overcome. as it is an integral part of what he is engaged upon. Consequently. catching and tossing one before the other reached the hand.MENTAL EFFICIENCY in the professions. in the unreflective which we have been speaking. he attends to the matter. requiring the least expenditure of energy. It must be done at once.

As a matter of fact. Children. Afterward. The means which they employ are determined by specific inheritance or individual experience. it is said. and the most available the easiest at the moment — is unconsciously employed. They do not stop to think the matter over. and the other does. then he does something else until he finally hits upon the right combination for getting out and obtaining the meat. trying one way after another in rapid succession until they either obtain the desired result or become discouraged and stop. by degrees. That the arm movement in the long run is less fatiguing and produces a better writer does not avail unless the beginner adaptation. for example. in learning to write use the trial-and-error method in determining the posture of the body and the movements in the writing. Of course it is used unconsciously. is commonly assumed that in this respect for example. next he is likely to jump up and paw the bars. is This mode of overcoming obstacles the "trial-and- used to designate the manner in which animals attack a problem. Watson. man does not reason as much as he thinks he does. Perhaps this explains why he calls himself a reasoning animal. He reasons so seldom that he likes to call attention to the little that he does.— 8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK method quickly an emergency. The one does not reason. as in the other instances of which we have spoken. the useless stick his actions are eliminated. first The term was head between the bars. . by John B. is always the case in unreflective — The finger movement is ' For a full treatment of this subject. This unconscious the quickest Way of getting results. there is a sharp distinction between the actions of animals and man. it is used unless the teacher is insistent. and smce it attains the desired end passably well. see Behavior. but go right at it.^ It and the dog performs only those acts necessary to secure the food. within an enclosure sees food he will probably first error" method. If a dog.

1909. acts of skill. as well as the adjustment of knowledge and method to them. is admirably illustrated by the entire history of the art of medicine which preceded the scientific period. One system was used until another was thought to be better. and in other things. guided more by the imderlying philosophical behef than by the results — — ^Superstition in Medicine. Through out long years some working principles were acquired. alike. Learning the curative qualities of roots and herbs is an example of the method and of the value of the knowledge gained by it. withinterpretation. at best. would rather be wrong with Galen than right with any other physician. Difficulties were met by the simplest possible adjustment. directing force. The Relation of . 1908. without clarifying judgment. Medicine to Philosophy. though at that time the trial-and-error judgment was.. O. in the sixteenth century. this. It was the trial-and-error method. There was no outlook beyond immediate needs. by R. Systems of medicine if the philosophical and religious view of diseases and their cures may be so dignified ^followed one another as philosophy and religion changed. literary style. Problems were not foreseen. by Hugo Magnus.MENTAL EFFICIENCY is 9 held rigidly to instructions. Massaria. an approximate and temporary makeshift. Indeed. and the final result was. of Padua. but they were gained at an enormous cost of time and life. if the first it is method meets the better way. Moon. be adopted without further search for a This is the explanation of slovenly habits in in language. and the environment was the compelling.* Medicine. rested on authority. But it goes further than Unreflective —unconscious—adaptation was the method of progress during the early history of the race. like other beliefs. this way of making progress under the influence of prevailing beliefs and conditions. likely to In children and adults difficulty fairly well. Systems were respectable or disreputable.

It is too difficult. But this is not all that is necessary. and so we have Three Thousand Years of Mental Healing} Naturally in the past no other method of progress than that of uncriticised trial and error could be expected. Cutten. Usually they pass unnoticed. In the past this had its justification. then as now. as in the earlier days. but the individual must see it. . since accuOne uncritidsed authority ruled until superseded by another. street-car. There must not only be a problem. There was no problem here. thinking has never been popular. but they are secured at an enormous cost of time and suffering. Blind trial and error is the animal and racial way. Man rarely stops to think out the method of procedure unless the difficulty is so great that no plan of action immediately presents itself.. The scientific method of investigation and experimentation was imknown. If an illustration of so obvious a fact of human behavior is needed. So any means of escaping from it has always been welcome. his And when. Consequently. Thousands of dollars are spent for newspaper. The common supposition that problems are recognized is an error. advertising is a case in point. besides the pains natural to originality. not be otherwise. the thinker risked life. The mind. igii. there was nothing to stimuBesides. late thought. and ' By George B. Unf ortxmately. But through it all the importance of finding the cause of diseases was xmrecognized. but in the present it is by unsome truths emerge. TO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK It could of the treatment. rate records were not kept. new ideas were rarely made secure until the old had been worn 'out by the corroding effect of time. A momentarily insoluble problem is needed to make him think. of a long period of progress Out conscious trial and error reflective adaptation is followed to-day when obstacles are not so overwhelming as to force deliberation. it continues to be the chief method of modern man. Unwithout excuse. played its r61e in cures.

mental telepathy. uncriticised trial-andtrial-and-error error method. waits for something to turn up.s a wasteful process. unintelligent elimination of mistakes. and then plan their investigation so that the means. study the conditions. sales in a given advertised district are sometimes checked but there are too many local factors involved to give these estimates general value. Business men do not have the information those tion. like the lower animals. Knowledge has been slowly and painfully accumulated by the unplanned elimination of errors. Principles of advertising cannot be deduced in this way. To be sure. They set definite problems. as the errors of earlier workers may be eliminated. It is by which the experience of the race has been achieved. Yet these facts. may be ascertained by . Usually man. expensive. the comparative cost per reader of full. The amazing advance of the natural sciences during the last quarter of a century is due to a new plan of campaign. These judgments have about as much value as the beUefs in the performances of so-called "psychics. Then he adapts himself as best he can. and many more. half. and quarter page newspaper and magazine insertions is rarely known to business men. which are still accepted on imperfect experiential evidence by the old women of both sexes. Again. They are using the slow. we have . adopted. who understand the method of scientific investigaSome of them have already been worked out by psychologists. The method said. but when tmcriticised it ." such as foreseeing the future.MENTAL EFFICIENCY ii outdoor bulletin advertising without any intelligent effort to estimate the comparative value. Scientists no longer wait for the tedious. This puts intelligence into nature's unintelligent method of But the scientific plan has not been generally progress. is not without results. because they have not yet become aware of the problem. and the oracular nature of the writings of the ouija-board.

and in military science Germany has risen above the animal method of unplanned adaptation. tions that large part of the civilized world. One of these new conditions were produced military staff saw the problems the is many interesting psychological facts of the present war nation that the Allies do not know when they are whipped. and by Germany. but in her failure to understand the collective mind of her enemies she has remained on the lower level. are dependent upon condiwere forced upon them. the The explanation is that Germans looked ahead and planned. Her and made their arrangements so completely that the adaptation had to come largely from her enemies. But man can foresee and plan. and entirely new implements of war had to be invented and made. It is doubtful whether we shall ever have a better illustration of man's control over the conditions he must meet than this present war. the inability of the United States to recognize the righteousness of the German cause was to be explained. This means that they could not at once adapt themselves to the new type of war. And by his planning he may reconstruct the environment. should have brought a request for peace from a purely military standpoint. And in their planning they created conditions which the Allies have had to meet. if he will but use his intelligence. in commerce. Forts were demolished like paper houses. The world has been amazed at the success of German arms against a Animals. For her statesmen there existed no such problem. We have heard much about time being on the side of the AUies. the Ger- .12 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK we have observed. followed immediately by the equally convincing Balkan victory. In industry. The first magnificent Russian drive. To these they must adapt themselves or perish. Many of the plans of the Allies were rendered obsolete by her constructive military thought. And. the surprise of the German which does not take into account different sorts of minds. again.

sinking the Lusitania. Then followed the sinking of the Lusitania. man. inexcusable incompetency. and then to sink them "without a trace. Was military necessity the motive ? If so. which brought England into the war and shocked the civiHzed world. the execution of Edith Cavell and Captain Fryatt. soldiers and nurses were killed— hideous exhibitions of brutality. by generous use of British gold and the But the Germans missed Their ignorance of the psychology of other naof the spirit of tions is one of the astonishing disclosures of this war. and the aerial bombardment efficiency of hospitals. only 13 mercenary nature of the people. disclosed was by planned adjustment to the supposed needs of the moment. by which wounded these acts. is unequalled in modern history. But surely. the point. No they reveal only amazing incapacity to understand the spirit and sentiments If these acts were not always unof civilized peoples.MENTAL EFFICIENCY mans thought. To mention only a few. their efficiency is arguable. there was first the invasion of Belgium." as Mr. and bombing hospitals have not advanced the German armies. the slaughter of the women and children by air raids on unfortified towns. The array of psychological blunders of the German mili- tary and civic authorities. and the scrap-ofpaper episode. the execution of Edith Cavell and Captain Fryatt. Zimmermann note urging Mexico and Japan to make war on the United States. murdering from the air innocent women and children. the planting of disease germs in Roumania.ny's fate. "They understand nothing Britling said. It is gross. to carry the illustration further." the submarine perfidy that made the United States an active enemy. the barbaric deportation of Belgians. the secret proposal through neutral Sweden to promise protection to Argentine ships. and the massed psychological blunders have sealed Germa. they certainly show unintelligent adaptation. Is it asking too much to expect a nation to be efficient in various lines? Probably na- .

He selects from the files that for which he is looking. the serious study and thought are given. The feel explanation is. again. and never have the feeling of having previously existed in another form?" a theosophical devotee once said to the writer. Primitive man.. prised at the experiences of followers of occult phenomena. "Never. If a man expects a plan to succeed the chances are that he is will carry it through. is specific general. like that of individuals. German belief regarding the behavior of civilized nations toward her barbarous acts grew out of uncriticised experience the animal method. who was convinced that injury to his clay image what they "Do you "That — — would cause his death. hear. madam. then attained only in those fields to which At all events. This last is important because the mental attitude ends by altering the facts themselves." came the astonished exclamation. The disagreement was not in the facts but in the interpretation of them and in the attitude toward them. and if one anticipates failure one Unbelievers are often sur- quite certain to be gratified. And the acceptance of uncriti- — cised experience is adaptation to events as they come to us. To the reply. And the analogy goes further.14 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK and not it is tional ability. If one wants to beHeve something one will find ample justification in one's memory records. fulfilled his fate because he lost his . of course. that behevers see. In discussing questions of efl&ciency with business men the writer has found them differing vitally regarding matters of policy about which they should have agreed did "exExperience is perience" have objective validity. fulfil is strange! themselves for their advocates. A significant psychological corollary is that another man with essentially the same "experience" will draw the opposite conclusion. I often do!" Prophecies. are expecting. Behevers in the miraculous cures by relics or mind produce the cure if there is nothing serious the matter by their belief. a filing-case from which a man draws reports from his past fife.

He gets what he is looking for and so does not question the result. and visible spirits vanished with the coming of science.MENTAL EFFICIENCY nerve. submissive adaptation of perception. The new knowledge that attends scientific investigation alters experience. Spiritualistic materialization illus- from the side whenever she gives a seance." said a teacher recently. is favored by native ' indolence. They grow so that when they come back to her she can hardly recognize her own work. No one who did not believe in ghosts ever saw one. and always to her advantage. and especially when get their omens and prophecies before now beby driving men into recklessness and making them run headlong upon the very ruin that they fancied was running upon them."^ "Where there's I in Italy. Experience is likely to is evidently a treacherous guide because it give what one is seeking. a will there's a way" may not always be true. again. Leigh. but it is a good mental attitude to bring the desired result. One medium has said that ' Westward Ho I . which. Another teacher replied that he had used the plan for ten years and could not get along without it. Of He expected failure and arranged the de- that it had to fail. and the one selected is likely to be taken either from unwillingness to undergo the effort of thinking or from emotional bias. the stories told afterward grow. in 15 more recent times. "It trates uncriticised. and. their honor and letting them govern themhas failed. The trouble is not with experience but with the experiencer. on it but course tails so it did. except in groups where science has not yet penetrated. says: "I have seen. Charles Kingsley. This confidence was the reason for his success. was own fulfilments. The Colorado penitentiary system which has transformed the prison and made the roads of the State would fail under a less enthusiastic believer than Warden Tynan. A variety of meanings may be observed in most experiences. speaking through Mr. "I have tried put- ting children selves.

Another instance of adaptation is the acceptance of succession of events as indicating cause and effect. ' astonishingly striking. "the nmnber of the year the we add Behind sum of its "If to 1794. The fact that a potato famine occurred. and adaptation value. fell. Coincidences agreement between events with wholly — — — different causes or conditions. that the a fact. a metaphysical healer. rose to over a dollar a bushel. Shortly after McKinley's first election to the presidency of the United States. A At friend has told the writer that he recently dress on mind-cures. 1912. an advance which was attiibnted by Wisconsin farmers to his election. adaptation accepting appearances and adjusting oneself to them was perfect." for inwhich Robespierre digits.16 is PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK that they always help out." ' This is because the mediums' desires coincide with the wishes of their followers. owing to continued droughts in wide potato areas. are likely to agree again —are not often the basis of judgments and opinions. again. so far as he expressed any opinion at all. in the way medium desires they should. gave an addescriptive. accordingly. Yet. which had been low. Sometimes the co- Coincidence is is incidence stance. 67. is then made to their face the explanation of the importance ascribed to niunbers by the ancients. Abbott. Here." the close of his address a New Thought advocate." she says. the m the Scenes with Mediums. . by David P. The and lecture was purely giving the positions beliefs of the several "schools. but comprehension was negligible. his intention had been to show that suggestion was the common factor and operating cause in all mind-cures. the result is 181 5. and a Christian Scientist went to the platform to express their pleasure at finding him in their ranks. It is a common experience of lecturers to find an address interpreted in quite contradictory ferent hearers who read their own views into ways by difwhat was said. was ignored. potatoes. "that believers are so anxious for tests if they be believers. p. which.

181 in nimiber. They could not do otherwise and survive. It is better that they take their chances." ' name exactly indicates Teachers of psychology are frequently regaled with coincidences seriously offered as "proof" of something that those who relate the stories want to believe. They are troubled neither by philosophic nor scientific doubts. The herring lays twenty thousand eggs. by W. 263. it will be found that the sum of consisted of 402 members. were named 'Les honnetes gens. whom 221 formed the party queue de Robespierre. again. If fishes stopped to examine a worm or a fly before seizing it they would starve to death. the French Chamber of Deputies. the year in which Charles the Tenth abdicated. igoo. To them is what it seems to be. and tion. They are the basis of much of the evidence for "reasoning" in anilittle mals. Stanley Jevons. as we ascend the animal series intelligence begins to count. Animals low in the scale accept appearances. The tion in this lavish ' Principles of Science. may frequently be traced to the same chance agreement of events. But. Again. of called 'La the values of the letters in each the number of the party. It is the world — more economical for nature to provide against annihila- way than to make all animals clever.' while the remainder. There are only a few things for which animals must provide chiefly food and self-protection and nature remedies their mistakes by rapid and numerous multiphcation. .— MENTAL EFFICIENCY 17 year in which Napoleon fell. it is probable that not a of the circum- stantial evidence in criminal courts has no better founda- The success of advertising campaigns. and then the offspring are not so niunerous. p. and the conger-eel the enormous number of fifteen million annually. Appearances are true to fact often enough to meet their purposes. the repetition of the process gives 1830. in 1830.' If we give to each letter a numerical value corresponding to its place in the alphabet.

Man. scientists. and then they carry away the bait. The complacency of "self-made" men in their "experience" is well known. He make it his business to criticise experience. however. The life when of both parents and young is now important. and they interpret more correctly the world in which they live. To them appearances may be deceitful. but it is too slow and laborious to satisfy the unscientific. In the arctic region they dig down through the snow under the trap. so as to spring it.18 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK higher forms have better developed sense-organs. seeking food or escaping from enemies. have a method. has not developed a method does not of progress. at least beyond that which is needed to do his work. because is the offspring are not so numerous. Like the lower animals. he is prone to accept appearances as true to fact. In other words. as we have said. some effort is being made to-day to test experience in matters outside of science. Intelligence is now the compelling factor. So they draw conclusions from Kmited and uncontrolled observations. and they eliminate one factor after another that the effect of each in the phenomenon under investigation may be determined. Nature not so ex- travagant in producing them. This is man's reconstruction of nature's trial-and-error method. and take much pride in what "experience" has taught them. and in man survival depends only in a sHght degree upon physical strength. To be sure. These people want immediate results. They have taken a heavy responsibility from their teachers and from the Almighty with their boast of being self-made. he continues to use the animal method. To be sure. Foxes are famous for the skill with which they circumvent animals and man. They prepare an experiment so as to fontrol conditions. Far down the animal scale mechanical reactions are the only defense but among the higher forms intelligence has a greater value in nature's market. . So they must be protected by cleverness if a given species is to survive.

as in other things. an awful chaos. of least resistance is followed. only the "big. In both cases the Personal bias and emotional preference play a leading part in the product of experience. or experience give. are commonly men who have had much criticise. of course. again. "Efficiency experts. and few occupations are not concerned with them. Men are still much like those of old who refused to look through Galileo's telescope at the satellites of Jupiter because. but little Some of them do not know what an investigation means or how a problem looks. observation. " experience " is thought to be of only one sort. — — Unorganized facts. the science of human behavior psychology ^is needed.MENTAL EFFICIENCY Scientific 19 intelligent plan into industry. buzzing confusion" of which . In these matters. but confused facts. always yielding valuable knowledge. Penology is still and sociology an array of interesting Experience. which. But this organic zation tends to proceed in the same imintelUgent way that has been found to be characteristic of the organization of movements line in learning an act of skill. blooming. and the doors of other is management lines of business are still generally closed to it. beings. is of fimdamental importance in determining ^ciency tests and plans. them. an attempt to introduce an but it has been only hesitatingly admitted into factories. as they said. In this way the essential is distinguished from the unessential or accidental. In municipal and governmental affairs. This requires a wide knowledge not only in the business in which onie is engaged. at best. but also And for those who deal with human in related subjects. organizes itself." however. for those who are dealing with human behavior. the satellites were not there. scientific management is only occasionally employed. but if they looked the devil would make them see Facts should be so classified that their bearing upon one another or their lack of cormection may become clear. experience in the business which they scientific training. Few have studied psychology.

was angry at the imiversity because. period when they The best period of a people. Keble. of induced currents of electricity in a coil of wire by means of a magnet. as he said. nothing to compel selective action comes dulness. organize experience go its own way and the Oxford theologians who were excited to violent antagonism at the production." perience of these professors had been too limited. Progress. in their mind at least. the confusion. and it is quite comparable to the creations of engineers and men of "big business. by Faraday itself. it "had truckled sadly to the spirit of the times" The exin honoring these "hodgepodge philosophers. This is their way of reconstructing their environment. The time comes when boys should have something dangerous to — do. thought and courage. uneventful environment means mental stagnation. like and others. also. professor of poetry in Oxford. is their years of struggle. the are doing things that are worth re- cording m their history. their childhood has been deprived of something as essential to danger. find If them for themselves. mental growth as the hormones "chemical messengers" are to physical development. improvement." If boys do not find adventures when they are not furnished them. real adventure involving. of selecting and making the situations to which they will adapt themselves. something that requires strenuous effort. efficient in make them then in time retrogression. requires resistance something to work against. if they adapt themselves to the colorless. This is not without significance in the training of children. such adventures are not provided they will if they have the stuff that makes for vigorous manhood.20 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Many They are not sufficiently sensitive to feel let James spoke. This is . uneventful life of the "weU-behaved" boy. struggle against nature and agamst human adversaries. This need of courage in risk and adventure is as true of — — races as of individuals. too undisturbed to An With the world's problems.

and gone the way of the inefficient. Whatever truth there is in the accomplishments of self-made men lies in the fact that they had to fight against adverse conditions. They do not wish to exert themselves lumecessarily. Peoples and individ- by nature indolent. was transferred to( other ties. observable in the rise and progress of religions. perseverance. The need cases. peoples have yielded to debilitating tendencies. adverse circumstances. Opposition. And the reason why the sons of seK-made men so rarely show the qualities of their fathers is that they are protected. Peoples sometimes succumb after brilliant efforts because the call was beyond their capacity. do not put brains into men. and "carry" them in business. like muscle. and they are aroused only when ease is more unbearable than action. But this does not necessarily mean that the losing battle which they valiantly The quality of resisfought was without significance. tance. and equally true of individuals. Those who succeeded had staying qualities. The fathers supply them with money and automobiles. or science. but they draw out what there is in them. Obstacles also eliminate iticapables.MENTAL EFFICIENCY s&in in th« is also it is 21 It Roman republic and Grecian democracy. Adaptation is always goiog on. They rarely do the best . though sometimes by the psychological law of compensation their failure to maintain themselves as a nation may lead to success in literature. They are either progressing or retrogressing. An illustration of the psychological effect of working against resistance latent ability in is seen in the occasional revelation of men. to fight developed staying quali- In other enervated by acquiescence and luxury. But neither races uals are nor individuals can stand still. fields. must work against resistance if it is to develop. insufficient in battles and politics. and the determination to win. Their achievements are usually below their maximum efficiency. art. Of course obstacles should not be beyond the available strength. The brain.

Consequently. and business men are contented witli efforts that bring fair results. are their adaptation to distant At the outset he puts tremendous exertion into an under- Then his efforts relax. during their adaptive period. and "satisfactory" is a variable quantity. is far below the grade of which the individual is capable. the result is usually no standard. but they are making demands which they hold in view. energy expended in intelligent effort varies with individuals. the quantity of are capable. So true is it that man is satisfied with the results which meet the lowest requirements of a situation that this human characteristic may be called the tendency to minimum effort. There are those who conscientiously strive to secure the best of which they To be sure. attained Consequently. — . therefore. They use all of their powers to the limit of their capacity. perhaps at first gradually and imperceptibly. lawyers.22 of PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK which they are capable. we have No more effort is expended in a work than is required to produce a satisfactory There result. of supreme importance that young men and women. This is not merely that we may be shown how to do the work more effectaking. and man does not. piece of It requires severe effort to maintain one's highest level of efficiency. also. and effort is a strain which one is loath to make. The reason for this. maintains his highest level of efficiency unless a continually exciting and varying stimulus is active in the environment. teachers. be associated with those whose standards of achievement are high who stimulate to continuous effort toward better efficiency. But these rare persons are seeking promo- tion or looking forward to achievements in other lines. It is. seen. probably. adapting themselves. No one. is racial indolence. . They do not make a little job into a big one. until finally he is acting on a level of efficiency much below his ability. doctors. They grow to the smallest dimensions of their job and then stop. In this respect the lower animals are superior to man. They.

Neither he nor his friends had any hope of his success. On the contrary." Sometimes the occupation for which one is fitted. and divided of the chase his Kfe between the dissipation and uproar and the languor of inaction. The circumstances that surround one are evidently tremendously important in determining indolence caused speedy failure. put into a position of excepwork with the "sink-or-switn" determination. whether latent abilities shall reveal tb. no flash of fancy. No persuasion could bring him either to read or to work. p. 24. as a great opportunity. When stimulating it arouses ambition. and then he displays power unknown to his friends or himself. effort. An environment is either stimulating or inert. his inattention and Given a farm. Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry. no remarkable beauty or strength of expression. not knowing what else to do. Robert Louis Stevenson illustrates this when he makes one of his characters in St. he could not make a living. But the most striking illustration is Patrick Henry. is At when a man tional responsibility. Grant is an example.MENTAL EFFICIENCY lively 23 stantly operative." * Established in business by his father. I. . and no indication. U. but that the improvement-stimulus may be conOnly in this way can one keep alive at the growing-point. vol. reveals one's power. Another failure followed a second attempt in business. and will ^the determination — ' William Wirt. he ran wild in the forest. .emselves. Then. Ives say: "There is no telling what a man can do until you frighten him. S. either of that impassioned love for liberty. . But the rest of his career is interwoven in our country's history. he tried law. "His companions" [in youth] " recollect no instance of premature wit. like one of the aborigines of the country. . he throws himself into the his future character. or of that adventurous daring and intrepidity which marked so strongly times. however slight. no striking sentiment.

is no less forceful in its requirements and no less effective in producing alteration. Let us is the psychological significance of adaptation.24 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to achieve —but if it is inert the adaptation is at the lowest level of efficiency. Al Jennings. The trail through the prehistoric jimgle to modern times is strewn with the remains of animals that failed to quahfy for new requirements. The individual then unconsciously. It has been a blind struggle for survival. and quite likely unintentionally. Only now the changes are mental as well as physiological. the reformed bandit and train-robber. Neither has it been conIf the scious. The education of man differs from that of the lower animals in the inclusion of factors which play no part in the development of lower forms of life. The animal reacts differently to new conditions behaves differently because it is is — — physiologically different. expends his energy so grudg- requirements of his work. in its broadest meaning. and former leader of the once famous "Jennings Gang. he chanced upon a or as vocation that aroused all his latent powers. Adjustment is always an element in education. Those that succeeded have built their new lives upon the graves of incapables. Adaptation. then." . consists in coming into such rapport with the environment as to meet successfully the exigencies which arise. Education. At this stage. then. required alteration too great the change is too rapid or the animals cannot make the adaptation and the species perishes. minimum did Patrick Henry until consider it somewhat further. The circle of requirements has enlarged. As we ascend the animal series organisms become more These higher forms represent the animals that have been able to adapt themselves to a wider range of conditions. The change has not been sudden. all there is to it. ingly that he meets the fails. and in the lowest forms of life that complex. however. Here. education is wholly a matter of organic adaptation which results in physiological modification.

There. but he asked where we were going. mind ' BeaUng Back. and an active. 310^. and all that without losing any of my absorp- tion in the conversation. Her maimer made me a little suspicious. It wasn't so before I took the road." he says." The game of adaptation is two-sided and the player must keep up with it. . Some one will look up and say Why. The next day I made Red Hereford's with Bill. Failure to read their faces. I will be sitting with a group of a dozen people having a talk. where's John gone ? No one but me will know. That my old crimes raised me from a rough country practitioner to a real lawyer I haven't the slightest doubt. relentless need for the minutest observation and most rigorously exact interpretation of persons and events outside of prison did the work. "I am always surprising my friends. pp. forced Heavy rewards upon by need his head severely strained the loyalty of friends. they were Sam Baker and Red Hereford. approaching the subject indirectly. His wife told me that he had gone to find us boys. ture or death. uncertain environment makes demands upon those in it. of food to accept hospitality. I stopped at Baker's on my way out. also.MENTAL EFFICIENCY 25 has given an interesting illustration of adaptation from his own Mfe. I can always tell when and how he left the room. whom I'd met on the road. by Al Jennings and Will Irwin. when meant cap- Illustrations are not wanting in his book. Curiosity about the other fellow's whereabouts wasn't etiquette in our set. It wasn't what he said — it was his manner. "If there were two men in the whole territory on whom I depended. the atmosphere had changed. I got the habit in prison. A changing. For example. When presently Baker came in he seemed cordial enough. Daily. which they take for a kind of clairvoyant instinct. Usually ' : ' I him have learned by his expression and gesture what made leave. "by deductions." ^ The writer doubts whether it was prison life which awakened his dormant mind.

Self-preservation is a stern and effective teacher. so that after but a little whUe in prison. See also My Life in Prison." the so-called educated horse. Pfungst.' "how grown men and seasoned soldiers can go back in life. which is after all the next thing to being in the nursery. and a sugar biscuit or a pinch of snuff becomes a thing to follow after and scheme for. interpreted better what he saw. and bravery. He saw more. venson observed this effect. . and reasoning. Both and they came out when needed. by Donald Lowrie. they grow absorbed in the most pitiful.^ Without any further practice than was involved in making the experiments. t. In Al Jennings' world of that day the latter meant becoming To remain in the cattle rustlers or ordinary thieves. 1911.26 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK its adaptations and reconstructions. childish interests. The conditions of his life called for certain responses behavior which were possible only as the result of functional changes. by Oscar Pfungst. That it is possible to see served has been proven much more than is usually obby Pfungst in his investigation of "Clever Hans. level. and reasoned more correctly on criminal aristocracy required intellect of these Jennings had. "For it is strange. came from the need of the fullest development of all of his powers of perception. which Jennings attributes to his life "on the road" and in prison." he says. Those who cannot meet the issues succumb either by suffermg the supreme penalty of failure or by dropping to a lower responds with where the less. was able to see and interpret the unconscious movements of the persons. p. Ives. — — the basis of his interpretation. interpretation. exacting demands can be met." The sharpening of his intellect. who thought three numbers together with their • St. Prison-life adaptation is more likely to cause deterioraRobert Louis Stetion than to develop mental keenness. These changes were largely in the nervous system. *Clever Hans. playing the part of the horse.

MENTAL EFFICIENCY

27

sum, so as to determine the order in which the numbers were mentally added. For example, a man thought of 12 as 5 2 and as 2 5, and Pfvmgst, as he s 5 tapped off the number with his hand, could determine by watching the man which order the number took in his mind. The significance for interpreting events of this sharpened observation and inference is obvious. Adaptation to a changed environment is also seen in the altered conduct of States-prison convicts when placed under new conditions. These striking changes, which

+ +

+ +

often

amount
it is

to a revolution in the character of the pris-

oners, are so

that

a matter of general knowledge to-day only necessary to refer to them. In Colorado,

much

convicts have been employed

making roads two hundred
in tents

miles from the prison.

The men were housed

and dugouts, away from the towns near at hand, and the camps were guarded only to keep away tramps and prowlers who might attack the commissary or carry away other property.^ "For a long time the only man who carried firearms in one of these camps was a long-time prisoner

who

patrolled the place for the above reason. We have now " [when the letter was written] " three hundred men employed away from the walls, and yet in the last eight months only one man has escaped." Mr. Fremont Older, of the San Francisco Bulletin, has a former stage-robber as manager of his ranch. "He is absolutely honest and could be trusted with a million dol. .

.

lars.

He

years, for stage robbery

has served four terms, aggregating thirty-eight and highway robbery, and he
in California."
^

was considered the worst man

Evidently

adaptation has a wide reach in making and remaking men. Perhaps the explanation of the change in these convicts

when placed under a new environment
'

is

to be found in

Information contained in a letter from Warden Tynan.

Used with

permission.
'

From a

personal letter.

Used with permission.

'

28

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK

a statement of an Oregon convict. Governor West was convinced that the shoe-shop of the penitentiary was inSo he telephoned the warden and asked that a efficient. prisoner, whom he designated by number, be sent to him. The convict came miguarded. He was told that he shotild go to Oregon City, study the machinery of the shoe-shops, and report on what was needed to make those of the
penitentiary efficient.
his return told the governor

went, again unguarded, and on what was necessary to make the prison shoe-shops modern. The governor then said You have to him:. "Now, you're in for Hfe, a murderer.
tried to get

He

away

before.

Why

didn't

you try

it

this

you, governor. I've tried it betime?" This would have been a pipe for sure. But it's the fore. first time since I can remember that a man trusted me.

"Well,

I'll tell

you down." These human pictures represent men's physiological and mental reorganization in a changed environment. They are whoUy comparable to the adaptations of lower animals. Habits and actions ^behavior viewed in the large are not isolated states. They are responses to environmental situations, and they can be rightly appraised only when considered in relation to these environing conditions. Behavior involves two factors, the organism, and the objects
I couldn't throw

or circiunstances that

it

faces.

demand adaptive

response.

The external conditions At one time this demand

imposes the penalty of death for failure to meet it, and at another the ridicule of associates with all the anguish that accompanies ostracism. The human will is not resistless. It is influenced by
racial

and individual

traits,

some

of

which originated in

needs quite different from those of the present day. Consequently, the adjustment of action to environment is at times imperfect. Primitive man, like his animal ancestors,
1

New

of former

York Times, May Governor West,

2,

1912.

Verified

by a

letter

from the secretary

MENTAL EFFICIENCY
expended tremendous strength and, having won

29
his fight,

relapsed into inaction, revelling in the fruits of his victory. Man is able to maintain a persistent battle-front

only in extreme danger to his Kfe.
gradually relaxes his vigilance and

finally,

At other times he when resistance

becomes too great a burden, he slowly 3delds. Witness the progress of reforms. A crjdng need is felt and volimteers are not lacking. But soon, confronted with continued opposition, enthusiasm wanes and vanishes, and things remain much as they were. The overwhelming but temporary outburst of indignation after the Iroquois Theatre and the Triangle Shirt-Waist Building burned, with their appalling loss of Ufe, are illustrations. Enthusiasm comes in waves, but the effort needed to keep it going is
too exacting.
,

All of these forms of behavior are phases of adaptation.

In the case of the convicts of
social

whom we

have spoken, the

them required more mental, moral, and physical stamina than they had at their disposal. When, at a later time, the circumstances surrounding them favored an ethical, social attitude, when
and
industrial conditions confronting

opposition to the unsocial did not require such strenuous,

unremitting resistance,

new

when

it is

recognized that will
ideas,

outcome of pitting
social science

Only an adaptive process, the emotions, and thoughts, with
adaptations followed.
is

their judgments, against surrounding

conditions, will a

be possible. As we shall see later, the will is not a "faculty" a single, simple force. It is the whole mind active, impulses, emotions, ideas, and ideals, but it Life is active with reference to something external to it. is not action. It is reaction. The illustrations of adaptation which we have given are those of individuals ^made within the Ufetime of one person. When we turn to racial adaptation an interesting observation has been made by Boas.^ He claims to have

'

Senate Document, No. 208. Sixty-fiist Congress, 2d Session, p.

7.

30

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK

found that "the head form, which has always been considered as one of the most stable and permanent characteristics of human races, undergoes far-reaching changes due to the transfer of the races of Europe to American
soil."

seen in Stefansson's blond Eskimo His measurements of 104 of these men "give an index of 97, which places the 'blond, Eskimo,' when judged by head form, exactly where it places them when judged by complexion in the class with persons who are known to be of mixed Eskimo and white descent." Naturally, adaptation was favored by cross-breeding, but if Stefansson's theory is correct the Scandinavians who survived in their westward journey from Greenland must have practised very rigid adaptation. This is shown by the fate of early discoverers, as Sir John Franklin's party, who, though equipped with protecting devices and a reasonable quantity of food, could not meet the conditions sufl&ciently

Another example

is

of Victoria Island.'

well to survive.

We
more them
some

or less successful
to meet.

have been discussing adaptations which were more and which made the individuals or group
the exigencies that they fitted

efficient in respect to

But himian adaptation
If the

trated

by

success.

is not fully illusLet us therefore turn for a moment to

failures.

death-rate increases

it is

evidence

of lack of intelKgent adjustment to conditions. And this is exactly what is happening in the United States to-day.

Government reports show that the death-rate from organic
diseases in this country has been steadily rising since 1880.

might be assumed that this is a necessary state of affairs due to uncontrollable causes involved in the progress of civilization were it not for the fact that during this period the death-rate from the same causes has not risen in European countries of a corresponding degree of civilization. "Coincident with the increase in the death-rate from orIt
J

Vilhjalmur StefSnsson,

My Life with the Eskimo,

1913, pp. 192/.

MENTAL EFFICIENCY

31

ganic diseases in the United States, the advance has occurred in the general death-rate in all age periods, commencing with age forty to fifty." '

The last report^ of the United States Census Bureau gives 1,001,921 deaths for the year 1916 in the '"registration area,' which contains approximately 70 per cent of
the population of the entire United States. ... Of these deaths nearly one-third were due to three causes heart disease, tuberculosis, and pneimionia. The deaths from heart disease (organic diseases of the heart and endo-

.

.

.

carditis) in the registration area in

1916 numbered

.

.

.

159.4 per 100,000 population. The death-rate from this cause shows a marked increase as compared with 1900,
it was only 123.1 per 100,000." The mortahty rate from Bright's disease and acute nephritis has increased, with some yearly fluctuations, from 89 per 100,000 in 1900 to 105.2 in 191 6; and the rate from diabetes has risen almost continuously since 1900, when it was 9.7 per 100,000, to 1 91 6, when it was 17 for the same number of inhabitants. Arterial diseases, again, have increased from 6.1 in 1900 to 25.6 in 1912; and the increase of the mortality rate from apoplexy has been continuous since 1913. These startling figures become even more impressive when it is remembered that an organic disease, especially of the

when

heart or kidne)rs,

makes the prognosis decidedly more un-

favorable for an acute disease Hke pneimionia, and this

was one

of the three diseases that caused nearly one-third

of the deaths in the registration area during the year.

another of the three, still "causes more deaths annually than any other malady, except heart diseases, and about 37 per cent more than all external
Tuberculosis,

causes
'

—accidents,

homicides,

and

suicides

—combined."

E. E. Rittenhouse. Paper prepared from government reports and lifeexpectancy tables at the request of the Committee on Public Health Education of the Medical Society of the County of New York, and read at the Academy of Medicine. * Bureau's Summary of Mortality Statistics, issued Nov. 27, 1917.

32

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
tuberculosis
is

an eradicable disease if proper attenis given to fresh air and out-of-door exercise. The general death-rate has declined in recent years, but The this does not mean that the race is more vigorous. decline in mortahty is chiefly in infancy, childhood, and

Yet

tion

early adult Ufe.

And

the reason

is

better defense against

germ diseases. The evidence indicates that deaths from wear and tear are increasing. Vital statistics show that the expectancy of life from shortly before forty years of
age has been gradually but steadily
falling.

The

investi-

gations of Rittenhouse indicate that during the last thirty

years the death-rate from organic diseases has increased

American

86 per cent in Massachusetts and 94 per cent in fifteen cities. And yet, while the death-rate from

these causes has been increasing in the United States, it has been stationary or decreasing in England, Germany, Sweden, and France. Since these countries do not have better physicians than the United States, there can be but one explanation lack of intelligent adaptation to the rapid changes which have been taking place during recent

years.

The mortaUty rate from some of the organic diseases has doubled within forty years. A striking increase in deaths from diseases of the heart, arteries, and liver begins between thirty and forty years of age, the maximxmi being reached at sixty or shortly after; and when the decades preceding 1881 and 19 11 are compared it is foimd that during the latter period the expectation of life has been lowered for all ages after forty. The condition which
these statistics indicate has attracted the attention of the United States Public Health Service, which has sent a warning^ through the country. "At the age of forty the expectation of life," the statement runs, "is less now than it was thirty years ago. This is true for both men and women. Life expectancy
'

Exercise

and Health, by F. C. Smith, Government Printing

Office.

MENTAL EFFICIENCY
intelligent care of

33

during infancy and childhood has increased owing to more young children, to the introduction of diphtheria antitoxin, and other means of combating the
infectious diseases,

and

to

more sanitary

living.

But the

diseases of degeneration are increasing, especially those

involving the kidneys, heart, and blood-vessels, particularly among persons not employed at manual labor. One

reason for this is the lessened physical and the increased mental work entailed by our complex social fabric. More people are engaged in sedentary occupations than formerly. More nervous energy is required of a man. Deprived of the natural assistance which physical exercise affords in eliminating through skin and lungs the waste products of the body, the kidneys become overloaded and fail. Lacking the normal assistance which working muscles give to circulation as they urge the blood and lymph onward in the natural channels, and overloaded with food poisons which brain-work cannot bum up as physical exercise will, the arteries become brittle and weak and the heart muscle
flabby, like the biceps of its imfortunate possessor.

The

florid businessman succumbs to apoplexy, perhaps; another

pasty-complexioned brain-worker to nephritis; another to a fatty heart or to chronically overtaxed digestion, all of which could have been postponed for many years by a
big,

moderate amount

of daily exercise."

The
again,

lack of applied intelligence of

by the

report of the Committee of

homo sapiens is shown, One Hundred on

National Health. There are over 625,000 deaths annually in the United States which coxxld be prevented, and at least
half of the 3,000,000 sick-beds

now

constantly

filled

would

be empty
plied.

if

the existing knowledge of hygiene were ap-

"The

health examinations of the Life Extension Insti-

tute have revealed unsuspected ailments in persons who considered themselves well, and to an extent which has astonished even those who have long been familiar with

34

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
Among
large groups of clerks

these subjects.

and em-

ployees of banks and commercial houses in New York City, with an average age of twenty-seven, and all supposedly picked men and women, only i per cent were found free of impairment or of habits of living which are

obviously leading to impairment. Of those with important physical impairments, 88.88 per cent were, prior to the examination, imaware of impairment; i6 per cent of the total number examined were (affected with organic
heart trouble, 42 per cent with arterial changes, janging from slight thickem'ng to advanced arterio-sclerosis, 26 per cent with high or low blood-pressure, 40 per cent had

albumen in the urine, 24 per cent had a combination of both heart and kidney disease, 47 per cent had decayed teeth or infected gums, 31 per cent had faulty
sugar, casts, or
vision uncorrected.

"Among

industrial groups, not exposed to

any

special

occupation hazard or poisoning, the figures were as follows: With an average age of thirty-three, none were foimd to be free of impairment or of living habits which are obviously leading to impairment.

Of those with important

physical impairments, 89 per cent were, prior to the examination, unaware of impairments; 3 per cent of the
total

number examined were

affected with organic heart

trouble; 53 per cent with arterial changes, ranging from shght thickening to advanced arterio-sclerosis; 23 per cent

with high or low blood-pressure; 45 per cent had sugar, albumen, or casts in their urine; 26 per cent had a combination of both heart and kidney disease; 69 per cent had decayed teeth or infected gums; 41 per cent had faulty
vision imcorrected."'

No single explanation for this physical deterioration can be given. Probably, however, the most fundamental cause is the sudden change, during the last two generations, from muscularly active lives, spent mostly out-of-doors, to
'

How to

Live,

by Irving Fisher and Eugene L.

Fisk, pp. 136/.

and why it is rare in localities where leisurely and quiet ways of life prevail. of the shop or office has started a physical After they have' made be a long way on the road to decline. Man: An Adaptive Mechanism. dried-out. the rural population has increased only about 1 1 per cent." * The physical waste produced by city life calls for stimulants and narcotics to speed up energy or dull the feeling diabetes goes up'. .MENTAL EFFICIENCY 35 ph3rsicaUy inactive lives. 'When stocks go down in New York more commonly found and races who are constantly under a strain of business perplexities. has increased from 6. 225. life-insurance and. why diabetes is among individuals of fatigue. Kved chiefly indoors. The proportion of city inhabitants has increased more than 130 per cent in the last fifty years. and while our city population has increased 35 per cent during the last decade. of liberty . and luxury. pp. The annual consumption of alcohoKc liquor. for example. and who are constantly within sight and hearing of thousands of irritating and harassing episodes. devitalized air. in large cities. in the words of a certain phrase-maker. of success. . by George W. The body and organs cannot at once readapt themselves from a life of action in the open to sedentary conditions in confined. Speaking of these facts with reference to two of the their adaptation to these conditions the race will prevalent diseases says: "It — arterio-sclerosis and diabetes — Crile is essentially a story of the modern world. The identification of the common causes of diabetes with the common causes of Graves' disease may explain why.5 gallons per capita to nearly 20 gallons since i860. Proof of this is not wanting. this. This change from an active out-of-doors life to the inside impairment which city conditions have promoted. as evidence of the significance of erate drinkers • companies have foimd that "the death-rate of very mod- among the insured is 18 per cent higher Crile. . 241. overheated. power and progress and and of their antitheses.

the consumption of coffee per capita has increased 54 per Besides this. Increase in wealth has brought luxuries and ease. . There is a dangerous tendency toward habits of physical ease. Athletics in schools and colleges are lim- The others take their exercise vicariously on the bleachers. Even the sauntering that boys do is must conform to a cer- tain "style" that predisposes to impairment. as another the enervating effect of "civilized" life. pounds of drugs are consumed annually.000 worth of tobacco is annually burned. If it be asked.. The apartment janitor or house man does the work formerly done by boys.000. An exammation of 746 Harvard freshmen showed ^ that four out of every five stand and walk in a slimiping posture. Walking is rapidly becoming a lost art People ride in street-cars or automobiles.000 of them. spiritual force inhabiting the brain. and that three out ' Address at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Association of Life Insurance Presidents. and the productivity of the mind is not unrelated to body in general. But other unintelligent adaptations are evident in modern social and especially urban life which hasten physical the vigor of the nervous system and of the impairment. 280. M.D. Harvard Illustrated.000. Rittenhouse." ^ $1. What have these facts of physiology and hygiene to do with psychology? the answer is obvious. without the advice of a physician. vol.36 and PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of steady drinkers 86 per cent higher than the aver- age. Mental processes accompany certain cerebral processes. ited to a few. and. and the yearly consumption of patent medicines and nostrums of one sort or another has increased 365 per cent per capita beyond that of thirty-five years ago. p. by E. lege slouch" The "col- an illustration. cent duruig the last two generations.200. ' Lloyd T. with probably still more disastrous effect. 18. Brown. most 75. indication of Then. E. 1916. if druggists are to be beheved. The mind is not an ethereal.

25 per In these cases. though at no time have the demands on "fitness" been unduly severe. 30 per cent were rejected. Yet. 142 were ph5^ically unfit and were rejected. and in 1916. It is emy probable that the smaller number of rejections in 1916 was the result of lowering the physical requirement on account of the project of war. 1918. never reach the final examination to which these figures refer. a cent. Out of 562 candidates for West Point in 1914. therefore. It was also foxind that the students who the slouch have a greater variety and a higher peris strik- centage of sickness than those who stand erect. army or navy. by recruiting officers of the United States Marine service. Of those called and examined 29. . These figures are the more dismajnng when it is recalled that all candidates undergo a preliminary medical examination before going to West Point. out of those sent to West Point we find about onefourth rejected for physical reasons. 16 per cent.* and yet. in 1915. 1916. The conspicuously unfit. prdiminary physical examination eliminated the conspicuously unfit before they reached the academy. According to a statement issued in December. also. (X those who aj^Ked for admission to the Naval Acadin 1914. the commanding officers of several cantoimients have complained that too many who were physically unfit have been sent to the camps. The first furnishes drait under the Selective Service Act of 1917 the latest information regarding the physical condition of avac young men. only I out of every 30 who applied for admission from > Report of the Frowst Marshal General to the Secretary of War.11 per cent were found phjracaJly unfit. notwithstanding these disturbing figures.MENTAL EFFICIENCY of five 37 when they affect do not know how to take a correct position even try. The physical deterioration of young Americans ' ingly shown by the rejections for physical causes among those who have applied for admission to the.

The will depends hardly lessi upon the stomach than upon the brain. The mental effect of deterioration of the tissues of the bodily organs is evident. and then flat feet forbid walking. Pinkston.012 applicants. and flat feet." Aside from the physical effect. of the New York City recruiting bureau. Every significant change in the environment puts the organism out of harmony with it and some sort of reorganization and. It is one of those vicious Kttle circles. Such is the physical preparedness of the men They of New York fit City — i I in every 35 who applied is physically to be a marine What are the chief defects ? the same the coxmtry over heart trouble.38 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK in sufl&ciently Manhattan were able. The external environment is the stimulus to which the physical organism reacts. much — rhetorical flight of the imagination that led Henry Ward Beecher to cry: "It is as difficult for a dyspeptic to enter the kingdom of heaven as for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. P. with the individual With time. Captain L. recently said that out of 11. and the determined. good condition to be avail- Referring to a large number of candidates. Too little walking makes flabby muscles and flat feet. man becomes vacillating and unre- We have seen that the changes which occur in the organism may be described in large part in terms of adaptation. knowing that one is diseased plays a leading r61e in the drama of life. only 316 could be accepted. Only when the enviromnent is static do physical alterations reduce to the minimum or cease altogether. finally. Development implies a reconstruction —men- . efficient liable. Thinking and judgment suffer. a stationary environment there is growth but no de- velopment. It was no mere are flat chests. the adaptation perpetuates the lack of its harmony which. may become sufficient to cost Kfe or even to annihilate the species. reconstruction is if necessary Failure to make the environmental change is sufficiently great.

MENTAL EFFICIENCY tal 39 lost equi- and physical —leading to the restoration of a its librium between an organism and environment. and if it is peculiar to an individual it is habit. whether organic or ture of energy as possible. to readapt oneself to altered circumstances. can entirely reconstruct environment and in way create new incentives to further improvement. The lower over to any passive. to do so with as little expendiChange. to the environment as it stands. on the other hand. Along with the impulse to adapt and. when necessary. the variation thus introduced leads to the estabhshment of a new reaction. an organism to break away from established types of response— to adapt itself better to new conditions —measures its capacity to develop. vive make as little change in structure and behavior as will meet the exigencies of the situation. largfe must adapt themselves They cannot make it is extent Their adaptation this therefore Man. again. During any marked change in the essentials of an environment many perish because of Those that surinability to meet the new requirements. which tends again to become fixed in habit. or. If the established response is continuous through the species with the moderate variation observed in even so-called fixed reactions it is in- — — stinct. mental. When changed conditions in the environment are met by a responsive adjust- The ability of ment of behavior in the organism. The marvellous irrigation systems by which deserts . we have said. his animals. as we have noticed. If this reconstruction produces greater organic complexity to meet more involved conditions of life there is progress. Adaptation may take a form of response already perfected or in process of becoming fixed. An environment constantly chang- ing under man's reconstructing and reorganizing ability presents a continuous succession of inducements to progress. there is always the tendency. is always resisted. there may be a tendency to ' alter the reaction to meet the varying needs of the environment.

drew of thinking. and the results were so different as to exhibit in each convict two apparently antagonistic selves. Man intelligraice prone to think that his higher it superior to this organic tendency. adapted themselves to two widely varying sets of conditions. Yet each manifestation exacting. This difference arises from the stealthy way in which adaptation works. the effect of the conditions to which response is made is readily discernible because of the objective point of view. The convicts. . when it is a question of training oneself. Adaptation is We cannot escape it.40 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK have been changed into fertile farms. however. The only method of control is the indirect one of planning the conditions to which adaptation shall be made. and the transformation of water-power into electrical machines that supply distant cities with electricity are illustrations. The problem is quite different. Evidently the intellect should play a more discriminative part in planning the conditions to which hiunan adaptation shall be made. of personality was true to itself and to the condition which In helping others to develop. We may therefore turn to the nature and method it out. We is have illustrated its length because of human adaptation somewhat at importance in human efficiency. And it is here that man's intelligence has a chance to assert itself. servient to relentlessly Yet he is makes him no less sub- than are the lower animals. to whom reference has been made.

he wiU inevitably adapt himself. Ideas may have no more than is disclosed in the prattle of infants. like breathing. perhaps.CHAPTER II THINKING AND ACTING We have seen that the man who would be efficient should strive to control the external conditions to which. perhaps a belief. if it is well grounded. To be sure. Thinking implies seeing real relations. But this is not necessarily thinking in the proper sense. and. Mere succession of things thought of even related things need not be thinking. not those that are fanciful or artificial. Evidently. ways have significant meaning under given conditions. Thinking is not a spontaneous process. then. so to — speak. We will assume then that the external conditions have been well planned with reference to efficiency that the stage is set. it exposes — — the insecure foundation. and these Some consequence should relations must lead somewhere. for a belief. Suppose we pause a moment to correct a rather wide-spread error. Thinking also finds the reasons edge. There are many ways in which Some of these things and their ideas may be related. The next step is the organization of effective mental habit^. is the subtle process called thinking. 41 A few illustra- . sooner or later. This consequence becomes a body of knowlfollow them. mere association of ideas does not constitute thinking. The test is in the kind of associated significance ideas that we have. if not. and foremost among these. ideas come into the mind and are succeeded by others that have some sort of connection with the first. and others have not.

and it is partly for this reason that experience. They there- fore Justify it. tradition. As a matter of fact. But slogans presuppose absence of thinking. A like those of Thackeray and George Eliot. thinking is largely If these illustrations are fairly chosen. are often insulting to even intelligence. in- cluding early education and social pressure." "well-read" woman. Getting experience requires understanding causes and consequences seeing connection between what precedes and — — that which follows." And again. replied: "They should have good books to read. Obviously. however. controlled by inheritance. we have found does not give valid experience. and environment. Even activity taking part in the events—does not make experience. as usually accepted. on hearing some one speak of the barren. for example. A wellchosen slogan is frequently sufficient. told the manager of a large manufacturing plant on being that the laborers in his mills were dragging out a Joyless." "They don't know how to use their leisure The arguments moderate of political parties. said: time. and they are of a type sufficiently frequent to be rather commonplace. working ten hours a day six days in the week.42 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK tions will indicate the frequency of insignificant associations incorrectly dignified as '(thoughts. it is clear that ideas brought into the mind through association may revolve in a very small circle and. They are designed to awaken certain ready-made associations in the voters. degenerating lives of those in the slums. Change is meaningless transition un- . and they take the place of arguments. to illustrate failure to think from a different angle. consequently. yet they are not resented. hopeless existence. never advance thought. exerts sqch a dominating influence. pohticians assume that the public can be fooled long enough to win the election. and the voters accept their judgment. Merely living through a series of events.

enter as constituents into our thought and actions. and variability. as in other judgments. settles . — the very realiza- In the active affairs of life. new. The tion of character of experience any experience at all ^is determined by the proportions in which habits of response. —indeed. depends wholly upon the accuracy of the process. When change trans- lated into cause and effect it is full of significance. rests upon personal judgment. The starting-point from which the thinking proceeds is itself a matter of experience and interpretation. again.THINKING AND ACTING less it is 43 is connected with its results. When response becomes habitual experience is at its minimum. inventive and original. on the one hand. and. or with the interpretation and estimate of the views of others which is determined by his experience. however. The human being seems to be enclosed in a circle from which he cannot extricate himself. He begins with experience. adaptation tends to become conscious. to the extent of the failure of habits. experience usually what promises to be the efficient course to pursue. is measured by the amount of conscious." which will be shared by others in proportion as these people have had similar experiences and have reasoned with like accuracy from the same startThe circle within which one reasons will be ing-point. Thinking is strictly an intelIts value lectual matter and in no sense a moral one. The quantity of experience. again. We learn something. "fundamental principles. With man. The thinking of an Arsene Lupin in accomplishing his criminal purposes is as good as that of a Sherlock Holmes in thwarting them. at least. any break with mental habits tends to be educative. Here. So far as situations fail to be adequately met with habits. attentive reaction which is opposed to habits of thought and behavior. the test of the value of the decision is the success or failure of the plan in achieving the aims which are sought. This interpretation. on the other.

"is to be of the best sect next to a Finder. by William R. though unable to initiate in any large degree. and it is in just this interpretation that the difference between great and mediquestion. are yet appreciative of the inventions of others. . Livermore. 495. But inherited tendencies no more than individual experience establish universally valid principles. responds to music way some are bom with a brain that and poetry. Mystics and bdievers in occult phenomIn the same ena. There are two classes of discerning men. reminds one of a remark once made by Ohver Cromwell: "To be a Seeker. The Story of the Civil War. those who originate and those who. ever. for example. Probably some are bom with a nervous orgajiization that accepts struct certain types of "fundamental principles" more readily than do others.44 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK large or small according as one's experience has been broad or limited. Since the ideas and beliefs with which deflect we start will even subsequently accurate thinking. General George Meade seems to have been of the latter class. each important and effective in his way. but his dear understanding enabled him to discriminate between the plans of others." he said. it is of the utmost importance that they be subjected to the severest scrutiny at the beginning of an attempt to think out a From the moment of their acceptance. He was "not original in devising brilliant plans." ^ Meade's success. we always have with us. considered in connection with his lack of inventiveness." The willingness and ability to admit in action the value of ideas presented » by others reveals an intellecp. howa matter of the accuracy of the intellectual operation by which new beliefs grow out of the facts and ideas accepted as a true starting-point. it is ocre men lies. Throughout this mental growth the interpretation of experience plays a directing r61e. and in proportion to one's ability to dis- cover meaning in the experiences of others and to reconthem in terms of personal experience.

In its best expresaon life is a great adventure. career. after he had stormed the bridge of Lodi and forced the passage of the river. other things being equal. for who ever saw such tactics The blockhead knows nothing Illustrations could easily ! . They dread the contrast. They can only follow Deviation from rules. For the same reason. but perhaps mihtary achievements afford the most striking In the early period of Napoleon's victorious instances. always involves risk. One of the proofs of Lincoln's greatness was his willingness to take into his Cabinet men of the krgest ability whom he could find. No two situations are exactly alike. be drawn from science. one of the Austrian generals exclaimed indignantly: "This beardless youth ought to have been beaten over and over again. is the one who can make distinctions between them and discover differences. of course. it. for example. or rather a continuous series of adventures. no sense humor. even though xa&y not represent the highest cast of mind.THINKING AND ACTING tual freedom of 45 it no mean worth. and the one who reads the meaning of events with clearest understanding makes discoveries or meets emergencies in ways wholly outside the ken of of efficient men of lesser attainments. men mental calibre in positions of responsibility do not wish to have bigger men than themselves imder them. regardless of political affiliations. of course. There are. those who are foredoomed to follow rules. The least effective use of experience is probably exhibited by the literal man who has no sense of proportion. but he who never dares achieves nothing. and he endured criticisms and innuendoes from them which would have cut deq)ly into the others will of small self-esteem of a less able man. and whatever efficiency these people possess lies in These strict adherence to prescribed modes of action. and the man. men cannot interpret experience. for one evidence of mental inferiority is the fear lest accepting the opinions of stamp one as weak.

by Gamaliel Bradford. He knew the art of war. on our front.. A. S. But the point is that."'' Grant. to cite another instance of disregarding rules. Dodge. p. ' History of Napoleon Bonaparte. and he was looking by John S. ' Union Portraits. again. and the next day. To-day he is in our rear. He should have been surrounded of the sort and his forces cut to pieces. it worked out with exactly reasoned care. But nothing according to the rules of happened. as he did in his attack on Vicksburg. disregarded a military principle which no one but a fool. Abbott. 147. conceived as a dream.. 96. It was no dream to lead a hundred thousand men two hundred miles through a hostile country and bring them out in perfect fighting trim. an inexcusable violation of the "rules. knew what the odds against him were. "would be discredited because of the chances that he took. so that in the end success attended almost every step of it. fought the battle of Antietam with a river at his back. p.46 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of the rules of war. He knew the man in front of him. vol. 233. with a confidence in their commander which had grown with every step they took. I. vol. A wording of essentially the same thought is fouad in Napdeon. to-morrow on our flank. strategy. to cite a different sort of an illustration. But he took them with his eyes open. Many of Lee's moves. would have been a stupendous blunder except that it succeeded. Lee. in cutting loose from his base of supplies. The plan "was forged almost as a dream in that eager and fertile workshop from which dreams came so thickly. also. by Theodore A. U. gross violations of the established principles of "1 war are Sherman's march to the sea. different somewhat . I." But he had interpreted events. p. Such insufferable. a recent reviewer says. C. or a genius. would ever think of violating. and he was certain that if he lost the battle he could extricate himself before McClellan would counterattack with sufl&dent vigor to bring disaster.

These military geniuses saw and read the markings of strata of experience lying below the: level of prescribed conduct. and the newly acquired army of the AUies was thrown into hopeless disorder in its mad struggle to escape from the encircling fire of guns. and some minds are imperJackson's plank road. Things are continually happening that are loaded with suggestive meanings. Lee divided his forces in the face enemy at Chancellorsville and sent Jackson on famous night-march along the plank road to attack Hooker's flank. . Violation of rules in the cases of which we have been speaking was not an exhibition of erratic thinking. although being attacked heavily in front. and this Adous to suggestions that are not hammered in by concussion. And Falkenhayn has recently repeated this "blunder. The only excuse for Falkenha3m's conduct was that it succeeded. and what they read suggested actions and plans outside the To know field of intellectual vision of the less endowed. This flanking wild. he knew that he was violating one of the most elementary rules of strategy." When. The detached force sat down in Red Tower Pass directly astride the Roimianian line of retreat and supplies. 47 He could not gain it in any other way. Falkenha3Ti nevertheless detached a considerable force from his right detour to force fall wing and sent it by a wide upon the Roumanian rear." with amazing success. but only the intelGetting experience lectually prepared can interpret them. had to traverse a The story of Newton and the myth but psychologically it had to be invented because it falling apple is a historical is true. of the his for example. when to disregard rules is distinctive. The inteUectuaUy sensitive do not require shocks. At the battle of Hermannstadt.THINKING AND ACTING for a decision. Suggestions imply a capacity to be influenced. mountainous country without made aU the more glaring the violation of the rule that a force must not be divided in the face of the enemy. represents the Some such story way in which a great mind acts.

the contributing factors must be isolated quite as carefully. The mflitary geniuses of whom we have spoken saw deeper meanings than rules express. These principles are rules of action. The sagacity of some men is a constant source of amazement to those of moderate mental fertility. and this was due to their penetrating vision and interpretation of what they saw. Wisdom. just as thoughts. yield a flood of suggestions regarding the meaning of the reactions. We do something and then watch the result. in which things and people behave when we try to do something to them to alter them or their actions and knowledge of the reasons of this behavior discernment of the relations between our actions and their reactions ^is experience. It comes. Every experience its is a scientific the conditions of an experience as deliberately as of an experiment. and they represent efficiency up to a certain point —to the limit of mechanical out and testing of the behavior of men and things. Many factors are involved which do not readily disclose experiment reduced to themselves to the superficially observant person. The mind of the genius works in exactly the same way as . which he is trying in Interpretation of the way — — — — however. and these meanings involve the relation between the actions of the person who is seeking experience and the responses behavior of the other persons and things efficiency. looks toward the future and furnishes principles of behavior. with reference to their response to oiur actions upon them. But to a certain few the tr3mig — — some way to influence or control. They must be followed by people of mediocre attainments. that the lowest termis. It is testing the effect of actions. If we do not plan part which each plays in the final outcome may be corExperience is always prospective. It rectly determined. But even close observation of the action and consequent reaction may not reveal the meaning of the experience. through association of ideas. is do the less striking not a miraculous product.48 is PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK not merely living and acting.

after all. the tester. but one prerequisite of mental fertility is well-ordered. availed him nothing had he not constantly maintained fertile the attitude of the failed repeatedly trier. the e:!q)erimenter. But he had many "strange views" and All of his ability would have fell into numerous errors. He and his hypotheses were often dreams of a wayward moment. The need of abundant knowledge is evident because it is the source of meanings by which the world's confusion may be interpreted. as it always must if it is to contribute conclusions of value. Experience with him meant experimenting. They Kepler is a striking pull up many and throw them away. A man cannot be wise on nothing. His contributions to our knowledge of the orbits and motions of planetary masses are so fundamental that one might easily think him the possessor of a special method or "faculty" of discovering truth. Who would be willing to assert that Kepler's "chimerical notions" were not. All of their ideas do not flower. adequate knowledge. stages in his progress toward truth ? "In all probabiKty the errors of the great mind. Malthus' Essay on Population would have left Darwin and Wallace floating on the surface of conventional biological beliefs had they not been loaded with intellectual high explosives.THINKING AND ACTING that of a plodder. 49 The difference is that the genius sees more meanings than Suggestions are others. Unorganized knowledge is only wa3rward information." says . with him. and he sees them more quickly. But this knowledge must be organized so that its variety may not prevent concentration of available portions upon a definite problem. and no amount of information need make him wise. unfitted for application because incapable of being combined into a single imptdse leading toward a definite conclusion. but he was relentless in his experimental criticism of them. Yet men of genius are more conservative than is sometimes thought. illustration of the mistake in assuming that genius has an unerring method of divining truth.

. Hutchinson view commonly held own Ught. understood. . 80." » Faraday. vol. and here the critical discrimination and sagacity of the experimenter is tested. p." And it is the same with those working vention. the preliminary conclusions. volve suppositions which are inconceivable. the wishes. Harpt-Zs Monthly. "each of them reasonable and apparently likely to be true. have been realized. Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics. 425. . in the same vein. Fertility of imagination and abundance of guesses at truth are among the first requisites of discovery. which illumines them is so brightly that their significance ' apparent to all. for example. Stanley Jevons." ^ "The world little knows. The meaning of the facts from which they foUow must be Edison. for even to myself my ideas appear only as the shadow of a speculation. p. and no limit can really be placed to the freedom of hypothesis. but the erroneous guesses must be many times as numerous as those The truest theories inwhich prove well founded. tenth of the suggestions. again. in the more practical field of in- once remarked that he could say without exaggeration that he had constructed three thousand different theories with regard to the electric light. in a paper on ray-vibrations says: "I think it likely that I have made many mistakes in the preceding pages. that in the most successful instances not a . gives an amusing illustration of the that "facts" carry their Horace G. by ~V." Yet only in two cases did his experiments prove the truth of his theory. ' ' The Principles of Science. or as one of those impressions on the mind which are allowable for a time as guides to thought and research. S77. "how many of the thoughts and theories which have passed through the mind of a scientific investigator have been crushed in silence and secrecy by his own severe criticism and adverse examination. 372. George Parsons Lathiop.so PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Jevons.' Theories do not reveal their own truth or falsity. the hopes. p." continues Faraday. elsewhere. "exceed in number those of the less vigorous one.

uncertainty. In certain respects this is the most difficult part of the reasoning process.'"^ Since the method by which geniuses solve their problems is the same as that used by the ordinary man in meeting the difficulties of his business or profession. 50-51. Busk 'just to explain' why one germ should develop into a man and another into a kangaroo. He suggested that she should read the book. I. Mr. shutting it up with a clap and saying: 'Well. Darwin after all. The recognition of trouble. while to examine the process briefly. Doubt. Lowe asked Mr. Busk" [President of the College of Surgeons] "were at High Ehns" [visiting Sir John Lubbock].THINKING AND ACTING 51 " Shortly after the publication of the Origin of Species. physical or mental. vol. Hutchinson. Lowe was between young Lubbock and Mr. Like everything else. Lowe" [the Chancellor of the Exchequer] "and Mr. it is worth First of all. if I had had his facts I should have come to the same conclusion myself. pp. and he is keenly interested in the cause of the trouble. Next day she sat in the drawing-room with it. and finished it about 4. with seventy-five miles to dinner and the nearest garage. Busk. because most events are — • Life oj Sir John Lubbock. and the conversation turned on the great book. Mrs. "On Saturday evening Mrs. and here we have the second factor in thinking. perplexity. however. and so she took it up-stairs. But let it go dead. thinking requires a cause. it should be observed that if everything ran smoothly there would be no thinking. . The cause of the difficulty must be understood before a remedy or a solution can be found. So long as an automobile is in perfect running order the driver is not concerned with its mechanism.. an obstacle in the way of what we want to do all are different names for troubles of one sort or another that interfere with our activities.30. by Horace G. I don't see much in your Mr. either in something that we are trying to do or in finding the explanation of a problem is only the incentive to thinking. which in this instajice is trouble.

and the associated incidental factors are so intertwined with the essential elements that it is not easy to separate the essential from the accidental. In many matters. however. the cause of a phenom»ion is ascertained. In the former as well as in the latter the difficulty or obstruction in the way of successful progress in thought and action must be located and defined. Experiments are arranged in which one possible cause after another is In this eliminated. Some connection between these phenomena was assumed. It would never have shown. In others it was too feeble and obscure. by the process of elimination. The ledgs' does not show the profits which the business conditions lead one to expect What is the explanation? Is the cause to be found in the internal organization. it has been noticed that the tides vary with the phases of the moon. but there was no accurate knowledge of the relation until Newton announced the law of gravitation. in loadstone. From early times. exaggerated. and others. in lightning. Mere observation is likely to be misleading. perhaps. as in business and social problems. that air may exist as a liquid and as a solid. Certain peculiarities of electricity. Machines and experiments were needed to produce a continuous supply of electricity of such an intensity as would make it possible to see and test what actually happened. and frequently it is impossible. or should it be sought among the sales- mai? The rause and remedy of political corruption. Science has a way of meeting this perplexity. experimentation is not easy. also. In some of thes^ cases the activity was too intense and rapid. Yet these questions are no less complex and involved than the scientific problems to which we have referred. in the aurora borealis. has long been a matter of contro- .52 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK exceedingly complex. for example. or lack of ozganization. to dte another instance. for example. way. must have been observed in ancient times. and in certain other substances.

rare. Wells was thinking when he made Mr. suspends judgment. Lees. before undertaking anylJiing. It is the trial-and-error method on the animal level the hit-or-miss method. delays acting on suggestions. for example." 1 type of which H. I have meditated for a long time— I have foreseen what might happen. however. — Napoleon. this is not the usual order of the factors in the process of tliinking. 7. F. Britling say: "Will there ever be a man whose thoughts are quick and his acts slow?" One of the most charming illustrations of suspended — judgment and sensitiveness to suggestion ability to discover meaning in commonplace events is the means by which James Bradley explained the apparent movements — — * Napoleon at Work. tic 53 The ramifications of this disease of the body poli- are so extensive that it. Suggestions conmionly arise before the difficulty The wise man. Whatever one's ing may be regarding "personal Uberty" and men good. It is not a spirit which suddenly reveals to me what I have to say or do in a circumstance unexpected by others it is reflection. G. Yet it is not the way of men who have realized on their ability. by Colonel VachSe. As a matter of fact. meditaEvidently Napoleon measures up well to the tion. Unfortunately. . This experiment of dispensing with saloons what usually called the third step in reasoning —sugges- remedying the difficulty.THINKING AND ACTING versy. until the cause of the trouble has been located. it is because. many spring from tions that As this is other social disturbances being written there are indica- ment ideas —the we are soon to try a tremendously big experi- elimination of the saloons." it must be admitted that this is method is "legislat- the scienillustrates tific of locating the cause of the trouble. however. is defined. wise men are tions for and consequently suggestions are acted upon hastily and impulsively before the difficulty has been carefully diagnosed and the cause located. p. translated by G. once said: "If I appear to be always ready to reply to everything.

54 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK "One of the stars about which he had long been puzzled. plained the apparent movements of the stars by the prinin the boat. In fact. 194-196. the direction in which the light actually does come would be different from that in which it appears to come when the earth is in motion. that as light can only travel with a certain speed. As a matter of fact. that the moving along would feel the wind coming from a point different from that in which the wind appeared to be blowing when the boat was at direction of the vane. reasoning ciple known as the 'aberration of light. 1907. said there had been no change in the wind. of course. and if either of these were altered there would be a correspondiag change in the This meant. Ball. the position of the vane was determined both by the course of the boat and the direction of the wind. The sailors. he ex. as if there had been a slight change in the direction of the wind. . day when Bradley was out sailing he happened to remark that every time the boat was laid on a different tack the vane at liie top of the boat's mast shifted a little. London. which he noticed rest. or when it was sailing in some different direction. After he had noticed this three or four times he made a remark to the sailors to the effect that it was very strange the wind should always happen to change Just at the moment when the boat was going about. if the earth were a stationary object. . observer in the boat which was rest. If the observer measure be regarded were at . which scientists have been so eager to deny lest it remove some of the gloss from scientific thinking. like the . however. pp. . Provided with this suggestion. Bradley's sagacity saw in this observation the clew to the difficulty which had so long troubled him. in a He argued it may wind. This incident comparable in every way to the mythical story of Newton and the apple. . but that the alteration in the vane was due to the fact that the boat's course had been altered.'"' in the Kfe of Bradley is ' Great Astronomers. by Sir Robert S. that is to say.

to cite of species. and this is the chief cause. and so serenely interpreted in support of his erroneous belief. is not always a strong tendency to interpret facts so as to make them fit and justify our beliefs. thinking." When to the British Goverimient Fulton presented his plans of a submarine boat ^to continue our illustrations of — ^WhyMenF:^ht. The habit of suspending judgment." Bertrand Russell has said. for example. And Owen had patiently col- another instance. vigorously opposed the Coper- nican theory. our nature craves certain kinds which these beliefs would render reasonable if they were true." it was made to agree by saying mind is not pleasant. subconsciously. and to persevere in the investigation until they are found. Men like to decide and act. Ninety per cent of the business ventures are said to be failures. . Kepler used Tycho's own observations to add to the proof of the new idea which the master observer had so stoutly the facts which denied.pi). An unsettled state of therefore. by the irony of hmnan psychology. again. is the explanation of many blunders in business and in social reform. that the circle in which the planet moved described an- other circle.* of action "because.5f. and. Failure to suspend judgment imtil the essential factors are discovered. Tycho. and there is easily acquired. If one were found that did not conform to this "law. Before Kepler's day. planets were assumed to move in circles.THINKING AND ACTING about scientific problems is the cerned with the day's work. element in a bit of experience. Suspended judgment is not a popular state of mind. relation to the more important is 55 same as that which is conDiscovering the essential its and seeing meaning in questions that trouble one. were utilized by Darwin in his epoch-making generalization regarding the origin lected. "We all believe many things which we have no good ground for believing.

Then difficulties appeared. after many weeks of delay. and Fulton himself with three companions had remained under water for one hour. when Glenn Curtis wiped the dust from the exhibit of insanity and made the "FoUy" fly. they gave an adverse report without even asking Fulton to explain his plans and with- — out having any account before them of the tests and experiments which he made. in the spring of 1914. began to instead of private individuals. chiefly with the engine. The preliminary grant was soon exhausted and more money could not easily be obtained to carry on the ludicrous experiments of a science crank.— $6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK the tendency to hold to fixed opinions the ministry appointed a commission of five men to examine the matter. unscientific editors of science notes in jeer. And of the was hastened by a broken heart because .ceived while working on the aeroplane. the ruler of the his death air. were the members of the commisso sure were sion to suspend judgment and investigate — — they of the worthlessness of Fulton's invention that. The newspapers and "Langley's Folly" was the joke of small-calibered congressmen. but a very recent event comparable in all essential respects to the Fulton incident is the treatment which Langley reThe first achieve. Langley's vindication came. since the automobile industry had not yet forced its perfection. however. however. ments of the "flying-machine" brought fulsome praise as success usually does and a government grant of fifty thousand dollars was easily obtained for the continuance — of the experiments. We now know that Langley discovered the essential principle of aeroplanes. and to think that they could not occur now. The submarine boat referred to in the report was large enough to carry eight men with provisions for twenty days. So unwilling. and with a little more financial aid he would have made the United States Government. We are accustomed to say that such things happened a long time ago. AVhile under water a reservoir suppKed the eight men with air for eight hours.

" ' Evidently. It would seem from the treatment of the men whom we have named. and who are typical of a long list of those who offered something new. If these work with moderate satisfactoriness. Our predilection for premature acceptance and assertion. 113. not because they daily they took counsel but because they are dead. how to recompense him. Ignorance gives way to opinionated and current error greater foe to learning than ignorance itself. and concluded that no reward in their power was great enough not even if they made him lord of their city. Familiarity. and it is the only dependable > ^ ' Cimlization of the Renaissance in Italy." says — . his name among the memories of the throng who gave their lives to science and died unappreciated. "The undisciplined mind. by Jacob Burckhardt. . It likes things undisturbed. 23. . pending inquiry and investigation. "is averse to suspense and intellectual hesitation. settled. p. a recent writer in the Atlantic Monthly was right when he said that "Dead radicals are honored.a THINKING AND ACTING ridicule is 57 heaped upon him." ' Yet delay. our aversion to suspended judgment. Seymour Deming. speaking of suspended judgment. Now that he is gone. as though the incident reported of an Italian town during the Middle Ages were represenenrolled tative of town —Siena human experience: freed "The seems to be meant —had citizens of a certain once an ofl&cer in their service who had them from foreign aggression. . naturally to short-cut the process of testing. Democracy and Education. by John Dewey. isfied We are sat- with superficial and immediate short-visioned applications. and then worship him as our patron saint. and congeniality to desire are readily made measuring rods of truth. is the scientific method. common repute. 587. it is prone to assertion. At last one of them arose and said: 'Let us kill him. we are content to suppose that our assumptions have been confirmed. and treats them as such without due warrant." ^ Dewey. Atlantic Monthly.' And so they did. 222. vol. p. p. are signs that we tend were radicals.

feeling that he had done that he could without time for reflection. and the other forces. Nothing is too wonderful to be true. and in such things as these. eliminated. having been working upon other problems during the mean- . electricity is developed in each. "surely this force must be capable of an experimental relation to electricity. examine it by a few experiments. they do not shake my strong feeling of the ing conclusive. existence of a relation between gravity and electricity." Ten years later he returned to these experiments. he wrote in his laboratory notes: "All this is a dream. but many difficult and tedious experiments yielded noth- conviction that gravity nature. and the business problem then resolves itself to decide who into furnishing as good a meal for the money as is offered by other tion." So he continued his efforts to ascertain the facts. Then. in a moment of hesitation and doubt. The results are negative. if not discouragement. He could not rid himself of the is connected with other forces of "Gravity " he said. magnetism. if it be consistent with the laws of nature. and in this connection some reflections of Faraday are interesting. another. Following this plan. — all At this point. Usually problems are not so simple as this business quesand the suggestions looking toward their solution must come through the use of a trained and controlled imagination." He was convinced that as two bodies approach one. he wrote: "Here end my experiments for the present. the managers of one of the most successful chains of restaurants in large cities are said never upon a new location without having the people pass proposed locations counted at noon and evening In this way one source of error is for a number of days. experiment is the best test of such consistency. so as to bind it up with them in reciprocal action and equivalent effect. Still. restaurants in the vicinity.S8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK plan of action. It is the essence of critical thinking. though they give no proof that such a relation exists.

rising vapor. by W. rain. perhaps tification of the conservation of force. he pictures to himself the planets and the comets charging them- selves as they approach the sun. 14th series. because it is doubtful whether a better illustration of the correct method of thinking can be found clear recognition of the difficulty. and he of his great sums up rapidly the consequences but imaginary theory. cascades. "Let the imagination go. an entirely new mode of exciting heat or electricity. an analysis of gravitation. circulating currents of the atmosphere. 161. 590/. the smoke in a chimney. he wrote: "I think we must have been dull and blind not to have suspected some such But he did not allow his imagination to run results. guarding it by Judgment and principle. an entirely new relation of the natural forces." he wrote at the end. become so many electrical machines. Stanley Jevons. accept them as final." he wrote in his notes as a sort of personal censor." Faraday's reflections during this period of experimentation have been quoted at some length. the results were inconclusive. "Let us encourage ourselves by a little more imagination prior to experiment." When all was done and experiments had been cleverly contrived to eliminate the influence earth's skill of the magnetism by devices that only his consummate could suggest. — — > The Principles of Science. vol. however." ' in a moment of exultation. See also Faraday's Experimental Researches in Electricity. I cannot. "And then he reflects upon the infinity of actions in nature. holding it in and directing it by experiment. 1900. suggestions the free but guided play of the imagination. but the results are negative. getting the facts. and a jusThen. for a moment his reveries have the vividness of fact. "The experiments. . p.THINKING AND ACTING 59 time. London. 3. in of electricity which the mutual relations and gravity would come into play. accurate definition of the problem. pp." rampant. "were well made. the fumes of a volcano.

has just proved that a relation does exist between gravitation and electrical action. The way in which a trained imagmation uses facts • to Science. . that the orbits of the planets are ellipses liant guess. pp. for. the bodies. and constant attempt at verification or refutation. is the mind playing around facts.6o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK with its resulting hypothesis suspended judgment. and to the end of his Ufe he was ignorant of — any reason why planets should move in such curves. 46. 5. vol. guessed more accurately than the methods of experimentation in his day could demona wide leap in time. Arbitrary terms."* It has long been known that it is impossible to account for the motion of Venus and Mercury by Newton's law. life. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Its value depends upon the electrical condition o. The strate. and Professor Nipher's work shows that what has been called the Newton gravitation constant is not a constant. Upon these facts his imagination played. no. 293 /. 23. "prior to experiment" was his way of expressing his search for a hypothesis which would stand the test of facts and account for the scientific difficulties which he had discovered. And there is — no other method Faraday's of thinking. Louis. Returning to the method of thinking. — was a brilbut his guess was based on facts observations accumulated by Tycho. vol. the productive. to take of results of his experiments "seem to indicate clearly that gravitational attraction between masses of matter depends upon their electrical potential due to electrical charges upon them. and the "little more imagination" with which Faraday thought "to encourage" himself. . had to be introduced into the equation. keenly sensitive to the meaning of his observations. Professor Nipher. whether it be in science or in the affairs of every-day scientific imagination. creative imagination again. Kepler's discovery. Washington University. the meaning of which no one understood.

Halley found comet should reappear at the close of the year 1758 or the beginning of 1759. Conviction that mere observation is not likely to discover the meaning of a complex situation. and his disciplined imagination leaped to the conclusion that comets are not chance visitors to the solar system. portending disaster. 1758. will go far toward reducing errors of opinion and decision. So he proceeded to prophesy. Perhaps. To be sure. are one and the same comet. would Taking all that known his influences into consideration. He learned that a comet had been observed at intervals of seventy-five or seventy-six years. considering its long journey and the number of alluring attractions that it encountered in its course. On Christmas day. he said. after all. It will be recalled by many that this comet visited us again in 1910. as had previously been thought. amazingly near schedule time. These several visitors. The result of these disturbing influences it is that the comet does not describe the simple ellipse that if the sun were the only controlling force. but the methods and precautions are the same. It missed the predicted time by two and seven-tenth days. but always on the basis of facts. The difference lies rather in the exactness of the method as it may be applied in the laboratory. 1759. which passed through its nearest point to the sun in March. matters of every-day life cannot be subjected to the same rigorous examination as can scientific questions. The disturbance caused by the attraction of planets had to be computed.THINKING AND ACTING discover truths 6i is shown in Halley's study of comets. it is the mental attitude that counts most. Let us now consider some of the obstacles to correct thinking which arise out of the fact that thinkers are human beings with the characteristics that have come to them through the process of evolution. his hypothesis was verified by the reappearance of the expected comet. abiUty to hold the judgment in suspense until the matter has been fully investigated. We have seen that .

either in the United States or in some near-by neutral country. and had they used proper precautions in the experiment they would have shown that. they learned not only that this raw material is available. When King Charles asked the Royal Society to explain the curious "observation" that a live fish placed in a bucket of water does not increase the weight of the bucket and its contents. it may be asking too much to have expected at that time the rigorous care and accurate measurements which would have been needed to demonstrate experimentally. just as is the case with a stone dropped from the masthead of a moving ship. As regards the first part of the objection. the members of the Royal Society wisely began by investigating the question of fact. men who know —to the scientists in those and then. when the objectors to the Copernican theory said that if the earth were moving. In despair. as Benzenberg did later. To cite an instance from daily life of the importance of getting facts. the war has forced business men to face certain problems that existed for them before the war but which they did not see until compelled to do so by having their supply of raw material cut off. they — — turned to the fields. but the sin of hasty conclusions is so common in the thinking of every-day life that the matter deserves further consideration. the Copernicans should first have tested the latter part of the statement of fact. in addition. that the commodity from the new source is not only as . that a stone dropped into a deep well is actually deflected slightly toward the east. a stone dropped from the top of a high tower would be left behind. to their amazement. Again.62 the PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK first ing the difficulty thing to do in defining a problem after recognizIt has already is to find out the facts. been shown by illustrative examples that hypotheses the assumed cause of something that has happened to be worth anything must rest upon facts. the statement is imtrue. but. barring the effect of air-currents.

Analogous cases are observed to-day in such expressions as "Socialism is good it sufficiently . however. Before the necessity was forced upon them the manufacturers did not beHeve that uncommercould give business men advice. yet yield nothing. and when facts have no meaning there is no problem. is one test of mental acumen. discredited the Aristotelian When Torricelli. to take in the facts observed by Nature. is much harder than col- Indeed. abhors a vacuum up to a certain point but no further. facts worth is the matter whom they have no significance. for example. It is said that we interpret new ideas by means of what we already know. cial scientists — Interpreting facts." and then deceives himself by producing mental smoke that obscures the issue. his opponents did not abandon their discredited belief. the question of whether there are any getting. and this is so true that the new is often accepted only to an extent that does not distiurb the old ideas. This is one way — ^not uncommon —of inter- preting the new in the light of the old. To the simple everything is simple. by showing that water would rise more than thirty-three feet in a pump. In thinking. Many a prospector has failed to read the signs. An environment may be rich in its possibilities for experience. Finding it necessary to retreat man makes a "strategic withdrawal. they said. lecting them. It requires more than paying ore to produce gold.THINKING AND ACTING 63 good or better but also cheaper than that which they had previously imported from a greater distance. Only to the intelligent do problems present themselves. They did not have the facts. whether everything bearing on not already known. It is another illustration of the psychological principle of conservatism and habit the tendency to minimum efort. and mercury only about thirty inches in a glass tube. They modified Torricelli. dictum that nature abhors a vacuum. this mental blindness is caused by inFacts do not exist for those to ability to see a problem.

after long and bitter opposition. Doctor James Simpson. as models various animals. and all at- tempts to improve children and adults by bettering their environment would be useless. to illustrate further. was an effort to thwart his will. to fit it A ready-made forbidding by done to With such a classification all that is necessary is on to the new discovery.64 up PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to a certain point". Sunday-schools. in the controversy with Torricelli and the pump. classification of ideas preserves consistency change. and any attempt to alleviate it . the ad- mission belief. "A man's will is governed and determined by law to a certain point. some But. Such a will would be anarchistic. If the will moral fulcrum were wholly unresponsive to causes. social settlements. and then freedom of choice occurs. and. found they were explained. Consequently. and then no violence is the harmony of one's system of thoughts." Those who use this last bromide are forced to admit the application of the law of causality for their "up to a certain point" in order to find a lever. But a Scotch physician. again. brought the startling innovation into harmony with the prevailing system of ideas by writing a pamphlet in which he said: "My oppostock ideas prevailed. must not go so far as to jeopardize the original This unwillingness to discard a cherished belief springs from a strong human impulse to estimate the truth of new ideas by the system of thoughts which one has in part accepted in large measure unconsciously. So. who knew something about psychology as well as medicine. as with the Aristotelians effect must be admitted. were first when fully other ways. among the Creator before he had decided upon the best form in which to create the fossils made by When anaesthetics were discovered. Again the Pain was God-given. a storm of protest arose agabist their use. because the moral ideas and habits could not be depended upon to influence action. it was said.

From one point of view facts may be roughly divided into two classes: First. It is the record of the first surgical operation ever performed. due to the several members of the nation exercising no independent judgment.' " have a natural tendency to shrink from the responsibility of standing and acting alone. pp. to understand those which oppose our cherished convictions. i. They are the views of "our set. cipally . before he took the rib from Adam's side for the creation of Eve. but allowing themselves to be led hither and thither by the successive journalists. as facts of and gravitation to-day. they exalt the vox populi. e. and custom. Difiicult. as it is to interpret facts which are unattended by personal bias. all but impossible. second. orators. and that text proves that the Maker of the universe. 651. authority. Interpretation of electricity the first is difl&cult because of the many intricate relations and connections. it is much harder. however. those which have a purely objective aspect. even when they know it to be the utterance of a mob of nobodies. . indeed. The mind of man is like a poorly made mirror." This recognition of the way in which the human mind acts won the day for anaesthetics. and. The intellectual deficiencies corresponding to these moral flaws are shown by the rareness of force and original thought as compared with the frequency and readiness with which men accept the opinions of those in authority as binding on their Fickleness of national character is prinjudgment.. 81. . caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam.THINKING AND ACTING 65 nents forget the twenty-first verse of the second chapter of Genesis. those that oppose opinions and beliefs held dear. ' Inquiries into Human Faculty. those unattended by personal bias. It distorts the facts that it reflects. into the vox Dei. ." "The vast majority of persons of our race. and they are willing slaves to tradition." Francis Galton once said. Opinions and beliefs are true because we have long been surrounded by them.

"So long as an element of doubt is admissible.66 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK for the time to and sentimentalists who happen chance of directing them. which seeks to maintain views rather than to ascertain the truth. acquires significance if repeated They appear true by Then. however meaningless. It is indeed a curious fact of human psychology that the more unanswerable the arguments the more prone the vanquished is to deny them. he may. unable to see the meaning of and Owen laboriously gathering arguments for which Darwin without understanding them." says Gotch in his review of the scientific method. often enough. There is no greater incentive to unreasonable anger than the conviction that our position has been shown to be erroneous." ^ One of the striking effects of fiixed opinions is that they prevent us not merely from accepting arguments in opposition." One does not need have the to go beyond one's own circle of acquaintances for illustrative examples. 1906. We cannot follow a — line of reasoning tional prejudice. edited by T. he becomes greatly perturbed. to illustrate further. is antagonistic to a strong emoCuvier. but generally he fails to do so. . Oxford. scious of its hopeless character. "an opponent will suffer the inference to be drawn without a violent outburst. even the most demonstrable facts. and this gregarious thinking. they are vigorously maintained. that any statement. and denies everythiag. produces adventitious tendencies that throw an illuminating sidelight upon several phases of human behavior. of course. maintain a magnanimous silence. fossils. and that in our inmost souls we are fully conSo it is with long association with them. was asked whether he • Lectures on the Method of Science. ideas. B> Strong. It has long been known. for example. are illustrations. but also from understanding these opposing arguments and this is far more serious. but when the inference is logically certain and the opponent is forced to admit his error or stultify himself. When Sumner. it is true.

" Yet we all know to-day that the South believed there was an economic side. But. We make believe that we may believe. "There is no other side. and here they are often valuable because they afforji relief from the strain of work. mental complexes are the cause of blind adhesion to parties and "bias" toward all questions to which the systems of thought apply. and when they are emotionally saturated they become sentiments. Enthusiasts display them in their hobbies. The golf complex makes everything relating to the game interesting and the player's thoughts are easily turned in largely determines the course of thoughts The related experiences of that direction. Usually more or less emotion is intermingled in these complexes. Evidence is not weighed imsailable as They are the more disastrous to accurate reasoning because the individual is not aware that he has them. Gladstone. If we ask for the cause of fixed opinions we come upon an interesting characteristic of human psychology which and actions. according . however. complex is Then the all but irresistible control of the as unas- adamant. recognition of which might have saved the losses and horrors of the Civil War.THINKING AND ACTING 67 had ever looked at the other side of slavery. These systems of thought have been called mental complexes. an individual become organized into a system of ideas that decide his outlook and opinions in matters upon which the experiences have any bearing. besides rendering the service of relief from work. The mental bias setpartially. Man. a rearrangement of our prejudices. so the usual procedure is first to come to an opinion. Thinking is often tles the line that thoughts shall take. he replied. The belief that men generally know why they hold certain opinions is erroneous. Enthusiasm for golf is an illustration. craves consistency. and then to find "reasons" for holding it. These mental complexes determine the course of thoughts and forbid logical thinking.

Illustrations are more common than one could wish. he was a terrific selfHe meant to be honest. a man must organized systems of thoughts. Speaking of his "pig controversy" with Huxley. railroads. from them said. by Edward Clodd." * Mental complexes organized systems of thoughts we must have. . in a large majority of cases it would be impossible to find a convincing answer. and the recent case of an American woman "of high moral ideals. . at least super- Since. Office-holders and politicians who accept graft in the form of "favors" belong to this group. ^Memories. He who beof which are suffused with emotions. above all. Yet to estimate the worth of arguments it is — — that they be viewed objectively. Thoughts should be kept free from confusing alliances with selffree to move upon one another and interests and desires necessary — make new combinations. for instance. i2p. know that he has these many And. the is lieves himself free hopeless as a thinker. . But efficient thinking requures that they be kept clear of emotional obscurity. as ficial we have mind demands no one is consistency. Mental complexes unconsciously acquired and colored by personal emotions have established the belief. deceiver. but they would not swindle individuals. Mr.68 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK York Powell. that people who would indignantly deny that they are dishonest will rob the government. We cannot escape them and perhaps it is best that we should not. and since wholly good or wholly bad. swindling the heroic. If one were to ask oneself for the reasons for one's opinions. is a good illustration. two opposing systems of ideas are commonly held apart and not allowed to conflict. or stockholders." who had done of France. but to Frederick . self-sacrificing work among the wounded soldiers govermnent in custom duties on is her return to this country a pathetic instance which p. It is a familiar fact. Powell said: "Gladstone was never really honest with his own mind.

" . once said of Darwin: "A good sort of man is this Darwin. for instance. like the tendency of a book to open to the place to which we frequently turn. and a the reasonableness of the arguments. When. is likely to produce some mental perturbation. but. but with very little intellect. 230. we' come upon another characteristic of human the nature. I mourn the unhappy condition of your mind and character. but thinking is negligible in such placid states. again. Ill. by Edward L. and well meaning. opposed to evolution. We habit of thought. yet take advantage of war conditions to rob the people collectively by hoarding and overcharging.THINKING AND ACTING daily press. Prejudice is a habit of thought. however. politics estranged Felton and Sumner. is a physiological matter tendency of nerve impulses to follow old. and we go on and serenely in settle happy belief that we think out questions them by have observed. but the rearrangement of ideas that follows the agitation is quite certain to clarify the judgment. Viewing questions from different sides so as to see their meaning and their relation to other problems. and that is that prejiidices grip us unawares. well-worn paths. after a long friendship. . Preventing collision between conflicting ideas keeps the mind at peace. Pierce. 69 can be duplicated many times during the year from the Perhaps the most conspicuous example of the present day is that of those business men who give generously to the poor and to the service of the nation. more than my personal loss. p. if done ingenuously. the latter wrote: "In anguish I mourn your altered regard for me. and it is quite as difficult for man to break ' —the Memories and Letters of Charles Sumner. as we shall see later." ^ And Carlyle. illustrative of fixed opinions. that man does not think as much as he fancies he does. Sometimes the inability to see the "other side" assumes a humorous aspect. Here. vol. Habits are physical conditions.

or of corporations of a semipublic character. accept vague phrases utilized by politicians. little more conscious mental outcome of acts than is found in this statement seems too strong let the reader study the history of the conservation of our natural resources.70 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK an established habit in himself as it is to change the habit of the book. with apparently If prevision of the probable the lower animals. It still continues a colossal blunder. both in the individual and in the race. to think If we hear a phrase often enough it. the granting of city franchises. The result is that progress. We grow into most of our ideas wholly unconsciously. we come we see mean- however senseless it is may be. each submental labor complexes. and that is the subtle effect of phrases. Man ing in deals largely in phrases—in word formulas. Many men sequent act being directed chiefly at mitigating the mistakes of earlier ones. sure. the control of public-service companies. is a series of blunders. This tendency to and not . This is because we always hear them uttered by the people who mingle in "our set. The resistance to clear thinking by fixed opinions and habits of thought raises the question of their cause. But the influence of early education and social presthere is another." Our environment is full of problematic relations inade- quately solved because they are not understood. and then only in matters of detail which have no significance for progress. The pension system has not yet reached the stage of correcting past errors. This is the animal method of trial and error. have already mentioned one —the We environment in which we live. The relation is an illustration. Habits of thougiht and action usually embrace the range of behavior so completely as to leave the narrowest margia for variation. And they are not understood because of the prejudices of our between capital and are not even aware of the existence of some of these problems.

one of his characters says: "It was not easy at any rate it was not easy in the Five Towns for a timid man in reply to the question.'" continues Mr. or lack of conThe habit of not examining critically the phrases that we hear and use cultivates loose methods tent. to which we have already of ingenious politi- by no means exhaust the and advertising experts who can coin phrases are in great demand. 'Are you in favor of a professed Free Thinker tration of the effect of a word. "If the Free Thinker had been ashamed of his free-thinking. but they must also be vague enough to enable different people to put their own interpretation into them. I am. referred." Phrases cleverly worded to appeal to moral sentiments. They all beg the question. This method of directing thought into prescribed channels and damming it up by appealing to human emotions and prejudices is so effective as to constitute at times a social menace.' There was something shameless in that word 'professed. — — sitting in the House of Commons?' to reply. Acceptance of such word formulas promotes and perpetucal thought-controllers." "personal liberty." the "big cinch. Arnold Bennett's Claykanger contains an excellent illusSpeaking of the candidacy of Mr." and the "medical trust. but they beg it convincingly. of thinking. it is 71 the reason for the success of a party at list Party slogans.THINKING AND ACTING infrequently the election. of the phrases. ates prejudices by obscuring the content. To accomplish their purpose the phrases must be suggestive." might be continued almost indefinitely. 'Yes. such as "the rights of man. Bradlaugh for the House of Commons. Illustrations of phrases with carrying power. if he had sought to conceal the implication was that the case his meaning in phrases might not have been so bad. Bennett. and to feign an open-mindedness which their writers do not have. illustrate this power of empty words to cajole — the human mind into placid assent in the conviction that .

Ancesthetics the Greatest Curse Vivisectihle Animals. for instance. The form of a statement with carrying power varies. which I wish to call at- tention carries the psychologically effective title rvj'i Christian Mercy a Cruel." The fact that the prejudice against vaccination continues in spite of the evidence in its supstrengthened port shows the mystic power of a vague. The success of such cellent illustration of the convincing of sin. any subject of study that instigates murder. and the influence of this word is still further by the addition of the disagreeable phrase "putrescent matter.72 it is PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK thinking. . We do not. but bad ethics. say. at different periods. The Reality of Human Vivisection. And who indulge in the "human vivisection. the vicious depravity of those "awful vivisection of horses" and in goes without saying. unanalyzed word and phrase to stifle thought. must be bad. Mocking Delusion? This pamphlet asks: "Can the church allow this deadly moral venom. You will observe that. Awful Vivisection of Horses . and that he devil. as was the case with "putrescent matter. as formerly. of course. Shall Science Do Murder?. Naturally." ex- The last of these pamphlets to titles is an power of words. Confessions of a Vivisector. that Job's distemper smallpox. or group of men who commit the crime. The titles of a few pamphlets against animal experimentation which the writer has recently received are worth quoting as additional evi- dence of the subtle effect of language in narcotizing reason. was was probably inoculated by the and endeavoring to nor do we assert that the practice of vaccination is "flying in the face of Providence" baffle is a "divine judgment." but we stiU hear that vaccine poison. The — following are some of the tities. and to confessions always carry with them the idea further. This is good psychology." the words used in these titles are disagreeable words words that at once stir our indignation and so arouse prejudice against the acts which the writers are opposing.

" and "shell shock" have never been met before." "trench heart." "trench nephritis. and each new poisonous gas requires separate experimentation upon the lower animals that its effect and Cure may be discovered. and monkeys. and boys and girls are more important than dogs. to poison the spiritual atmosphere of the souls Christ died to save?" The expression. rabbits. in addition. antivivisectionists are striving to the investigations which cessfully stifle must be made to combat sucthe new conditions and save the Hves of our sol- boys. While our young men on the battle-front of Europe are dying from new and soporific effect of The national obscure diseases. If these facts prove that human life has been conserved and suffering relieved by animal experimentation. ." surely." "trench foot. then the probdier lem is simplified and resolves itself into the question whether men and women. but when. we learn that is this "moral venom" "distilled by vivisectors in their laboratories of scientific research to poison the spiritual atmosphere of the souls Christ died to save. and hence. its psychology is unimpeachable. guinea-pigs." is bad enough to convert any one to the doctrine of antivivisection. if one has no respect for truthfuhiess or for the English language. We have said that understanding the problem and getThis method ting the facts are the beginning of thinking. "Shock. wp must conclude that no dungeon or torture tillers ! is adequate pvmishment for the dis- such phrases upon thought is a menace to-day when animal experimentation is needed to investigate the medical and surgical problems of the new methods of warfare.THINKING AND ACTING distilled 73 by vivisectors in their laboratories of scientific research. "this deadly moral venom." "trench fever. Let us therefore examine some of the facts that show what animal research has accomplished. is also the best antidote for mental nimibness produced by phrases.

tuberculosis. Tumors and abscesses inside the skull can now be located and frequently. not only avoids the clot that ia earlier attempts obstructed the flow of blood. end to end. Tissues can be transplanted and made to grow. p. diphtheria. the use of the antitoxin over 120 out of each 100. To-day the deathrate and serum discovered by animal experimentation used in time. this same method permits the transfusion of blood. as done today through the skill gained by experiments on lower animals.000 inhabitants died yearly from diphtheria. Suture of blood-vessels. And this change would have been impossible without antiseptics discovered by experiments on the lower animals. in the one case removed. 1886. And as for surgery of the heart and arteries. an operation mortality from Civil The War many experimental trials and upon the lower animals finally achieved success. in addition. shall briefly refer All knowledge to which we has been obtained by experimenting upon the lower animals. Today "no complications ought to occur. and in the other drained and cured. and could have been gained in no other way. some is of these could doubtless be saved were the now almost imknown because of the use of its antitoxin. but. save ia exceptional cases. In the United States. this reduction problem to a simpler one by eliminating un- essential illustrates a method of clarifying thought. and typhoid fever. lockjaw. ^Journal of the American Medical Association. as is well known.74 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of a complex of the Besides showing the importance of facts. before altogether impossible until failures . has been revolutionized." Doctor Keyes reports* a recovery after twentytwo gunshot perforations of the bowels. with the skin this is now a simple operation. and. a wholly new chapter has been opened. woimds of the stomach during the has been estimated as high as 99 per cent. . Lockjaw is about 27 in the same number of inhabitants. Serums have been discovered for epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. Surgery of the chest. 1912. also.

for such people facts have no meaning. again. It is not uncommon for antivivisectionists. Typhoid and this and national be a scourge to the army. Even so clever a available for those thinker in some matters as Agnes Repplier cannot avoid a rhetorical fling at this form of experimentation." and the surgeon-general's report for 1916 says that the mortality from this disease during that year was three-tenths of one per cent for the entire army. to omit the portions that would deny the statements and conclusions which the antivivisectionAnd.^ The ex- planation of the opposition of intelligent is men and women that frequently the emotions overbalance the intellect. the following by Mary ists wish to give. Another effect of this emotional debauchery. "August I. taken from Four Lights. They cannot understand and interpret facts because the emotional resistance dulls their critical judgment. Alden Hopkins. 11. Yet we have only scratched the surface of the proof. Keen. regulars guard.^ the organ perhaps of the People's Council of America. change has been brought about by animal experihas. Boston.THINKING AND ACTING As entire 75 for typhoid fever. by the same author. in quoting from the writings of experimenters. W. "It caused over 86 per cent of the entire mortality of that war. by W. ceased to mentation. . 1917. See also Medical Research and Human Welfare. since they sent it to the writer. aside from its extinction of thinking. illustrates in another way the same mental and and tion 'Those wishing fuller information should consult Animal Experimentaand Medical Progress. ' Signed article in the New York Times Magazine.' And the cry of opposition is not stilled. Boston. 1917. for example. it afflicted nearly one-fifth of the army of the Spanish-American War. 1914. We have dealt at some length with the evidence for the value of animal experimentation to show the array of facts who are interested in thinking this question out rather than in justif3Tng a settled belief. 1917. Nov. is its moral influence upon those who indulge in the spree.

. the sight of blood. that they were the remains of fishes brought there by pilgrims.e.76 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK "Accustom your children gradually to moral obliquity. cruel warfare So far as evolution is concerned. and the result is a higher against prejudice.. so fearful lest the discovery of fossil fishes in the Alps would support the Biblical account of the deluge that he at once seized upon the first (and most ridiculous) explanation which could be offered. the war has been fought and won." there be a more charming case of moral perversity than is day. e. for example. 'Whom have I killed to-day?' and Could to fall asleep resolving to kill more on the morrow. i. that the consequences which we fear may not follow. fiercest and least intelligent in the long. and second. One sweet woman shown by thoughts this characterization of those fighting to preserve —thoughts that lead to a valid conclusion—in democracy? who believe in And what chance have this emotional vortex ? perspective. Imagine what the men of the feudal period would have said had the plan been proposed of intrusting the protection of their estates and lives to a body of paid public servants. was results and condemn the idea. A hopeless argument destroys the moral Another source of error in much of our reasoning is man's inclination to decide the worth of ideas by the consequences which he thinks wiU ensue. presmnably representing the view of those who beheve that war is ever justifiable.. that if they do they may not be as bad as we anticipate. The battles which were waged around Darwin's Origin of Species are among the judging sition to evolution. This by consequences was the chief reason for the oppoIt was predicted that it would destroy religion and morality. We picture direful Voltaire. policemen. Two things may be said about judgrag ideas by their results: First. i." the paragraph begins. "And for yourself learn to kill a little every is accustomed to ask herself searchingly each night.

One of the sad facts in human . when we think of the wearer in connection with our crowded street-cars. It is easy to see prejudice in the thoughts and beliefs of earlier periods because they stand out in contrast with the background of modern knowledge. We are like later those who tie up clothing in bundles and untie these only to take out a lot of antiquated goods. The political innovations opposition to current social. We see the faults of the crinoline. Josh Billings. Man thinks that he is progressing merely because he has thrown aside some ideas which were in vogue fifty years ago. The difference is that we ourselves do not see that our ideas are out of date." It is doubtful whether prejudices diminish in number with the advance of civilization. but it should relieve us of at least a modicum of conceit when we reflect upon the probable remarks on present styles And the same may be said of ideas and fifty years hence. we like to feel that questions are settled. beliefs. anarchistic and socialistic times fear that we doubt will give the acts or opinions. it's what they know for sartan that ain't so. expressed his opinion about those who are so sure of the disasters that will follow the acceptance of new ideas when he said: " 'Tain't what men don't know that makes trouble in the world. So we classify ideas under headings. and seems almost axiomatic because the Besides. and the question is decided. but the prejudice in beliefs which are fashionable to-day is not so easily detected. industrial.THINKING AND ACTING 77 conception of religion and morality. Only those who have resisted the desire to preserve the old are aware of that. ethical. Some- appearance of vacillation. in his quaint way. been said. as has prevailing ideas appear so self-evident. and this is one of our mental handicaps. and when our opinion is asked we need only refer to our mental card catalogue of right and wrong. especially. for instance. They simply vary in kind. It is like our judgment of the oddity of clothes.

" These men and women were studying this drivel in the belief that its profundity obscured the meaning. In emotional questions. etc. The literature of the occult is loaded with meaningless phrases which the devotee believes will yield thought if only he can break through the outer crust and absorb the nectar of truth." under the direction of the high priest of the cult. at least so far as seeming to see meaning in it is concerned. of hospitality to new ideas.." "metaphysical healing. which is the first expression of love through earth form or upon this earth plane. "Through involution we life or primary . animal magnetism. Illustrations of man's failure to think have been drawn largely from science because it would seem as though here Yet we if anywhere open-mindedness might be expected. are carried back to the nativity through material form. "The influence of men and women of generous nature. have not found it so. It is here even more than in science that we need to-day above all things. and so they readily find evidence. the path of truth is strewn with the d6bris of personal interests and tradition.78 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK psychology is that man grows old mentally long before his years warrant his antiquity. as Alice Freeman Palmer once said. in short. And they were right. Obscurity soimds like concealed wisdom to the credulous. They want to believe in "new thought. and that the significance would be clear if they would but repeat it times enough." clairvoyance. second sight. Proof of what we wish to believe is easily obtained. and religion which draws its inspiration from our deepest instincts. such as industrial problems that affect our business interests. I quote a sentence from one of the books that answers fifty this question. of social imagination.'' The mental ing. About men and women from one of the largest cities in the country recently took a course in "Where DweUs the I Am. attitude is often the deciding factor in think- There are those who revel riotously in the obscure.

is attracted by the unusual for quite a different reason. they assimie uniformity and consistency. but his does. At any rate. started Tycho Brahe in his remarkable observations and investigations. The public. but they attain it by predi- some new force or cause as an explanation. Consequently. One of these. It is sufiicient that a name be given to explain them. the scientist investigates the uncommon that he may understand the common. A law of nature can have no exceptions. If it were an exception to the usual. be attracted and to fail to notice events that are daily occurrences. The brilliant temporary star observed by Tycho Brahe interested him only as it suggested problems about the stars which had previously attracted Uttle attention. however. A man's dog does remarkable things much more remarkable than the accomplishments of your dog or mine but these exceptional actions are easily explained. In is no attempt to carry uniformity beyond his own pet. then the usual was not understood. But when the scientist is attracted by the imusual his interest quickly centres in its relation to the more common.THINKING AND ACTING It is 79 characteristic of the human mind to and impressed by the unusual or sensational. Now. he is altogether There willing to grant you that it does not. Examination would frequently show that thev were not even exception? . cating — — the same way believers in thought-transference or in the prophetic value of dreams will narrate wonderful cases which have come within their own experience. Like the scientist. it is true that exceptional mstances have played a tremendously important r61e in the progress of science. His dog reasons. The myriads of stars in apparently fixed relative positions and visible every night had less popular and scientific interest in the Middle Ages than two brilliant stars that suddenly shot into view and almost as quickly disappeared. indeed. There is nothing mysterious about routine events. No attempt is made to bring these exceptional cases into conformity with matters of common experience. Quite likely yours does not.

On the other hand. is no contradiction here.8o in PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK any other sense than that they had attracted an excep- tional degree of attention. revolution so happened that at that time the continuous was in progress in Mexico and everybody there was in convince the reader that premonitions had come true if the merest fraction of his he would be a raving maniac. the days when I do not take my umbreUa and it remains pleasant leave no impression. trouble. thinking cause able. Clairvoyants arrested in Chicago said on the witness-stand that clients came in such numbers that they could not manu- . cause I spoil a rain in new hat. in- formed the writer some time since that she had a premoniNow. which in the case of the umbrella was caused by irritation and in the other by pleasure and hope. it tion that her brother in Mexico was in trouble. They are forgotten because nothing happened that forced me to think the two facts together. but sometimes because of its effect upon us. if one were to record the days when one carried an umbrella or failed to do so. is obstructed be- we forget the favorable and remember the unfavor- but in another class of events the reverse is true. "It always rains when I do not take my umbrella" is almost proverbial. with a note for each day regarding rain. A "psychic. In the case of the umbrella. The occasions on which I am caught in the rain without an umbrella are impressed upon me bethe standard. As a matter of fact. little reflection will A There are various reasons for making the exceptional The unusual attracts our attention not always because it is striking and sensational. or I am seriously irritated by the some other way. the statement would be found to be incorrect. An iUustration of the latter is quacks and prophets who thrive on the psychological effect of There occasional successes among numerous failures. however." for instance. since in both cases the reason for remembering the things that confuse thinking is the impression made.

that only the unusual sensational ^in municipal administration attracts the attention of voters. was defective. reasoning. So the attention relaxes. but not much concerned with retaining good officials. has from another — — produced. "It will not rain until we have a change of the moon" is a frequent statement. vitiates his thinkThe coimection supposed by many to exist between the phases of the moon and the sowing of crops is an instance. of course. on the basis of the results angle. to illustrate proved again what has been observed repeatedly. But it was a wise old Greek who. as we have prone to asstune the operation of a force to bring ing. is man. By . and in attending to two events. Good government is uneventful. but there was nothing extraordinarily impressive to compel the attention to note its quality. A more common illustration to-day is the belief in some relation between the phases of the moon and rain. mark when they hit and never mark when they miss. The truth in this probably hes in the fact that people do not begin to talk much about the weather until the condition is somewhat threateiung. This. Hence. Probably Mitchel's administration was the best that New York has ever had. many of them affect our weal and woe. seen. one of which follows the other. The tendency to fix the attention on the unusual reaches widely into events because.THINKING AND ACTING f acture 8i " Mai prophecies fast enough to meet the demand. The public is indifferent to the quahty of government unless intolerable scandals are disclosed. in some way or other. Nothing strikingly unusual happens." Bacon said. They are interested in turning rascals out. and it is true of the hits and misses of others when the hits coincide with our wishes. about the conjunction. when shown the votive offerings to Neptune of those who had been saved from shipwreck. cried: "But where are the offerings of those who never returned?" The 191 7 mayoralty campaign in New York City.

Beagle as naturalist. S. After five years' work I allowed myself to speculate on the subject. a week. tants of that continent. first the trouble be located and defined. On my return home it occurred to me. seemed to throw on the origin of species that mystery of mysteries. "When on board H. as will be seen in the latter chapters of this volume. days. as it has been called by one of our greatest philosophers. . Darwin's method indicates the numberless facts." he says. light These facts." Not until facts have been accumulated and ordered are ' Origin of Species. In intellec- tual matters this usually problem to means a clear statement of the be investigated. By that time the moon has changed and the connection between the two events is settled to the satisfaction of those who are looking for that sort of cause.' "I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of organic beings inhabiting South America. M. from that period to the present day" [1859] "I have steadily pursued the same object. Introduction. These accidental adhesions con- After the problem has been clearly stated we are ready to get the facts. then. and in localities in which the proswarrant its discussion the chances are pretty good that it will come within. and years sometimes needed.82 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is that time rain pect of rain is sufficient to due. and drew up some short notes. and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabifuse the issue and derange thinking. It must be freed from all unessential accretions tors associated with —isolated from the incidental fac- it. requires that. that something might perhaps be made out on this question by patiently accumulating and reflecting on all sorts of facts which could possibly have any bearing on it. Thinking. in 1837. say. Everything bearing on the difficulty should be ascertained. briefly to survey the field. of all. these I enlarged ia 1844 into a sketch of the conclusions — some which then seemed to me probable.

Partly for this reason thinking is diverted into wrong channels and. A thought suddenly flashed into Newcomen's mind. "will of the imcertaiaty of his breed in any man a certainty most assured convictions. especially those of a social and industrial nature. instead of as we should wish them to be." as Samuel Butler has said. open mind anxious to see things as they are. for only by unessential and the utmost watchfulness can a problem be kept dear of human factors. It is. but in addition to knowledge there must be a sensitive. Newcomen had no emotional bias." . at times. but many questions.THINKING AND ACTING 83 suggestions that are worth while likely to appear. neces- sary to be continually on guard against diverting and perverting influences upon the course of thought. therefore stress unduly certain factors We and ignore others. man. therefore. cut deeply into our personal interests and desires. for reasons lying far back in his past. On searching for the cause he found that a hole in the piston let the cold water pass into the cylinder and thus caused a rapid vacuum. and internal condensation by means of a jet was the result. it is completely blocked. And we should never forget that "Cultivation. Naturally. Knowledge gives the raw material for solving problems. tends to assume certain relations between events. While Newcomen was working on the engine which bears his name he noticed that the piston gave several strokes in unusually rapid succession. Again.

are more comfortable and flexible after having been worn for a few weeks. It does much the same thing under essentially the same conditions. external. reaches his office at man awakens at about much the same things order of yesterday. As was pointed out long ago by various are the result of changes in matter.— CHAPTER III HABIT IN PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY When we observe an animal or pknt we are impressed with the similarity of its life from day to day. The creases of the shoes that make them more comfortable are visible. It will be observed that in some of these instances the changes are. The alteration of the wood of the violin. and a the same time every morning. eats for breakfast. however. is invisible. for example. the ability to adopt new habits—a substance must be flexible enough to alter its 84 . The root of a plant always grows down into the earth and the stem seeks the light. As a result of the skilful playing of the master the wood has acquired certain vibratory tendencies. and the wood of a violin of an old master has acquired "habits" of vibrating that make it a more sensitive and delicate musical instnmaent. Shoes. and begins his work in the serial The reason for this similarity of action habit. is the same hour each day. in a sense. habits because of this that we sometimes speak of the habits of plants. To be able to adapt itself to new conditions to have the capacity to change. It is writers. one may go much further and refer to the "habits" of non-living matter. it responds more delicately to touch. It has become more flexible in certain ways. Indeed. cats mew beseechingly at the sight of milk and spit when a strange dog appears.

again. bronchitis. acquired by an individual. They must find an exit. If we put it a little more technically. and their exit . Functional diseases. The term has been reserved for the relatively settled ways of behavior of animals modes of action which have been acquired during the lifetime of the individual. are prone tissues to sore throat. and in such cases the purpose of medicine is to establish correct "habits" of action. We are not accustomed. may be said to have the habit of easily becoming irritated. habit is a relatively organized and fixed nervous process. Some The for example. the new arrangement acquires a permanency of its own. It must not go to pieces. — The justification for making habit analogous to the behavior of plants and the actibn of non-living matter is found in the fact already mentioned that habits are the result of changes in matter. or other sense-organ run their course. The purpose of this treatment is gradually to overcome old habits If by starting and strengthening new ones. Nervous impulses started through the eye. ear. again. or tonsilitis. persons. however. to speak of these responses of non-living matter as habits. It has taken on new habits and again it resists to modification alteration. is A sprained arm.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 85 form or its structure without losii^ its integrity. Objects and animals alike offer resistance to change. "Tapering off" is another illustration. or series of processes. and. ever sensitive to strain. Neither do we usually apply the word to the actions of plants. Substances which have no plasticity or which break under alteration cannot acquire new habits. Habit is thus distinguished from instinct. when the change has taken place. are due to a predisposition of certain organs to ftmction abnormally. the repetition of which results in greater fadHty — and better accommodation to the conditions that start the process. we ask how habits are formed in animals we must turn to the nervous system for the answer.

The reconstruction is rather an adaptive process that tends to meet the demands put Activity always breaks down stored that the organ may upon the organ. and these changes tend to emphasize and "fix" the sort of functional activity prevaiKng for the time. of course. There is some to an external nervous impulses in their course leave traces kind of a change in the nerves or in the connections between the neurones. and there is no reason why it should not be true of the nervous system. for if it did the strengthening of a muscle would be impossible. Exercise builds up muscle and lack of exercise is attended by gradual deterioration of the tissue. is an analogy." This is the case with muscle. This restoration. and consequently offers less resistance to the next nerve-impulse that seeks an exit. and being made more easily traversible by the repeated passage of an impulse. however. tissue which must be renot lose its power to function. but the indications are that At any rate. as is seen in exercise. What is this change? We do not know definitely. The need . results in —in behavior of some sort perhaps to an emergency. These behind them. ersed by a nerve-impulse becomes an available outlet for succeeding ones. Reconstructive changes are always going on. does not reinstate the original condition of the organ. by which a path once traversed is opened. This. occurs in the path which they have taken Some alteration because of their passage over the route. and a habit is thus established. Psychologists speak of "paths" being formed in the nervous system. a path once travit is of a chemical nature. and analogies are likely to be misleading. But there seems to be truth in Carpenter's statement that an organ grows "to the mode in which it is habitually exercised. It is an instance of organic adaptation to demands. and in a nerve-unit this demand is for continued and improved accessibility to nerve-impulses that reach it over a previously travelled route.— 86 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK an adaptive response situation.

or their conit was at the moment the path of least resistance. perhaps the most that can be said is that there was no special reason why it should not. block. Both cross-streets are equally near to his house and to the car. A man. may The first time that he starts for the street-car he turn to the right or to the left. and the claim made upon a particular nerve-unit because the path has already been traversed. If movements once acquired by practice were not no meanings It would be necessary continually to repeat the trial-anderror method. and it lessens One need only watch a child who is learning to fatigue. for example. has rented a house in the middle of a nections. and man would have no time for anything beyond the simplest. He does not rather than the other. except for special reasons. but let these men exchange occupations and both are exhausted at the end.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY for 87 is an uninterrupted course exists. are We now able to state the first practical advantage and also to show its evolutionary significance. and the store clerk stands or walks about for ten or twelve hours 'with ease. but the first know why he took one will act establishes the habit and. If we inquire why the nerve-impulse first took the path which began the habit. Habit makes movements exact and "sets" them. The bricklayer is unfatigued by his day's work. of habit dress himself try to button his clothes to see the advantage of this. most elemental needs of existence. In this way nutritional reconstruction of a neurone whose elements have been depleted by the passage of an impulse tends to conform to the demand of other impulses for free passage. The nerve centhe functional connection between tres and synapses — . and there was no urgent need for taking another course. This is not merely a matter of muscles. For reasons hidden in the structure of the nerves." learning acts of skill would have The lessening of fatigue in habitual occupations is quite evident in physical labor. he always follow the same route in the future. "set.

and its evolutionary explanation is the need of meeting emergencies in a definite manner. but work without exhaustion at the close of day. the organic reluctance to drive through the trenches. smoothly. Having found a successful reaction. Subjectively the resistance of the nervous system to an altered response — may have all the signs of fatigue. likes to take unnecessary trouble.88 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK much It are factors in even "muscular fatigue. In the species. not even a child. of nervecoimections." was one of Rousseau's keen observations. first line of it is Yet in many instances this feeling of weariness expresses resistance. and nerve-centres. Man tends to do things in the simplest way. are deeply ingrained in the organ- ism and are called instincts. These "habits" of the species. the act once performed becomes the line of least resistance. however. A certain result is desired. "No one. and have ergy called the tendency to is minimum Enis required to overcome this inertia and the effort not easily made. An accountant nerve-units is — neither could do the other's ends the day as fresh as the department manager. once the habits that constitute the revised action are established everything again runs When The advantage of habit is the exactness of automatized movements. "safe" manner of behaving. The same reason that makes a change of occupation fatiguing applies in adopting a new method for the same work. habit represents the prudent. to overcome the first of this characteristic of the nervous because system that what we effort prevails. and habits are troublesavers." the same with mental activity. They are necessary for survival and have been established by the elimination of those individuals who did not conform. In all of these cases it is habit that makes the work endurable habits of muscles. that only so much energy is and we have found expended as its attainment . in the way that requires least expenditure of energy.

the methods that secure fair results are continued. and of the gait in walking. or of not taking it. " Success " has no absolute measure. so he changed it to his right trousers-pocket and noted the number of false movements. after the third change. 89 Profes- Illustrations in daily life are common. 1892. He found that it required considerably less time to releam the old habit than it had taken to accustom himself to the pocket of his trousers. may be opened and two or more opposing habits may be brought to such a degree of perfection that each will function without interference from the others when once the cue is given. Reactions do not run off smoothly. He then alternated the i.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY requires. Traces of the old habit therefore remained. After a month had passed and he had acquired the habit of immediately putting his hand into his right trouserspocket when he wished to ascertain the time. sional and business men wish is The goal variable.se of the pockets and observed that the time grew less until. he could use either pocket without making any mistakes. He was accustomed to carry his watch in his left vest-pocket. and habits are formed. however. One's mind seems out of gear. The habit of taking exercise. Consequently. Change of habit is always accompanied by a mental wrench. A man unaccustomed to regu- cannot break away from his ofi&ce. are illustrations. Let us turn for a moment to some of the experiments which have shown this. He then tried a similar experiment with the inkstands for each relearning ' BeitrSge zur experimentdkn Psychologie. and business habits are difficult to change for exactly the same reason. Miinsterberg' tested the persistency of habit in two ways. . It will then be easier to estimate the larger sighificance of habit. and when they run through these there is sistance than when they take a new course. certain less re- New paths. he replaced the watch in his left vest-pocket. lar exercise The nervous impulses are accustomed to take paths. to achieve a certain end.

and the consequent retardation. . The one not of these experiments — watch. Zeitschriftfilr Psychologie und Physiologie vol. "the errors which the subject was obliged to correct. indiless cated that somewhat time was required than he found watch from a certain pocket. vol. effaced. and finally he could make the right movement. Sinnesorgane. or formed associations (or habits) in sorting cards. opposing.366. p. The result same as with his the old habit remained and resisted change. association remains. without interference from the opposing habit. whichever it might be... vol. He foimd that "the false movements" [in sorting the pack in a new order]. s. Miinsterberg therefore concluded that a given association or habit can function automatically while some effect was kept locked. They have not been Miiller syllables. d. filling first one and then the other and noting again the number of wrong movements. Repetition of Miinsterberg's experiments. keys. in Washington by members of the class in psychology. Bergstrom' tested the effect of interference of previously to break the simple habit of taking knife. in use was essentially the — of another. 6. show that a strong association had been formed. 173. and Schumann^ experimented with nonsenseThey stated their problem as follows: "When a series of nonsense-syUables has been learned until it can be repeated once without error. 6. P. University. 433. traces of but it was easier to relearn the old than to learn the new.Qo on PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK his desk. The earlier habits therefore persist." From his second study Bergstrom concluded that the effect of the interference of an association (or habit) partly established is eqmvalent to the practice effect. p. It is a mechanical struggle of habits. From two weeks to sixteen days were needed to reach the first errorless day in the establishment of a new habit. . Finally he tested himself in using two doors leading from his office to the corridor. and is then relearned to ' ' American Journal of Psychology.

Later. certain fingers were habituated to the different bered and keys. Culler's conclusions may. after both sets of reactions were practised to perfection. . ' Psychological Review Monograph Supplement. because of the disturbance caused by the secon- dary associations. four. associated with definite colors. will more repetitions be required if in the meantime the syllables have been associated with another sort of syllables?" These experiments indicated considerable interference in the relearning. no. ' opposing associations become automatic.: PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 91 the same extent after a certain interval. several of a series of long-practised stimuli is introduced. among He ' ' ' . and finally. no. or eight repetitions of each association before the other is resumed. the opposing associations have an interference effect upon The interference effect grows each other in all [persons] less and less while the practice effect becomes greater. each of which excludes the other. The interference effect is gradually overcome. 19. an incipient habit as- Bair* attacked the problem of interference from habit. perhaps. . be best given in his own words "When two opposing associations. 24. are alternately practised with one. the interference disappeared. different fingers were used to strike some of the keys. . The tj^jewriter and sorting of cards were used by Culler* The keys of the typewriter were numin his experiments. • Archises of Psychology. In other words. This agrees with Miinsterberg's conclusion that two opposing habits may be made so automatic that conflict disappears when they are alternated. so that either of them can be called up independently without the appearWhen a change in reaction to ance of the other. The keys were found that the difference between two opposing habits grew less the more automatic the two responses became. and both other ways. serted itself. . by using a typewriter. and the interference was noted in the additional time required for the writing.

Brown observed. An error committed in practice tends to introduce interfering In some cases associations which will cause other errors. and those who were most disturbed made the larger number of errors. This agrees with B air's conclusion that if a series of reactions is well learned this practice promotes learning a new arrangement of the series. Errors always increased when the order in which the cards were sorted was changed. delaying and disturbing opposing reactions. interference ^ Warner Brown. In this investigation Brown' foimd that interference manifests itself to the detriment of success in trying to learn to sort the cards in two different ways. This experimental evidence that two opposing habits may operate alternately does not refute what has been said about their dominating power.. and it runs its course." The last investigation of this subject which we shall cite was again an experiment in sorting cards in two different orders. 4. Habit clearly persists. voL i. and interference was also indicated by increase in the niunber of errors.92 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is as in the typewriting experiment. So learning to do a thing in two different ways need not be detrimental. that as the work proceeded practice in one order helped in learning the other. no. great immediate in time This is shown by the increase and the recurrence of the former assodatians. there interference effect. Start one habitual series. .. however. UniversUy of California Publications in Psychohgy. In be- ginning either of the two methods of sorting there clearly loss of speed. The experiments show that habits are closely isolated processes. was due to the tendency toward conflicting movements. even though there are elements in the two that conflict with one another. Start another and it does the same. in other cases it has a specific effect which causes a repetition of the error in succ^ding trials. but when two conflicting habits have become automatic. this interference has a general effect which causes various errors. .

houses. Aside from the automatized movements of which we have just been speaking. If one thoroughly masters a typewriter with one arrangement of the keyboard. even to the words used.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 93 between the two disappears. This is the explanation of complex acts involving manysimple movements. so the clock is set ahead an hour. work by the . in turn. In the same way. all have their pecuhar habits. there will be interference between the two views and one will remember neither accurately unless the first is thoroughly mastered before the second is studied. After the second has. After the first is understood and learned. in the manner of walking. schools. People cannot change their habits of rising and beginning their clock. the second will cause no confusion. It is a deliberate selfthen deception by which a whole city intentionally tricks itself into rising) working. they show themselves in social mannerisms. and retiring an hour earlier by the sun. in ways of talking. there is not only no interference between the two sets of habits. colleges. The daylight-saving plan is an excellent illustration of public recognition of the irresistible force of habit. and everything works smoothly. eral in the mode of behaving. and in genFamihes. but the second one may even be learned in less time than was needed for the first. In acts of skill the sensation caused by a muscular contraction starts the next movement in a habitual muscular series. Habits in individuals are practically inevitable reactions to surrounding conditions. become automatic. before beginning on another with a different keyboard. the two may be alternated without conflict between the two sets of habits. and if each is made automatic there will be no difficulty in recalling either or both. represented business in the similarity of behavior of their members. if one is studying different theories regarding some scientific or social phenomenon. In a very real sense they are personal reflexes. for example.

which leg comes after which When you begin to r. He lay distracted in a ditch. Uncertain how to run. because they do everything at the same hour as before. Habit first and then eliminates the attention with which acts are performed. The long discussion about setting the clock ahead it has now continued over two years shows that our custom must not be disturbed. Said. Automatic actions and the handicrafts afford the best illustrations of this advantage. by the clock. We are now The — — ready to state reduces its second practical advantage. Until the toad.un?' This wrought his mind to such a pitch. We have said that habit makes movements exact and "sets" them. 'Pray. and the impor- . the time indicated should be the hour at which we are wont to leave. We must not be obliged to reflect upon whether we will leave an hour earlier than has been set by habit. skill is tion to the delicate muscular not associated with attenmovements. Habit is evidently a tremendous force which must enter into our computation of problems of human behavior. and that it lessens fatigue.94 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK habits of the people are not disturbed. This has been illustrated in one of those Uttle doggerels that so often represent the tion to automatic acts that are disturbed. in fun. When we look at our watch preparatory to leaving the office. These acts will then become essentially reflex. If the routine is not disturbed the usual series of acts for that hour will run its course and the desk will be closed." In the handicrafts. also. It is psychological observations of the layman: "The centipede was happy qviite. So helpful is absence of atten- when it is given to them tiiey a matter of common knowledge that attention to our manner of walking across a ballroom makes our gait awkward.

it is doubtful whether he will ever tellectual make and the discovery and acquire the habit of investigating. If a boy of seventeen has not learned that accurate facts are essential to correct reasoning. if they are foreign to the earlier life of the young men. in adult hfe. Childhood and youth are the periods for fixing both inand ethical habits. to turn briefly to the ethical side of the subject. would be pathetic did not 7. p. and they are of the opinion that these useful habits. for example. inquire quite as much whether the applicants are leaders in college and in social service as about their technical qualifications. one cannot successfully adopt of behavior to in life. contentment with the grotesque ' Engineering Education. social. their The efforts of the nouveaux riches to simuresult give a touch late refinement. vol. manners and forms which one has been unaccustomed earlier cannot give the appearance of having been to the manner bom. A committee of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education estimated the relative importance of the various factors that make for success in engineering. A recent report from an unexpected source. adds greatly to the sigmficance of ethical.000 practising engineers participated in the investigation. when selecting young graduates for their employ. The remaining 75 per cent was accorded to various which habits of one sort or another enter. Ethical qualities into habits are evidently quite as significant for efficiency as those that are physical. They want subordinates who have acquired habits of leadership which will fit them to handle men. It has long been observed that engineers.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY known 95 tance of habit in the moral and social virtues is too well to require extended discussion.' Over 5. if he does not know the difference between facts and assimiptions. and industrial habits. 125. and knowledge of fundamentals and technic was rated at about 25 per cent. cannot be readily adopted in the course of the work. however. .

and house betray the humble origin. and only later. vulgar the attempt to conceal and forget Early habits of primitive taste and behavior are too firmly rooted to be eradicated. excuses by saying: 'I won't count this time Well. when the hold is too firm to loosen. 127. wiped out." So strong is the grip of habit. ! in Jefferson's play.96 of PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK humor by to the outcome. which is made it. they would give more heed to their conduct while in the plastic state. in strict scientific literalness. A good quality of brain-tissue is made inefficient by its tremendous handicap. if ever." says James. but in youth and early maturity it should be the chief concern of the individual. manners. • Principles ef Psychology. In early childhood this is largely the business of parents. and a kind Heaven may not coimt it. "Could the young but realize. . but it is being counted none the less. Not the slightest doubt of success clouds their satisfaction. vol. And one^roof of this is the gratifica- tion of these people with the result. p.^ "how soon they will become mere walking bundles of habits. The formation of habits should look toward the future that they may become the allies of our mature purposes and aspirations instead of their enemies. good or evil. I. registering and storing it up to be used against him when the next temptation comes. Nothing that we ever do is. Every smallest stroke of virtue or of vice leaves its never-so-httle scar. does the man or woman realize what might have been. Some people. on the other hand. Down among his nerve cells and fibres the molecules are counting it. Success or failure in life is being settled before the boy and girl are old himself for every fresh dereliction ' enough to appreciate the meaning of their actions. in adult hfe become aware of the terrible handicap of habits against which they are struggling. all furnishings Dress. The drunken Rip Van Winkle. he may not count it. We are spinning our own fates. and never to be undone.

at once and on every occasion. for example. arises. Inability to act may become a habit as truly as can action itself. Some people. These people are rich in purposes. but he caimot let it go. are mightily concerned over wrongs done to working girls in all factories and stores except their own. resolutions. that there is something which he will find if he waits longer and hunts. and they bask in its sublime feeling. curiously enough. again. The writer has an acquaintance who for ten years has had a scholarly book ready for publication. but they never cross the and Rubicon and burn the bridges. always waiting for a great and perhaps conspicuous opportunity to do a social service. Many get their moral contentment by weeping over sin. in this instance. as emotional virtue again soothes the — — plans. from the very qualities of habit which in other ways are serviceable. and then. They go on an emotional spree periodically. He is oppressed with the fear that it will not be up to date. as the habit of postponement becomes fixed. important for efficiency. The habit of emotional vaporization satisfies their longing to do good. and they enjoy the orgy. It is doubtful whether the book will appear during his lifetime. Letting ideals ooze out in vapid sentimentality produces only a tiresome. moments of anguish come. disastrous effect. indecision. They are always vacillating between determinaInefficiency is tion and doubt. This may easily . are always making resolutions always promising themselves to begin to work vigorously. always preparing to break a bad habit. Some men. tomorrow. but they do nothing. between hope and fear. ineffective prater. and the not infrequently caused by this habit of mind.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 97 Resolutions and moral or ethical principles should be determinedly put into action. It is this advantage the same features of habits that make and disadvantage of their outcome so be shown. Virtue oozes from every pore. followed by periods of elation.

after the elimination of those that are useless. . Illustrations are not wanting. Repetition makes perfect. but I can't get away from them. Lower reflex centres are called into play and the brain is relieved of the burden of overseeing these activities. but said that he could not let go of such details. These are only illustrations. should not be overlooked. When asked if a boy at the telephone would not save him time for more important things he agreed. 245. because it is left free for things that cannot profitably be made habitual. This is. to show that some acts should not be made habitual. It enables the physiological machinery to nm without friction. we have said. but it perfects only that which is repeated. first diminishes the attention with which acts are performed and then eliminates it. "I am constantly doing things which I have no business to do. After the simpler movements have become mechanized they may be combined into more complex actions. Of course men differ in their bad habits as well as ' Tuck School Conference on Scientific Management. a great advantage in acts which should be mechanized. Probably they are typical. Its limitation. and the perfection consists solely in "setting" serviceable movements." was the way in which the proprietor of another large estabUshment admitted his subjection to inefficient habits. of course. but they represent the wasteful methods of two men engaged in business. Release of the brain from the direction and supervisioli of certain activities is a tremendous advantage. p. however. or with mental processes in bringing information to mind of which we are in frequent need. Short cuts are formed in the nervous system. and in this way highly involved reactionsystems may be organized. One of the speakers at the Tuck School Conference on Scientific Management' said that he found the proprietor of a large printinghouse answering telephone-calls. The route from eye or ear to muscle is shortened by eliminating the cerebrum from the circuit. however.98 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Habit.

"is that our business grows faster than those within The men do not keep up with the changes. and it is a common complaint of business men that those in their employ "stop growing" too soon. A beginner in typewriting makes the most rapid progress by watching the keys and using the two forefingers. grow out getting things done quickly." These occupation-habits. This plan." This is an instance of the human tendency of which we have self to spoken in an earlier chapter. is pleased with quick results. and the habits formed by its adoption." said the of a large manufacturing plant recently to the manager it. Time looms large the time at the moment. Examples of the "setting" of unproductive methods of work could be multiplied indefinitely. writer.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 99 in their good ones. A department store in a large city of the Middle West. according to Thorndike. so far as achievements axe concerned. and when a trial balance is struck he finds that. The final stage of the process was ignored. yet accomplished nothing. to illustrate the inefficiency of certain habits in a different . He has not even put himself in the line of significant results. This can be best illustrated by an act of muscular skill. will never enable him to compete for the salary of one who practises the slower touch method and employs all the fingers on the keyboard. however. "The difficulty with which we are always confronted. but this merely means that the illustrations of inefl&ciency vary with different men. he is bankrupt. Consequently. the person takes short —that cuts and is. rarely progress after the third year of service. the tendency to adjust onethe lowest level of efficiency that wiU "carry. He does not see that minutes are saved at an immense expense of future time. He did not include the future in his mental vision. Teachers. of the need is felt for The attention fixed on the accomplishment of the immediate end rather than on the final outcome. He was always busy.

then the This puts intelU- E. brings us to our third point. he did not understand the reasons for his success. should not be reduced to habit sort of habits to be ' formed is important. if it should. Perhaps a given kmd of work or. This manager had acquired certain business habits which were successful where he gained his reputation. . He had not analyzed the situation. A distinction should be made between acts in which that may definite habits are beneficial and those acts best be left free. To a certain extent. He merely grew into certain habits which happened to succeed because they harmonized with the conditions in his locality. lOO Kne PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of business. St. he followed the method of the stenographer to whom we have just referred. but he could not alter them to meet new conditions. Probably. and organic Those lacking constructive. that habits to be of advantage should be thoughtfully selected instead of following unconscious adaptation.. in part. He did not know why his methods had succeeded. a matter of chance. at least. If he had he would have known that the method might fail under other conditions. "Managers want efficiency. Elmo Lewis. had engaged an unusually successful EastIn a year he had so nearly wrecked the business that the management paid him $60. This. and he would have been able to readapt himself. It is quite likely that these circumstances had something to do with the formation of the habits. the harmony was."' "They don't want to learn new because "their own way" has become "fixed" in their nervous system. also. Getting the Most Out ej Business. He adopted the plan that secured the quickest results. then. own way. ern manager at a high salary.000 to annul the contract." business to get better results in their says one of the most stimulating writers on ways. and it suggests the rule This is of action for making habits our allies in promoting per- sonal efficiency. At all events. productive power should be eliminated before they gain control.

The curtailment of efficiency through failure to follow this course. while in the rest cit. for the poor hysteric ' is diseased. Human is failure is due largely to the fact that habits get us instead of our getting them. "as a rule. his Hfe is contracted but with less like the field of vision of an hysteric subject — excuse. because he can only imitate. fluid condition.. in this class of failures. In ele- mentary faculty. 237^238. in power of inhibition and control. He energizes below his maximum. op. . so that the best method of the moment may be utilized.^ "As a type lacking in imagination. and to leave the others free. and the others kept in a free. and the unconscious adaptation to the lower requirements of life. and therefore complains because the talks of the board of commerce and articles in larged. pp. and he behaves below his optimum.^ Men. . Elmo Lewis. The wants rule-of- thumb man that he ing." he says." We have been emphasizing the importance of selecting our habits so as to mechanize only those acts which may be made automatic with greatest advantage to efficiency." says Lewis. "habitually use only a small part of the powers which they actually possess and which they might use under appropriate described conditions. are admirably by James. The human individual lives usually far within his limits. as grandma's remedies and father's policies. 35.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY gence into the process. repeating old errors until they become enwrapped in the winding-sheet of sacred tradition. St. E. . in co-ordination. • Memories and Studies. It saves thinkman must have his vision en- he becomes ingrowing. he possesses powers of various sorts which he habitually fails to use. else it is the trade papers are not about his business. in every conceivable way. He lacks the power to adapt. his He rules so may reduce "The rule-of-thvunb methods to habits. Imitation works in a vicious circle. After the selection has been mad those acts which can be done best through habit should made automatic. p. .

as in all occupations involving beings." ' At another time. as the story rims. the manner in which the men are treated largely determines human » Louis Agassiz. He astonished his hearers by saying that he had also studied the object in question. he kept him looking at this object for a week. He saw clearly that if they remained on the farm they would inevitably adopt antiquated "farm habits. p. was called upon. and he had acquired a habit of observation which he never lost. with instructions to be prepared on the following day to describe its external characteristics.I02 of us PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK it is only an inveterate habit to our full self —that —the habit of inferiority is bad. It was with much the same confidence in selected habits." In the business world. The italics are the present writer's- . Agassiz again sent the young man back to the echinoderm. having had it under his eye at stated periods night and day for six weeks. Agassiz. to one of his students. and." a higher standard of work —the James An illustration of the effect of reverse side of the shield so vividly described the change produced in the methods of biologists as a result of Agassiz's example a change almost equivaOne evening Agassiz was lent to a revolution in habits. At the end of that time the youth knew something about how echinoderms look. to illustrate the need of selected habits and adaptive variability in a field too often overlooked. After the description had been given. "when a member made the statement that he had studied a certain form four days. by Charles F. associated with capacity to change. Holder. he gave an echinoderm. Hill sent many boys to agricultural colleges that they might acquire methods of investigation. is — by — a guest of the Boston Microscopical Club. and feeling that nothing resulted from this elaborate investigation gave it up as impracticable. After some discussion the guest of the evening. who afterward became a distinguished entomologist. 99. that James J.

. the meeting was to hear both sides of the question efficiency of council. "The question for vote was whether the store should be closed all day Saturday. by a two-thirds vote. or training. When the vote was taken the employees voted by an overwhelming majority not to The firm considers" [the have the extra holiday. Ine association. but if after such a veto the association again passes it over the veto. the decision of the association is final. passed by the be vetoed by the management. The Filene Co-operative Association of Boston is an instance of reversal of traditional business habits. the day preceding being Bunker Hill Day. The decision. a State holiday. It was pointed out that a Saturday in the middle and to decide. Agitation had been quite intense during the days preceding the meeting. If this were done it would give the employees a three-day holiday. and they are followed. . After those in favor of closing had made opposed brought out an argument few had considered. . They secure results but perhaps not the best. may initiate or amend any rule that affects the employees. may . Certain methods have been acquired from the environment. yet it succeeded. of the school graduations . for the employees naturally were interested in having an additional day's rest with pay. education. Jxme 18. those June was much more valuable and costly to lose than one in July. composed of members of the firm and of all employees. The plan made a sudden break from habitual business methods. . their plea. that it was the last Saturday before the bulk of and that much more business would in all probability be lost. .PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY 103 the success of manager or foreman. the fact that conditions were not analogous. A single instance will show how admirably and reasonably the employees have respo'nded. The William Filene's Sons' Company decided to give the men and women behind the counter of their department store a voice in shaping the policies of the company. Yet these managers know no other way.

Observation shows that it is but also unnecessary to settle down and adopt habits of ease or tradition. well as physical.I04 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK "worth many times what it has cost them in and money. The worth their best effort and they rise to the emergency. Then. Under such circmnstances we have clearly tapped a new supply of energy. if we persevere. perhaps breaking the record. Sketch of the Filene Co-operative Association. it and it has made the interests of employer and association] their time is a fact. "Mental activity." ^ These practical results from the methods of the Filene Co-operative Association are additional proof of the expediency of selected habits. It is no longer an experiment. ." We feel more vigorous than before and push on to a new achievement. amounts of ease and power that we never dreamed ourselves to own."^ Evidence of this is seen in the achievements occasionally observed in men suddenly placed in positions of great responsibility. It was not in him until he broke with his old habits of adaptation to an inferior level of accomplishment. Reservoirs of energy commonly unused reveal themselves in various ways. "shows the phenomenon as not only inefficient into the line of least resistance and in exceptional cases we may find. In physical endurance. it is well known that at a certain point fatigue ensues." James once said. their ability is demand on An illustration of the firmness ' with which habits settle by the firm. beyond the very extremity of fatigue-distress. never pass those early critical points. for example. usually concealed by the first appearance of ennui and fatigue. sources of strength habitually not tapped at habitually all. p. 230. employee harmonize. "I did not know that it was in him. because we never push through the obstruction. we overcome the resistance and get our "second wind." is our acknowledgment of his bursting through the barrier. ' Memories and SMies.

" and I never felt quite caught up. and. "I thought that I was working to my limit." The president of one of the large publishing houses in New York City relates a similar experience. I have the same oversight of 150 plants. Apparent mental fatigue. when in their grip." These two instances testify to the relation between energy expended and the resistance to be overcome the tendency to minimum eflFort." he says. and they also show that when once the amount of energy has been gauged. "most of us are obliged to do double work. "A physician of wide experience says that every day men come to him broken down in health. The manager of a manufacturing company had the oversight and direction of 9 plants. finst additional and urgent demands are necessary. habit fixes the output." he said recently. and I do the work Just as easily as when I had only 9 under my control. has just been related to the writer. Their breakdown was due to the terrible load of unphysiological habits which they had . and yet upon questioning them he finds that none of them work as hard as he. To — excite more energy. "Since so many of our men have entered the service of the nation. 105 and of our feeling. is usually attributable to other causes than excessive work. so far as I can see. The critical until insistent beyond which these men could not go demands supplied the stimulus the "early points" to which James referred are usually the barriers — — result of inertia.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY upon us. Few obstructions are harder to break through than the habit of energizing at a low degree of intensity. again. The incident also shows the higher level that one may reach when forced to break through the enveloping crust of custom. Now. they are just as correct as when we took twice the time. that we are working to the limit of endurance. as captain in the quartermaster's department. invariably telling him that they have overworked. We make our decisions quicker. which may set up another barrier.

Fisk. by Irving Fisher and Eugene L. Shocks."' Sometimes a severe shock is needed to force men to break through these "early critical points. their day's work just well enough to escape criticism and discharge. always a tendency no appreciatoward ad- justment to existing conditions. Sir Baden Powell has told of a similar method which he used to awaken plodding recruits in India. and with each repetition resistance is decreased. after he was told that his position depended upon more habits. He sent them out to forage for themselves for a week or a fortnight. their occupations. p. he became aware of the habits of ease into which he had unconsciously fallen. the experiences were sufficiently startling to break up their habits of lethargic ease. but when the investigator returned the manager asked so many questions about the people. and other things. Usually. If nothing came out they were hopelessly stupid. always a tendency to economy in making this adjustment. habit has acquired immense • How to Live. that the young man hardly knew whether he had been over the ground. sports. wealth. and by the time of their return they were able to move under their own steam. disturb the smooth nmning of the mental processes that have produced a complacency which blinded their possessor to his inadequacy in thought and Among the contented who are satisfied with doing action. in the form of sudden responsibilities . 125. Then. intelligent observation. It looked like easy work." The manager of a large business sent a young man out to survey and report on a certain territory.io6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK been carrying—a load so great that scarcely any work could be carried in addition. however. there is no analysis of situations. as he has since informed the writer. tion of comparative values. always a tendency to repetition.to which one feels unequal. During that time they generally had adventures and troubles enough to bring out whatever they had in them. . Viewed from another angle.

requirements. I find very few individuals making . "The fundamental limitation of the majority of men. to a large extent. ." We then call them reflex. Fifty years ago business methods were settled. of reacting to situations. at the present time. four or five subordinate satisfactorily and I can fill none from material in hand. is the conspicuous fact in all occupations. spent a year "reading" law. we have found. and scientific knowledge did not go forward with leaps and bounds. but this selection is rarely > See Learning by Doing. In the lower animals this coordination has been. 212-222. Business methods were static." ^ Yet this "material" consists of over a thousand men. entered his father's store. "consists in lack of capacity to adjust themselves to new . and this reveals new meaning in the acceleration with which changes utility of habit. There is always a selection of movements. and was quite sure of a satisfactory competence." said the manager of a large manufacturing company recently. is concerned with nervous impulses and with the activity of nerve-centres. by the author. The function of the nervous system is to co-ordinate and unify movements so as to adapt them to the needs of the individual. or studied medicine with a physician. Evidently. "set" in instinctive In man the same tendency exists for actions to actions.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY significance in the last 107 few years because of the greater come and go. them habits of doing things. Change. any effort to think out better ways of doing things. and habit. reaches far into success and failure.. chiefs in various parts of the factory. We of need. rapid change. . In both physical and mental activity change reduces to an alteration of habits. pp. become "fixed. . A young man learned a trade. To-day everything is altered. To-day a man's success in the business and professional world depends upon rapid adaptation to var3dng conditions. from the standpoint of availability for promotion..

It keeps different Habit. its social strata from mixing. made? necessity. and nails the countryman to his log cabin and his lonely farm through all the months of snow. Already at the age of twenty- .. viously unfavorable. for example. creates immediate motives in the various details of the work. How is the selection The determining force is always environmental conscious. A Consequently. conscious. But. Much has been written. It keeps the fisherman and the deck-hand at sea through the winter. most precious conservative agent. "is the enormous fly-wheel of society. . . we are told. The implication is that those which do not injure our health or morals are good.. is engaged is the remote This. Success in the Among — business or profession in which one incentive. It alone prevents the hardest and most repulsive walks of life from being deserted by those brought up to tread therein. there is rarely a definite standard of success. as was said before.io8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK In the more delicate movements it is never The question then arises. This relation between habit and practical motives for improvement should be remembered. ful actions and methods are fixed habits. in appreciation of the social necessity of habits of thought. and soon they become careless paper-hanger makes poor work- men if the employer is satisfied. unpleasant consequences of certain actions wiU cause the selection of others. and with human beings improvement leading to more successful adaptation to conditions and situations has largely supplanted the requirements of mere survival as a driving force. because. because so-called "bad habits" usually have a restricted meaning. it holds the miner in his darkness. the lower animals it is the requirements of survival a relentlessly compelling force—and in man it is also the demands of the situation. Obviously. Habits cease to change and to become more efficient when no practical motive compels improvement.. approximately successselected.. the consequences of indifferent workmanship are not ob- of his apprentices. of course.

Of this there can be no question. pp." ^ Al Jennings cites a striking case of habit in a clerk in the Ohio penitentiary. the character has set like plaster.^173 f. by the age of thirty. conceived "the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection. inclination was sometimes too strong for reason." * The truth in this is that it would play havoc in the world to have no consistency. it is best he should not is well for the world that in most of us. Psychology.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY five 109 you see professional mannerisms settling down on the young commercial traveller. on the young counsellor at law. on the young minister." * — — ' ' James. p. When they want to talk they look past the hearer to a distant object and speak from the comer of the mouth nearest" [the listener]. to have eyery one deserting his post and running off on a tangent. and will never soften again. where he had no rule of silence. no stability. 142. from which the man can by and by no more escape than his coat sleeve can suddenly fall into a new set of escape. I took it for a little congenital peculiarity. "You could watch the other side of their faces all day and never see a movement. the ways of the 'shop. Conversation was forbidden to all but first-class convicts. » ." he found that while he was guarding against one fault he was often surprised by another. on the young doctor. pp. that habit the tendency to repeat ^is so firmly fixed in man's nature that it needs no support of argument. Autobiography. When Benjamin Franklin. the tricks of thought. Really it was a habit he had formed while in the shops. "Habit took advantage of attention.' in a word. He had learned the habit so young that he couldn't break it even in the transfer of&ce. Briber Count. The writer ventures to suggest. "As he began to instruct me in my duties he talked in a monotone from one corner of his mouth. You see the little lines of cleavage running through the character. It folds. Beating Back. however. for instance. 143/. the prejudices. no conservatism. On the whole.

and this desks. The Origin and Evolution 0/ 1917. do not contain the element of growth." this author says in another connection. but the full educational possibilities are not necespletely specialized. also. The value of this sort of preparation becomes a disadvantage only when life becomes so complex and changeable that the old ways of meeting emergencies are no longer adequate. "offer varying possibilities of education. would be a good motto business and professional men to hang above their "Different environments. it An in response to its is almost s3Tion5nnous with animal which specializes to the limenvironment becomes a slave to its environment and plasticity. A complete. for It was necessary them either to change their manner of reacting to dangers or to go back to the trees. London. in the end." Jones. ' loses its greatest evolutionary asset of This. 159. Life. A recent book. the animal which becomes comThis is a fact made clear by a whole sequence of geological types which have seized upon their environmental opportunities and have become specialized sarily grasped .^ has the for to the trees. returning to their utility for progress. spells the end of progress. by Henry Fairfield Osbom..257/. whether figuratively or liter- ally ceased to progress. So far as they are handed down through generations they preserve what the race has found serviceable. . Primitive man. It is racial preparedness. When man's ancestors first descended from trees. having mastered a series of complex actions in one situation. and those who went back Man. arboreal habits no longer sufficed. "The Failures of Arboreal Life". only less to arrive at specific senility specialized and be supplanted by and more plastic types. Wood • See." no PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Habits. By F. 1916. was ready for a similar emergency. by in an extraordinary degree to fit their environment. pp. early. and all-absorbing specialization specific senility.. entitled Arboreal significant title for one of its chapters. then. for example.

. varying problems of life. that when the Cro-Magnons called Magdalenian. A concerned. at the lithic. with their superior intelligence and physique. — — period of their aggressive adaptation. The natural history of animals offers many examples of highly specialized failures. but there is no evidence that they possessed the bow and arrow. some possibility that the newly arriv- ing Cro-Magnon race may have been familiar with the bow and arrow. He lacks the extended view which includes the broader meanings and implications within its range of vision. with their greater inventiveness and mental flexibihty they were probably the first of the Homo sapiens produced a tremendous social and The Neanderthals. though very far from being demonstrated. however. in industry. so far as progress man. 258. There is. "The Neanderthals. displayed amazing » Men of the Old Stone Age.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY These specialized adaptations of which the author iir whom we are quoting speaks are habits of the species that have become fixed as instincts. Failure because of adamantine habits produced by this same sort of narrow specialization is also indicated in prehistoric man. but he will inevitably fail in meeting the larger. and the same principle applies to highly specialized individual will act more effi-* is narrow limits of his special training. fought with wooden weapons and with the stone-headed dart and spear. The Neanderthals were driven from their places of abode and finally entirely destroyed by a race ciently within the superior in culture. p. for a barbed arrow or spear head appears in drawings of a later stage of Cro-Magnon history. on the contrary. the new arrivals. by Henry Fairfield Osbom. no doubt. and he is wanting in flexibility and versatility beyond the boundaries of his habits of thought and action. and invention. entered western Europe. dawn of the Upper Palaeo- they were armed with weapons which." ' At any rate. during the industrial change. would have given them a very great advantage in contests with the Neanderthals. the soIt is thus possible.

and when an emergency arises requiring rapid readaptation such static races are tmequal to the demands. intellec- and martial progress. of a situation that is to be met.112 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK prowess. was due to the inertness that always associated with mental stasis. Fiaally. Habit. And if he would put the same question tual. wild cattle. Probably their failure in the contest of life. succumbed. having run their course. unless the habits are selected with discrimination. The chase even of the horses. before more flexible and hence more adaptive races. after a period of great industrial. . as. in turn. . . eliminates consciousness. for instance. with its superior flexibility. was able to overcome both the severe conditions of the fourth glaciation and the Neanderthals whom they found as enemies. without any apparent enA^romnental causes. and rein- deer was apparently without the aid of the bow and arrow. to himself he ciency in matters of habit The organic tendency to make adjustments to condi- . to determine what part of it may best be mechanized and what requires intelligence. It is an illustration of minimimi adaptation. The new race. the CroMagnons. The habits which meet the lowest requirements of survival persist. If a business man were ta ask his employees what habits they had consciously formed during the past week he would create a panic among the men. Effidemands an analysis of a given piece of work. and were on the decUne. and the strength and resistance of the animals which they pursued. we have said. And this is bad. is would be unable to find an answer. and prior to the invention of the barbed arrow or lance head. This has been shown to be an advantage in certain matters. like the similar decline of certain civilized races. however. It also dispenses with intelligence. "There was a very decided disparity between the strength and resistance of their weapons." But by the time of the arrival of the Cro-Magnons they had reached the limit of their inventiveness and progress.

and the propensity of nervous impulses to continue. no way of escaping from the slavery of habit in thinking? Not altogether." said William James. The nervous system underlies both. Habit is an organic fact. and. "Hardly any of us. But. whether it be in acts of skill or in the most intricate processes of the mind. p. it should be emphasized again. to follow the path which they first took. .' "can make new heads" [for ideas] "easily when fresh experiences come. and in thought. habit always goes back to the tendency of nervous impulses to repeat themselves. This was because of his low intelligence.PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY tions with the 113 minimum output of effort. funda- mentally. But is there no way out. Marked variation was a dangerous iimovation." has been found to be as true of mental activity as of the physical. Old-fogyism. Its justification is the need for conserving successful reactions. and less and less capable of assimilating impressions in any but the old ways. 328. after all. of which we have spoken. Professor James has not overstated the facts. Having once learned to react successfully in a given situation. primitive man could best preserve himself and the race by repetition. in short. is to decide what acts may be most advantageously intrusted to habit. but as he developed and life became more complex the mental became more prominent. Briefer Course. the basis of habit is the same. subsequently. with its resulting behavior." This is not a pleasant picture. release of the brain from supervision by "setting" the mental processes. With him reactions were at first chiefly physical. with the consequent reduction of efficiency to the lowest level that will "pass. One of the chief problems in personal efficiency. is the inevitable terminus to which life sweeps us on. but the important question is. Most of us grow more and more enslaved to the stock conceptions with which we have become familiar. works disastrously. Is it true? Unfortunately. These actions those — ' Psychfhgy.


114
of the

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK

No

mechanical type should then be made automatic. exception should be permitted. With other matters the difl&culty is not in formthose requiring intelligence

is always dominant, but in keeping free from them, not in accepting the ideas, beliefs, and customs of those with whom we Uve and work, but in breaking away from them. As long as we consider present beliefs and the attitude of people toward present conditions or novel ideas, the advantage of the argument concerning habit is with the conservatives; for it is difl&cult to demonstrate a better condition, or to prove the value of something that has not yet happened. When we look back over history, however, the view clears. We commonly think that we advance in the ordinary

ing habits, for this tendency

course of events.
said Bagehot,

"Our

habitual instructors, our ordinary

conversation, our inevitable

and ineradicable prejudices," "tend td make us think that 'Progress' is the normal fact in human society, the fact which we should expect to see, the fact which we should be surprised if we

did not see.

But

history refutes this.

.

'.

.

What

is

most

not the difi&culty of getting a fixed law, but of getting out of a fixed law; not of cementing a cake of custom, but of breaking the cake of custom; not of making
evident
is

the first preservative habit, but of breaking through it and reaching something better." * What usually happens is that some one breaks away from conventional, habitual thoughts, is condemned for
his erratic ideas,
society.

and dies perhaps an outcast from "sane" Another age erects a monument to his memory,
in grateful

and people gather there
tinue in the delusion

ideas for which their fathers cast

commemoration of the him out; and men con-

that they are progressive.

Men

who made
our lives

upon which our comfort, our health, depend, have been crucified upon the cross of
the sciences
'

Physics and PoHHcs, pp. 41, 52-

PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY
tradition.

115

In what did their crime consist? In offering something new. A volume could be filled with examples of the abuse of men because they did a social service. Harvey enjoyed a large practice before he published his book Concerning the Motion and Uses of the Heart and Arteries, because he was a surgeon of wide repute. But after the appearance of his book he "fell mightily in his practice; 'twas believed by the vulgar that he was crack-brained and aU the physicians were against him." Harvey himself, speaking of the reception of his discovery, says: "These views, as usual, pleased some more, some less; some chid and calumniated me, and laid it to me as a crime that I had dared to depart from the precepts and opinions of all anatomists. I tremble lest I have mankind at large for my enemies, so much doth wont and custom become a second nature." ^ Another illustration of habits of thought is furnished by an instance in the life of Benjamin Franklin, who sent an account of some of his experiments in electricity to Mr. ColUnson in England, to have them read in the Royal Society; but the members did not think them of sufficient importance to be printed in the Transactions. Among Franklin's other experimental contributions was a paper on "The Sameness of Lightning with Electricity," which he sent to an acquaintance, Doctor Mitchel, who was a member of the Royal Society. Doctor Mitchel wrote in reply that it had been read before the Society, but had produced only laughter. Some of these papers were later printed in a pamphlet by Cave. "A copy of them happening to fall into the hands of the Count de Buffon, a philosopher deservedly of great reputation in France, and indeed all over Europe, he prevailed with M. DaUbard to translate them into French, and they were printed in Paris.
publication offended the Abbe Mollet, preceptor in natural philosophy to the royal family, and an able experi-

The

'

F.

D. Harris, Popular Science Monthly,

vol. 82, p. 459.

n6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
who had formed and published a theory of elecwhich then had the general vogue. He could not at first believe that such a work came from America, and said it must have been fabricated by his enemies at Paris, to decry his system. Afterward, having been assured that there reaUy existed such a person as Franklin at Philadelphia, which he had doubted, he wrote and published a volume of 'Letters' chiefly addressed to me, defending his theory, and den3dng the verity of my experiments and the positions deduced from them." * Again, Doctor Oliver Wendell Holmes' paper on the
menter,
tricity

Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever, published before the idea of infection had gained sufficient standing to be re-

by two of the leading Doctor H. L. Hodge, professor in the University of Peimsylvania, said in an address to his medical students: "The result of the whole discussion will, I trust, serve not only to exalt your views of the value and dignity of our profession, but to divest your minds of the overpowering dread that you can ever convey, in any possible manner, a horrible virus, so destructive in its effects and so mysterious in its operations, as that attributed to puerperal fever." Doctor Charles D. Meigs, of the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in his book on the nature and treatment of puerperal fever, said, speaking of infection: "I utterly reject and deny it; and of course I shall not be distressed because two very young gentlemen" [of whom Oliver Wendell Holmes was one] "say: 'We think the conspectable,

was

bitterly attacked

obstetricians of the East.

.

.

.

... of childbed fever ... is a fact estab.' on the most irrefragable evidence. And shall we now go back again to the capabilities of a Celsus, or an Avicenna, or an Avenzoar? Or shall we rather disregard the jejune-dreamings of sophomore writers" [Hohnes and others] " who thunder forth denunciations, and would mark,
tagiousness
lished
.

.

'

Avtobiography, pp. 269 /.

PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY
if

117

won

they might, with a black and ineffaceable spot, the hard." ^ reputation of every physician. Galvani was ridiculed as the "frogs' dancing master,"
. .

Daguerre was put into an asylum for saying that he could transfer the likeness of human beings to a "tin plate." Ohm, also, was thought insane, and Florence pleaded for the dust of Dante, whom only a century before she had ordered to be buried aUve. Cuvier angrily threw fossil bones out of his window, and buried their meaning in derision for
thirty years.
fall

Lavoisier proved that meteorites could not
skies,

from the

the Bavarian Royal College of Physi-

would ruin the health of the people because the rapid motion would give the travellers brain disease, and Professor Lovering of Harvard demoncians asserted that railroads

mathematically the impossibility of telegraphing Lebon, the discoverer of Uluminating gas, died in ridicule because he believed in "a lamp without a wick." Jouffroy, the inventor of steamboats, passed away in poverty, having spent all of his money in vain attempts to change the habits of thought of the people, and Lardner's essay proving the impossibility of the steamboat was brought over
strated

three thousand miles under the ocean.

from England in the
tice

first

boat, following Fulton's invention,
his prac-

to cross the Atlantic;

Young, a physician, saved

by anonjonous

publication of his theory of light, color,

and luminiferous

ether,

a century after Hooke had

first

made

the discovery; Plenciz observed as early as 1762 that certain diseases and decomposition were caused by microit was not until Pasteur's discoveries in 1876 that the bitter controversy was ended. And we are still in the midst of the fight against antitoxin serums and animal experimentation.

organisms, but

' Doctor Osier, in an address before the Johns Hopkins Medical Society, October 15, 1894, referred to Doctors Hodge and Meigs as "the two leading professors of obstetrics in this country" at the time of this controversy with Oliver Wendell Holmes.

ii8

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK

These illustrations could be extended indefinitely, but they axe sufScient to indicate the evidraice for the statement above that habits of thought do not need nurturing.
Resistance to habits, or at least conscious selection of those which we allow to gain a hold, is the first principle of

and progress, and this is what Rousseau seems to have had in mind when lie exclaimed: "The best habit to form is to contract no habits whatever." Man, however, as we have seen, likes to feel that certain
efiSciency
,

questions are answered, certain problems settied.

Fre-

quent rearrangement of opinions and of ideas, to make them consistent with new facts, would keep one thinking; and thinking is a strain. So ideas are classified and tied up ia bundles, properly labelled. Then when a social or business proposition is laid before us we know at once which bundle to untie. This is classification and "order." Everything is put away in our mental files, and all that is needed to settle a question is to find under what subject it This is a convenient and easy method. Its is classified. only fault is that it leads nowhere. It ends in a blind
alley. An excellent illustration is the comments of writers and preachers on the suicide of General Nogi. Obviously, knowledge of the religion and philosophy of Bushido was necessary for an understanding of his act. The AngloSaxon classification of ideas was inadequate for its interpretation. The explanation of fossils as models of animals upon which God practised, and with which he was dissatisfied, is another illustration. It was an attempt to make the new conform to the conventional classification of causes, of things, and events.
is necessary, of course. This is which the laws of science have been gained. But no classification or generalization should be regarded as final. Ideas should be kept in a fluid state, so that they may easily make new combinations. Settled opinions, "filed away," may be as unsuited to the new condi-

Organization of ideas

the

way

in

PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY
tions as were the ideas of

119

Rip Van Winkle when he awoke. never find your way out," angrily cried the chemist Biot to Pasteur, when he refused to give up his

"You

will

researches on spontaneous generation.
Biot's opinions were rigidly classified.

That was because

They could not

form new combinations.
of the navy,

When

Ericsson asked for an ap-

propriation to build the Monitor, Fox,' assistant secretary

and the naval board, condemned the idea. heavy armor would sink the vessel. Their opinions were organized and filed away. They would not even test them with arithmetic, as Lincoln wished them to do. The department store, the cost-

They

said that the

keeping systems,
charting the

loose-leaf

books,

gathering

statistics,

demand
all

for commodities, adding-machines,

card methods,

these things

condemned by the

classified opinions of business

and many more have been men.

"You
is

see all organization, with its implication of finality,

death," H. G. Wells makes Mr. Britling say. "What you organize you kill. Organized morals or organized religion or organized thought are dead morals and dead Yet some organization you religibn and dead thought.

must have. Organization is like killing cattle; if you don't kill some the herd is just waste. But you mustn't The unkilled cattle are the kill all or you kill the herd.
herd, the continuation; the unorganized side of
real
life.

life is

the

not performance. What isn't adventure isn't Ufe. What can be ruled about can be machined, and there is always a tendency to organize and then to automatize." When the relations between the individual and his environment are definite and maintained, habit dominates.
reality of life is adventure,

The

Even when

these relations are indefinite and subject to
still

alterations, habit

tends to

rule.

This

is

shown

in acts

that involve volition.
'

his

Mr. Fox later saw the value most vigorous supporters.

of Ericsson's invention

and became one

of

120

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
involving
choice

Experiments

between

different

re-

sponses carried out
tions," he says,

by

Barrett' illustrate this.

We

quote

his description of the

outcome.

"Regularity in the reac-

"was manifested in every phase of the choice-process, in the manner of reading the" [different] cards" [to which the persons reacted], "in the marmer of reacting, and of realiziag the choice. Automatism entered into every detail of the experiment. Even the experimenter came to perform the various functions in a perfectly automatic way, so much so that the sahent note of the whole experiment, toward the end of the series, was its mechanical regularity. We see that the natural tendency is toward automatic choosing. The times grow shorter, the number of phenomena" [admitted within the field of choice by the individual] "grows less, only one alternative is considered; there is economy in every sense, and finally the motivation reaches such a point that it never, or practically never, deviates from a certain curve or motivation
. . .

track."
tested

In Barrett's earlier experiments those who were being made many remarks about motives, feelings, and

judgments which influenced action, but toward the end they had little to say. "There was nothing to remark. There were no feelings, hesitations, or motives to describe. The mental act had become direct and simple. The will had gradually ceased to expend useless effort. Volitional force was economized. Automatism held sway, and there was nothing to record." That is a pretty good description of stagnation as far as mental activity is concerned; yet it seems to be the final outcome of being possessed by habit. Evidently, if one is to have living thoughts, if, indeed, one is to think at all, it is necessary to set up a determined resistance to the encroachment of habitual modes of thinking and behaving.
.
.

,

.

.

.

'

Experience gains value to the extent to which intenMoUve-Force and Motivation Tracks, by E. Boyd Barrett, pp. 140, 149.

PREPARATION FOR EFFICIENCY
ities.

121

tional thoughtful variation characterizes the range of activ-

"He who has lived not he who has numbered the most years, but he who has been most truly conscious of what life is. A man may have himself buried at the age of a hundred years, who died from the hour of his birth. He would have gained something by going to his grave in youth, if up to that time he had only lived." Measuring up to our possibilities is a troublesome matter, not because of lack of desire for the vast majority of pe9ple are anxious to do so ^but because of the difficulty of realizing on our abilities, of turning them into achievement. Man, like his forebears, was made on the plan of
For, as Rousseau long ago said:

most

is

adaptation, and adaptation

means

fitting into conditions.

It does not lead to progress, unless external conditions force

such a change. Habit is a preservative. It conserves and fixes those types of behavior which help the individual to fit into his environment. But habit is satisfied with the lowest level of "fitness." It must, therefore, be controlled and directed, else it does not serve us well. We have foimd that habit eliminates^ attention. Only
those matters, therefore, which finally require no attention

should be intrusted to
essary.

it.

Consequently, selection

is

nec-

Acts of muscular skill, ethical and social behavior should be reduced to habit; and then no deviation should be tolerated. But even here it must be remembered that there is always a tendency to form habits before a high degree of muscular dexterity or of ethical and social attainment has been reached. This makes the difference between poor workmen and skilful artisans, as well as between mediocre tennis and golf players, and those who can qualify for tournaments; and the same distinction exists in behavior in general. The elimination of attention from habitual processes reveals the activities from which habit should be barred. It is a distinct advantage to relieve the higher brain cen-

Then they become fixed as mental habits of which we are no more aware than we are conscious of our professional and family mannerisms. to free these higher centres from control of matters that require intelligence.122 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK movements which have been acquired during the preliminary apprenticeship in work or games. Freedom from habituation is relative. so gentle and insinuating their mastery. and one should not need to wait to decide on acts of courtesy. . however. opinions. It is disastrous. thoughts. For habit is a treacherous ally. It takes us off our guard and registers aU our acts. and beliefs are largely fixed by social groups. They beheved that they were thinking and that they were doing a social service. and we adjust ourselves to them involuntarily and imintelligently. Its subtlety is seen in our ignorance of the fact that it possesses us. tres of the supervision of skilful Those who condemned the discoveries of the men to whom we have referred did not know that their minds had become inflexible. We believe that is we see the reason for them.

first. and. to see more meaning in experience ligence. the be roughly divided into the menone never exists without tJie the other. belief that these Now. —^measures intel- The lives. — is done. as has been said. some of these larger phases of the subject. such a classification only indicates somewhat dominating feature. however. consequently. the tendency always exists to mechanize at a low level of attainment. Human tal activities may and physical. including as The physical they do the manual arts and trades. To be freely sure. sorts of there is a rather wide-spread two activities dififer essentially in their origin. higher animals stand in the evolutional scale the the r61e that learning plays in their more prominent In are. but we have seen that habits mean repetition. is commonly thought to be an exception to this rule. and that only those acts should be repeated which can best be performed when automatized. Skill in certain mental arts. to consider some act of manual skill. may and the method of development. They are believed to be 133 . There however. activities. Ability to continue learning to improve upon what one has already Learning ence. are generally admitted to be improved by instruction. certain general aspects of learning which be set apart from its narrower applications as maniit is man fested in acquiring facility in it may be well.CHAPTER IV THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING in its widest sense is profiting from experiEducation is sometimes said to consist of habit formation. Even these acts should not be reduced to habit until they have been perfected and.

This attitude prevails not only regarding literary ability. have aptitude for it your ability will soon show itself. He cannot see whither the many trails lead. trying one device after another until a mode of action has been hit upon that by chance secures the desired result. directly from the high school into a newspaper If within time they give promise they should be retained. His methods of meeting difficulties are therefore fallen upon Certainly. and to emerge from mnate qualities of the mind. accidentally. He is like a traveller wandering around in the underbrush of a forest. Adams is a splendid illustration of this His Autobiography^ is a painful history of opportunities unutilized because of incompetent guidance— a round peg always trying to get into a square hole. He is confused by the underbrush of details. It is the animal method of blundering along. And this is exactly what happens to an uninstructed learner. if he gets into the right path it is largely accidental. a short Other- no one will deny special aptitudes. are adopted. . Charles Francis confusion. as in adver"Start into the work and if you tising and salesmanship. laborious process of acquisitfon." is the advice often given to young men. as he * Boston and New York. but also in the various branches of business. Nevercontempt for instruction reduces learning to its crudest. Recently one of the editors of a large city daily said to the writer that tQ his opinion young men should be taken office. 1916.124 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK above the slow. wise it would be better to dismiss them and try others until the right ones are found. this If they accomplish the desired end tiiey In this way imeconomical and comparatively unproductive methods become habits. least intelligent expression. Consequently. Little intelligence can be used in the selection of methods of procedure because the learner is not suificiently acquainted with the work to judge their worth. theless. He cannot get a bird's-eye view.

except so far as advice puts them in the instructed class. or to the devil. is That and just situations does. and largely uncriticised. I me any ele- ment even recklessness of temperawould have been fatally developed. I do not remember having read so bitter an arraignment of unintelligent direction as Mr. Boys are protected. Under these conditions interpretation of situations is inadequate. Deficient knowledge because of a lack of preliminary study and instruction leaves a weakened substructure for judgment. "I should now respect myself a great deal more. and it is this absence of intelligent criticism that distinguishes the lower use of the trial-and-error method from the higher. and thus their errors are continued. With them. and experience is reduced to stereotyped opinion.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING himself phrases it. but he was a distinguished failure. and I was born with a decided sense of obligation to myself and to others. experience is gained by uncontrolled. which." he rebelled writes." Most of us would not rank Mr. "if I had then and if nm away from home. Adams as low as he estimates himself. it same It errors as lack of instruction. however. produce the of real badness. But I wasn't bad or a daredevil. Lideed. is in the "self-made" men. of course. had had in to sea. trial and error. His mistakes seem to have been caused by unwise advice and direction. He certainly did not achieve that of which he was capable. or ment. He was kept in pedagogical preserving fluids. that the animal method of making progress is most clearly discernible. Adams' enumeration of the mistakes of his childhood and youth. and for this the unintelligent gmdance to which he was subjected was responsible. A brief reference to the learning process of lower animals . 125 of meeting problems what the animal method The only difference is that animals in the wilds must remedy their serious mistakes or pay the penalty with their lives. Probably his chief misfortune was that his family had money and social standing.

and one of them happened to meet the requirements for reaching the exit and securing the Gradually the useless actions were eliminated. We say that the animal has learned to get out of the enclosure. he will finally learn to take the direct course to the food. and the animal may learn to pass from one to the other in quite different ways.126 will PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK show how much it has in common with the uninman. for example. What actually has happened is that a connection an association has been formed between a situation consisting of confinement in an enclosure of definite appearance and following a certain path to food. and food. pulling a string to open a trap-door in the first case. to obtain food. By degrees. if again placed in the enclosure. The responses were made at first. In the same way they may be trained to go to the corner of the enclosure farthest from the exit and turn around an exact niunber of times to secure food. The elements of tions that these associations long be increased so as to form a may be made. without selection. The situation favored or permitted various responses. clijnbing a ladder and going through a hole to reach the third encloalso series. however. the cess. pushing up a lever in the second. series of effective responses without error or This same association can be established between achave no necessary relation to one another. the correct associations attained sufficient strength to produce the delay. but he will repeat many of his former errors. — — possibility of which was provided for in the instinctive equipment of the animal. he will run about until by accident he finds the path that leads to the exit where food rewards sucstructed learning of will Now. all except one of which end in blind alleys. It is well known. or stand on their hind legs. the animal not at once follow the direct path to the exit and food. may Several connected enclosures . that dogs can readily be taught to sit. If an animal is confined in an enclosure with winding paths.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING sure. Now. by C. But this is probably due to persistent and strengthened association rather than to any discernment of the relation between cause and effect. the prevalent opinion that man's method of learning is commonly different from that of the lower animals Animals learn by association. There is no recogiiition of cause and — must be made to secure the desired re- It is interesting to observe. In other words. that some more highly developed among the lower animals seem to select and pay especial attention to those parts that are coimected with the essential element. effect. Watson. Behavior.^ The absence of ideas means absence of thinking. by John B. No inferences are drawn. especially the Journal of Animal Behavior. When one is imjustified. it is not difficult to show is the cause of the second. without the intervention of ideas. 127 and finally returning to the point of departure different route to find food awaiting him. and changes in its location do not always disturb them. and numerous reports of investigations in the journals for general and comparative psychology. however. the result is not connected with a certain action upon a given object. . A certain situation is associated with a given response. of the event follows another they assume that the succession will always occur. that roan employs this same associative learning ' more Those who wish to make a more detailed study of learning among the lower animals may consult Animal Behavior. cases the response is made by a In all of these directly to a given situation. though the essential element in the situation the one to which a — definite response sult ^may be quite as conspicuous as before. For aU the practical purposes of life such responses assume that the first event Now. Lloyd Morgan. In some instances the response to such an occurrence becomes settled as an instinct. Change the setting to any great extent and the responses are likely to be disturbed. Chickens going to their roosts in the middle of the day during an eclipse of the sun is an illustration.

Recent investigation* of the which he solves a maze problem has shown that "the rational processes reported were unsystematic and seemingly futile. rather Cues which logically should be utilized were disregarded. . the persistence in another form of the old superstition than reasoned out. of course." This belief is. When this idea was first promulgated by the "science editor" of certain newspapers the unintelligent accepted it and those better informed smiled. the belief was quite prevalent that the imusual "weather" was caused by the firing of camion on the battle-front of Europe. he assumes that he is reasoning. and that its necessary connection with the result be discerned. The summer of 1915 was cold and rainy throughout the central and eastern parts of the United States and.128 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK in is supposed. there may be something in it. as will be recalled. The difference between this pseudo-reasoning and the real thing is that reasoning. as that of cause to effect. and ideas were acted upon in an uncritical manner until they were proven by trial to be incorrect. when the low temperature and rain continued. for correct inferences • Fleming A. Perrin. no. In those cases in which this process of associative learning seems to carry the learner forward in his thinking. Adequate interpretations were suggested commonly than way to the learner as the result of prolonged exploration. requires that the essential element in a situation be selected from the mass of unessential factors. One need not go back to the belief in a necessary connection between phases of the moon and sowing crops for an illustrative example of this sort of reasoning among human beings." If the word "rational" were omitted from this account the description would be such as might be written of animal learning. however. C. whatever else it means. Psychological Monographs. even intelligent people began to say: "After all. Later. 70. "Associative reasoning" assumes that an action or other event which precedes the second has some necessary connection with it.

In man speedy The sorforgetfuhiess is both a misfortune and a boon. is so old as to have its origin almost lost in the past. and when. . and right find another characteristic of we mon to that of the lower animals." THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING that rain can be caused disturbance. also. here was continuous. human learning comThe latter quickly for- get an event unless it has been worked into their nervous system by repeated experiences or has become instinctive through natural selection. Yet it still serves its purpose. Again. rows of yesterday are submerged in the joys of to-day. 129 artificial atmos"reason" did not give the same conclusion the following summer (191 6) when an unusually high temperature was recorded in those localities which were cold the year before. and an important element in the psychology of the stockmarket is that the pessimism of last week is forgotten in the present elation." which is a good illustration of same deception. firing than usual. In man. continue to succeed. the tricks of "wire-tapping" to obtain advance information about the winning horse. This human tendency to forget is of supreme importance in the psychology of learning. In its simplest form it consists of information that a large sum of money awaits one in Spain. But. But a "small amount is needed to secure the legacy. swindlers would need to be geniuses at invention. new devices would have to be frequently invented to trap them. Were it not so. the old tricks are usually as good as new ones. and other swindling devices. though to-day's rise may be made to order. The "Spanish repetition of the swindle. the rainfaU was considerably less Of course the error is forgotten. the same methods of "trapping" continue effective. as with the lower animals. Were it not for forgetfulness. though the by producing an pheric Naturally. even with those who know of them. so far at least as what one learns through experience or otherwise is to be used in reasoning.

Given a continuous succession of more or less random movements." according to Thorndike. among other writers. 14. In speaking of animal learning. by being connected with many situations alike in the presence of the element in question and different in other respects. 201. the desired result will fly is biting be attained. It was not even consciouslyselected. . Learners. p. or series of movements. Many random movements the cheek of a very are made in the struggle to relieve the discomfort. and John B. and some of them will be more effective than the others. Now. was not planned. Just how a selection of the efficient method occurs without conscious interference is not easy to say. 264. A young baby. The others either opposed success or were indifferent to it. Watson. The successful movement is produced without any further conscious guidance or selection than is supplied by the general effort to attain a desired result. and so it is with man in learning any act of skill. a matter of the utmost importance in the psychol- been noted in coimection with the ranto which reference has just been made. vol. Edward L. finally if the effort is persistent. Indeed. is boun(^ firmly to that element and loosely to each of its ogy of learning has dom movements • Those interested in the theoretical discussion of this question may con- sult. There seems to be a competition of methods. At last one of these movements succeeds and the fly is brushed away. chap. "is that the response. Quite commonly they do not know that they are using these methods imtil they notice that the difficulties are disappearing.I30 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK it was observed that the particular action which produced the desired result was one of many. The successful movement. Behavior. American Journal of PsycHology. in acts of skill. all directed toward a definite end. a Study in Comparative Psychology. suddenly find themselves employing definite methods to meet certain difficulties. Animal Intelligmce: Experimental Studies. p. VII. the following: Edgar James Swift. Thorndike. It is the same with the lower animals.' "What happens in such cases.

Roger observed that "a large percentage of the fortunate variations came altogether impremeditatedly. Batson. Heniy A. 44. 95. p. in further verification of the present writer's original report. vol. ' Psychological BulleUn." Illustrations of this unconscious adaptation to work and games • —the method of improvement in uninstructed learn- Educational Psychology. 2. 91. any element is is bound to any one response that made to all situations contain- and very. Louise EUison Ordahl. p. it may be well to quote briefly from some of the later investigators. F. * W. William H. voL i. American Journal of Psychology. p. . no." it. Ruger. The learners suddenly noticed that they were doing certain parts of the work in a new and better way.* Because of the importance of this principle. says that "a second significant fact about learning is that all sciously adaptations and short cuts in method were unconmade. . Bulletin no. Later investigation of the writer* sustained this observation. 218^. ing it. 22. which may be of skill is fimdamental in called the law of unconscious adoption of method. American Journal oj Psychology. . . these modifications were noticed. Ordahl. called attention to the fact that unconscious adoption of methods of procedure in acts human learning. and improved upon. Unconscious modiThen. 131 firmly Conversely. 295. pp. L. in the first tion of the learning process. practised. as confications were continually cropping out. Book. p." And Book. 15. vol.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING concomitants. E. Archives of Psychol' ogy. University of Montana. in her study of Consciousness in Relation to Learning. very loosely to each of those responses that are 1 made to only a few of the situations containing report* of his investiga- The present writer. 53. vol. sciousness was gradually freed from details. no. found that methods changed and improvements appeared without conscious control. then purposely adopted it in the future. Psychological Monographs. 14. and recently it has been verified by various investigators. 158.

We have said that the law of unconscious adoption of . etc. of muscles is necessary be accurately gauged. of course. often to his surprise. There is probably more discouragement in golf because of the intermittent and frequently This means indiscernible progress than in any other game. This is. that the muscular tensions. and arm muscles. especially when the course is lined on either side with hazards or with natural obstacles. finds himself obliged to make is various The beginner in golf new muscular adap- That a nice adjustment shown by the exceedingly slow progress of the learner. and no learner can designate the time imtil the finer muscles when this occurs except as he. must tations of considerable delicacy. All of the fine adjustments and co-ordinations. possible only ia the case of such movements and tensions as can be singled out — — for control when once the adjustment has been made in- voluntarily. These adjustments cannot even be named. The most that one can do is to control the larger muscles stand in the correct position.. After these adaptations have been made a sufficient niunber of times to acqxiire some degree of consistency.132 ing PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK ^will — readily occur to the reader. In other words. keep the head still. contractions. the learner's attention except for thought of the larger muscles is upon the accomplishment of the purpose. Driving the ball in just the right direction and in a straight line. and there are many. the learner observes them and then they are consciously adopted and perhaps improved upon. Every beginner knows how little all this accompHshes have begun to make their unconscious adjustments. are made imconsciously in the general effort to achieve success. upon the result. suddenly finds that his good plays are more dependable. involves a nice adjustment and co-ordination of eye. give the arms the right swing — — general effect. much less consciously controlled. hand. the eye on the and try to get the ball. force.

In entering upon new work. the most that a teacher can do is to give general directions. and keeping the eyes on the ball. And when the learner is this is as it was in uninstructed learning. Knowledge of failure.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING method degree characterizes uninstructed learning. involving as it does logical thought. But the writer is convinced that it has much wider application. however. except so far as one is attentive to the result and to the muscles that can be controlled voluntarily. It is not necessary that these troubles be so conspicuous as to cause the learner to sit down and think them over and consciously decide upon a plan of action which he thereupon rigorously carries out. one meets certain difl&culties which must be overcome. also active it is 133 In a large under instruction. this is the exceptional mode of procedure. In golf. The adjustment and other adaptations. as we have seen. and its social relations. centres the attention on definite details. As a result men respond to any given situation in what may be called their natural lack discourages thinking. too difficult to be popular. must still be made unconsciously. Serious A naturally hard task is thus rendered still more difficult. Indeed. mine That is. This last is of special importance because one cannot observe oneself. is. They meet the difficulties unthoughtfully as they arise. successful thinking needs material upon which to work. as in beginning the practice of law or engaging in salesmanship in a wholesale or retail house. and persistent reflection. much as they would in an way. their . in the writer's opinion. holding the head still. Besides. such as the position of the hands in grasping the club. and tell his pupil wherein he fails. This law of unconscious adoption of method has been demonstrated only in acts of muscular skill. for example. and in situations involving human beings this raw material consists of knowledge of man's response in various Few men have this information. then. their individual peculiarities largely determanner of response.

but the view would enable one to clothe it more presentably on another occasion. by Romiett Stevens. as quality combined with rapidity. Unhappily. This flexibility in habits of performance presupposes an understanding of the signifi' The Question as a Measure of Efficiency in Instruction. The will habits that grow out of the responses to situations among other things. his methods or responses will vary until the standard toward which he is striving is attained. on the other hand.134 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK skill. The success of these responses. the person most concerned is usually the last to discover them. shorthand and phonographic repetition of one's responses to situations would be much like gazing at one's own skeleton. It is a remarkably valuable critic of himian behavior. If he is contented merely with accomplishing the task. If a salesman. will. could read a ver- batim report of his conversation with his customers. which the beginner has unconsciously adopted. efficiency set approximate result wiU satisfy. of course. and might well be adopted A man in business. Should he. And it would be the most profitable moving-picture performance that he could attend. he would obtain a picture of himself such as no critic could give. upon the standard of by the learner. and acting in the presence of certain situations. Even before these forms of response to situations have been noted by the person who makes them. depend upon his natural aptitude for the work in which he is engaged. An investigator^ of teaching has demonstrated the advantage of an accurate shorthand report of everything said in the classroom by teacher and pupifs. for example. they have become habits of behavior. To be sure. any way that produces an depend. as in the case of muscular act of muscular skill. in very definite ways. suddenly finds that he is performing the details of his work. . take account of some of the other factors that make for efficiency.

but the temporary condition is. before tured. of "experience. are largely beyond control.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 135 cance of the situation. We their see here. The significance of experience in learning is not merely . the attitude taken toward the several problems presented in the situation. or salesman. The permanent characteristics. again. Their response makes their experience. This. his And this is settled quite as much by a man's permanent and temporary "make-up" as by the situation with which he is confronted.problems in the general mass of details. business mind which is The who tion man. of discipline. If the writer is correct in this brief analysis of human response to situations. explains why the same outward set of circimistances is experienced differently by various persons. Now imply uniformity in situations. is the one unable to distinguish the various. For without this comprehension the standard of attainment will not be commensurate with its possibilities. They do not admit differences." For it is a truism that the experience of an individual is colored by mode of response. instead of the develop- ment of personalities. And their feelings and interpretations vary because of their different visions. is their insistent rules of behavior whom the writer has lec- for rules of action. For such a teacher the one quesis is that of order. above all else. They presuppose no problems. the uselessness many times. inefficient teacher. again. it reveals again the vagueness. High standards of achievement therefore demand an inquiring attitude —a state of continually looking for problems in the daily work. the need of preparation on the part to interpret situations learner to enable him —to see of the meaning. To no a salesman of this type different customers present interesting situations calling for varying responses. They see things differently as truly as do myopic people. The most conspicuous demand characteristic in the sales and advertising managers. being chiefly inherited.

For. the first is Therefore. teaching consists largely in constructing and in reconstructing experiIn the case of the more mature it is chiefly the ence. the method is assumed to be good in all localities and on every occasion. however. instead of examining ways and means with the view of finding the most efficient plan of He action. He fails to comprehend the is In thinking and acting. they emphasize again the im- portant fact in adaptation and behavior. is prevailing conditions Since. He does not see the meaning of action and response. and in thinking his procedure is the same. It is the animal method on significance of behavior. This is one of the reasons for the importance of instruction. and the chance of business tradition and opinions. that man adopts the simplest method that will approximate the results which he wishes to gain. but also that it determines future experiences by fixing the attitude and method of approach to situations. after all. . Yet Consequently. advertising when a given method in salesmanship or attended by success. Consequently. assumes that things are as they appear to be. latter. He misunderstands the hiunan mind. which human behavior has been grafted. If the instances which have been cited are indicative of human action in general. other.136 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK that it is one phase of the process. the chance of poor instruction or no instruction at all. He has acquired a certain mental "set" which perverts his judgment. the man who does not understand them is beginning a career of failure. chance thus creates disordered responses. this may occasionally produce results. he does not approach the new with an open mind. A man is biassed by the opinions which he has formed as a result of previous experiences. happy combination of circumstances not likely to be reproduced. if one event follows an- accepted as the cause of the second. accepts superficial evidence. regardless of the quality of salesmanship or advertising.

some undiscoverable reason Every one has such days.^ different studies were undertaken by Hill and These experiments consisted of typewriting. and in the other the 300 words of new matter. with occasional intermissions. Progress rarely continuous. . The practice was continued for five months. He may work as hard as before. and second. He may not be "fit. we find that the investigations have disclosed several facts of considerable moment in the psychology of learning. slight digestive disturbance. or are sufficient to blunt the edge of one's feelings. A beginner in a new sort of work. was the length of time required for writing the 100 words. vol. yet for not able to get results. The meaning is of the irregularities is quite clear. The two striking characteristics of the experiments were irregularity in the acquisition of skill and occasional delays in progress. all of But the physiological condition does not explain the irregularities in progress." fitful sleep A night out. and the investigation of the acquisition of skill in typewriting to which reference ' Pedagogical Seminary. in the one case. 20. and consequently to lower he is At times. again. Two Rejall. the learner feels splendidly. efficiency. and often unexpectedly. advances for a time and then suddenly. Some of these variations are caused by the physiological condition of the learner. Typewriting is an unusually good illustration because it is t3T)ical of much of the work done by the younger men and women in business ofl&ces. several investigations have been made of the progress of begirmers. successive days. a 300-word page of changing material.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING proficiency in 137 Turning now to learning in the narrower sense of gaining some definite act of skill. The measure of progress. on first. Fortunately. p. 516. or a new subject of study. the same 100-word paragraph. These periods of temporary arrest of progress are called plateaus in the curve of learning. his progress is interrupted. yet for some reason he does not advance.

which. that we have here a period of arrest in progress. nevertheless. ' Professor Thomdike. . both retardation. Sometimes the learner wiU do better. though not maintained. and also temporary improvement. but he rarely falls back to an earher lower level of accomplishment.138 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK made reveals several of them." the learner now This new record becomes the it. inclusive. but between that day and the 6th of December. however. Rejall's figures several plateaus extending from four to seven dayi are quite evident. and again not so well. One of these improved scores was only seven seconds better than the record for the 2Sth of November. therefore. says that the absence of "any clear plateaus or 'resting stages' is noteworthy. the better score becomes a permanent acquisition. Then his new achievement becomes the centre of variation until he is prepared — — to make a further advance. as it were. ten devoted to the work his record was either the same or worse than on the 25 th of November. Whether plateaus would show themselves in such a curve depends. but he cannot yet be depended upon to maintain the record. around which the score for a week or so is likely to oscillate. wliich appears in the curve of progress as a plateau. written friend. illustrates by a shows. In a longer or shorter period of time. usually intermittent. It is quite evident. for example. there were only three days when he reduced the time required for the task. centre. Intermittent improvement in score indicates the tendency of the learner." The explanation is that his curves were plotted from weekly averages. who prepared the experiments for publfcation. then. The following experience in golf. the drift of the learning process. upon their distribution.' has just been of On the 25th one of the investigators wrote the 100-word selection in four minutes and seventeen seconds. On all the other days of the November. in large In a curve plotted by days from Hill and part. After hovering around a certain record for a time in tj^jewriting several days or a week the learner goes forward. Improvement is. knows that he can make Barring occasional "off days.

regained the successful drive which I acquired so suddenly and carried on so successfully for several weeks and then as suddenly time. In order to overcome this difl&culty I had taken lessons and had learned the theory so that it was at my command. but in practice the results were more often disastrous than good. Again and again. As many as fifteen consecutive drives were made." lost. This time the movements were enlivened with the thought that I was going to hit the ball and see how far I could drive it. Before making the attempt I thought over the directions for successful driving. in one case on links on which I had never played before. It seems to be a case of persistent re- tardation. After a number of weeks of successful driving I was playing one day. and went through the act once. but what I have done I can do again. My longest drive was over 240 yards. some The astic player. I endeavored to recover the skill which I had lost in a way I could not exSeveral months have passed. only one of which was defective. Again I took my position. both that day and on subsequent days. For several weeks I drove with equal success. Again I took my place and added 20 yards to the drive. but I had acquired no certainty in driving. One day I took my usual position for driving. I could not see any positive improvement from month to month in the certainty of my drive. There was neither pull nor slice. and following through with my club. and I have not yet plain. The distance was about 160 yards. trying to just graze the ground. and the distance increased until it reached about 200 yards. and the ball went almost as straight as one could draw a line in the direction in which I had intended. and for no apparent reason I topped the ball.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 139 "I had played golf with unsatisfactory results for a year and a half and had succeeded in getting good control of the various irons. writer has obtained the golf scores of an enthusiThey are his record for three consecutive .

.I40 years. but the plays are irregular and plateaus are evident. It be observed that there is general progress from year to year. will PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The scores are given at the left of the curves.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 141 .

. vol. these associations consist in connections between the letters of words and the location of the corresponding keys of the typewriter. for example. from his study of the learning process in typewriting and in beginning the Russian language. 199. slower at the outset than in psychology. ous.* concluded that these periods of arrest in progress are caused by the need of time for making associations autoIn t)T)ewriting. p. This initial rapid advance has been foimd true matic. ' Those who wish more detailed information of the psychology of beginning a language may consult the author's Mind in the Making. The writer's investigation of the early stages Russian language. advances rapidly at first.142 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK In introductory p>sycliolis explanation of these plateaus. Studies in Philosophy and Psychology (Garman Commemorative Volume). the curve of which is given below. of all acts of skill and of subjects of study. however. ogy the first week or two a few fundamental facts. is the in his curve of learning as a plateau. cause of this retardation? The present writer. 149. It is much more irregular than would have been the teacher. a large number of new words and terms must be mastered at once. The learner. He drops almost the foundation immediately to a low level of efficiency which reveals itself What. Consequently. vol. This natuHis progress is therefore rally perplexes the student.^ case had the learner been aided by a Returning to typewriting. 297. p. shows the same characteristic. there is httle chance for confusion. i. in which a large mass of new material is not crowded upon the learner at the outset. p. then. p. 7. 295. generally devoted to discussing The new The effort of the teacher is terras are not numerdevoted rather to laying by estabUshing the simpler principles. starting at the zero stage. it is clear that after a certain very moderate degree of proficiency has been attained > Psychological Builetin. In beginning embryology. This curve in learning the of learning also indicates the effect of uninstructed learning.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 143 .

and upon the rapidity with which the associations work. The periods of arrest in progress—the so-called plateaus of the curve of learning—are. the sense of location being a sufl&cient guide. There are. however. of course. easily They them and accurately. but not well organized busy making gains. but it answers the purpose. selling goods. Young salesmen may also be who do not need to learn the art of They know how to deal with men and can it arises. found. to whom learn the multiplication tables offer no difficulties. This is a very sketchy description of the stages of learning to use a tjrpewriter. progress ciency. It is not a real arrest. then. be consolidated before it is possible to rise to the next This consolidation requires practice.144 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK needed. may be continuous to a high level of effi- There are children. each of which must. This cessation of progress. for during this dating the information or skill won by is time the facts and information are being automatized for ready use. occasionally. only apparent. There are different levels of efi&ciency. Quite soon the hand goes directly to the vicinity of the desired key. because it canto be visible to the not be measured and recorded so as accumulated information is only partially Loosely eye. but a few seconds will be required to find the right one. and finally the eye is unnecessary. so to speak. and from time to time they must stop to organize and reorwhat they have learned. may strike the key at once. directed by the eye. the amount needed depending upon the number of details to be mastered and upon their dif&culty. Next the finger. ficiency. The majority learn with effort. In the case of cerlevel. . intervals for consoliganize the learner during because he was too his advance. different degrees of prodepending upon the firmness of the connection between letters and keys. Progress seems to be delayed. meet each emergency as such But such children and men are rare. tain individuals especially adapted to a given piece of work. for example.

are only too familiar with the long period of discouragement when they seem to be making no advance. advance is attended with a This. — — for the language The length of this plateau-period ^with their aptitude and is ^but all feel its oppressive- Now. This explanation of these periods of apparent retardation is illustrated by the experience of those who have spent several years in a foreign country tr3Tng to learn the language. but for a long time improvement is intermittent. Beginners in golf. Perseverance finally brings results. because it is then that the consolidation of details is going forward. of course. Progress during these plateau-periods assumes. The word-associations and peculiarities of thought-sequence had been automatized during the long period when no visible progress was being made. In acts of skill these details are the finer movements. period of discouragement. the meaning of facts grows as their connection with other facts is observed. again. varies with different persons preparation ness. The best endeavors seem to fore bring no progress. At times it seems to vanish in a night. that the learner is a zealous worker. This requires time —time for the nervous processes underlying the learning to be- come set and time for new nervous connections which are the basis of recalling ideas to be established and fixed.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING usable. is followed by a long feeling of elation. The first rapid. together with the Judgment of the amount and direction of muscular effort. and in subjects of study they -include facts and ideas which must be both learned and organized. an interesting feature of this plateau the suddeimess with which it often disappears. In the early stages of learning the real advance is theremade during the periods of seeming arrest of progress. . and these new relationships give added significance to what one has learned. More than this. 145 It comes to mind slowly and some of it does not come at all until it has been relearned. however. though slight. and make it more serviceable in one's thinking.

These periods of delay in visible progress. means mastering details ments into a - sufficiently to make them is readily usable. during the interval of apparent retardation. so long as they require individual attention. and the explanation of the sudden advance seems to be that something has been going on. will depend upon the nimaber and difficulty of the details which must be co-ordinated and automatized. it must be accotmted for. Batson concludes from his experiments that tization is — — when progress requires the organization of different unit. Automatization. are being automatized for instant use. Psychological Monographs. as has been said. a plateau is the visible expression of the time needed to master or automatize the chain of associated movements which. • 153- ' ' W.. 53." ' The length of the plateau. then assiuning that the learner is working faithfully and intelligently are the days when real progress is being made. Batson. Book also seems to accept the principle of automatization when he says that "it takes some time for the new way of writing" [on the typewriter] "to become sufl&ciently automatic to allow part of the attention to forge ahead in quest of more economical methods. etc.^ Since this is a regular occurrence. to make what has been learned more usable. as the case may be. ennui. 155. The latest investigation' of learning adds further evidence for the explanation of plateaus as periods of automatization. produce temporary retardation. 91.146 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Evidence that these plateau-periods are days of automafound in the fact that they are always followed by a rapid advance. or the material of knowledge. . no. p. vol. excluding physical conditions. work upon ^Psychological Bulletin. words. University of Montana Bulletin. no. that is. These details consist of whatever essential to success in the 7. upon the complexity of the work. H. plateaus represent the move- time needed to In other establish this serial and imitary combiuation. p. for during that time the skilful movements.

not merely a matter of the not wholly an objective condition. until. It is quite conceivable that a learner may have such aptitude for a feat of skill as to master its complexities without any retardation. Investigation of learning over long periods of time.— THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING which the learner separate is 147 engaged. whether they are inevitable in every objectively complex process. indeed. So far as successful accompUshment is concerned and this is the psychological problem the ease or difficulty with which an individual masters the movements is Complexity. This was true of one of the subjects of the writer's experiments in tossing and catching two balls with one hand. It is — makes them for him. however. however. whether these characteristics of learning are true in the case of those preparing to do the world's work. but this is one phase of automatization. If progress requires that movements be combined into a series. Some of them may be briefly considered. This exceptional effort is rarely expended imless new demands and responsibilities are put upon him. Fortunately. Experiments in the psychological laboratory are sometimes thought to be so artificial and unreal a^ to be of little value for the outside world of action. The question may well be asked. the apprentice has learned his shows that finally a level is reached above which does not rise without putting strenuous effort into his work. as we say. either simple or complex. the man . activities involved. tests of those engaged in the world's work have been made. and the more complex the combined movements the more likely they are to occur. at least. and they have verified and enlarged the results obtained in the laboratory. At the same time plateaus are the rule. trade. Plateaus do not occur in every learning process. It is doubtful. and this is a fairly complex activity. this serial activity must be practised until the learner need not attend to the separate movements. for example.

Wright. but few reach the Umit of their ability. its subjective influence stiU persisted to such an extent that the total accomplishments of the subject were materially lessened. A new stimulus was applied and their level of production was raised. and found that. Indeed. eleven. vol. twenty-one. Wright's investigation has demonstrated experimentally that "through the continued use of a stimulus not sufficient to call forth their strongest efforts the subjects accepted the same as a standard. and twenty-six years' experience. 608. with nine. evidence has been found' which shows quite conclusively that even with adults who think that they are doing their best.148 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK of telegraph-operators The study by Bryan and Harter' and is showed that a new increase in the rapidity of receiving sending messages begins after an operator from an unimportant office to the main line. respectively. It shows that man accepts as a standard of efficiency the demands ' of the situation confronting Psychological Review. him —that he is sub- and vol. That which produces a result satisfactory to the demands of the occasion is good enough. transferred are. and this when they were deprived of standard objectively. Further. This is a phase of the human tendency not to expend xmnecessary energy. Aschaffenburg. tested four skilled typesetters. slight incentives materially increase the output. . Psychological Review. 13. of There course. p. p." This investigation is experimental proof of the tendency to minimum effort of which we have already spoken. 345. to which reference was made in an earlier chapter. p." again. R. vol. It is improbable that these typesetters were exceptional. 23. W. individual differences in the possible rate and range of improvement. 4. Man does not exert himself needlessly. under the stimulus of competition and observation they made a marked improvement in the quantity of type set during the four days in which they were tested. 6. 2 » KraepeUn's Psychologische Arbeiien. p. 27. vol. i.

It is supremely important to find something that one feels is worth one's best efforts. Of course one may feel that it is not worth the effort. The answers are known. with an end that is worth while. Questions are asked and problems given.— THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING ject to false limits of production 149 and achievement. Indeed. contented. There is no incentive to achievement except the artificial one of rivalry in rapid work. there is no opportunity for disagreement. This is probably true not merely of employees but also of managers. Then learning may be carried to the highest level of which an individual is capable. the answer to which the teacher is assimied to know. which he erroneously thinks represent his ability. This lack of a purpose or end in the work of children has been mentioned by Dewey as one of the causes of inefficiency in the schools." describ- ing an "adventure" of the hero. Most men are upon levels of production above which they could rise if the right stimulus were applied. but in that case change of occupation is probably desirable." Each week's composition was • to be a "chapter. . into the animal method of mere adaptation. "Something worth while" assumes an end for which one zealously strives. is The human tragedy down. There were no books for the English class the eighth grade to settle — so the teacher! decided to let the children "write a book. Miss Claudia Lide. Rather. find something worth while. no mental stimulation of discovery. a graduate of Here was a real end. The difference between the dearth of interest under these conditions and in the presence of a real problem to be worked out. then decide upon a definite plan of action instead of drifting into the line of least resistance and expending the minimum amount of effort that will meet the needs of the situation. was shown in a country school. Washington University. observation has led the writer to believe that a good part of the inefficiency of employees reduces finally to the inefficiency of those who direct them.

and the result far exceeded expectations. but I wrote a vulgar. I am sure I tried hard. tensions. improved markedly in the appearance and neatness of their writing under the stimulus of "writing a book. 188. and some of the productions were so good as to be accepted for publication by editors of magazines with departments for children's stories. improved production reveals the difference when a vital end or purpose lures the worker on. something in which originality had Infree play. cramped." An end that appeals to the learner as worth while is closely related to Thomdike's theory of the influence of satisfaction and annoyance. untidy scrawl till I was past twenty till authorship made me forget manner in matter and gave freedom to my hand. Incidentally. and movements.ISO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK something worth doing. . this is often not the case. Unused reservoirs of ability were tapped. "the satisfyingness of the sight of one's — ball speeding down the course spreads to make the way one held and moved the club a little more satisfying as a response to the situation which provoked the stroke. these children put their best efforts into the work. Thomas Huxley hated composition until he reached an age when he had something that he wanted to say." The explanation is that no purpose stirred her till the incentive of authorship took possession. must result finally in certain habits which constitute the form. to which reference has been made. "In playing golf. and why I did remained unexplained." * Improvement. and Harriet Martineau says of herself: "I was the first of my family who failed in handwriting. stead of the usual stupid "compositions" cuUed from encyclopaedias." he says. to be permanent. it was observed that the class in the country school. UnThe increased or fortunately. It is commonly thought that the work of adults differs from that of children by this ^distinction of an end. p. 2. vol. and satisfaction certainly promotes habit forma' EducatioTuU Psychology.

In business probably the most effective antidote for Blind alleys is to make an outlet for success. Temporary any cause. "Begin at the bottom" It is is a good business proposition. and business men even from or high tem- . The selection of an occupation is. and vocational guidance will justify itself if it merely starts boys and girls to thinking about the vocation in which they would like to engage. at the bottom. are the conditions that breed monotony. not knowledge. monotony Closely related to one's work." fatigue Maximum effort is a variable quantity. Some of these matters are beyond the control of managers. and skill. bad air perature lessen the output if not the effort itself. attainment. in the monotony is the effort that goes into "fitness. The details do not Americans. but not so with the ofl[ice or factory air. discouragement. are likely to be in is is the way. as they view it. however. however. can be said in favor of such places is that they do what they promise. are not much impressed with the importance of beginnings. 151 Certain obstructions. same person. is restless also psychological. law. at least. of course. in occupations are discouraging and discouragement genNo visible outlet to one's work. They finish their students and they do it quickly. and erates drudgery.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING tion. and commerce to which young men flock instead of going to well-equipped schools are cases in The degree or license to practice is the important point. The most that interest him. Were proof of this feeling necessary it could be supplied in abundance from our numerous "finish-quick" institutions. It perhaps the most insidious obstacle to hard to raise the lower grades of work to the level of achievements. emotional disturbance. a supremely important matter. Monotony progress. Man. training. it does much more. The short and altogether inadequate courses in medicine. As a matter of fact. however.

is a phase of adaptation. these factors have been found significant. Human energy is as much a matter of physical and physiological conditions as of the wish to achieve. or subject to the series of habits involves strain. Remove the hope of advancement and efifort drops fo an easier level. Civilized man is kept at a prolonged high level of activity by the incentives of civilization. little reliance can be placed upon the men. but business men have not acted upon the discovery. The prolonged training needed to produce soldiers is a matter of "fixing" habits. and external conditions should be studiously planned to promote work. Educators have already learned this. Flexibility is same physiological restraints. therefore be severe movements. so long as a given situa- tion does not produce the definite military response. Change of muscular or mental. They must be . for example. In learning the touch method on the typewriter. But the psychology of habit also plays an important r61e here. Any unhabitual movement. Effort must and continuous until the new habits that further a higher order of skill are established. This. and prominent among them is the desire to better one's condition. of doing a thing is not harder than another. It is an expression of racial indolence. The motives are always personal. It is easy to drop into a state of partial relaxation. In those cases in which the output has been measured under varying conditions of temperature and humidity. beginners in any line of work should maintain a high degree of alertness until efficient habits become automatic. It easier. again. Consequently. To relax is hmnan. So long as there is danger of dropping back into former modes of action. There is always an inclination to return to a lower order of habits. one tends to fall back upon sight. habit that makes the difference. Then effort is not required to is carry It is them One way out.152 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK have not given enough attention to ventilation. is difficult.

has different when it is imparted. He sees its use and he applies it. to hold his head still. and this thinking and acting must be instantaneous. The writer has recently observed this in golf. usually by sections. It ignores the mental condition of the recipient and assumes that a given morsel of knowledge is equally important to different persons and to the same individual at the varying stages of his progress. With the best instruction progress is vmeven. among friends . an act of skill or subject of study as the These difficulties present problems. Yet the other no Inquiry less important acts remain imlearned. while others equally important lag behind. is the function of instruction in learning? usual idea of instruction is that it consists in possessing and imparting the requisite knowledge. for the first time. the learner because his mind is at white heat. and to follow through. how- What. and the learner is keen for the solution. is the lowest conception of the art. He has been trying for months to assimie the right form. This. Certain eflSdent habits are acquired. however.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 153 trained until they cannot think or act in other terms than those of the soldier. Such only carrying the automatization of complex habits of response to given situations to the highest level of efl&ciency. training then. This is the moment when the needed information is welded into knowledge by learning proceeds. even though the instructor be learned in the matter. It must b^reilex. to avoid puUing or slicing. A few days ago he observed. "Seasoned veterans" means this as is much as it signifies hardened muscles. that his eyes remained glued to the ball. The ever. carrying power according to the time Difficulties arise in The same knowledge. with mediocre. and this acquisition has persisted. the inequahty creased. to keep his eye on the ball. is immensely in- Irregularity in progress is not due merely to physical Progress is conditions to which reference has been made.

who was struggling to control her fork at her mind on her knife and let the fork take care of itself. while others no^fess needful for success remain stationary. cause delay and perhaps ultimate failure. Young Richard was quite right when he advised little Una. by Edwin D. Stajbuck. xmcriti- and unjustified assmnptions regarding the meaning or nature of the work. 33. the solutions" [of thinking. as further examination suggests new view-points. and then of holding these convictions tentatively so that they may be readily changed."'' The mental attitude. looking back. The mental attitude is. . and their effect upon the curve of learning has been experimentally tested. 117. to keep her in learning. cit. The scientific attitude of examining a problem before drawing conclusions. "Then I began to succeed. but were the outcome of an extremely complex interrelation of more or less random impulses ^ Una Mary. Their experience has convinced them that certain habits essential to the game are acquired. perhaps accidentally made." she said later. "The fork was as meek as a lamb if I paid no attention to it. while confidence and a mind unhampered by hasty conclusions favor progress. AU of these attitudes and still others have been foimd in learners. intrenched before the learner is aware of it. become ress. has a much wider reach. is essential to progAssumptions. by Una Hunt. of course.154 PSYCHOtOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK has given corroborative evidence." ' The same observation has been made by a music-teacher who says to her pupils. Ruger' found that "in general. problems] "were not the result of mere straightaway and the consequent formulation of a thorough- going plan of action. after something has been clearly shown and imsuccessfully attempted: " Stop trjong. op. ' » The Psychology of Religion. and distort his judgment. cised Belief that the goal is imattainable. however. There are several ways in which it may influence progress first dinner-party. p. important. p. and it wiU do itself.

Psychology and Scientific Methods vol.. and in the factory it means a greater and better output. II. and Strong^ has shown that moderate distribution of observations of advertisements ' makes a more lasting impression Edward K. abilities previously unknown even to their possessor are brought into action. ideals and purposes with carrying power arouse emotions. stated. The significance of the both in learning and in getting results. p. When. In the retail business this feeling pervades the store and gives to it a distinctive tone. 124. Jr. be something worth getting enthusiastic over. has been found to be the truest guide in the conalertness scious and unconscious selection of methods in the learning process.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING and. and the whole is welded into a sentiment that tolerates no inefficiency. It is not for practice alone that time is needed." 155 Incentives are also important. be secured as an ally or the work is a failure. however. and the element of time. as fac- Wright has shown. There is nothing that so stirs a yoxmg man as the feeling which accompanies the belief that he is an essential part of a great organization. . But with that is all the organization for efficiency there still remains one factor which cannot be organized out. Group sentiment needs content or it is like the superheated air of which one hears in slang. We shall find later that distributed study yields better results than concentrated work. . It rules with irresistible force. ideas. can hardly be overIn schools it must in busi- means stagnation followed by bankruptcy. on the other hand. tory. Journal of Philosophy. or school. or the enthusiasm that sweeps aside all obstacles. and ness it group sentiment. they act as a mental stimulant. this tal attitude raises the work above a task. Here also belongs the "spirit" of the office. Yet the increased production is accomplished with less than the usual fatigue. The hurrah method is empty. because. There must. shop. because the menFurther. Strong.

but the fact still remains that these inferences come only there is no reason situations —to — after the lapse of time. the four create an impression that is 82 per cent superior to that created by one advertisement. When the four advertisements are seen at intervals of a week the four create an impression 90 per cent greater than did one." between the advertisements may. To be sure.iS6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK When four advertise- than concentrated observations." itself is evidently a factor in learning. explanation of these inferences by unnostill leaves open the question of their origm. is the continued activity of ticed associations Mental processes are dependent upon the nervous system. the nervous processes that persist after practice or study do not have time to do their work and become "set. continue their activity after At least this seems to be the explanation demanded by the observed facts. of So Strong found that when the interval was lengthened to one month the impression from the four advertisements fell to 45 per cent more than that from one advertisement. In acts of skill requiring automatization of movements this need of time has been approximately determined. The answer. . or if an apprentice seeks to cover ground too rapidly. Consequently. ments of one firm "are seen within a few minutes of each other. Stating it in cerebral material terms. psychology knows nothing of them. Association nerve-cells. intervals course. if the study of new Nerve-cells. when stimulated. the stimulation has ceased. and Time to believe that learning to meet human judge hiunan behavior differs in this respect. Applying this to a learner's task in any field. The be too long. agam. details acciunulate faster than they can be organized and consolidated. learner's mind is and not infrequently when the engaged with quite different thoughts. is continuous. *in the latter case associations that have not been noticed may produce the helpful inferences. If there are disembodied minds hovering about.

403. or extramarginal. come from it. mental processes have been in some dispute because of the vagarious conclusions which unscientific writers have drawn.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING of ideas 157 is primarily a connection or relationship between the activity of nerve-centres and the resulting nervous This relationship is such that when two brain processes occur simultaneously or in succession. and in general all our non-rational operations.* "such things as all our momentarily inactive memories. convictions. processes. vol. superstitions. dislikes. we seem forced to the view of a gradual decrease of this nervous activity. the activity of one tends to excite the other. . There is no other escape from the assumption that "mind" was inserted. 2. is a mental fact for the sole reason that it is a physiological fact. The belief in seme sort of activity outside (beyond however. has been called the organic correlate of remembering. * or below) the personal consciousness has recently. then. some of which may yield results available for consciousness. etc. for example. and it harbors the springs of all our obscurely motived passions. again. that mental processes never take place unattended by nervous action which is essential to their occurrence. ' See Journal of Abnormai Psychology. Our intuitions. Association. hypotheses. 22-58. to subconscious nervous processes. p. This view of the decreasing intensity of nervous activity leads. and with it a corresponding diminution of the correlated mental processes. pp. become scientifically respectable. Assuming. de novo. at some stage of the developmental process. and this certainly no evolutionist is wilHng to admit. This transmarginal field "contains. and prejudices.* Different The Varieties of Religious Experience. fancies. likes." James once said. for want of a better name. impulses." The writer is aware that subconscious. persua- sions. associating. as modern psychology does assume. until the nervous activity is of so low an intensity that we have what. of course.

it is not necessary to refer to the imusual instances of crystal vision. are unintelligible except on some theory of psychophysical parallelism. rather than their nature. A few days frequently clears the most perplexing problems. for cerebral localization and the modern view of mental diseases. cannot be otherwise. The articles quoted on were new to tse and. and h)^notism for illustrations of their integrative activity. In using a table to arrive at the figupon which I was quotfound the price figure so high that I used half the price. indeed all of brain physiology. I . attitudes. The manager of a large wholesale house recently gave the writer the following bit of personal experience: "A few weeks ago I had occasion to make a quotation on a large quantity of goods.000. Since their occurrence and connection with the facts of consciousness. automatic writing. The result was a price about half of what it should have been per thousand. When I made my computation I doubled one figure but forgot to double the other. there was nothing to arouse su. consequentiy. and the views an influence upon the personal consciousness. and the latter in turn necessarily assumes extramarginal processes. is the important consideration for our present purposes. though the person may have been guiltless of thinking of them except as they esses.iS8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK are applied to is names it various. if somewhat hesitatingly. and behavior. It affecting opinions. These prices were accordingly wired to two different companies in the afternoon. beliefs." esses occasionally emerged above the level of consciousness only to disappear again as the sales work in hand proceeded.pido& ures for the unit of the product ing. The prospective sale amounted to about $200. I also found the size so large that I used half the size. but there exerts of its nature are agreement that in some way general it. it does not matter whether they are called "physiological cerebration" or "subconscious mental proc- Now that the existence of extramarginal prochas been admitted.

had quoted. On going to my home in the evening I fomid company." James once wrote. and automatization of details. Certainly no doubt arose in my mind concerning the accuracy of the figures that I o'clock. as were. after passing a pleasant evening. "A man's conscious wit and will. . referring to this subconscious it organization of knowledge and experience. exist for the is to accumulation of vestiges of sensible experi(whether inattentively or attentively registered). In the night I awoke suddenly I afterward was about one o'clock house quiet and I pushed the electric button and started for it — — the telephone. realizing instantly that I had committed an error of many thousands of dollars on the wrong side of the ledger. so far as I can recall. and the rearrangement toward which all these deeper forces tend is pretty surely definite." The cerebral processes apparently do their share toward the organization.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING in 159 my mind regarding the inaccuracy of the prices." ' And again. p. Yet all the while on toward scenes. if the material is put clearly before the mind. 209. and definitely different from what he consciously conceives and determines. like the lost word when we seek too energetically to recall it) by his voluntary efforts slanting from the true direction. and ence for their elaboration according to ordinary psychological • The Varieties of Religious Experience. noticed that lights out. I retired about eleven without having thought of the transaction or of the price. the extramarginal field. and. any rate a place now admitted by psychologists at ues. the forces of mere organic ripening within him are going their own prefigured result. and his conscious strainings are letting loose subconscious allies behind the which in their way work toward rearrangement. "so far as they strain toward the ideal. are aiming at something only dimly and inaccurately imagined. It may consequently be actually interfered with {jammed. James contin- "whatever else it may be. clarification.

I." ^ This is probably the explanation of sudden revelations. 463. by James Marchant. it was thought out in a few hours ^was written — down with such a sketch of its various applications and developments as occurred to me at the moment then copied on thin letter-paper and sent off to Darwin all within one week.. and the function of the "reason" liefs rather that of criticising the ideas us. "as it had come to Darwin." ^ The great majority of our judgments and "intuitions" are obtained — — by is this unconscious interaction of extra- marginal. all the data cannot be accumulated at will within a set period Much of it comes to us unexpectedly through associations started in the marginal and extramarginal region during the lapse of time. apparently. .' ". Letters and Reminiscences. ' Autobiography. vol. . Some direct observation or some fact met with in reading would dwell with me. "The idea came to me.. would be contemplated by me for a while. ' ' op. cerebro-mental processes. p. Apt as I thus was to lay hold of cardinal truths." says Alfred Russel Wallace. p." says Herbert Spencer. Aside from this imperfection. .— i6o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK by attaining such a ' or logical laws into results that end ' tension that they may at times enter consciousness with something like a burst. in a sudden flash of insight. cit. "We hardly know Russel Wallace once how or whence.. those that stand the test. it would happen occasionally that one most likely brought to mind by an illustration." and of reinforcing The human mind is at best a very imperfect instrument for thinking. 113. I. . 236. however. and gaining from the illustration fresh distinctiveness. p. have been arrived at imawares each as the ultimate outcome of a body of thought which slowly grew from a germ. "The conclusions at which I have from time to time arrived. vol. because I had a sense of its significance. as Alfred and be- which come to said. Uke the thought of natural selection.

And thus.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING and i6i its bearings observed. without conscious intention or appreciable effort. at least. provided the mind is supplied with the material upon which to work. the organizing activity of brain and mind. preju- dices. we have found to be largely an imcon- . When accumulation of instances had given body to a generalization." Evidently. Whatever thinking one does should be orderly. . experience. then leave it to its fate. doubt its accuracy. . ever. does not produce the result. after an interval. and this subconscious cerebral activity is of inestimable importance . is an ally of no mean worth. Again. little by little. new view-points. but menForce a conclusion or belief back tal confusion never. tear its inferences from it. and mentally running over the facts might be followed by some further extension of the idea. perhaps of a month. and perhaps difficulties or anomalies passed over for a while but eventually forcing themselves on attention. . howIn reading or studying. foi learning so far. Merely loading it with facts. might cause a needful quahfication and a truer shaping of the thought. A week afterward. as knowledge. below the level of consciousness. and with further thought about it might occur a recognition of some wider application than I had before perceived. in unobtrusive ways. . possibly. then. perhaps of half a year. the subject-matter should be systematized to the best of the learner's ability. cross-examine it. there would grow up a coherent and organized theory. . the matter would be remembered. something would remind me of that which I had before remarked. against the wall. Questions and problems must be clearly thought if the mind is to do its share toward furnishing the solution. and before many days its truth or falsity will be revealed. and "intuitions" bear upon our present opinions or the acquisition of Learning. A clear-cut error may lead to truth. reflection would reduce the vague conception at first framed to a more definite conception.

1 62 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK In acts of manual skill new ways of securupon accidentally and adopted. con- servatism or radicalism. The conventional views of "our set" are compelling. by observing many men. This expert. beliefs. however. respectability. A man who . be more conscious and inMethods of improvement will continue to come is accidentally. in which the useless movements are gradually ehminated. There should be periods of skiU that the tal activity rest in everything in manual movements may become "set. It includes those of our sodal standing. — continuously works at white heat will not by one who stops An efficiency expert once told the at times to deliberate. for this the nature of the learning process. be critical in accepting and adopting them. but "our set" is not altogether local. manager of a large business that his chief defect was lack secure the results that will be obtained of leisure moments in which calmly to view his problems. in order that errors may time practice is active during be more quickly eliminated and the most effective improvements chosen. We should. and opinions which surround us. It is the trial-and-error method. scious process. since only in this way can skill. In mental activities the same unconscious adoption of methods of improvement is observable. ing results are happened The learner then becomes conscious of their value for the work in hand. with whose views stantly confronted in the newspapers that we we are con- take and the books which we read. and in thinking we tend to accept the ideas. progress be continuous. ways and means." and in mento give new ideas a chance to assert themselves. and behefs. Efficiency requires that the selection of as well as of ideas telligent. and at The mind should be the practice. had discovered one element of efficiency which psychologists have found in their laboratory experiments. this Intervals of cessation of progress are likely to occur in complex acts of manual especially important.

He may be capable of much greater achievements. but the situation does not demand more energy. There is always adaptation to the needs of situations. So he does not expend it. We cease to form new habits when no incentives for improvement stir us. a 163 that meets the enables man having acquired a degree minimum requirements of his to hold it. of efl&ciency position and him settles down at that level.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARMNG Finally. . We thus act below our ability unless the conditions force exceptional effort. but parsimony continually operates. and the amount of mental energy expended is as much a habit as is the quantity of physical energy applied to doors with check attachments.

whether the muscle be quiet and at rest or whether it be active and moving. loosing hands. some of the new food is always being raised into is which really alive. giving and taking energy as they dance. and when working in a treadmill nine times Muscular and mental liberation of energy by much is given out as when asleep. A man gives out more than three and one-half times as much carbon dioxide per minute when walking at the rate of two miles an hour than when asleep. caught up into and made part of the muscular whorls of the living muscle. "which should overcome the grossness of our vision. This making and remaking of the tissues of the body is a continuous process during life. a downward rush from the living to the dead. "This is always going on. there are parts alive.CHAPTER V FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY activity are always accompanied and disintegration of tissue. some of the capital of living material is always being spent. If his pace is quickened to three miles an hour he discharges more than five times as much. used-up matter. and which we call food. "Did we possess some optic aid. we should see the commonplace. linked together for a while in the intricate figures of the dance of life. there is an upward rush from the lifeless to the living. In every tiny block of muscle there is a part as which are becoming which have been alive but are now dying or dead." says Foster. lifeless things which are brought by the blood. changed into dead waste. there are parts 164 . and then we should see how. so that we might watch the dance of atoms in this double process of making and unmaking in the living body. they slipped back into the blood as dead. inert. Whether the muscle be at rest or be moving.

during the action. are hostile to protoplasmic acWhen present in considerable quantity they weaken tion. it work. 34. and soldiers on a long march. investigation has shown. when it is put into movement. there is a run upon the living capital. vol. Moreover. ITS PSYCHOLOGY 165 But when the muscle is called upon to do work. brings fatigue." * Drawing on the capital of living matter. the movement leaves the muscle with an impoverished capital of potential stuff. of fatigue are chemical conditions resulting The causes from changes within the organism. Two of these substances. the capital is spent so quickly. A muscle so affected requires more prodding for a given Indeed. Recovery may be brought about by feeding sugar.FATIGUE AND living capital. . p. that it cannot be renewed at the same rate. are greatly strengthened by eating chocolate. The chief source activity of the protoplasm energy of muscles is carbohydrates. It is well known that mountaineers." to the body. a muscle treated with either of piece of work. these substances is "fatigued" without having done any of the tally. the expenditure is quickened. 337. Experimenhas been shown that removal of most of the carbohydrates from the body of an animal produces s)nxLptoms of fatigue without exercise. Nineteenth Century. ' Michael Foster. and a period of rest is needed in order that the dance of atoms of which I Just now spoke may make good the loss of capital and restore the muscle to its former power. activity. the greater. Oxygen and carbohydrates have been consiuned. the sensibility of muscle and diminish its response. Oxidation of carbohydrates results in the production of certain substances which act as poisons They are spoken of as "fatigue substances. if the expenditure be in excess of production. the more urgent the call for action. carbon dioxide and lactic acid. under ordinary circumstances. Certain substances essential to the have been consumed in this and waste products have acciunulated.

p. Principles of Human Physiology." * fatigue is not primarily in the muscles. ' ' and the accumulation can eliminate than. not in the efferent neurone itseK.i66 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK factors: First upoa consumption of the contractile material" [of the muscle] "or of the substances available for the supply of potential energy to this material. Starling. situated in some s)Tiapse.. This is proved by the fact "that direct stimulation of muscle will cause contraction after the s)tiapse between nerve and muscle has lost its excitability. upon " the accumulation of waste products of contraction. ' * ^ of waste products more rapidly than the nerve-cell A."^ Although "a state which cannot be distinguished from fatigue can be produced in fresh muscles. Text-Book of Physiology. op. vol. accordingly. Principles of General Physiology. Bayliss." ^ Further. "This state of fatigue is. 451." ' Considerable evidence has been ofifered for locating fa- "The lines of junction of nerves with other parts seem to be more readily fatigued. p.. 209.. op. ' Ernest H." and second. Ernest H. fatigue caused by the consumption of reserve material from which the energy of the nerve-cell is derived. Starling seems unmindful of Verwom and Dolley's "fatigue of excitation" and "fatigue of depression"." ^ It has also been observed that a motor centre which has been fatigued for one reflex may be imaffected for another. it has been as clearly shown that it is not in the nerves as that it is not in muscle. p. Bayliss. p. e. op. "In fact it is not possible to demonstrate any phenomena of fatigue in the nerveFatigue. II. "William M. 475.. 209. cit. E. p. Nervetigue in the synapse. 259. William M. Starling."^ and although "fatigue may be artificially induced in a muscle by 'feeding' it with a dilute solution of lactic acid. by the injection of aqueous extract of the fatigued muscles of anothet animal. 1915. according to StarKng/ probably depends two upon "tlie trunk. Schafer. cit. 389. . cit. and again removed by washing out the muscle with normal saline solution containing a small percentage of alkali. i. p.

pp. it spreads through the blood circulation to other tissues and quickly becomes a more or less general condition of the body." so "we may assume that the seat of the fatigue is to be sought either in the central nerve-cells or in the nerve network." says Lee.' in relation to them. That fatigue products become a part of the general circulation is indicated by the fact that the introduction of blood from a fatigued dog into the circulation of one that is fresh will produce all the S3maptoms of fatigue.' "that the main principles of muscular fatigue are demonstrable in other tissues and organs of the body that in them also fatigue is characterized physically by a diminution in working power. It has been some time that fatigue substances act in a manner upon the respiratory centres. • Stirling. Popular Science Monthly. Diminution of working power is manifested in very different ways by diverse tisGlands in fatigue seem to secrete less than when sues.— FATIGUE AND cells. and chemically by the destruction of energy-yielding substances and the appearance of toxic metabolic products.* who has shown known for that fatigue causes a decrease in the rate of oscillatory discharge of the nerve-cell. p. William . then. 182. ITS PSYCHOLOGY 167 or the fields of conjunction in the central nervous system. Elektrophysiologie menschlicher Muskeln. "There is every reason to believe. fresh. pp. seem to be markedly susceptible to fatigue. and it may be that the action of digestive juices is diminished. quickening the rate and increasing the depth of respiratory movements. 303. this may be. vol. 'synapses. originating in one tissue. Outlines of Practical Physiology. so that their al- epithelium ' unable wholly to prevent the passage of »H. stimulating The primary seat of However fatigue. or in both the nerve-cell and sjoiapse. 124^. igo2. affecting all organs. 76. 1912. Piper." * Evidence that the nerve-cell is the seat of fatigue has been given by Piper. 300. The kidneys may be is deranged. appears to be either in the nerve-cell alone.

This change may be sluggish or it may be rapid if too slow. may become abbrethe tissues and organs viated. feelings. as well as in the brain. Weariness. at any rate. and if too rapid. the tissues and organs of the body are not properly renovated. whether mental or physical. and sensitive mental response bears a direct relation to vigorous bodily reactions. and the more complicated the neuromuscular apparatus the greater the intelligence of the animal. tissues are broken down faster than they can be rebuilt and bodily — The chemical processes of the body should proceed as rapidly as an orderly reconstruction of deterioration ensues. or resting may become irregular. though they do a prodigious amount of work. therefore. The so-called power of the will is dependent in some degree upon the firmness of muscle. So far as fatigue itself is concerned. Incessant change in bodily processes is characteristic of life. the vigor of these organs is evidently an im- portant matter. this relation is even more clearly discernible. The intimate relation between the mental and physical has long been recognized. . Intelligence in animals is correlated with the range in muscular co-ordination. The explanation of indifference to fatigue is found in the relation between expenditure of energy and the amount on deposit. is necessary for referring to muscular exercise in the psychology of the day's work. however. and it is only under the influence of exercise that the circulation maintains its highest degree of vigor. intellect. upon the bodily tone. In man." SLace fatigue expresses itself in of the body.1 68 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to the urine. bumin from the blood dilated. period. and will are closely related to alterations in the circulation of the blood in the body as a whole. is a relative matter. or. No apology. and any means of increasing their endurance has fisychological significance. Some men are never fatigued. its A fatigued heart is beats are quickened and and its diastole.

which is approximately five times the daily average of men. Of course few engage in competitive contests of Just this sort. this time in a twenty-four-hour race. Science. But more than this. Respiratory organs should be capable of quickly bringing in oxygen and quickly eliminating carbon dioxide. Demands are us. Miller. the winner of the 1898 six-day bicycle-race. new series. toughness. again. as calculated by Carpenter.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 169 the tissues permits. Lee. but well-developed organs mean much for endurance in other fields than those of the race-track. The capillary bed should be capacious. is is tion per day. during the month following this tremendous expenditure of energy Miller again competed. Osmotic exchange should be rapid. But it should be observed that the rate of ac- a relative matter. "Voluntary and involuntary muscles should possess size. Secreting and excreting organs should be quickly supplied with blood and lymph and capable of quickly supplying their products. Fatigue is a sign that one is going too fast. and contractile power sufficient for both ordinary and extraordinary demands. vol. since preparation for the exceptional almost every one suddenly put upon come days of strain. performed more than fifteen million foot-pounds of work on the first day. 29. Though the average amount of a man's work is about two million foot-pounds tivity. . and two months later he broke his previous record^ wirming another six-day race." ^ Preparedness for possible emergencies is is important here as in everything else. and the ease and success with which we accomphsh excellent equipment for the usual. To * Frederic C. p. The important quesnot how much one is spending but what is the ratio of expense to one's bank-account. Vasomotor response should be ready. 521. The heart should be able to resist a high blood-pressure without detriment to its musclefibres or valves. and he averaged on each of the six days more than nine and a half million foot-pounds.

"Moderate but increasing amounts of exercise. A man may gradually increase the dose of arsenic until he can take enough to kill ten men. But there should always be a margin of safety. is The physical strength of some One should endeavor to extend the boundaries of one's endurance. always of others insufficient.I70 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK them depend upon our readiness. such that when the supreme He who effort is demanded of them they do not succumb. Lee. In other words. What tires one is insufficient for the well-being of another. Such a man may then hve among these poisonous snakes without danger to his life. It has long immune logical to toxic substances been known that organisms may become by growing accustomed to Illustrations of physio- gradually increasing quantities. in producing resistance to fatigue products. among other things. producing moderate but increasing amounts of fatigue substances. Excess in anything is debauchery. to accustom him again to the normal conditions of human life the dose must be gradually decreased until his organs have readjusted themselves to its absence. The reconstructive adaptation of the human body to the calls made upon it is one of the remarkable biological facts. op. and they are important because they show the extent to which resistance. immunity are abundant. may be developed. Adaptation to the poisons of venomous snakes may also be artificially produced by gradually increasing the amount given. wins is he who can best resist the poisons of fatigue. . in the matter of which we are speaking. and this requires that strength be kept at a high level of vigor. In the same way immunity to the poisons of fatigue substances may be developed. cit. put the tissues into a state of tolerance or resistance." • Training consists. but in the matter of physical exercise excess varies with individuals. • abundant and Frederic C. His adaptation to this drug is now so perfect that if he suddenly stops taking it he will die.

and a muscle stimulated to exhaustion in an atmosphere of nitrogen recovers quickly in pure oxygen. "The practical importance of muscular exercise upon the processes of oxidation in the body cannot be overestimated in these days when overcivilization tends to weaken the physique and moral fibre of man. There is no . therefore. The is test of "fitness" is the capacity to continue active iinfatigued. gaseous exchange and takes place primarily in the cell. its accuracy and value. it would appear that the presence of oxygen tends to push back the fatigue-point. For these reasons. greatly influence the ability to do work and largely determine the sort of work done. The curve of fatigue for to a certain extent a gauge of the bodily any particular day and mental con- dition at the time. just as those of the arm should be hardened. to reduce Respiration is essentially a the lactic-acid formation.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY stopping before exhaustion is 171 little reached. The copious intake of oxygen that accompanies exercise would tend. duced. but with violent exercise lactic acid is also proof these influences aU A variety of experiments indicate that lactic acid appears with a relative deficiency in the supply of oxygen to the contracting muscle. because of its far-reaching effect upon the body and mind. but doing a more the next day. All of this suggests the value of volumes of fresh air in delaying fatigue and of furthering recovery when fatigue has set in. With moderate exercise there is no evidence that any other substance than carbon dioxide is formed. and since muscle in an atmosphere of pure oxygen does not fatigue as soon as in an atmosphere of nitrogen. A man with unhypertrophied heart and muscles is a mollycoddle who cannot stand strain when it is put upon him. emotions. The most important factor in producing fitness. The muscles of the heart should be strengthened by exercise. digestion. and others that are not so obvious. is probably exercise. however. The night's rest.

to a certain extent. when. some but cular classes little become differentiated for . such a wide-spread effect upon the exchange of material in the body. 1908. the body is not a machine from which work can be obtained simply at the expense of more fuel and increased wear and tear. changed this opinion. One the marked Muscu- characteristics of life is oxidation. To be sure. the popularity of golf has. co-ordination of all the systems of the body is neces- and all parts are affected. whether it be physiological or pathological. but the benefits of mus- work are not to be attributed to that alone. and the need of exercise becomes imperative and finds satisfaction in sport. especially in the United States. owing to the process of division of labor. that muscular exercise is unnecessary and perhaps undesirable after a man has reached the sixth and seventh decade of his life. not a simple increase of oxidation. pp. physical activity is too commonly re- garded as the luxury of play. after all. but. Civilization cannot override in a generation or two the characteristics impressed through countless ages.172 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK other condition. is spects muscular exercise of the In these reutmost importance. or more often from his fellow men. . work of necessitating muscular activity. and one may see in the training for warfare among the highly civilized and especially the manufacturing nations a bless- Should the danger of war ever be entirely removed the only safeguard against degeneration would be outdoor sport. . The belief is somewhat wide-spread. Man in a primitive condition is forced to muscular exercise in order that he may obtain food or protect himself from wild animals. a comparatively small ' Recent Advances in Physiology and Bio-Chemistry. lar activity is The sary. which will produce such a great increase in the absorption of oxygen and the discharge of carbon dioxide. 497/." ^ ing in disguise. the growth and vitality of the body are favored by the work performed. Unfortunately. . edited by Leonard Hill.

and walked from four to six miles a day regularly for a period of three years.' "Mr. a distance of four thousand miles. in ninety-five Another striking illustration of the value of exercise is Edward Payson Weston. his chest measurement had increased from 36 to 40 inches. he walked from New York to San Francisco. in a few hours more than one hundred and four days.three years of age he could walk or run almost as easily and with apparently the same elasticity as fifty or sixty years before. as well as gymnasium exercise. these men give themselves up to the physical and mental disintegrating processes of age. time. days. even in those advanced in years. The ex- and output of energy needed are resistances to which those advanced in years readily yield. began systematic exercise with lo-pound dumb-bells and a horizontal bar when sixty-nine years of age. The effect of regular exercise in developing the bodily organs and in promoting resistance to fatigue. and walking. of Eau Claire. Not satisfied with this record. he walked back from Los Angeles to New York.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY proportion of these older pense. and at eighty." muscular In childhood he was weak and sickly. by Dudley A. 63/. Sargent. Wisconsin. about three thousand six hundred miles. and aU the other muscles of the body proportionately. A few years ago. at seventy-two years of age. Smith Robertson. and weighing 140 pounds. is seen in an instance cited by Sargent. At the end of this time he found that his weight had increased from 140 to 160 pounds. One of the valuable contributions of the entry of the • Physical Education. eighteen years of age fear for his health caused him to turn to walking. Consequently. pp. . 173 men play the game. are felt to be uninteresting. a man 5 feet 8 inches in height. and as he grew older he displayed no parAt about ticular athletic ability and had little endurance. He worked with this apparatus for about ten minutes a day.

it is not meant that the hours of his daily work.174 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK United States into the ^lesent value of strenuous exercise. could be increased in such a ratio. The ordinary man errs either in one direction or the other. might be greatly increased. The great majority of adults are far from being 'in condition. But when it is said that the endur- ance. by capacity to withstand prolonged strains. a freer and more buoyant life. The brain worker lives too sedentary a life. "It is weU known that a man 'in training' has greater endurance than one who attempts exertion without previous systematic exercise or training. taken on the right amoimt of flesh. it may be said that a person in the 'pink of condition' is fit not only for physical but also for mental exertion. And with it all has come a hardening of the muscles that has altered their feelings. while the manual worker. They have gained a little sweetness and some hght. and a visible increase in the quantity and quality of work per hour. What it does mean is the removal of the fatigue limit. exertion. thoughts. is in a continual state of overfatigue has received too little attention. of the ordinary healthy man could be thus multiplied.' suffering either from lack of exercise or from too much exercise. or doubled by exercise alone. through fatigue caused by long hours. as measured Could these conditions be remedied. or even his daily output of work. or capacity for exertion. Physical exercise as a means of acquiring resistance to and the value of medicine has been overestimated. endurance. In general. By both together it is not imlikely that it could be tripled or quadrupled. and the fat have become normal. and acts. '^'Experiments have shown that physical endurance can be doubled by dietetic causes alone. In an ideal hfe fatigue would be seldom experi- . wj is the discovery of the on their furloughs so The young men come home completely made over as to be hardly Thin boys have recognized by their friends or themselves.

day after day. p." ^ The source of muscular energy ' is.. unfortunately. however. can work almost continuously through teen hours of the day. ITS PSYCHOLOGY is 175 a daily But in ' most lives. 2 Ibid. fatigue experience. keep them at best bal- ancing on the edge of . while another 'weir man will run twenty-five miles or climb the Matterhorn from pure love of sport. he usually calls himself 'well. one of endurance men caimot run a block for a street-car or climb more than one flight of stairs without feeling completely tired out. Bulletin 30 of the Committee of One Hundred on National Health. A Chinese cooly will run for hours at a That the world regards such performances as stretch.fatigue. Many 'well' more than an hour or at a time." Probably few ing know men actively engaged in earning their livthe feeling of this buoyant Ufe. The Swiss guides." The difference between being "well" and thoroughly by Fisher. like Humboldt fif- Mommsen. 'marvellous feats of endurance' only shows how marvellously out of training the world as a whole really is. . "When a person is free from all specific ailments. 40. while others. They are content with living in the conventional state of "good health. p. In mental work some persons are imable to apply themselves difference is The or susceptibility to fatigue. both serious and minor. 44. They are unacquainted with the freedom that clears away the mental haze and gives constructive visions and insights which cannot be obtained when the fatigue limit is approached. of course. The stress of business and of professional problems to be solved.' There is. and the worries of making ends meet. throughout the summer season. a vast difference between such a 'well' man and one in "fit" has been splendidly characterized ideally robust health.FATIGUE AND enced. spend their entire time in climbing. important Irving Fisher.

. loteyko'and V. How to Live. furnished a severe test of the claims of the flesh abstainers. strength. and the other between flesh-eating athletes and flesh-abstaining sedentary workers. *EnquHe Scientifique sur les VigUariens de BruxeUes. Similar results have been found in other inIt is vestigations. and while this excitation may be to a certain extent artificial. little difference was discovered between vegetaIn endurance." difference was found. however. by J. The mistake is in regarding • it as an essential article of daily diet. The results would indicate that the users of low an experiment made to .176 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK work and evidence here is in connection with ability to The quite clear. 197 /." forty-nine persons representing endurance tests made on The experiments the two t}^es of dietary habits. . test the ' ' to avoid fatigue." and not to meat per Experiments on vegetarians and meat-eaters in the University of Brussels gave similar results. . pp. meat is one of the most peptogenic foods. Fisher and Fisk report" popular idea that meat is The experiments consisted of especially "strengthening. some stomachs seem to require it at least occasionally. it is doubtful whether sudden exclusion from man's dietary is desirable. . one between flesh-eating athletes and flesh-abstaining athletes. Kipiani. Two comparisons were planned. As Pavlov has shown. protein and non-flesh dietaries have far greater endurance than those who are accustomed to the ordinary American diet.^ The tests were As regards largely comparisons of strength and endurance. the vegetarians surpassing the car- nivores from 50 to 200 per cent. It seems to stimulate the stomach. Though meat does not give the strength and endurance it has been thought to furnish. a striking rians and "carnivores. eaters in staying power probable that the inferiority of meatis due primarily to high protein se. . Perhaps the that its safer course is to indulge when the craving is felt. 1907. .

Each plant has its own kind of starch. 1915. and the brain the body. Tht Fundamental Basis of Nutrition. vol. "it has not been incon trover tibly proven that such a diet could be advantageously adopted for all time. man has instinctively and independently selected Uberal rather than small quantities of protein. to eat noth- Corn and the cereal grains. nor that the apparent improvements were due entirely to the low protein. seems not yet closed. he says. supplies building material. covering so long a period. who. . also It contain protein matter. requires the same food as the other cells of Carbohydrates include starches and sugars. is one of the causes of fatigue. eggs. protein constructive material. His dietetic tests ma. enterprise. ' would be possible ' American Journal of Physiology." diet." says Benedict. Protein. under which circumstances the wear and tear on the cell protein is increased. 15. . "believes that there should always be an excess of . .FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 177 Chittenden believes that the waste products of foods containing an excessive quantity of protein. milk. there may be building units ia reserve to quickly restore the tissue destroyed. Dietary studies all over the world show that in communities where productive power." Lusk also takes a similar view. and the grains and potatoes are starchy foods. "Nowhere in the literature of nutrition do we find an experiment so painstaking and accurate.^ "But." continues the same writer. Graham Lusk. 32. and civilization are at their highest. He quotes Rubner approvingly. however. 418. and cheese. so that if after physical ex- haustion there is depletion of the glycogen reserves. p. p. with the exception of rice. found in lean meat. * This question of The evidence indicates that. conspicuously meat. with a diet of so low a protein content following a normal diet. while muscular work can be done at the expense of any of the foodstuffs. carbohydrates are the most available source of muscular energy.de on men in various occupations are remarkably suggestive. fish.

and fruits. fats. so the Eskimo and others who live in cold climates eat chiefly protein and animal fat. live largely on carbohydrates." he says. These purposes Lusk has put in a striking way.178 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Enough protein should be eaten for build- ing but protein. and water necessary for the maintenance of Ufe is not strictly true. of opinion The weight seems to be increasingly favorable to protein reduction. Fat is also valuable as a food. Furthermore. either one of the energy foods with protein would sustain life. it is better to take both carbohydrates and fats. "require fuel to maintain them. . if the amount of fat in the diet is too limited. "The workshops of life. How these substances act five we do not know. and a necessary function of nutrition is to furnish fuel to the organism that the motions of life continue. minimal quantities of certain other substances are necessary in order that the processes of life may proceed normally. ing material. In the fuel factor science of nutrition. vegetable proteins."^ and the repair factor lie the essence of the But fuel and repair do not exhaust that a diet composed of the five classes the subject of nutrition. carbohydrates. among them tuberculosis. Those in warm climates. salt. because man is more prone to certain diseases. cit. and materials must be furnished to repair the worn-out parts.. p. Fats produce more than twice as much heat as the carbohydrates. but we must imagine drug-like effect on plac^ of that they have a some organs of the body. and take the or give rise to some of the hormones which axe ' Op. but for practical reasons.. "The statement — of foodstuffs is — proteins.. but the purposes of nutrition must not be forgotten. . such as digestion. on the other hand. 4. but the system would be overloaded with protein waste. and carbohydrates and fats should be taken for energy foods. It seems that in addition to the all is that classes of foodstuffs. Theoretically. the workshops of life are in a constant state of partial breaking-down.

or the waters of a fashionable health-resort. but many will not be cured of their ailments by muscular work. where they are unconsciously made to take than any drug. "Men and horses work best when they are well fed. as they are called. At first one's power of work increases. is Here a natural stimulus to the appetite. are present in the juices of fruits. more potent it is known to some. then continues at its maximum. Leonard Hill. and in the outer layer of grains. Leonard Hill. %%2. This preliminary warming up is noticed alike in physical and mental work. p. they seek some miracle-working drug. the best sources from which to obtain them are uncooked vegetables and fruits.." ^ working of the different organs These vitamines. fresh vegetables. Starling. respiration. But even under stimulus the time finally comes when we are no longer able to keep at a high level of production. and lead a more natural life. Let us now turn to the effect of normally continuous work. op. and is expressed in the colloquial language of the laborer as 'getting into able in the time required to get the swing of the work. cit.. and if the work is continued one's eflSdency gradually diminishes. It is well known "that at the commencement of exercise or muscular work there is often absent even in the trained man that smoothness in the coordination of the muscular contractions. p. which comes after a short time. beans. 50X. The first delay is observexercise "warmed up" to the work. cit. and thus assists digestion and absorption. and feed best when they are weU worked. Work creates a craving for food. eggs. 502. Since they are destroyed by excessive heat. Sometimes the efficiency may be maintained beyond the normal period by increasing the stimulus. and circulation..' " ' ' ' * Ernest H. peas. We may drive ourselves in one way or another." ^ have been considering some of the conditions of We physical and mental vigor.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY essential for the orderly 179 of the body. p. cit. Op. op. . milk.

voluble. one of the men was kept busy for the greater part of the day answering questions. 1883-1884. I could see how much I wearied him. examination. vivacious.. showing the possession of relatively active Certainly. MacCauley. demand another but on the threshold. in- vestigated the fatigue of soldiers who were learning to read and write. first of all. strong men perspire until drops of sweat fell upon the paper. . One of the officers to whom Mosso wrote for information replied: "At the class examination at which soldiers have to give proof that they are not illiterate in order to obtain their discharge. p. p. about the language and Ufe of his people. of the Bureau of Ethnology. "Occup)dng our time with inquiries not very interesting to him. . with the effect of practice and skill in mind. Often I found by his answers that his brain was to a degree paralyzed by the long-continued tension to which it was subtheir intercourse with jected. who investigated the Seminole Indians of Florida/ has given some interesting information regarding the mental fatigue of these ities." To test the effect of continuous moderate mental activity on people unaccustomed to it. most of the Semibrains and mental fertility. At Lecco I saw one faint during the trial. I have often seen great. noles I met cannot justly be called either stupid or intellectually sluggish. 493. that in MacCauley's opinion the Seminoles rank in the aborigines. Dniininond's translation.." Mosso. then. It should be noted. 121. first class of American "They seem to be mentally active.i8o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Practice and skill also reduce fatigue in intellectual activ- Mental work of a very simple nature frequently produces exhaustion in those unaccustomed to using their minds in such a manner. people. at sight of paper and book. In one another they are. The result of the study of these men was of great importance to them because moderate success shortened the time of military service. he turned pale and fell into a fresh faint. as a rule." ^ ' ' Annual Report F<riigue. feelin<? better.

It was shown in Mosso's laboratory that a fatigued muscle suffers more harm from a light task than an unfatigued one from much more severe work. however. and the penalty has to be paid tive to rest. o^. Much depends upon the condition of the muscle. it is a warning. but it is extravagant work. in the unfatigued muscle at least. p. the expenditure of energy during the first half of a period of work is considerably less than during the second half. Pain is beneficent. . an incen- may may be neglected. effort to avoid the pain brings into action muscles commonly unused. nervous energy ' is not merely squandered. Walking is automatic. however. or be deadened by drugs.." ^ The amount of fatigue. The difference is much like using one's bank-account instead of withdrawing money from one's But. tends to produce fatigue. "Work which is is performed painfully by man or beast uneconomical. the sensations of pain sooner or later. Ibid. The Leonard Hill. The truth of these statements has been fully demonstrated by the successes and failures of forced marches. even of a practised and habitual sort. but if shoes or boots are uncomfortable. but a fatigued muscle uses energy needed for other purposes. however." ^ "Fatigue is also accompanied by an extravagant metabolism. the nervous system performs its part with a more intense and wasteful expenditure. bears no direct relation to the work done. Under ' these conditions. a natural safeguard.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 151 Activity. and work can be performed. serve of energy when work is continued beyond the fatiguepoint. An abnormal rise in the temperature of the body is produced by excessive and prolonged work under unfavorable conditions. when the work is done under unfavorable conditions. ci(. unfatigued muscle has a certain amount of available energy which may be drawn upon. and. Vigorous. in addition to the muscle exhausting its rebusiness. 501. from this cause the output of carbon dioxide may be increased even as much as 21 per cent. and apparently causes a further extravagant combustion.

the fatigue is much less. if work is not carried to the point of cal exhaustion. if the final contractions are not made. and muscular exercise increases the intake of oxygen as well as the output of carbon dioxide. and the amount of work finally accomplished is much greater than when the work is carried to the point of ex- treme fatigue.. ««. pp. . 449. with longer periods of rest under exception• William M. Since no correspondingly significant changes are observed in the nitrogenous metabolism. »0p. Mosso found in testing muscles that.i82 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK accompanies fatigue leads to a breakingdown of nervous structures. stance. it appears that irritation that the energy for muscular contraction is derived largely from the oxidation of carbohydrates. This is true even when more work is done during the first part of the period than during the second half. there is evidence of a certain amount of nitrogenous breakdown of the This is due to the wear and tear of structure itself. 152/. as opposed to normal vigorous work. the time needed for rest is only a quarter of the time required for recovery when . Bayliss." he says. The energy utilized in the contraction of muscle is derived from chemical changes occurring in the muscle. work which it would do if it worked to the point of exhaustion with the most favorable conditions for repose. cit. and the muscle is able to perform more than double the amount of mechanihalf of a period of . That is. Further: "From this experiment "it appears that if the energy of the muscle is not completely exhausted. p. "In excessive work. is done. Overwork tends to destroy muscle-sub- We said that the expenditure of energy during the first work is less than during the second half. if the work is reduced by one-half. . .the full amount of work .. the necessary periods of rest are shortened. that is to say. op." * Probably this is approximately true of the mind as well as of muscles." ' the machinery.

on the other hand. the no definite relation to the amount of the striking effect of very slight intensity of fatigue bears of We made work done. 153. requiring perhaps more labor per mile. But let one's energy become diminished. 2. There was "A many others have done. brought only joy. vol.^ for inmore favorable in hard mental tasks than in easier ones. release from even a smaU part of the work is a relief. is On when one is Under these conditions even conversation is fatiguing. unfatigued muscle is indifferent to the work that it does. which goaded to mcreased exertion instead of dictating The consequence was that I fairly broke down. few years ago I foolishly overworked myself.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY ally 183 favorable conditions for repose. Sounds and noises ordinarily the mental side this especially noticeable recovering from sickness. have spoken additions to the stimulus when fatigued. and. In other words. could not for some days even look at a book or any sort of writing. stance. I went abroad. the first town where I experienced real repose was Rome. provided the work is within the limit of its capacity. Amateur mountain-climbers well know the anguish of the last half-hour. Cerebral activity decreases. and one is slow to get the meaning of what one reads or hears. This is also true of the mind. imnoticed are aimoying. Vigorous. Experience shows that a robust release mind is dauntless. . and reference was to the strain of the last part of a mountain-climb. though I grew much better and could amuse myself with books. and escape from small matters seems like from an unbearable burden. Francis Galton relates an inter- esting experience of his own. and rest. misled no doubt of the influence of the place » — it was strongly British Journal of Psychology. as by a perverted instinct. found that short rest-pauses are Wimms. When. though the preceding four hours. But irritability increases. the energy of a muscle is depleted. p.

p. the value is not gained merely from using the muscles. Prisoners are well nourished and cared for. His ability to put his work through depends upon his working capacity.1 84 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK for a long time I sought in vain for the reason marked. 172. p. comes the effect of the emotions. and the latter draws its energy in no small degree from his enjoyment of what he is doing. . so exercise needs to be We have said that fatigue dulls comprehension.. and there were no petty distractions to fret a wearied eye and brain. cU." ^ The effect of the emotions upon fatigue shows that the vocation which a young man selects means much more than the financial returns. that there were no ad- There was a picturesqueness and grandeur in its streets which sufficed to fill the mind. There are several causes for the lack of correlation between fatigue and the quantity of work done. what I accept as a full and adequate ex- planation occurred to me— simply. "A man with no interest is rapidly fagged. Whenever they are forced to do more than their usual small amount they show all the symptoms of being overtaxed and sicken. may perform prodigious feats. op. At length. It also weakens the memory. but they cannot perform the task of an ill-fed and ill-housed laborer. The writer has observed that his memory of facts and names deteriorates markedly after a mountain-climb of four or five hours' duration. Francis Galton. and of it. It makes an immense difference whether a man enjoys his work or not. while one in the advance. Just as food should be palatable to serve best enjoyable. jS. as has already been said. but the service is greatly enhanced by the bodily thrills that come only with zest for the activity." ^ vertisements on the walls. its purposes. ^EngUsh Men ' Associa- of Science. being full of hope. In the matter of exercise. again. First of all. An army in retreat suffers in every way.

FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 185 tions will not respond under the influence of fatigue that comes over an amateur who must break in his climbingmuscles each summer. For this reason it is mental economy occasionally to pack one's grip and begin anew in another place. This is prob- ably true only when fatigue is not fatigue. Change of scenery clears the mind. because on his return in the evening he remembered almost nothing. then a relief. Mere change. Sometimes. but its deficiency lay rather in failure to recall the details of what had been read or heard previous to making the ascent. The writer invariably finds that the "fatigue" of the year disappears and that work can be continued with renewed vigor when vacation permits a change of habitat. and people. again. Mosso quotes alpinists as saying that the events of the last part of an ascent are least distinctly remembered. One grows tired of seeing the same persons and hearing them say the same things. Work becomes monotonous and we think that we are tired. Memory was not normal. is In such cases change of occupation refreshing. At any rate the writer has not observed it in himself. but ennui. fresher air also plays its part. The belief is quite general that. The effect of fatigue upon memory raises the larger question of the relation between different sorts of fatigue. breaks the dead level of monotony. not even after a severe six hours' ascent of Long's Peak. one has Exercise or a brisk sat so long that the muscles are tired. Indolence is often taken for fatigue. when one is change of occupation gives sufficient rest. and sounds. Even another book treating brightens the mind. So one finds that "fatigue" vanishes in another town or city. Moderate muscular exwalk in the open is The abundant oxygen of the ercise is also stimulating. though the conditions for work may be no better in other respects. mentally tired. ." This probably refers to a condition of complete exhaustion. of a different subject with its new sights. and one "was obliged to take notes during an ascent.

1 86 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK for those with whom fatigue is chronic is matter of change. One young woman who could not walk half a mile without exhaustion and whom the slightest exertion sent to bed. is almost certain to be unattended by fatigue. and for this reason the muscles themselves are weakened. Maggiora tested the endurance of the middle finger of his left hand in Mosso's laboratory. A tired brain evidently means a tired body. When one is tired from concentrated attention and thought. The "invalid" who waits till he feels able to work will never begin. A part of the value of the "work-cure" consists. in which they were so busy and stood on their feet so long that strong men would have been exhausted. should be intense. though typewriting is not a restful occupation. The writer has known of young women afflicted with chronic invalidism who were cured by activity. Intellectual activity. This relation between brain and body in the matter of . Even after two hours of complete repose it had not regained its strength of the morning. Yet at night they were only pleasantly tired. change of occupation is likely to augment fatigue. became so interested in a secretaryship which she seciu'ed that the day's work brought no fatigue. The usual periods of rest and vacation will be sufficient to The work-cure closely related to this meet the demands for recuperation. In the afternoon he examined twelve students candidates for the doctor's degree during three and one-half hours. and worry is the most efficient promoter of fatigue. Then fifty-three — — he again tested the endurance of it his finger and found that was exhausted by twelve contractions. In the Inoming tests his finger contracted times before temporary exhaustion. In several cases it was social-settlement work. Work or activity of any sort. of course. Nerve-centres are then exhausted. in keeping the thoughts from one's "afflictions" and in dissipating worry. in which one finds pleasure and success. to be worth while. But none of these states is fatigue in the proper sense.

First of all. according to the momentary mood of those over them. Contributions to Education. by E. At home and in school. fatigue are overstimulated ambitions or disproportionate pressure and rivalries. C. by Irving Fisher and Eugene L. Smith Baker. p. Other sources of dangerous or is confusions. Bureau of Education. 35 /. Again. ' Walter W. A. One of the problems of how to escape it without uimecessary reduction and for children. but learn more quickly than those in the ordinary school". no. 78. where it belongs. McCall. American Journal of Public Health. W. it should be said that childrei^ rarely study hard enough to become fatigued. .' Recent investigation* of work. . vol. ^ and their work is also more accurate. University. to which reference has just been made. Educational Review. "Observations have shown that the pupils in outdoor and openwindow schools are not only kept more healthy. and puzzlings. Bulletin no. Washington. * Report of the New York State Commission on Ventilation. Roach. 3. 15. imposed much too fast for the child to grow to. until rules of action become chaotic. 23. Chapman. 191 7. ThornTeachers College. no. "dangerous fatigue is the result of unhealthy confinement within doors. They remove the fatiguelimit to the evening and night. and J. and and conflicts of impulses resulting from the imposition of scatter-brain notions of teaching and discipline. at different times. vol. or even to comprehend.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 187 fatigue is especially important in connection with school work. at least. Open-Air Schools. pp. ig. owing to unwholesome shocks. 2. instigated by home or class com- panions. L. Columbia dike. . is worth a moment's fatigue is digression. With them what is called fatigue is lack of interest —or more commonly languor it is arising from pro- the outgrowth of nervous excite- ment resulting from the confusion of commands and hibitions. the open-air schools seem to have given the solution." ' The "dangerous fatigue" from unhealthy confinement within doors. chil- dren are forbidden and permitted to do the same thing. Fisk. How to Live. ' ' .

1 88 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK much to its chemical and respired air components as to its physical features.. and the greater wear and tear of work done under unfavorable atmospheric conditions promotes derangement of nervous functions and deterioration of tissues. . The small amount of fatigue noticeable during the school-day was more probably caused by improper conditions of ventilation. in the children are undoubtedly the great causes of fatigue in most schools. "representing different nationalities and different grades of social and hygienic opportunities" were tested under the usual schoolroom organization.ioo ditions under which the tests were given. . Let us turn now to one or two of the latest investigaindicates that the harmfulness of confined is not due so tions of fatigue in school children. The results showed that "mental fatigue in relation to the daily school programme is far less than generally believed. etc. 1913. and because of the natural conOver i. and too still. H. there is no doubt of its influence in producing the feelings of fatigue. But whether the effect of confined air is due to its physical or chemical condition. than by the school work itself. hygienic conditions in the school and physical defects. if not fatigue itself. The material was a modified form of one of Courtis' Standard Tests iti arithmetic. is day advances. lighting. however slight. Confined air is too warm. The decrease in quality of work more or of children as the less general in schools. The work was given at different times of the day shortly after nine and eleven o'clock in the morning. Mental Fatigtie in Relation to the Daily School Program. Heck. . supposed to be due less to exhaustion of the energy-producing material of the nerve-cells of the body. and to autopoisoning of the nervous system by • W. Untensive test was made by Heck. too dry. children in four New York City schools. and at one o'clock and half after two in the afternoon.^ — . The most recent ex- This investigation is of unusual significance because of the large number and variety of children included.

FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY i8g waste products from this process. . in a hygienic school environment. while the longer ones were drawn from algebra. Bulletin no. Continued work produces boredom and continued boredom decreases efficiency. a vital will and varied curriculum. as well as from those in New York with the fundamental operations." Short tests of ten minutes and also those involving continuous effort extending through an hour or more have been made recently in the grades of the Winthrop Training School. zg. The length of the test was fatigue. Virginia. proper classification. 7. vol. The results indicate that "in • Psychological Clinic. frequent relaxation. history. 258. and its monotony of instruction and environment. As before. "The final conclusion to be drawn from this experiment in Roanoke Lynchburg and with reasoning-tests in arithmetic." teachers. increased from ten to twenty-five minutes to determine whether a longer period would reveal The results strengthened the former conclusions. Winthrop Normal and Industrial CoHege. unconsciously or consciously. two periods were taken in the morn- ing and two in the afternoon. ' vol. The bored child.' The short tests consisted of examples in addition and subtraction. Virginia. L. can meet the requirements of the usual daily school programme without injury to themselves or their work. most children in relation to the daily Heck schools. healthy children in the grammar grades. with its lack of vital and varied appeal. A.' also tested 573 children in the Lynchburg. 7.^ this time with 467 boys and girls in the Roanoke. is that normal. a hygienic school. With sound bodies. 2. Robinson. 'Op. lit. rebels and does a less correct amount of work. and Latin.. p. p. Still another test was made by Heck. than to a loss of interest in school work. on account of the close mutual relation between physiological and mental attitudes. and live show no problem of fatigue school programme. schools.

" have quoted from these experiments in some detail because the information is needed as an antidote to the sentimentality regarding fatigue. I should be inclined to think. thoughtful life during a small part of the day. . provided school is is forgot- ten on the playground and sleep abundant and undis- Probably one is tigue in children commonly of the chief causes of injurious fathe constant nagging to which they are subjected. mental exhaustion in scholars falls. axid mental activities are more weariness than fatigue in the chilmore necessary than comis Here.^ in in the make on the basis of the results obsumming up his investigation work of fatigue in school children. but upon the unwise choice of material for study. then. . "is that a regular day's grammar school does not decrease the ability of the . nor on the public opinion which demands that children shall do a given amoimt of work. vol.. a boy sees no purpose in learning he will not learn. they have missed something worth while. not on a Creator who made our minds so that work hurts them." says Thomdike.IQO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is general there plete idleness. the imwise inhibition of pleasurable activities." has irritation.. if children are as fresh after two hours in school as when they entered. The chief responsibility do mental work. penetrating voice. little efficiency beyond nervous it will Experiments on fatigue presuppose that ' always Psychological Review. the teacher's problem: If How up to provide the proper mental stimulations for keeping the interest in school. 7. and unattracchild to for . turbed. dren." "A fair claim to tained. shrill. ex- A ploding with "don'ts. Moderate fatigue. . if caused by work and not by foul air tiveness of teachers We or nervous irritation. the unwise direction of effort. 547. and teaching. p. the imwise abuse of sense-organs. As a matter of fact. Maudlin emotions threaten to deprive children of the advantages of a busy. so is not bad.

recovery of 61 per Subsequent rest for an hour and a half produced cent. «<. If this stimulating effect of a moderate amount of fatigue-substances shall be found true also of mental activity. * Charies M. an increase in the height to which the load is lifted. 170. 4SISmith. Yet there are two physiological facts which seem to deny this assumption. "causes an augmentation of activity of the muscle. 327." says Lee. for a brief time. for a brief time. 33. Then adrenalin was injected. each substance. vol. 20.rst of these two facts is the stimulating effect of small quantities of fatigue-substances. vol. an improvement in the quantity and quality of work. And this contribution from physiology has not received sufi&dent attention from investigators of mental fatigue. ^3^. The fi. and an increase in the total amoxmt of work performed. be denied. and the effect. p. p. Studies in Psychology."* This has been demonstrated only for muscle. Gruber* fatigued a muscle with an hour's work and then allowed it to rest for an hour and a half. and Columbia University ' «0/i. The result of this rest was a gradual but steady recovery of vigor. no further recovery. May . at any rate. but the assimiption that it is also true of mental activity is a possibility which cannot. and one investigator* thinks that there is such a period when fatigue acts as a stimulant in mental as well as in muscular work. as Bayliss says: "It appears that the presence of a small quantity of products of activity is favorable.. In another experiment the effect of * American Journal of Physiology. which is characterized by an increase in irritability and working power. five minutes after the injection. American Journal of Physiology. or moderate quantity. British Journal of Psychology. p. p.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 191 reveal itself in the quantity or quality of work accomplished. we may then expect. 8. 1907-1909. Gruber. vol. but at the same time abrupt. Let us now turn to the second physiological fact to which reference has been made. "If present in small quantity. was a further." ' And again. reprints.

44. cit. "In that length of time. The question whether this is done by transforming. result in lowering in fatigued muscle marked contrast with the pronounced and prompt by this agent. This secretion passes into the blood. to which the name adrenalin has been given. and W. Investigations^ have demonstrated that artificial Op. of "It in is some way. which secrete a substance. situated above the kidneys. 376. vol. . requiring five minutes or less to produce its effect on the threshold" [of fa. 31. or destroying the fatigue toxins is still obscure. The inquiry arises at once then. Gruber proved that the effect of adrenalin is a counteraction of fatigue by determining the threshold stimulus for muscle and nerve-muscle in non-fatigued animals before and after He found that in the case of noninjecting adrenalin. fatigued muscle there was no lowering of the threshold. p. Denis. The suprarenal capsules are glands. causes a rapid recovery neutralizing. B. however.192 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK after an hour's work. R. vol. . 477. whereas rest would require fifteen - minutes to two hours. in some cases. 13. was substantially the same. p." says Gruber. upon the nervous elements or on the region of the neuromuscular imion cannot be denied." quite conclusive. T. showing a recovery of 62 per cent. Adrenalin acts quickly. normal irritability of muscle after fatigue. it reduces the threshold to normal. American Journal of Physiology.. Is there any arrangement in the body by which adrenalin is supplied and made to serve the same purpose during life ? Experiments have answered this question in the affirmative. Otto Folin. Journal of Biological Chemistry. W. Elliott." * The experiments just quoted show that adrenalin injected into fatigued muscle has a remarkable recuperative effect. > ^ W. That the action may be on the muscle itself has been definitely shown in this" [Gruber's] "paper. vol. . 354. its effect. Journal of Physiology. Cannon. Cannon and Henry Lyman. p. 400. B. "a adrenalin. tigue]. p. "that adrenalin.

vol. first. and as a result the adrenalin in the blood is increased. Cannon. with artificial stimulation of the splanchnic nerve. 221. does this and more. .FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY 193 stimulation of the splanchnic nerves increases this secretory activity. Now It would clear away the waste and fatigue products. "The heart. a muscle did "for a short period 80 per cent more work than before splanchnic and for a considerably longer period exhibited an intermediate betterment of its efficiency. 33S. Bodily Changes in Pain. American Journal of Physiology. Later init of increased blood-flow through excitation of the splanchnic nerve. which acts specifically upon muscles. are in times of • W. and vol. P. 32. Gruber. as to whether this explanation vestigation^ verified this effect was sufficient. the lungs.' that increased arterial pressure would be highly serviceable to animals in times of stress. ulation. p. does this work out in fife? It is clear. but in addition. 33. Hunger. by liberating adrenalin. p. and Rage. that the recovery of muscle proved. in part to a specific action of adrenaSplanchnic stimulation is thus seen to promote recovery of muscle from fatigue and increase its action in two ways. as well as the skeletal muscles. 34. Cannon and L. is a mechanism by which the adrenal glands can be made to discharge their secretion into the blood. 191S. by increasing the arterial blood-pressure and so cleansing the working muscles with fresh blood. 32. secreted by the adrenal glands and passed into the blood. 132/. How. Fear. and second. it was observed^ that. then. vol. 44. The investigators raised the question. p. however. 2 Charles M. pp. vol. as Cannon has indicated." At that time a considerable part of this improvement was ascribed to the increased blood-flow resulting from splanchnic stimstimulation.89. B. B. American Journal of Physiology. Several years ago. restoring their working power. and its strength- ened action was due lin itself. Nice. Here. adrenalin. and the brain. then. ' Walter B.

then the tonic efifect of adrenalin. Have we not sters here. 409. nervous elements . We know sure. p. R. This has clearly been demonstrated in a cat placed near a barking dog. nerve-cells of the higher centres as well as the tissue. appears. muscular removing the fatigue products. a possible explanation for the failure to observe fatigue in school children? know that they are to be tested for something. always accompanies stress and danger. Journal of Physiology. there is no doubt that the increased arterial pressure flushes the . is also operative in mental activity. vol. Further. and there is some evidence for this. It is new quarters for One who has given unknows well how alert and animated also a matter of common ex- perience that the fatigue of adults often vanishes in even mild excitement. and Elliott ^ observed that no greater excitement is needed in animals than the strangeness of new quarters to induce a greater discharge of adrenalin into the blood." If the blood circulation of the brain is controlled by the autonomic system. then.194 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK excitement abundantly supplied with blood taken from organs of less importance in critical moments. Emotional excitement. Adrenal secretion is known to be increased during strong emotions. is The surely as "exciting" as the the animals that Elliott tested. T. already demonstrated in muscular fatigue. . . the relation of excitement to adrenal secretion is important. of course. usual tests of any sort the children become. Consequently. and ' this is itself invigorating. of class The youngThe Perhaps a conditions situation routine are changed. 44. stranger comes into the school to give the tests. Elliott. but as Gruber has said: "Its effect upon caimot be denied." It also tones up the muscles that have become fatigued through continued activity. this that under excitement the adrenal glands secrete and as a result physical fatigue dis- To be has been proven only for mus- cular fatigue.

Yoakum in Psychological Review Monograph Supplement. the first is that fatigue substances in small quantities are stimulating. temporary ennui for the ' The investigations are too numerous to dte. and by F. C. and thoughts of one sort or another which have no Sleepiness. whether fatigue is present in many cases. Undoubtedly. 195 fatigue two physiological reasons why in its early stages not be discovered by the tests usually given. however. — be evident to those working in them. . As one looks through the voluminous literature on fatigue^ one is impressed by the fact that "fatigue. If they did all that they are told to do and did it as well as they are told they should. but excellent bibliographies are given by C. Subjects of study should not be made easy. the hard. One may seriously doubt. discomfort from definite relation to fatigue.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY There are. and they refuse to be overworked. they could do much more without fatigue than they actually accomplish if the things at which they are set appealed to them as worth while. Children fortunately are endowed with an indifference to the demands of their teachers. and perhaps upon nervous Thus the condition that is sought disappears by reason of its very presence or because of the animation aroused by the attempts to find it. And." as ordinarily investigated and measured. by increasing arterial pressure and by upon muscles. feelings. 1915. then. and the second is that adrenalin secreted under excitement and passed into the blood dissipates fatigue may acting directly elements. is exceedingly complex and that many times it is not fatigue that is tested but inattention and the inability to ignore sensations. but their value and significance should adrenalin factory. this is a very human demand. every school must needs be equipped with an laboratory like Weichardt's antifatigue-toxin Happily. 9. no. Dockeray in the Kansas University Stience Bulletin. straight-backed chair. native indolence comes to the aid of children. 46. 1909. after all. vol. S.

but not fatigued. Wright noticed ^ in his investigations that "the fatigue accompanying work is not so great when the person is working under the direct stimulus of a definite aim. and this is probably another reason why experiments and tests so frequently reveal little fatigue. It has been observed who engage in vigorous out-of-door work or without overdoing. are important factors in postponing or hastening fatigue. "to find myself tainly when feeling." have said. The sensations of strain and the feeling of effort may be due. notwithstanding the fact that he has at the same time produced an increase in the amount of work. mere change is recuperative. and few activities are more fatiguing. to the disagreeable monotony of the task. 7." The aim gives point and zest to what would otherwise be a disagreeable task. p. are curves of a good many more things than fatigue. The student may be weary from his previous work. 547. ' Psychological Review. The more that adults sports. p. require less sleep and accomplish more mental work without fatigue. . feelings.i in his analysis of this condition. Wright. Pleasure and displeasure. are a few illustrations from the many that might be mentioned. R. 13. This is always the effect of a purpose in which one is interested. Curves showing the progress of work. and thoughts mentioned above from arising in the mind. vol. vol. and it prevents the sensations. as well task in hand.196 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK on account of the ennui. 35. is quite commonly the result of lack of physical exercise.' The feeling of lassitude. On at least half the occasions this seemed to be all there was. 'mentally tired." says Thomdike. As a relief from ennui. aside from the practice effect. also. " I was con- stantly surprised. Psychological Review. Aimless work is soon reduced to drudgery. ^ W. and staleness as thoughts of pleasanter activities. again. as I would cer- unable to demonstrate in the feeling anything more than emotional repugnance to the idea of doing mental work.

more rapidly than At all events. It is not unlikely that the freer blood-circulation feeling attending the exhilaration of plea- and the buoyant sure carries in the is away these toxic products more sluggish condition of ennui. the difference in the effect of pleasant lie in the rapidity with and dreary work would seem to which they are disposed of or elimi- nated. Perhaps this is one reason for the prodigious and at the same time unimpairing work of von Humboldt. . Mommsen. Such men are fortunate enough to have found work in which they could engage with unmitigated joy. clear that disagreeable. the less likely is the mental condition commonly regarded as fatigue to appear. Since we may suppose that toxic products are always produced by continuous physical or mental activity. and Edison.FATIGUE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGY immediate and direct the aim and the more it 197 concerns the present interests of the worker. it monotonous work fatigues and wears one out more quickly than pleasant occupations.

like solving a problem or reaching a conclusion. for facts that are applied are retained. to to learn how make use of facts. and under the picture were emblazoned the portentous words. Information is of value only to the extent to which it enters into one's thinking.CHAPTER VI CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY Not exhibited a tragic scene. "I forgot. It is the raw material out of which thoughts are thinking. is not a mechanical up facts. made. may An artistic arrangement of facts produce day-dreams. indiscreet long ago one of our leading monthly magazines A man with wild despair pic- tured in his face was tearing his dishevelled hair in a most manner. But what should we do with five thousand isolated facts if we had them? We all have many more now than we are able to use. Not even when the facts are put together in some sort of order. a "lost art. but thinking is directed toward a definite end. But we have seen." The advertisement then went on to inform the readers where they might purchase a memory system with which they could remember five thousand facts. At its lowest terms thinking requires selection of mate198 . Memory of so much information as can be used will then take care of itself. therefore. after the manner of the bricks that make a house. The is first problem in connection with memory." and that people commonly regard information as the most important factor in memory and inteUigence. process. It does not piling come from merely does thinking occur. The success of such advertisements in selling the lessons indicates that remembering is. to a large extent.

of course. quently knowledge and seems to imply that everything which one finds in the course of one's study and reading should be remembered. It as important to forget as to mind be rememis But we must forget the right things. then. Mere facts have no Only as they have meaning in relation to other facts do they gain importance. This is not true. 199 with reference to its service in promoting a reasonable conclusion. To a large extent they are the residua of experiences which were not. But let us go a little further in our consideration of the use of memory. They are the "impressions" left in memory. however. and perhaps could not be. analyzed. among is other things. Efficiency requires. sion arises. In this way facj. The use of the material of knowledge and its accurate recall are two very different matters. Consequently. fre- nificance of the event understood.s is acquire meaning and the sigThis.CURIOSITIES OF rial MEMORY significance. Their source is much the same sort of submerged all memories as some of the more spectacular instances to which reference will be made in this chapter. Here where lawyer should remember the trend of important court decisions. understanding an event requires for its interpretation Uie aid of all available infor- mation. that the not overloaded. Evidently. for example. A . as we shall see if we go a little further. but not recognized as facts of personal experiences. but when he needs the details selection begins. selection of material is always for a definite purpose. only certain facts from among those actually conserved in memory are desired at any given moment. Again. ber. One may. Information from the standpoint of memory is of two kinds: That which we need so constantly that it must be kept "in mind." and that which we may look up as occaSome things should not be remembered. "Intuitions" are another illustration. remember the conclusion reached without recalling calls for extensive the details leading to the conclusion.

We do not recall the events. The writer once watched a young negro take the hats of over two hundred strangers as they entered the dining-room of a large hotel. even though we are liot conscious of them. Helen Keller has reported * an incident in her life which of ' memory. —spontaneous. The important thing. to the rack and got the Many however. this interest may be acquired from the necessities of a situation. What one should remember is a matter of judgment.200 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK he knows where to find them. since the guests did not come out in the order in which they entered. and. 63-69. Yet he did not make a as he single mistake in distributing the hats. Indeed. may profoundly affect our thinking and acting. Again. Even when we do they may not be connected in our minds as causal factors of our actions. first. second. facts. Sometimes these conserved experiences affect our behavior without our being aware either of the experiences or of their influence. and only a few of the diningtables could be seen by the attendant. ences are conserved than many more expericome into conscious memory under any circumstances of normal. or involuntary. a system itself would have been an exceedingly difficult feat of memory. The Story of My Life. as is so frequently the case. every-day life. Interest is usually said to be the determining factor in shall deciding racial what one remember. indicate that interest It is clear that is only a partial explanation. This interest A boy can may tell be you at once the record of national baseball-clubs and the batting average of the individual players. . The purpose in the present chapter is. As soon saw a man approaching he went at once right hat. to describe briefly a few of these singular phe- nomena to show that these conserved experiences. So far as could be observed no system was followed in arranging the hats on the rack. pp. is that this selection be a thoughtful act and not left to chance. however.

and that mine was a plagiarism. Some one asked me if I had read it to have the pronunciation corrected. . . "that I was 'making up a story.' as children say. but when I did The two — . in one of the Perkins Institution reports. I eagerly sat down from me. it is my story. question surprised me very much. At about the age of twelve Miss Keller wrote a Uttle story which she called Autumn Leaves. had appeared before I was born in a book called Birdie and His Friends. My . for I had not the faintest recollection of having had it read to me. I felt a sense of joy in the composition. "When the story was finished I read it to my teacher. "I thought then. by Miss Margaret T. Anagnos was published it delighted with The Frost King. called The Frost Fairies. . I carried the little story to the post-office myself. and I have "The written it for Mr. . feeling as if I were walking on air. Words and images came tripping to my finger ends. in a book. and to write it before the ideas should slip thoughts flowed easily. and my annoyance at being interrupted At dinner it was read to the assembled family. which I did. and I recall now vividly the pleasure I felt in the* more beautiful passages. Anagnos. I copied the story and sent it to him for It was suggested that I should change the his birthday." she says. .CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 201 shows the indelible record that experience may write upon the mind and its irresistible though unconscious influence. . .' "Accordingly. I had been in Boston only a short time when it was discovered that a story similar to The Frost King. Canby. "Mr. It was difficult to make me understand this. who were surprised that I could write so well. stories were so much alike in thought and language that it was evident Miss Canby's story had been read to me. no. I spoke up and said: 'Oh. title from Autumn Leaves to The Frost King. and as I thought out sentence after sentence I wrote them on my Braille slate. and .

And yet. "The stories had little or no meaning for me then. . I had brought suspicion upon those I loved best. No child ever drank deeper of the cup of bitterness than I did. but I could remember nothing except the common reference to Jack Frost and a poem for children. but she has told me that at that time. the year that we spent the simimer with her at Brewster. . . The Freaks of the Frost. . I find . "Miss Sullivan* or of* the book in which had never heard of The Frost Fairies With the assisit was pubKshed. though for a long time no one knew it. • Miss Keller's teaches . One thing is certain. Mrs. yet I cannot help thinking that I made a great effort to remember the words. Hopkins had a copy of Miss Canby's Birdie and His Friends in 1888. and although I do not recall a single circumstance connected with the reading of the stories. and at last she could not remember reading The Frost Fairies any more than I. Hopkins was unable to find her copy. but the mere spelling of the strange words was sufficient to amuse a Httle child who could do almost nothing to amuse herself. while Miss Sullivan was away on a vacation. "I have read The Frost Fairies since. I had disgraced myself.202 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK understand I was astonished and grieved. least of all myself. she had tried to amuse me by reading from various books. and I knew I had not used that in my composition. how could it possibly have happened ? I racked my brain until I was weary to recall anything about the frost that I had read before I wrote The Frost King. yet she felt sure that Birdie and His Friends was one of them. . and although the matter carefully. also the letters I wrote in which I used other ideas of Miss Canby's. Sophia C. with the intention of having my teacher explain them when she returned. tance of Doctor Alexander Graham it Bell she investigated came out that Mrs. the lan- guage was inefifaceably stamped upon my brain.

loomed larger than in this day of memory Seneca is Nevertheless. even after the proper discount has been made. MEMORY 203 Mr. said to have been able to repeat in exact order 2. I was writing The Frost King. was probably exceptional. a letter to 29. Probably these stories exaggerate the facts.000 Athenian citizens. but at any rate they indicate that these men possessed remarkable memories. of course. 1891. the mind absorbs vastly more from reading and conversation than has been supposed. contains phrases which show that my mind was saturated with the story." Evidently. and they reveal possibihties which may be approximated if not fully atof long-distance connections. Miss Keller's experience reveals undreamed-of possibilities for indirect and incidental training of literary style and for imparting ideas and incentives to action. At the time. and Themistocles could address oy name 21. not so strong to-day. while "forgotten" experiences at times play a leading r61e in mental development. and this letter. doubtless. the source of which we are often unable to discover. like many others. as is usual after men have become famous. tained. dated September words and sentiments exactly like those of the book. This is one phase of what is called experience. incentives which are. Anagnos. But. perhaps. This is probably not is .CURIOSITIES OF in one of them. The statement is ir-'etrievably lost.000 disconnected words which he had heard spoken but once. the memorial achievements of these men. Cyrus and Caesar knew the names of all the soldiers \ii their respective armies. there is a good deal of evidence to show that the voluntary most people is hardly one-half efficient. There were. The personal factor. Past thoughts which return to mind —old friends yet unrecognized—exert a pro- found influence upon belief and conduct. We grow unconsciously into opinions. that everything sometimes made that no experience is which one hears or sees conserved as potential memories.

was seized with a nervous fever. He. . Not only had the young woman ever been a harmless. santly talking Latin. of course. . succeeded in discovering the place where her parents had lived and" [learned from an uncle] "that the patient had been charitably taken by an old Protestant pastor at nine years" [of age]. coherent and intelligible each for itself. . she became possessed. "A young woman of four or five and twenty. The case had attracted the particular attention of a yoimg physician. some years. . Sheets full of her ravings were taken down from her own mouth. the remainder seemed to be in the Rabbinical dialect. . Greek. reported. . by a very learned devil. and were found to consist of sentences. . . and Hebrew. Of the Hebrew. if correctly posed. . All trick or conspiracy was out of the question. . made concerning the pastor's habits. . during which. The young physician determined to trace her past life step by step. "'and had remained with him Anxious inquiries were then. and the solution of the phenomenon was soon obtained. as She continued incesit appeared. and. and by his statement many eminent physiolotrue. is one of the most remarkable of which we have any knowledge. a small portion only could be traced to the Bible. . and psychologists had visited the town and crossexamined the" [persons] "on the spot. A year or two before Coleridge's arrival at Gottingen something happened which "had not then ceased to be a frequent subject of conversation" in the town. but she was evidently laboring under a nervous fever. For it appeared that . yet that very . in very pompous tones and with most distinct enimciation. who could neither read nor write. according to the statements of all the priests and monks of the neighborhood. gists . . simple creature.204 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK much more remarkable instances are cited which indicate is conserved than is commonly supColeridge has related a case which. at length. but with little or no connection with each other.

in impressions repeated. Apparently a channel must be cut into the series of submerged experiences to give the flow an. stupendous burst of memories can be discovered beyond the impressiveness of the moment. Many of these details have not been recalled for years. "The course of those thoughts I can even now in a great measure retrace. I. but the facts seem to justify some such Sometimes no reason for the description of the process. When one is drowning. for example. the channels are nervous paths. together with several of the Greek and Latin fathers. ." * One of the amazing features of this case. Among the books were found a of his house into . During the brief period in which he was sinking for the third time it seemed as if every event of his past life was reviewed. pp. and some of them have been long Such an forgotten. outlet. and to read to himself with a loud voice out of his favorite books. the events of one's past life sometimes rush with incredible swiftness and accuracy through the mind. 234-23$.CURIOSITIES OF it MEMORY for years to 205 down a passage walk up and which the kitchen-door opened. had been the old man's custom . experience of Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beauford is related by Harriet Martineau. At such times no cause can be assigned except the favorable mental attitude." he 1 BibUographia Literaria. is that the woman could not have imderstood any of the sentences which she heard and afterward. . in the ordinary acceptance of the word. As we shall soon see. New York. 1847. according to Coleridge. if correctly reported. vol. and the physician succeeded in identifjdng so many passages with those taken down at the young woman's bedside. collection of Rabbinical writings. that no doubt could remain any rational mind concerning the true origin of the made on her nervous system. Analogies are always imperfect. Under memories certain unusual conditions a flood of "forgotten" may sweep through our mind. Then some connection with the present mental content is needed.

Then they took a wider range: our last cruise. or by some reflection on its cause or its consequences. every past incident of my hfe seemed to glance across my recollection in retrograde succession. the whole period of my existence seemed to be placed before me in a kind of panoramic review. were the place. as here stated. 1870. and with the character of recent familfirst series iarity. pp. There were filial and moral reflections. the of reflections that occurred. conscious thinking. the manner in which he would disclose it to the rest of the family. Thus travelling backward. .2o6 told PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Miss Martineau. and even all my boyish pursuits and adventures. and imtrammelled by the restraints and inhibitions of normal. cause and effect. and the time I had misspent. in mere outline. a former voyage and shipwreck. 219/. the bustle it must have occasioned. but the picture filled up with every minute and collateral feature. in which "lost" memories may disclose themselves. however. "The event which had just taken awkwardness which had produced it. my school. judging motives. If it continued until he was restored to consciousness it lasted twenty minutes. indeed. London. however. It will be observed that something more than a biographical review was given. In that case it was completed in about two minutes. many trifling events which had been long forgotten then crowded into my imagination." i Admiral Beauford was convinced that this extensive and detailed review lasted only during submersion. trails Not infrequently uiose ac- customed to follow > through dense W'ssds are unable Biographical Sketches. In some ways it is a striking picture of the mind at its best. and a thousand other circumstances minutely associated with home. not. and each act of it seemed to be accompanied by a consciousness of right or wrong. There are other ways. the progress I had made there. the effect it would have on a most affectionate father. In short.

Wilham B. Carpenter has given an interesting case which shows how experiences of childhood may be impressed and conserved though the "memory" reveals nothing of them. Yet. Later. being in that part of the coimtry when he was about eighteen months old. the journey is a continuous succession of familiar objects and vistas. she had gone over with a large party. But more striking instances are sometimes observed. His conviction that he must have visited the castle on some former occasion although he had neither the slightest remembrance of such a visit nor any knowledge of having been in the neighborhood before going to Hiirstmonceaux made him inquire from his mother whether she could throw any light on the matter. and he 'seemed to himself to see' not only the gateway itself but donkeys beneath the arch. Hansard. but a stone or tree. now rector of Bethnal Green. As he approached the gateway he became conscious of a very vivid impression of having seen it before. when they again set out upon the same trip." says Carpenter. which he did not remember ever to have previously visited. or some other familiar object. indicates the route. that the elders of the party having hood's experience all its details. and people on the top of it. though so far as the traveller is aware he gave no imusual attention to these landmarks when he first took the trip. in reproduced as a vision. the entire scene. several years later. when a part of the same childis again witnessed. "the Reverend S. and had taken him in the pannier of a donkey. where they would have been seen from below. She at once informed him that. is — — brought lunch with them had eaten it on the roof of the gateway. and while there he one day went over with a party of friends to Pevensey Castle. "Several years ago. in Sussex.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 207 to recall the paths or direction that they took to reach their destination. was doing clerical duty for a time at Hurstmonceaux. . Here half a dozen trails cross.

including its Afterward. Some of these facts of memory seem incredible. who had not been hypnotized. and hence had no meaning crystal vision. who at the time was one of Doctor Prince's patients. " An Experimental Study of Vision. At another time. and hypnosis. an ordinary electric-light bulb.'' to her. 'Ibid. She also placed two books. impressions were so deeply made as to be preserved through long years of forgetfulness. was a trivial incident of too httle importance for volimtary recall. shortly after discovering her loss. These latter cases reveal possibilities of conservation and reproduction of experiences hitherto hardly fancied even We cite a few in the most reckless imaginative literature. p. and hid the remainder of her money under the table-cloth. she arose in her sleep. and when they reappeared they had no place in Mr. When Miss X. 528. 21. Doctor Morton Prince has described two experiments in The subject was a young woman. a red and a Principles of Mental Physiology. crystal vision. they are made plausible through the reproduction of forgotten events by automatic writing. she saw and described a scene which had no place in her memory. Hansard's experiences. she recalled the event. on carefully going over It the events of that period. was substituted. A glass ball such as is conunonly used not being at hand. discoimected from the wires." Brain. of the occurrence. however. looked into the bulb.2o8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK left ^ on the ground with the attendanis and donkeys. p.' disturbed because she had absent- mindedly torn up two ten-dollar bills and thrown the pieces away. ' » . Under hypnosis she repeated the description time and place. by William B." Evidently. with the addition of further details. Aside from the apparent accuracy of tie reports. Carpenter. even at this early age. vol. instances for illustration. They did not while he had been belong with his personal memories. 431.

then she saw herself going to the bureau drawer. She said nothing to Doctor Prince about her loss. For. she was greatly distressed. taking up the table-cloth with the books.^ These ball used in such experiments is The glass for stimulating suggestions that arouse associations revived memories are memories of actual experiences things that the person has done. since it was all she had. She then saw herself get up. this reason artificial means of stimulating " ' For the latest investigation of several of the occult " phenomena. heard. . The next day. covering it with the cloth and putting the red Miss X book and the green book on the top of it. reported on her next visit that she had foimd the money where she had seen it in the globe. . as she afterward found. going to the table. merely a device which have not recently been active." — — . The writer hastens to add that there is not the slightest evidence for an occult explanation of crystal vision or of automatic writing. " She looked into the globe and saw herself. over the place of its concealment. unable to find this money. think of her money. The difference between the two lies in the difficulty of recall in the case of so-called "forgotten" — memories. or seen ^which have left their record in just the same way as do ordinary memories. see Psychical Research Monographs. putting the money on the table. . her eyes being closed. but he meanwhile had learned of it while she was under the influence of hypnosis. Without disclosing his knowledge he handed her the electric bulb she was not hypnotized at the time told her to look into it. indeed. and she would learn what had become of it. in bed in her room. and walk up and down the room. they have never acted in connection with the event that furnishes the motive for the effort to revive them. Stanford University. The glass ball also aids in concentrating attention and produces hallucinatory visions that start associative processes which may awaken forgotten memories. perhaps. taking out her money. i. vol. 1917.— CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 209 green one.

"at once more fluent and more faulty than my own. a teacher of Latin and Greek in England. 276/- . those with which she was most "The Latin and the Greek of the script are. yet "I am no poet. familiar. Even when she was acquainted with the quotations if they were rarely. some of her automatic script was replete with puns." she continues. A few years ago Mrs. especially of the Latin. the mistakes are frequent.' Latin. and here again the resemblance to the defects of ordinary memory is evident. is that the language used one in which the writer habitually expresses himself." An interesting feature about some of Mrs. vol. 1906. embracing words unknown to me. and often of a type quite unlikely to be made by myself. W. but "I have hardly ever made a pun in my life. and English were at times mixed. and a crystal or electric-light revival bulb serves this purpose." Mrs. Her automatic composition is replete with selections which she had "forgotten. in fact. and in the case of the Latin the whole turn of phraseology is often mediaeval. Verrall. the grammatical construction is less strict than in classical writers. and is certainly not the language of the classical writers known to me. "and I have great difficulty in producing even a short set of verses in English. became interested in automatic writing and. after repeated failures. or at least very 'late'. the suggestion. the vocabulary is larger. as might be expected of an Englishwomaai fairly conversant with the ancient languages." Again. 20. ever. Verrall's automatic writing was that it wrote Greek and English verse. A. Let us now turn to another sort of device for recovering lost memories. is ^Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. In her pubKshed experiments. acquired considerable proficiency." she says. Greek.2IO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK must be employed. especially pp. though often tolerably obvious in meaning and correctly formed." These quotations are not always strictly accurate. Verrall says.

Verrall wrote stories and tales.cts of memory. to another literary reminiscence not recognized till much later. however. we may find months or years later that some of it. and then she remembered having previously seen it. Though she did not remember the refer- ences at the time. she felt quite certain. was due. perhaps much. but diligent search supplied the source in a number of these cases. in tales and in other material which Mrs. and especially of punning upon names." Further. VerraU had read years before. no one can pretend to very definite knowledge. But it is otherwise with the automatic script. since her compositions were largely composed of selections long forgotten. that our eye frequently nms over pages of a newspaper. Another tale. she afterward discovered in a roundabout way that she had read a book containing some of of years before they were reproduced through automatic writing. about which. by the automatic device. second. First. and then it becomes no more mysterious than ordinary retention. It is fond of punning. returns to memory with amazing accuracy. as she was convinced. does not explain the phenomenon of automatic writing. to be sure.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 211 "I do not easily see analogies between words. and. among these re- . the Garden of the Hesperides. which she had read twenty-five years before and had not seen since. lost memories were recovered. them a niunber though we read little or nothing. The present writer admits quite freely that finding the data of the automatic productions. and I am seldom amused by comic puns. One. fulness. was reminiscent of the first Idyll of Theocritus. or upon which her eye had incidentally fallen. and. but it brings it into line with other more common fa. if not with complete Mrs. Mrs. Much of the material she was unable to account for at the time of the writing. Verrall's automatic Latin composition suggests two interesting observations. It is well known.

Lowes Dickinson has reported* an instructive case of recall through hypnotism. 12. however. A found in memories to be expressed in mediaeval might be expected is the Latin expressions commonly used by college bit of evidence that this students. . and a great many details were given about these and other personages of the time. Mr. and could not recall reading any — 'Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. without the restraint of conscious selection of words. G. The subject.212 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK vived memories were passages with a noticeable resemblance to mediaeval Latin. Verrall was not accustomed to use these language forms and structures a new element other than memory seems to be introduced. were found on examination to be correct. had not studied the period. though many of them were such as apparently it would not have been easy to ascertain without considerable historical research. It would therefore be quite natural for Mrs. took the line of least resistance ^mediaeval Latin. and especially the genealogical data. p. There are also other ways in which forgotten experiences may be recovered. The explanation. Miss C. Blanche Poynings. This lady was described as a friend of the Earl and Coimtess of Salisbury. who lived in the time of Richard the Second. vol. and many English abstract words came to us from the schoolmen through the medium of late mediaeval Latin. and about the manners and customs of that age. 1905-1906. As Mrs. Early college Latin compositions are likely to be literal translations of English abstract words into the Latin from which they were derived and for this reason they resemble the mediaeval rather than the classical. "purported to meet a certain lady. appears to be as follows: mediaeval Latin has a larger vocabulary of abstract terms than has classical Latin. Miss C. the details given in connection with them. Mrs. In other words. The personages referred to. 287. Verrall's forgotten forms. Verrall's revived memories. with which she was not wholly imacquainted.

over the leaves in the process. ing covered her eyes) to describe the dress of a friend who was present. "but she could not remember that it had anything to do with Blanche Po3Tiings. and the other people referred to would be found. I then found that I myself was unable to give a more detailed descrip- . Ultimately. therefore. Miss C. writing with the planchette." which Miss C. Blanche. the source on which she had unconsciously drawn was discovered through a planchette. entitled The Countess Maud. Miss C. does not seem to be always necessary for impressing and conserving facts and details. (without warning and after havsite for recall. She was unable to do so beyond sa)dng that he wore dark clothes. by a very circuitous route. is the prerequibut even observation. C. and after much evasion. however. that a good deal of information must have been left in her mind while she was simply turning of the information Much tained in the appendix. received communications purporting to come from Blanche PojTiings. contain On all of examination. "It would seem. A. as being the book in which she. or with the other characters as to whom she had given information. which she coloring now recalls. which finally. gave was conThis was exceedingly dull. Holt. of some of the illustrations." Accurate observation. it is usually said. and with whom she had been conversing for perhaps some twenty minutes. gave the name of a book by E. the book proved to the personages and facts she had given. So it is highly improbable that she read it at eleven years of age or that her axmt should have read it to her. as we ordinarily use the word. however. then remembered that there was such a book and that it had been read to her" [when she was eleven years old]. which has been examined and foimd not to contain the information she had given.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 213 book bearing upon it other than a novel called John Standish. Doctor Morton Prince gives the following instance which he himself observed: "I asked B.

has been to show the almost incredible extent to which one's experiences may be conserved. although gether about two hours. owing to concealment by the folds of the unbuttoned The shoe-strings. C. ' The Unconscious. shirt with three little stripes in it. The instances which have been quoted are so amazing that the credulous are inclined to seek at once for an occult explanation. black bow-cravat. I had not no- ticed his teeth or the loss of a finger. however. one finger gone. however. and had to count their coat. "would have escaped nearly every one's observation. S3~S4- . Later in life he forgot the language so completely as to be unable to recall lost to writer. Her hand wrote as was unaware that her hand was writing): 'He has on a dark greenish-gray suit. I am sure. The release of submerged memories in such cases. It is not uncommon for the sight of a childhood acquaintance to bring to mind a succession of memories which have not been recalled for fifty years.^ 214 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK we had lunched and been toB." Were it the intention of the author to write a "Wonder Book" on memory. The purpose thus far. objects and persons wholly unconnected with the childhood events may accomplish this through a similarity so remote and obscure as to wholly elude discovery. pp. the buttons to partial make sure of their number. A. black laced shoes. was then asked to tion of his dress. follows (she write a description automatically. a stripe in it a little rough stripe. The were almost invisible. under the conditions. Another illustration of the renewal of associations long voluntary control was recently related to the A friend says that her brother spoke Spanish almost exclusively when a young child. Indeed. three buttons on his coat. false teeth.' — "The stripes in the coat written description was absolutely correct. cases such as have been given could be multiplied to fill a voliune. is no more enigmatical than their recovery in less spectacular instances.

^is This when what is recalled is to be recognized as a phase of one's own past life. feeling of familiarity transform an imagined event into experience memory? Recall of events without the knowledge that they have been a part of one's call. but Does the corroboration of its later find that you did. that a distinction may be made between it and imaginanecessary only tion. and the sensational cases at which the uncritical. automatic writing. Rewith or without recognition. that our attempt must be speculative and can yield at best only a working h)^othesis. experiences must be registered in some way. and . This record must also be preserved and. crystal vision. he frequently talked intelligibly in the language. In searching to for our explanation no argument is needed show that ideas which have passed from mind return under suitable conditions. It is also clear that to be remembered. that you "recall" an event and are uncertain whether you actually experienced it. Recognition we have had is the experience before — —the assurance that not essential. stand agape. who are seeking supernatural causes. own may occur in automatic writing. however. Psychological textbooks include recognition in their definition of memory. finally. and the ex ceptional manifestations are thus removed from the realm of the occult. Suppose. however. It should be emphasized. when sleeping. depends upon in hypnosis. it must be possible to reproduce it. however. and hypnotism. they at least bridge the chasm between retention and recall of every-day life. AU that we can hope to do is to get a picture of one of the possible explanations for these singular phenomena. Let us now try to find an explanation for the loss of memories and their occasional recovery through the strange ways of crystal vision. 215 more than a few isolated •words. If these less and extensively unusual instances do not explain the illusory more spectacular.CURIOSITIES OF voluntarily MEMORY Yet.

and association. Through this concomitant activity of mental and physiological processes. nerve continuously undergoes chenaical changes and that nervous irritability is directly connected with a chenucal To phenomenon. . vol. neurones become organized into functionally united systems." and that "CO2 production from the resting nerve proportionally decreases as irritaThese facts prove directly that the bility diminishes. the questions at once arise: Where does retentioii take place. p.2i6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK But ideas which have passed out of mind are not retained as ideas. and which consequently conserves whatever record of the experience remains after it has passed. 107. The American Journal of Physiology. A functionally united system of neurones is a group which has been active during an experience. ' These Shiro Tashiro. through activity. change is produced in the cerebral neurones. 32. and. it should also be noted that neurones correlated. thoughts." that "stimulation increases CO2 production. There are indications that one of these changes is of a chemical naInvestigation has shown that "a resting nerve gives ture. These systems of neurones are distinct from other groups only in the functional sense. and feelings themselves. and by the correlation of sets of neurones through association. Retention. is The action and interaction among their cells the physical basis and physiological accompaniment of the experience in which they originally participated. impKes something to be retained." are ^ In appljTng to memory the theory that mental processes always accompanied by physiological processes. since this something cannot be the ideas. what is it that is retained? imderstand this it must be remembered that every mental process is accompanied by a physiological process When we have an experience of any sort a in the brain. nevertheless. with past experiences are re-aroused by the excitation of associated nervous processes. off a definite quantity of carbon dioxide.

however. Once a system is broken into by its associative connection with the processes of another system it yields a flood of memories. artificial device. of associative processes. awaken the then.. my The functional connection of these systems of neurones with one another. the thoughts follow. automatic writing. Recall. But once the cue is found. and this larger connection constitutes the unity of the miad—of the "self.— CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 217 systems of neurones are not wholly independent of one another. If they were they could be made active only from within themselves. and we see here that it is also the problem These fimctionally united systems of neurones cannot always be aroused voluntarily. Experiments in h)^notism seem to support the view that there are groups of functionally united neurones. sight of so insignificant The Not infrequently the writer is unable to recall such thoughts even with the aid of the notes made at the time. however. like crystal vision or An hypnotism. is to start the associations which is will desired memlife. The problem. since certain facts which cannot be recalled in one stage of hypnosis may be brought back in another stage. This is lem of recall. They are in physiological connection with one another. This experience of breaking through obstructions is at times observed in the normal mental state when one tries to recover a line of thought. is not as intimate as their connections within themselves. crystal vision. with amazing accuracy and fulness. The mental attitude has much to do with success or failure. But the the prob- trouble is to break through the barrier. makes e. each thought and experience a personal matter experience. whether produced by hypnotism. is some- times necessary." It i. or by voluntary effort. one after the other. of association of ideas. The truth of this frequently seen in daily a thing as a pencil will suddenly call to mind where one laid some notes for which one has spent weeks hunting. And this . is always the outcome ories.

physically. then there came memories of seating herself at a table in the bank. of writing a letter. the marginal as and thoughts. who had lost some money which she wished to recover. a university student. giving a certain piece of made money and receiving the change in coin of certain denominations. This method of recall resembles a condition which Doctor Morton Prince calls "abstraction. ble. of going to a certain shop.. then of going to another shop and similal . fixing his subject. the writer has succeeded in recalling details which refused to yield to voluntary effort.2i8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK among other things. monographs. well as the focal nervous activity Severe effort to recall by force of "will" is not always Not infrequently by relaxing the bodily muscles and fixing the attention upon an event connected the best method. of absent-mindedly forgetting her gloves and leaving them on the table. citations The writer has recalled the place of mislaid of books from which at his desk. and doing other things." By way of illustration he tells of a young woman. etc. "In abstraction she remembered with great vividness every detail at the bank-teller's window. attitude includes. the checks. by sitting attention upon some phase of the and giving free rein to the interaction of associa- Critical examination of float of memories that any portion of the stream through the mind at this time in- hibits the flow. the money.. with what he desired to recall and allowing associations free play. tions. she finally certain purchases. where. and umbrella. The play of associations in this case is promoted by putting oneself in the place in which the event occurred. and the authors had been made. where she placed her gloves. purse. after looking at various articles and thinking certain thoughts and making certain remarks. if possi- then through the imagination. etc. if not. her purse there. of placing her umbrella here. of seeing in her purse the exact denominations of the coins which remained.

looking into it. "when. change completely when they find themselves on the spot. writing on the investigation of crime. therefore. A permanentiy altered nervous disposition is established. the order of events is important. At any rate. two ques- tions asked above. and these changes.CURIOSITIES OF experiences. for example. they recall first the . reduce the physiological reThe tendency is. produced in the nerve-cells as the result an experience. . Criminal Investigation. and the conserva- tion of these records occur in the neurones of the braui. Following this course. Adam. and the part played by each must be . people who in the magistrate's chambers remember nothing. . "We especially recommend this procedure in by commentators on complicated transactions. . of . pp. certain nervous pathways become more permeable because of the experience. Gross." We The are now ready i. MEMORY 219 of numerous details which she had Through it all ran the successive fortunes her purse until the moment came when. says^ that the best way to help a witness to remember accurately is to place him in the same circumstances as existed when he experienced the events. accessory details and subsequentiy some most important facts.. Where does retention take place? registration of ideas or experiences. by Hans Gross. the increased permeability. Quite likely. 25-26. translated by J. Then she found one of the five-dollar gold pieces gone. toward the re-arousal of the cerebral activity that occurred ' * The Unconscious." * Recall of forgotten details when imder the influence of the conditions of the original experience has been noted criminal jurisprudence. to answer the first of the e. or when there are several actors in the same. some change also takes place in the nerves themselves. . 76." he says. forgotten. determined. C. and J. with is Some change of their activity during sistance for nervous impulses. we often obtain the most astonishing results. p.

and is primarily dependent upon processes which go on in the cortex.— 220 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK during the original experience when any of these neurones are excited through their associative connections. 1904. several answers his followers In answer to the second question What is retained ? have been given. however. Various theories* have been offered to account for the changes produced in the brain by experiences. The view which satisfies the psychological and physiological requirements is. it is suflScient to say that memory has a physiological basis. ' Human Hering. as we have seen. Myers' suggestive work at once became strikingly popular and started a host of unscientific writers along his trail. memory is too extensive to be explained in this way. W. Harvey. There would not be shelves enough to hold the countless niunber of ideas. p. with little or no intelligible meaning. F. . p. by Eugenio Rignano. On Memory. 256. by Richard Semon. based on changes in the neurones. Personality. This is a repetition in terms of memory of what has already been said of mental processes in general. igii. 388. aside from the fact that a subliminal psychological storehouse does not tally with physiological data. and to define the residua left in the neurones after stimulation. For our purpose. of habit. B. H. vol. and they would surely get mixed up while in cold storage. C. " Sur la Dynamique Chimique du SystSme Nerveux. One proof of this physical basis of memory is that injury of sensory or 'Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. and from which they — s'ally forth into the realm of consciousness." by T. Archives de Physiologie. 4. Myers^ and — the subliminal preserved in occasionally assume a sort of psychological repository mind in which ideas and experiences are their original form. RetenIt is the cortical law tion is a property of neural tissue. Die Mneme. vol. translated by B. 1896. however. 6. Unfortunately. these followers could not interpret Myers' blazes. Robertson. But. H. The result was a repetition of his words. by Ewald Upon the Inheritance of Acquired Characters.

when the recall of the original idea desired. and the same mental processes that accompanied the original neural activity reoccur. But why is the repetition of these physiological processes so often suppressed? Why do we forget? We are accustomed to say that we forget the things to which we do not give attention. second question.. or similar by associated nervous impulses.CURIOSITIES OF furnished as in lost. If the is visual centre Now let injured visual memories are impaired or us see the bearing of these facts upon the i. As a consequence of this activity some effect was produced upon the cerebral neurones. Memory is thus the mental aspect of a habitual response of nerve-centres. later. a disposition to react in the same way whenever these neurones are stimulated tendency. that the attention is selective. ideas. is and that what ignores forgotten. MEMORY 221 is association areas affects memories. In this way thoughts. e. then. functional complexes. If recall is successful the same nerve-structures which participated in the original experience are again active. One of these there effects is quite certainly the establishing of functional con- nections. passed frorn conserved as physiological. and there imdoubtedly . is Then. The result of the change caused in neurones by an experience is. What is retained as the basis of first in memory ? When mind the ideas which are to be recalled were the was an accompanying and vuiderljdng neural activity. a football-game. a repetition of processes which were active in the original experience. first. a when they do act again. these functional connections facilitate the pas- sage of nervous impulses along the path traversed before. second. and by cerebral localization. Further evidence by temporary amnesia from a blow on the head. to reproduce the same mental content. and. The record of ideas and experiences which have mind but may be recalled as memories is thus that it it fastens is upon certain impressions. and experiences are repeated as memories.

"I've been hearing a lot of fool talk about my robbing trains and going on the dodge. This is October ist. He and his gang robbed a train on the ist of October. and clear myself. I now quote from Mr. and when I had use for him it was fixed in his mind ^wrong. then I'm coming in. pp. . and I'm coming back on the isth. I'm tired of it. and my brother John. To them I talked just as I had to Pittman. Pittman was so excited at seeing me and hearing of my intentions that the date impressed itself on his mind only as an inconsequential detail. experience. "According to expectation. two weeks from to-day. face the music. the sheriff. and no one thought to verify my statement of the date. " Going to the saloon of Ike Renfrew. I got him to send "Make — — for Bob Motley. 121/. during her sojourn in gave painful attention to the bitter struggle for the ^Beating Back. "Pittman. Pittman. however." * Attention. by Al Jennings and Will Irwin. frequently does not satisfy the requirements of an explanation for memory. He never thought to look it up at the time. Al Jennings tells an amusing story that shows how he forced a district attorney and several others to fix their attention upon a wrong date. my father. And as I left his much office I repeated: a note of it this is October ist. I intend to surrender. and in this way established an alibi for one of his crimes. Every one was delighted. I'll return. I've a few things to settle up first. On the morning of the 2d of October [the following day] he walked into the office of the district attorney.222 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK truth in these statements. Sophia Scales. Jennings. I knew he wouldn't arrest me without a warrant. Have your officers ready. Motley was my friend. The follow- — — ing from Arnold Bennett's Old Wives' Tales appeals to com- mon Paris. This made a perfect alibi." he said. October 15th. getting the false date October ist ^into their minds. for the robbery had occurred eighty miles away at noon of October ist. Mr.

She had always compared France disadvantageously with England. Attention does not explain certain conditions. so exquisitely arranged Even a butcher's shop in Paris was a pleasure to the eye. Freud ascribes this error of the young ohysician to the fancied identification of himself with Virchow.CURIOSITIES OF privilege of living. Freud calls an "ambition-complex. and then said the wrong thing. indeed. as she was leaving. p. perhaps. even if she had unconsciously liked it. always resented the French temperament in business. and which she had glimpsed from the cab ^what a bloody shambles She longed for Paris again. fightiug. always been convinced that 'you never knew where you were' with French trades-people. whereas the butcher's shop in Wedgwood Street.' The surprised professor turned to him and asked: 'Is your name also Virchow?'" The young man had evidently fixed his attention on what he would say and. however. which she remembered of old. Under may pro- duce confusion and cause one to say the very thing or commit the act that one is striving to avoid. . For." Curious tricks the ! — ! memory plays us. so eager to spare your feelings and to reassure you. MEMORY it 223 Yet. exhausting Hfe in Paris. ishing with what liquid tenderness she turned was "astonand looked back on that hard. And now they flitted before her endowed with a wondrous charm. the explanation seems to be the simpler one given abovo. Man is tory. We forget the impleasant features of a past experience and remember the pleasant things." To tit ' ' writer. she had never enjoyed it. always looking back to a golden age. on what he should not say. Freud* mentions a young physician "who timidly and reverently introduced himself to the celebrated Virchow with the following words: 'I am Doctor Virchow. with its associated feelings. not merely ia hisbut also in his own life. She longed to stretch her lungs in Paris. These people in Bursley did not suspect what Paris was. attention the freaks of memory. This suppressed thought of identification. so neat and prim. so polite in their lying. loo.^ Psychopathology of Everyday Life. And the French shops.

active or suppressed. he continually caught himself with her former name half spoken. The husband when of one of his friends died and. that whenever a published fact. He ascribes it to his fear lest he make the mistake and to the fact that before addressing her he thinks her new name and then cautions himself against speaking that of her former husband. a new observation or thought. Viertes Hauptstuck. "'I have done that. Finally my sociations may memory • yields." Jenseits von Gut und Bosen. to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once.' 224 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK acquaintance of the writer relates a similar instance An from Ms own experience. "namely.' says my memory. This tendency has not ceased even after the lapse of several years. After the second marriage." he says in his Autobiography. also. observed this tendency to forget disagreeable thoughts in himself. for I had foimd by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from the memory than favorable ones.' says my pride." Nietzsche also noted the tendency of disagreeable thoughts to vanish from memory. pleasant or unpleasant. "I had during many years followed a golden rule. again. the widow married addressing her. they leave the door open to all sorts of emotional conflicts with a resulting repression of memories. and remains inexorable. Another bit of evidence indicative. Her former name is thus imintentionally emphasized. came across me which was opposed to my general results. It is always a question of the relation of that content to other memories. 'I cannot have done that. analytic mind. in the course of time. Charles Darwin. Since as- be real or fancied. . of the inadequacy of the attention theory as a complete explanation is that in well-organized minds memories do not owe their existence to their own content alone. We recall by association. with his keen. This suppression of thoughts and experiences may nullify the influence of attention. 68.

Recently Freud' has undertaken an analysis of why we forget and has found. memory would hardly be complete without some of the equally strange instances of forThe two are really one. but is inhibited through other and contrary forces from regularly manifesting itself. burdened by the pressure of moral education. but. and in the analysis of the examples one regularly recognizes a counter-wiU^ which opposes but does not put an end to the resolution. "is always an unwhich may evoke painful pression in psychic This motive vuiiversally strives for exlife. he says. . . the supposed conflict resulting in the repression of the. instances" [impulses or ' ideals]. abundant evidence in support of the view that forgetfulness is the result of conflict and repression. ." willingness to recall something .' CURIOSITIES OF Curiosities of MEMORY 225 reference to getfulness. counter-force expresses the thought more correctly. This is the translator's word. of the two aspects of this unitary process. forgetfuhiess probably requires explanation rather than memory itseK. pp. jealous. " » Op.. Psychopathology of Everyday Life. . The same conflict governs the phenomena of erro. A different factor steps into the foregroxmd in the forgetting of resolutions. often utilize the path of faulty actions to express in some way their imdeniably existing force which is not recognized by the higher psychic tistic. in the opinion of the present writer. and. ." neously carried-out actions. . cU. In speaking of erroneous actions Freud continues: "The first question (as to the origin of thoughts and emotions which find expression in faulty actions) we can answer by saying that in a series of cases the origin of the disturbing thoughts can readily be traced to repressed emoEven in healthy persons.. . as he believes. painful becomes tangible. egotions of the psychic life. of forgetting. 331-333- y . and hostile feelings and impulses. .. "The motive feelings.

and if a doctor telephones to ask whether I can see an interesting case at that hour I am more likely than not to tell him that I shall be free then." ' An instance illustrating the same tendency to forget the unpleasant has recently been reported to the writer by an acquaintance." continues same connection.. 4Svol. If a given patient is very tedious and uninteresting. "I have noted numerous instances of a purposeful forgetting of appointments. p." what has impleasant assobeen mentioned by Doctor Ernest Jones: "In ray own Ufe. particularly with patients. cit. time. I am very apt to forget that I have to see him at a certain hour. imfortunately. Indeed. whom two days before. I had no business "In former years. latide. 477- » American Journal of Psycheloiy. This man has reached his fiftieth birthday. To the question how I knew this I boldly re- plied that I had taken an interest in Gassendi for a long This resulted in a certificate with a magna cum but later. and was asked whether I knew who took up his teachings centuries later. I happened to hear spoken of as a follower of Epicurus.226 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK perience: Freud gives an illustrative instance from his own ex"While taking an examination in philosophy as a minor subject I was questioned by the examiner about the teaching of Epicurus. I believe that it is due to my guilty conscience that even now I cannot retain this name knowing Freud in it at that time." he says. I answered that it was Pierre Gassendi. p. 22. also in a persistent ten- dency to forget the name of Gassendi." this efforts. . while in a caf6. but stUl has a large amount of work laid out and is ' Op. "I observed that of a great despite all ^ number of professional calls I only forgot those that I was to make on patients whom I treated gratis. or on colleagues. I can recall several annoying quandaries that this habit similar tendency to forget ciations has A has led me into.

but there is one thing you must admit. they were regaled with thin sandwiches and lemonade." According to Freud. 103. an ardent admirer of the Progressive candidate. An interesting experience is reported by A wealthy but not very generous host invited his friends an evening dance. As it was close to election day. Brill. the conversation was centred on the different candidates. presumably for supper. remarked to his host: 'You may say what you please about Teddy. cit. and the recalling of trivial.30.' Of course she meant to say pills. for Even then he has of this date. Op. This tendency to repress unconsciously the unpleasant sometimes results in curious displacements and substitutions. p. tact difficulty because he is always uncertain His birthday frequently passes without the coming into consciousness. there was no supper.'"* Freud also cites a similar instance from his own experi- ences: "While writing a prescription for a woman who was especially weighted down by the financial burden of her treatment. vol. When required to give it he must invariably figure it out from the year of his birth. p. "Everything went well imtil about when there was an intermission. irrelevant experiences of childhood instead of ' » Journal ef Abnormal Psychology. — ing to say 'deal. To the great disappointment of most of the guests. the same psychological causes underlie the forgetting of proper names.' CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 227 loath to think that he has passed the meridian of life. 314. The disagreeable thought may then be imintention- ally expressed. 8. because I cannot ^ swallow them. The unpleasantness of this thought makes it impossible him to remember his age. . and as the discussion grew warmer one of the guests. I was interested to hear her say very suddenly: 'Please do not give me big bills. instead.. he can al^wishways be depended upon to give one a square meal to 11.

Yielding to his wife's entreaties. and instead something The stopping and strayelse comes as a substitute. The husband had absent-mindedly drppped the key into the trunk and sprung the lock. He assured me. however.. After accomplishing this he returned to the trunk and foimd it locked. tion in It must. a tendency which favors one memory and at the same time works against another. There was a motive. In each of these apparently different instances. in to go." ^ Mislaying objects of course. Psychoanalysis: Its Theory and op. cause. in the mislaying. A locksmith could not be found on Sunday evening. p. the key could not be found. A. is the displeasure which the arousal . and Freud brings these mistakes imder the same general principle. On having the trunk opened the next morning the lost key was found within. an instance of forgetting. "that this was wholly unintentional and unconscious. so the couple had to send their regrets. what should be correctly reproduced by memory fails to appear. be borne in "A man mind that he did not wish see. cit. but which he was sure would actually bore him. as we then. "If one looks over the cases of mislaying it will be difl&cult to assume that mislajdng is anything other than the result of an unconscious intention. in Freud's opinion. A. of the suppressed memory would is.. .228 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK the more important ones that profoundly affected us at the time. Practical Application. Freud thinks. Brill. 6cH5i. Despite a long."* And this prejudicial factor. repression of certain memories and " In both cases we deal with the failure of remembering. . was urged by his wife to attend a social funcwhich he not only took no interest. p. he began to take his dress-suit from the trxuik when he suddenly thought of shaving."' resolves itself Forgetting. > Freud's opinion. substitution of others occur. pp. 148. cit. 2ig. ing of the reproducing function indicates more often than we suppose that there is an intervention of a prejudicial factor. earnest search. . ' ' Op." says Brill.

and while we wish to forget one thing we actually forget that which we desire to recall.. it is a defense against recalling experiences unpleasant in themselves or which are associated directly or indirectly with disagreeable memories. In other words. Names may be forgotten. CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 229 into repression of memories through conflict. So names can be disturbed on this respect.. The associated interaction. who seems to regard name-forgetting as typical. and was able to give accurate directions for finding it. "when the name touches something unpleasant. however. ' . or when it is brought into connection with other associations which are iofluenced by such effects.cit. but though he recalled the exact location of this store. I was -able to supply the missing name (Putnam). "A few days later. "During the weeks Just before Christmas." says Doctor Frink. 8.^ "a gentleman was asked by two or three different people where certain books could be purchased. 52-53. . sometimes goes astray.third Street." ^ An illustration wUl make this clear. * Journal of Abnormal Psychology. he could not remember the name of the firm. when he mentioned the circumstances to me. 386. in of forgetting in general. This may happen when what we are anxious to forget forms an associative connection with what we wish to remember. Ideas associated with strong emotions suppress experiences the thought of which is repugnant to the dominating emotion. vol. He happened to know that the books in question were kept in stock by a firm of publishers on Twenty. with the fol- lowing results: "Upon concentrating his mind upon the name in question he immediately recalled that some years before he had gone to Putnam's in search of a certain book which he ^Op.pp. p. and we attempted to analyze his forgetting. itself their own account or on account of their nearer or more remote associative relations in the reproduction. according to Freud.

felt that he was had a very vague mental picture of some person with a round. which furnished mortif)dng evidence of his inability to win a high place in the lady's esteem. that the resistance to name belonged I. during which he 'thinking of nothing. he and his brother. years of age. sitting with his younger brother on the floor before this cupboard and playing with a colored picture-book. she received him and his gift in a manner so cold and forbidding as to occasion him not only extreme embarrassment but also a degree of wrath. then. "Then there occurred to him the incident by which the When he was about forgetting is apparently deterniined. to and therefore. stimulated by the seven picture of the doughty general's exploit. as he did without apparent difficulty. the It was evident. but he was quite unable to say who Next he foimd himself thinking this person might be. Then came a memory of himself as a child. he called upon her. "This memory.General Israel Putnam. In the picture-book was a representation of . contrary to his hopes. of a tall cupboard in a house where he had lived up to his eighth year. Having obtained the book. But this complex does not account for the fact that after he had recalled the existence of this firm. formed a complex of such an undoubtedly painful nature that one might readily suppose it capable of causing resistances against remembering that the above-mentioned firm of booksellers exists.' he stated that he this point he suddenly realizes the identity of the red face. together with others of a similar kind. "urged him to continue his associations. but. decided to 'play ." says Frink. At "After a short pause. making his famous escape from the British by riding on horseback down a flight of stone steps.230 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK wished to present to a young lady he much admired. the name of the firm still eluded him. with a very red face and a very blue coat. some complex still undiscovered. red face and wearing a blue coat.

who at acting the part of Putnam's horse. that some may doubt whether the memory of this episode. I think. that to drop his brother upon the stone steps would add greatly moment was to the zest of the proceedings. though of evident significance at the time it was formed. and not only stimulates feelings of affection and good-will. but as a part of great complexes which concern the telling of lies. set up a wail which was no sooner received than put promptly brought the mother of the children upon the scene and placed the elder brother in imminent danger of chastisement. In view of this latter fact. But in this emergency the same fertility of invention which got him into trouble got him out again. suddenly finding himself at the bottom of the steps in a very contused condition.CURIOSITIES OF Israel stairs MEMORY 231 Putnam. also. the subject's family. in a period which sets the entire 'family complex' on the qui vive. one may conceive that the subject's first association may perhaps not be so irrelevant as it seems. because of the — sometimes painful necessity of furnishing expensive mate- a evidence of regard. The small brother. It is perhaps worthy of note. however. be attributed. For by l3ang with great power and persuasiveness he convinced his mother that his brother's fall was purely accidental and escaped being punished. occasionally inspires sraitiments of noble and benevolent character. "To this incident the forgetting of the name of Putnam may. and the malicious pleasure derived from making other people suffer." rial less It must not be thought that failure to recall is inten- . I realize. But in this connection it should be borne in mind that the memory must not be regarded as an isolated one. could have any effect whatsoever after a lapse of more than twenty years. But while carrjdng out this plan this it occurred to the older boy. that the forgetting occurred just before Christmas that is. This happy inspiration into effect.' by carrying each other down the stone which led to the cellar of their house. but.

but it is there. Moral convictions may. . It is evident from Freud's analysis that forgetting is not an accidental occurrence. Amid the play of psychic forces. I was under a constraint to which I had not entirely resigned myself. in a man of low moral standards. I have found that they could invariably be traced to some interference of unknown and unadmitted motives or. may arise in opposition to the suppression of the disagreeable. Op. as may be said. The reahn of thoughts and emotions is too extensive and complex for that. for example". and pictures certain memory failures as well as The explanations usually ' of errors in speech and given." says Freud. "I have collected the cases of neglect through forgetting which I have observed in myself. It need hardly be said that the defensive tendency which underUes Freud's theory does not always gain the upper hand.232 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK ' The defensive tendency is a subconsdous process. His analysis. In a number of these cases I found tional. The desire to boast. intricacies of the mental life. — myself in a position similar to that of being in some distasteful service. so I showed my protest in the form of forgetting.^ "and endeavored to explain them. pp. tend to suppress or recall a memory. may cause him to remember and even to tell of an occurrence which in another would be suppressed. reveals the amazing causes of action. 163-164." "Ignorance of the law is no excuse" is thus seen to have a psychological basis. Freud has rendered a service by the clearness with which he has demonstrated the vagueness of the usual explanation. they were due to a counter-will. cit. thoughts. We may or may not be able to discover the motive. according to circumstances. as inattention.. and this cause involves a motive. It always has a cause. because the wish to do the forbidden act makes it easy to forget the prohibiting law. and especially emotions. whether correct in particular instances or not.

lack of interest. is Conflict. It is There of one sort or another. but there are other factors. has found much evidence to support feels in and repression is due as well. but any one of which may serve as an underlying motive. The instance of the man who locked his key in his trunk. and integration are the mental Ufe operative. in his analysis of his own memory failures in thoughts and actions.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 233 absent-mindedness. If the writer were to venture a criticism of Freud's theory. to forget the unpleasant is That we tend assume undeniable. however.. probable. reinforcement. are more common than the others. men are prone to become offensively autocratic when suddenly promoted from a subordinate position to one that places them over those among whom they formerly worked. however. some seem. difference —they Of be said that they wish to forget their former condition of servitude. such as are inclined to be offensive in their exactions. in turn not so simple as to and together. The writer. more course it may pride in ostentatious display of authority. it would be that it is too limited. too conthis to sistently uniform. They usually forget the causes of earlier dissatisfaction practices of their earlier forethis and follow the objectionable men or managers. for instance. however. etc. Freud's theory. to conflicts and suppressions causes of these conflicts. letting loose all of the suppressed desires to dominate the pleasure that — man commanding others. that all forgetting . indeed. It is well known. suppression. which Freud quotes approvmgly from Brill. perhaps. the primitive elation in merely ordering and seeing the orders executed. But be practically the only motive of forgetting makes the mental processes too restricted. impresses one as fitting the explanation to the theory. Is the motive of forgetting which to may "always an unwillingness to recall something evoke painful feeUngs" ? The writer doubts it. Conflict there certainly is. to be many of which. but have essentially one that motive. do not explain. with. for example.

The only intelligible explanation for this conviction is that some look or movement. Many experiences which do not become a part of our conscious mental content influence our actions as truly as those of which we are aware.234 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK in that case. To say that the greater zest for the man may — one than the other makes one. but may also have work on hand that occupies his mind. then. and which he is anxious to finish. it is entirely con- Whatever was the cause ceivable that a look forward to a social event with keen anticipation. As a matter of fact. In such a case the conflict is between enjoyable thoughts. is an illustration in a wider field. He has gone below the general causes of forgetfulness. and shown that there are specific motives which may be discovered. but can give no reason for our belief. is a process a complex nervous process and. notwithstanding criticism. vol. All experiential modifications of the nervous system which are retained and can be reproduced so as to exert an influence upon subsequent action are memory. perhaps the most frequent. . of its ramifications. It begs the question. Our "feeling" and "intuitions" regarding We are convinced that a man is not frank and open. limits it by definition to the facts which have been in our personal consciousness. made an impression without coming into So-called organic memory. may be unusually clear statement of Freud's theory. by Doctor Ernest found in the British Journal of Psychology. 8. 33.^ Memory. is — The inclusion of conscious experience in the definition of memory. or something else in his past relations with us. he has isolated and examined. and the final repression is motived by other causes than the disagreeable. p. people are illustrations. and one of these motives. with all clear consciousness. conscious memory is only one type of memory. 'An Jones. unpleasant. like all processes. as when we say that to be remembered an event must be recognized as a part of our past experience. But. it can be furthered or hindered. Freud's contribution is of inestimable value. by comparison. only playing with words.

Is this not memory ? Yet few would say that the dog consciously recalled his past experience. does not even know that he is addressed. This view of instances that memory we have brings it into line with the curious quoted. variants can because of their commonness. they may has varying degrees of intensity. all of these facts seem A memory as a nervous process Some are too weak to become factors in consciousness. and to the extent to which they are conflicts interference. Considering clear. To this phase of the . again. though they may exert an influence upon the individual. Memory regarded as a process is also consistent with the strange cases of forgetfulness to which reference has been made. A person thus absorbed does not hear the words. is occasional moments when one and repressions we are only enlarging the field of Memory and forgetfulness are evidently subject to certain principles. the actions of the lower animals are suggestive.CURIOSITIES OF MEMORY 235 Then. and in which the element of "recognition" did not enter. This is seen in those spoken to while reading an interesting book. subject we accordingly turn. Disturbance of nervous processes has been proven in such cases as associative and reproductive inhibition. A nervous impulse traversing certain pathways is exposed to many interferences. Yet half an hour later he may suddenly become aware of the fact. Feed a dog an appetizing dish made intensely bitter. and he is likely soon after to decline the food served in the same way but without the bitter ingredient. indeed. There are all sorts of memory variants. are not believed to require an explanation. some of which are so spectacular as to suggest occult explanations But these unusual to those seeking supernatural causes. process. some of which have aheady been discovered. later. and in assuming further rise above the level of consciousness. known memory can be improved. be matched by facts from every-day life which.

heard. . Harrington. one cannot fail to observe the devious mental wanderings from the point. for the affairs of every-day the practical question efficient? How may one's be made tive. If one will notice the argimients and statements of others. revealing the features of Polly Wheedle. oh. In answering this question constantly bear in mind that an efficient own memory we should memory is selec- It does not reproduce past experiences impartially. or read are important for the matter in hand. when horseback riding. that he might lift her on the horse behind him. have no present significance. however much they may bear on other questions. Certain facts which we have observed. and pulled it back. the psychology of memory.CHAPTER VII MEMORY AND We life ITS IMPROVEMENT They are significant for have been speaking of certain special and unusual cases of recall of past experience. And as if heaven paused to hear. and other things. seized the soaked garment. Evan bade her throw back her garment and stand and give him her arms. as it seemed. pered. on a big sob. George Meredith gives a good illustration in Evan Harrington. . "Could he have heard correctly? The words he fancied he had heard sobbed were: . • • • 236 . "'Oh. « • . Mr. ain't I punished!' she whim. discovered Polly Wheedle shivering under a bush in the rain: "Bellowing against the thunder.' "'Best bonnet "Evan stooped his shoulder. the storm was mute. but is. "There came a muffied answer. Evan.

Laxley. sir. — — ! — — ! ' . I should . like my Miss Rose did. and she said to Mr. he wasn't true to his appointment the moment I wanted to go back. . And my gown spoilt and such a bonnet!' "'Who was the somebody?' "'He's a Mr. . the Countess. '"Well. Harry to herself like that. dear me there's such a to-do as never was known all for nothing! "'My good girl!' said Evan. Nicholas Frim. and on came the storm. So Mr.' said Polly ruefully. think. did he bring you here and leave you?' '"No. who's going to marry her some day. Harrington." I can't abear to speak his name. and I. making a face in the looking-glass when I was undressing her last night. recalling her to the subjectmatter with all the patience he could command. Laxley said ^just hke the jealousy of men they I'm sure nobody can tell what we needn't talk of women have to put up with. though I haven't known her long before she gave up short frocks. that's one comfort. Mr. . Nicholas Frim will be very unhappy. be punished? '"Somebody drove me to Fallowfield to see my poor Susan/ returned Polly.' '"Mr. half crying. taking Mr.' . I determined I'd waJk it where he shouldn't overtake me. . I can see that. "'You look very pretty. but I suppose he's not a bit more selfish than the rest of men. . "She didn't like my lady. . We mustn't look out of this eye. but they're up and oh. You must know. .' "'Yes. "'I can see myself a fright. she's very fond of managing. to pay him off.MEMORY AND What brought you sister ITS IMPROVEMENT to 237 "'And what have you been doing here?' said Evan. drying her eyes. or out of the other.' "'My Miss Rose —what was I going to tell? Oh ! —my Miss Rose.

A vigorous metabolism. from past experience. And it is here that the purpose of the moment plays its controlling part when it is kept rigorously in mind. and with it the memory. The psychological significance of what has been said in earlier appreciated tion. by rapid elimination of the waste products caused by wear and tear. and fatigue obvious. pressions. re- cency. Consequently. 'I "'Where was I?' Polly do feel a little cold. is therefore however. improvement of memory requires conform- In the last analysis. The failure to keep to the point to progress in one's thinking and talking is commonly caused by carelessly losing the thread of con- —memory—^need — direction — — versation or thought.238 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK travelled meditatively back. continually rejuvenates the tissues and keeps them "fit. After hygienic living.'" Evidently. determined by the quality of brain-tissue. or from temporary fatigue." The effect of this is when destruction of tissue exceeds construcwhen one becomes "worn out" from overwork. What is it that guides ? It is the thought about which we are conversing the central idea around which related memories should cluster. food. lack of exercise. or event that to be remembered are imis Retention. of course. As in other mental matters the efifect of hygienic hving cannot be overestimated. recalled thoughts and guidance. any improvement here is produced indirectly. tissue as it is . The mind. Naturally. then refuse to work. upon the idea portant. much depends upon and the number is the intensity of the imof associations focussing and for deepening the impress. and by rebuilding the nervous structures. vividness. The material from which this selection is made comes. as chapters about exercise. we must accept our brainand endeavor to make the most of it. but experience is always varied. repetition. after the impression has been made. Every idea has been cormected with many others.

But some of the principles inherent in before discussing these investigations it briefly. but lowed as a matter of course. quite suddenly. the event with which the name was in closest association. I meet a man. may be well to mention. Stated in its upon and psychological law of memory is. Neither the statement of the "law of association. Events long forgotten follow one another in more or less serial order. was reached. the right clew." however. a few of the facts under' lying retention course. The fundamental tions of retention what recall are attempts to ascertain under conditions associations are firmly established with the least expenditure of time and energy. for example. as I remember a little play in which we both participated. for a friend will join us soon to whom the man must be introduced. We were in we had several friends common. perhaps. My mind runs over the period of our former acquaintance. The writer has been trying to describe a bit of personal experience.t two ideas have been in the mind simultaneously or in immediate succession the recurrence of one of them tends to bring the other in its train. The purpose is of the experiments cited in this chapter to discover memory. For this explanation it is necessary to turn to the . the desired name bursts upon me. tha. based and recall. and then it fol- seemed about to come. still it eluded him. however. however. and the investiga- if simplest psychological terms the law of association is. I must recall it.MEMORY AND ity to rules ITS IMPROVEMENT of the 239 and prmciples that grow out memory process. whom I formerly knew quite well. are recalled. nor the description of the process gives the reason for the succession of thoughts or for the recall of any given idea. then. whose names come back as the circumstances together in a certain town. of association of ideas. It was a long series of associations and several times the name Finally. but whose name I cannot remember. and I do not wish to admit that I have forgotten his name.

appear to but intricate manifestations. stated in physiological terms. The change in the synapse. at times. cases in which memory seems to be independent of association. therefore. a time. We are sometimes obsessed by a word. come into the mind of their own accord. trades-unions. joining these neurones. The law should. It is fact that perseveration is especially noticeable is fatigued supports this view. to a friend. such as anarchist. much more complex than it is this so-called law im- not our present purpose to examine its more The important fact to observe here is that memory proceeds according to law and order. much more numerous and controlling than we are inclined to think. the activity of When two be neu- rones have been active together or in immediate succes- one tends to excite the other to action. The tion. to similarities or contrasts of which one is not fully conscious.240 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The connection between ideas rests. So far as we can discover such ideas are uncaused. Suggest almost any topic. more permanently estabhshed. Asso- ciation is plies. and you will find that he has very . as of habit. or a face. Associations are would naturally obtrude. upon a more fundamental connection between neurones. or to old associations which have faded to obscurity. to be sure. The synapse is the point of functional connection between neurones. and Upon increased permeability of the synapses nervous system. as follows: sion. ultimately. however. is the physiological basis of association. and simultaneous or successive action of the two neurones decreases the resistance of their juncture. There are. There is. resulting from the passage of a nervous impulse from one neurone to another. Ideas. when one In such a condition the associations older. in the author's opinion. no reason for assuming that this perseverative tendency the cells of the cortex —the persistence of the activity of —violates the principle of associa- probably due to hidden associations. For this reason the excitation of one easily extends to the other. or walking delegate.

remember easily causes Investigations. forgetfulness. p. f. vol. though he may never have given the ideas a moment's conscious reflection. Psychological Review. p. . Knowledge as a factor in memory has received too little The more we know about a subject the more easily and accurately do we remember what we read concerning it. is that we see more meaning in what we read and. vol. das klass. Monograph Supplement. Henri.igo3. H. but maturity do not support this view. T. Berlin. E. On is strong opinions. 52. and knowledge plays an inestimable role. American Journal of Psychology. Winch. i. p.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 241 formed wholly unconsciously through the mfluence of newspaper statements or conversations. 13. 321. Einfiihrung in d. Bolton. E. Remie phUosophique. 4. 362. associations are more numerous and intelligible. PSdagogik. Psychologie p. The reason. B. Zeitschriftf. O. 148. Adolf Pohlmann. Jlfiwrf. Lehre vom Gedachtnis. Und Physiologie d. 127. 75. the basis for the statement attributed to Thomas Edison. Perseveration may therefore be explained without recourse to free ideas. pp. vol. 151. Baird. vol. 279. 2i. Henderson. British Journal of Psychology. translated by J. 3. 24. Rudolf Wessely. pp. p. N. p. Bourdon. vol. Die experimentelle Pddagogik. of course. vol. but perspiration. p. Children. p. Marx Lobsien. 16. i. 170-203. J. vol. i. because it has a richer significance. Experimentelle Beitrage z. that "genius is not inspiration. Sinnesorgane. Jacobs. This is attention. 245 ff.no. Binet and V. W. p. Decroly and J. Children seem to excel adults in rote- ' A. L. L'Annee psychologique. Alterthum u. The associations that give approval or disapproval have been rare occasions they offer discovery may follow. 122. 55 ^. Meumemn. i. 37. for which there at present no convincing evidence. Netschajeflf. Neue Jahrbiicher f. experimentelle PSdagogik. vol.* however. L'Annee psychologique. Knowledge is also necessary for flashes of insight. 12 (old series). vol. is new pomts The mental of view and a great attitude toward the questions raised important here. 373. W. vol. pp. The Psychology of Learning. These apparently detached ideas are sometimes bridges over which one passes from memory to imagination. Vorlesungen z. they say. p." Adults are prone to think that memory is a matter of age. Degand. 2. A.

These exceptions seem to occur when the development of organs and functions produces excessive Hrain upon the vitality. An experiment by Wessely^ throws some light upon the relation between permanent memory and age in those under seventeen or eighteen. It should be mentioned. They lists of and declensions. twenty-four hours. Practice with them is more regular and persistent. in this connection. willing to have had Mature persons are un- submit to the drudgery of mechanical learning. In a few instances twenty-four hours or several days intervened. As soon. The result showed that. rather enjoy such work and frequently repeat in play what they have learned. Wessely also tested pupils from eleven or twelve to seventeen or eighteen. as adults practice they surpass children. and it is practice that counts in memory. using Latin words with which they were unfamiliar. however. or on the other hand. when it appeared to reach its maximum. and usually the memory tests were given immediately after the material had been learned. and one month later the German words were given. Memory in children improves with age. though periods without improvement have been observed. The memory test consisted in associating these words with their German equivalents.— 242 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK more accustomed to this kind learning. Children. Then. Boys were asked to write as much as they could remember of a poem which they had committed to memory a year or more before. one week. that most of the experiments have been made with those of fourteen years or yoimger. because they are of memory work. The capacity — . as in other resent memorizing conjugations words. and the boys were asked to write the respective Latin equivalents. so far as these boys were concerned there were twenty-three or more in each of the six classes tested ^retention gradually increased from twelve years of age to fifteen or sixteen. things.

again. tested himself at fifty-two years of age. who were the best. Pohhnanni found that children fourteen years of age retain considerably more than one and one-half times a-^ much as nine-year-olds. and the will to remember as represented in their attitude toward their work. life. Meumann ability to thinks that the limit of improvement in the to five years of age. some increase in retention was indicated. manent memory and age. and found that he could learn nonsensesyllables quite as readily as he could shortly after thirty. the most efl&cient memory "appears much later in life. wider knowledge. memory is reached at about twentyThe few tests that have been made on however.MEMORY AND to retain ITS IMPROVEMENT 243 and recall gradually increased from the youngest. this investigation sust^s the earlier conclusions. adults. wealth of associations. 34. due probably to physiological causes. with its accompanying zeal to ' ' Grundziige d. no. Op. who gave the poorest results. O. i. however. and the more abstract and difficult the material the later it appears. where his inBeyond twenty years no systematic attempt has been made to follow the relation between percall. The reason with its for the better memory of adults is greater ability to concentrate their attention. indicate increasing ability much later in commit Ebbinghaus. vol. Lyon." On the whole. to those of thirteen or fourteen. With prose. Interest in what one is doing. p. At seventeen or eighteen. Archives of Psychology.^ In a more recent investigation' high-school students averaging from sixteen to seventeen years of age retained poetry better than those yoimger or older. At about fourteen he observed a decline. » . erste Auflage. D. Psychologic. vestigation ended. that memory of material with meaning improves until the period when the mental powers in general begin to decline. 622. cit. for example. This was followed by a second increase in capacity to retain and rewhich continued to the twentieth year.

pertinent to ask whether a good memory of the sort investigated by these tests and good school marks do not largely overlap. therefore. Op. p. the investigator himself says: "The diEEerences are not marked. and the mental type of the reader. observed no correspondence between • ' ' Journal of Educational Psychology. foimd so slight a correlation as to be practically equivalent to a denial of any mutual relation. He made two kinds of experiments. 319. It should not be forgotten. It is. children wrote the consonants from after they The memory immediately were given. The power of concentration." Henderson. Winch foimd a direct relation between memory and intelligence. cU. all play their r61e. however. concluded' that "the students who rank highest in their classes and who may be classed as the most intelhgent have. vol. on the other hand. the amount of reflection. brighter children Do In the first set twelve consonants were read aloud. But it variations from the rule. p.* testing the members of several college classes. Lyon. remember better? This cannot be answered definitely. that school methods too commonly put a premium on roteleaming. Pyle. Another preliminary question regarding memory is relation to intelligence. . Indeed. of course. vol. 9. 2. the fault Hes in the absence of endeavor. as indicated by success in school studies. Winch* tested boys and girls ranging from eight years of age to a little over fourteen. indicates that the differences are not sufficient to warrant a definite statement. Psychology and Scientific Method. however.244 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to eliminate disturbances." An examination of Lyon's tests. again. achieve results. as a rule. Journal of Philosophy. Upon taking any one form of material. 74. the best memories. among adults and children. concentrates the attention on the work and tends There are. both is safe to say that in the vast majority of those imder forty-five or fifty who are unable to remember what they its hear or read. contrary results may be obtained.

KraepeUn's Arbeiten. Monograph Supple• ' Mary W. and the children were sense. Three kinds of tests were used: A memory test of numbers of one syllable in varying order. When one looks over the investigations^ on the comparaZeitschriftf.MEMORY AND class standing ITS IMPROVEMENT 245 and memory in the grammar-school. 44. The disagreement regarding this question is probably due to the fact that there are different kinds of abilities. vol. J. Psychologic und Physiologic d. Stephen S. Those included in his tests ranged from eleven years of age to eighteen. This will also explain the fact that different kinds of material produce varying results. 13. The omissions were indicated by dashes. Good memory and unusual intelligence will then be correlated when tiie same or similar mental processes are involved in each. Jacopo Finzi. 401. as was foimd by Lyon. with occasional syllaand words omitted. C. an arithmetical test of simple addition and subtraction. suited bles to the ages of the different children. consisting of prose selections. Zeitschrift f. . p. They do not make demands on the same sort of ability. no. p. and a third. vol. Jonas Cohn. ten — This investigation is more accurate than that of Winch. but he did find a correlation among older pupils. vol. 15. ment. Colvin and E. p. 3. This difference was quite likely due to the increased ability of those who were older to understand the meaning of what they read or heard and to the more abundant associations. 289. Psychologic und Physiologic d. 451. Sinnesorgane. 1909. 5. Psychological Review. vol. Ebbinghaus* measured the ability and memory of gymnasium pupils. Calkins. to supply the omissions so as to sters make with the best The results showed that the youngmemory the numbers were to be writ- — down in their order as soon as heard were not the ones who displayed the most intelligence in the other tests. but PoHmann adds that in the great majority of cases high degrees of memory and intelligence seem to be associated. Sinnesorgane. Experiments made by Pohlmann also indicate that memory varies with age rather than with intelligence. p. Psychological Review. 161. because the memory and intelligence tests do not overlap. Myers.

op. again. Zeitschrift f. pp. pp. influenced chiefly. 351. 3. 12. Christo Pentschew. i. Most people. The problem may be approached from two sides: first.257. Whitehead. p. E. Bigham. Zeitschrift f. . p. p. J. M. 2. 19.. Lay. I. f. vol. p. Einfiihrung in d.Psychologicai Review. cit. 34. G. Sinnesp. Meumann. vol. von Sybel. Psychological Review. by the definiteness of their tendency to one or the other method of thinking what is seen or heard. one also finds much disa- greement. are not predominantly auditory.246 tive PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK memory effect of seeing or hearing words. 258. visual. Kiikpa. Erganzungsbd. and vol. 326. So far as the comparative advantage to concerned. 4. Kemsies. They use one or another kind of imagery. 171. A. Psychologic und Physiologie d. the memory of hear- ing or seeing material it will is method of presenting the is not a certain criterion of the manner in which be imaged in preparation for remembering it. i. Hugo Munsterberg and A. Lobsien. d. s. Miiller and F. pp. L. i. C. second. 289. again. psdagogische Psychologic. visual. 1910. p. vol. 81 and 257. experimentelle Padagogik. Schuyten. one may think them in auditory images. p. W. a list of words or of dates is given to three men. and the third. Psychological Renew. vol. igi £. 297. vol. of course. 602. 124. 27. How is the memory material worked up for reproduction? This last involves the further question. gesamte Psychologic. A. vol. Miiller and A.. gesamte p. S3. Psychologic. logical Review. of articulating nonsense-syllables internally and sentences. cit. p. Schumann. d. ygane. 417. C. Hawkins. P. 34. E. op. p. vol. Psychologic und Physiologie d. For example. Adolf Pohlmann. Segal. V. ExperimenteUe Didaktik. p. numbers. 24. G. G. vol. according to the convenience or suggestion of the moment. Vorlesungen z. The Psychology of Learning. J. Archiv f. Psychological Review. pp. Archives de Psychologic. A. vol. 21. the second in visual. p. E. vol. PsychoF. VWzec^ttjZeUschriftf. vol. what is heard or seen. 3. Psychologic und Physiologic d. What is the comparative efficiency of the manner of presenting material to be memorized? and. pp. Zeitschriftf. vol. vol. Psychologic und Physiologic d. E. Zeitschriftf. A. or motor minded. 179 j'. Henmon. NetschajefE. 6. or. J. Sinnesorgane. may go through the incipient movements of pronouncing them. Sinnesorgane. i.tnck. Archiv. M. How does the manner in which it is worked up vary with the auditory. 245. however. 493 J'. vol. 79. Sinnesorgane.

The auditory method of imparting the material yielded the best results in the three sorts of tests. but Meumann thought them slower. of the persons were accustomed. regardless. Sybel also found that what imagery to which the different Kemsies. apparently. and what is the influence of the method of presentation. Meumann. The tests were made upon six young men and women. experimenting with stituting lantern-slides for objects. instead of limiting oneself to those that grow out of the individual's mental characteristics. believes that children should first learn to utilize the memory-aids which coincide with their mental peculiarities. Hawkins. in determining the answers to these questions? Unfortunately. His inves- tigation indicates that memory is helped by calling to aid as many sorts of associations as possible. Henmon endeavored to ascertain the effect upon retention of the several ways of presenting memory material. Kirkpatrick. An all-around developed imagery would then seem to be conducive to a good memory. Miss Calkins. and Meumann found vizuaUzers more accucollege rate than those of the auditory type. on the other hand. Finzi. says that school children remember objects seen better than visual words.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 247 and motor minded persons. He used concrete noims. Muller and Schumann. and this is prob- ably one of the causes of the disagreement. and that too. numbers. however. Bigham concludes that visual and auditory memory combined greatly reduce the errors. or the kind of material employed. Miiller and Pilzecker. and subcame to essentially the same conclusion. This agrees with the observations of various investigators that children use images of particular objects in their thinking. and nonsense-syllables. and that only after they have gained what advantage they can from these should Uiey be trained . these several problems have not always been distinguished in the investigations. women. and von is heard is retained and repro- duced better than what is seen.

or see. are not wholly visual. We can usually hear. Perhaps this is the rea- They sure. 1907. At this the director laughed uproariously. without attention from us. or motor. But they are not wholly excluded from other sorts of experiences. or that upon which they react in a motor manner. or to hear. June 26. Most people belong to what may be called the mixed class. 2119. p. his inability to do the class work was that he had scarcely any auditory memory. or to write names which they wish to remember. as was Sight plays a prominent role in most of our imLiebig. Consequently. The significance of these investigations of mental "tj^es" for one's daily Kfe and growth is best understood when one remembers that experiences in the outside world are not limited to one sense. . also. One is inclined to agree with related Meumann when recalling such instances as the school-days of Justus von Liebig. that The story runs. and his school made no provision for individual peculiarities. auditory. he told him that he was the plague of his teacher and the sorrow of his parents. or respond in a motor fashion. because they retain better what comes through one particular sense-organ.248 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to improve their memory by enlarging their memory-aids beyond these "innate" characteristics. He could retain little or nothing of what he heard. Liebig's father was compelled to withdraw him from the gymnasium because he could not keep up with his In his mature years Liebig said that the cause of class. When the director asked what so lazy and inattentive a boy could do. Finally. by Liebig^ himself. as we wiU. individual differences are provided for without any effort on our part and commonly. pressions from the outside world. as once on one occasion when the young Liebig's class director of the gymnasium visited and heard his wretched recitation. son for the predominance of visual imagery in the majority ^ Das Echo. Liebig replied that he was going to be a chemist. To be they prefer to see.

as has been said. He was the son of wellto-do Greek parents and enjoyed the school privileges of His problems had to be written upon the blackhis class. His problems had to be given orally. A glance at two or three notable cases will be interesting in showing the occasional strong predominance of the visual and auditory bent of mind. So lacking was he in visual images that he was confused by the sight of the example upon which he was working. having looked at one for a few minutes. board. nu- merous individual variations. not even excluding the "mixed class" to which reference has just been made. In other matters his memory was poor. but at six his brother had taught him to coimt. visual and motor if we accept Meimiann's investigation. Inaudi and Diamandi are two reckoning memory-wonders who were investigated by Binet and Meumann.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 249 of people. when he could multiply two five-place numbers mentally." Inaudi. Inaudi was the son of a poor shepherd. he closed his eyes and the visual representation came. and in twelve minutes he could learn 105 figures by hearing them repeated. see little or nothing. and Diamandi did his reckoning visually. He was able to recall 42 numbers in a longer series read to him. "as if they were photographed. Later in life he was able to multiply mentally numbers each of which contained as many as 24 digits. Then. according to Binet. of course. His marvellous ability in reckoning was observed at seven years of age. Diamandi. was an auditory calculator. employed visual images exclusively. Meumann regards the exclusively visual or auditory person as. on the other hand. Only after this reproduction of the numbers did he begin his calHis own statement was that he saw the numbers culation. in a certain sense. from the great portrait-painters who "see" the absent model sitting before them to those who mentally defective. He did not attend school until he was fourteen years of age. There are. The one "heard" .

however. Binet's investigation of these two calculating prodigies shows that their memories conform to the same laws as those of other people. There are also striking examples of wonderful memories in other fields than mathematics. was not based on mere memory.2 so PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK the names of the numbers in his calculations and the other "saw" them. so that he could repeat them. sisted When Inaudi's it by the meaning of the problem memory was aswas ten times as efiScient. after recall hearing but once the Miserere of Allegri. at all events. Erganzungsbd. Mozart. Zeilschriftf.186. With Ruckle. his method was to change what he heard into visual images. and in remembering long numbers he divided them into their prime factors. vol. according to is Meumann. as with others. he separated them into coliunns. But. as he put it. however. as his mechanical memin ory.i He was able to learn 204 figures in thirteen minutes. Miiller. which essentially the same as Ebbinghaus found the average person. and a registering apparatus revealed movements of his tongue and larynx. says that he found Inaudi had observed him when calculating. Then. The most famous is calculating a university student memory-wonder on record by the name of Ruckle." that hoarseness disturbed visual images of the other. Psychohgie. For example. P. Meiunann. wrote ' it out from G. E. . the vocal movements were only aids for the auditory images of the one and for the that both used "internal speech. and each column served as a unit. he saw the numbers as clearly as though they were written on a blackboard. Ruckle differed from Inaudi and Diamandi in having an exceptional memory for other things than figures and numbers. Further than this. s. who gave an exhibition before the Congress for Experimental Psychology at Giessen. He could learn a series of nonsense-syllables in less than half the time usually required.. He made use of various devices which gave the figures meaning.

but experiments^ do not sustain this view. 93. In certain instances this is. Quantz. op. Psychological Zeitschrift f. p. Practically all of the investigators have found that rapid workers remember more of what they learn than those who are slow. 321. The Psychology of Learning. that rapid readThey retain more of the substance ers do superior work. Review. Psychologie. vol. and Beethoven produced. Monograph Supplement. in his study of reading. of course. pp. N. op. p. 672^. R. Psychologie. Ogden. O. cal Review. 214. O. 22. 169 /. Archiv f. Journal. 56. D. again. settled by the nervous system. Naomi Norsworthy. and. Leipzig. Walther Jacobs.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 251 manory. Finkenbinder. no. Zeitschriflf. 159Ernst Meumann.. among other compositions. 3. M. Zeitschriflf. for example. Pyle. 5. Louis G. 161. tliose who wish to make mem- ory more efficient will be interested in the comparative value of these two ways of working.of Educational Psychology. op. cit. d. 8. Psychologie. p. E. pp. Some people are born slow. P. 24. after he became deaf. Lottie Steffens. 259 f. J. 2. Ephrussi. This is true not only of immediate memory memory tested as soon as the learning is completed but also of permanent retention. Henderson. Radossawlewitsch. cit. William H. Starch. Journal of Educational Psychology. the Ninth Symphony and the Mass in D. E. vol. vol. vol. American Journal of Psychology. Miiller and F. vol. gesamte Psytional Psychology. third edition. of what they read or hear than slow readers. is an acquired their Consequently. pp. observed. . PsychologiP. Journal of EducaR. p. vol. 686^. p. 2. the fast learners had the advantage both in the time required for the work and in the amount — — 'Hermann Ebbinghaus. E. E. The opinion generally prevails that those who learn quickly forget easily. vol. 1907. Thomdike. Quantz. p. i. Christo Pentschew. But in the great majority of cases the rapidity with which one reads or studies habit. one of the first questions suggested is that of slow and rapid learning. Grundziige der Psychologie.G. cit. 45. Whitehead. cit. 37. 15. 122. p. vol. 311. op. Das Behaiten und Vergessen bet Kindern und Erivachsenen. vol. p. chologie. 209. Pyle tested eight young men and four women with a selection of easy prose. Schumann. vol. 3. Turning now to the methods by which memory may be made more serviceable.. L.

science. it does not exceed the speed at which the reader can get the meaning clearly. for example. cit. The discovery that the statement "Easy comes easy goes" is not true has far-reaching educational significance. the converse is true. or analogous cases to settle a legal point. Miss Norsworthy tested eighty-three students. from these and other experiments that. ers in the tially the same conclusion. is looking for opinions. The young man who hopes to reach a position of importance must learn to cover groimd rapidly and to note the landmarks as he passes. the amount that one must read in law. in reading or studying selections of connected thought. "remember longest if the material is logical in character. . If a young man plans to enter business or any of the professions. and it is continually increasing. and a lawyer cannot be long in getting the significance of a legal document if he would wia his case. provided manager as his eye nms it over. literature." he says. A business man should be able to vmderstand the rapidity is economical. at least for intelligible material.252 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Pyle also noticed that the rapid learngroup with which he worked excelled in accuracy. He must finger many books but he » Op. decisions. it is of supreme importance that he acquire the ability to tear the meaning from pages at a glance. Essenthat they retained. so to speak. was reached by Lyon. Further. report of a department Often one consults books for a definite piu-pose. or theology to become proficient is enormous. to secure information about a certain matter. A lawyer. then. medicine. for example.^ "Those who learn quickly. But there is stiU another phase of this same question. and after a month had passed the more rapid workers remembered more of what they had committed to memory than those who had learned the assignment with more effort. Beyond this rate haste would obviously be imeconomical." It appears. Where the material is 'illogical' and is memorized by motor associations.

MEMORY AND
He

ITS

IMPROVEMENT
Success

253
this re-

has not time to read them through.

m

quires ability to get the contents of a page at a glance.

does not read it, but he must grasp the substance. Physicians have many more medical journals than they can read through if their practice is extensive. They need
to see the

meaning

of the articles as they turn the pages.

For the
tific,

lecturer, writer, or general reader
is

who

wishes to
Scien-

be informed, the situation
historical, or other

essentially the same.
is

information

through books and journals. The man heavily handicapped. Rapid readers cover half a dozen books in an evening, getting much as they skim along and reading selected portions with more care. Many books are not worth reading through. Yet some of these contain valuable thoughts or facts scattered through their pages. A slow reader wastes a day finding this material, while rapid workers discover it by turning the leaves and reading pages at a glance. The writer often finds college seniors of high-class rank vinable to skim a book and get In some of these cases, at least, it is not slow its import. comprehension, but rather lack of training. Like other forms of ability, this power to get meaning quickly, then to sift the information and to organize it rapidly into knowledge, improves with practice. Despite every effort to remember, however, we still forIt is therefore desirable to notice the rapidity with get. which forgetting proceeds. Investigations' have been
is

widely scattered who reads slowly

children and adults, and the results are in subagreement. Ebbinghaus experimented upon himstantial self with nonsense-syllables, and found that he forgot very

made with

' C. H. Bean, Archives of Psychology, no. 21, 1912. Hermann Ebbinghaus, Memory, translated by H. A. Ruger, pp. 76 /. E. O. Finkenbinder, E. N. Henderson, op. cit. N. MagnefE, Die Bedingungen des op. cit. dauernden Behaltens, Zurich, 1905. E. Meumann, The Psychology of Learning, pp. 330 ff. G. E. Miiller and F. Schumann, op. cit. Christo Pentschew, P. R. Radossawlewitsch, op. cit. M. K. Smif.h, American Journal op. cit.

of Psychology, vol. 18, p. 504.

Edward

L. Thorndike, opi

cit.

254

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK

rapidly the

first hour, proportionately less for the next seven hours, and still more slowly through the balance of the first twenty-four hours. "After a whole month fully

one-fifth of the first

the latter part of the

work persisted in effect." Toward month the loss seemed so shght that

Ebbinghaus was led "to predict that a complete vanishing of the effect of the first memorization of these series" [of nonsense-syllables] "would, if they had been left to themselves, have occurred only after an indefinitely long period of time." There is no essential difference between the The chief findings of Ebbinghaus and later investigations. disagreement is concerned with the rapidity of forgetting, immediately and soon after committing a selection to memory. Ebbinghaus' curve of forgetting appears to fall
too rapidly at the outset.

Most of the tests of forgetting have been made on children or adults who learned either nonsense-syUables or selections with meaning just well enough to repeat them once without error. In the course of the investigations, however, the ability to recall was foimd to depend, among other things, upon the number of repetitions, upon the distribution of periods of work, and upon the number and nature of the associations formed. We accordingly turn to these memory-aids. Repetition fixes memory. Experience shows this. If we wish to remember a name we repeat it. Investigation* of the effect of a nimiber of repetitions have not only justified this conclusion from experience, but they have also
contributed several other significant facts.
First of
all,

during the repetitions the mind should be

A. Binet et V. Henri, op. cit. Hermann Ebbinghaus, Memory, pp. 52 ff.; Grundzilge der Psychologic, third edition, vol. i, pp. 652 f. P. Ephrussi, op. cit. E. A. Kirkpatrick and Abbie F. Munn, Archives of Psychology, no. 12, p. 36. Otto Lipmann, Zeitschrift f. Psychologic, vol. 35, p. igs-

Max
cit.,

Offner,

Das

pp. 65

ff.

Fritz Reuther,

Gedacktnis, Berlin, 1909, pp. 47 _ff. Adolf Pohhnann, op. Wundt's Psychologische Studien, vol. i, p. 4.
3, p. 21.

W. G.

Smith, Psychological Review, vol. experimenteUe PUdagogik, vol. 8, p. i.

F. Weber, Zeitschrift

f.

MEMORY AND
actively attentive.
of reading

ITS

IMPROVEMENT

255

It has been found that a combination

and repeating gives the best results for memory. Repeating aloud requires more effort and concentrates the attention better than silent reading. The latter is more likely to be passive. Experiments have shown, also, that memory is more than 50 per cent better if the learner is
informed that the effect of the repetition will be tested than when he assumes that there will be no test. Then, again, all repetitions, are not of equal value in
fixing impressions

and ideas. To be sure, Ebbinghaus found that fewer repetitions were required to relearn a
series of nonsense-syllables after twenty-four hours

when
this

the original

number

of repetitions

was

greater.

And

saving was proportional, in a general way, to the added repetitions during the first learning, provided they did not exceed a certain number, not very accurately defined.

More

careful

measurement

of the relative efficiency of suc-

cessive repetitions, however, has proved that the earlier
repetitions have the greatest fixing power. This seems to be specially true in immediate memory memory tested as soon as the learning is completed. Again, when the repe-

titions greatly exceed the

number necessary

for the first

correct reproduction their efl&dency gradually lessens until

the gain becomes hardly measurable. Finally, it was observed that the value of repetitions varied with their disThis is of. special importance not merely for tribution. students but also for those in the larger outside world of
business

and

professional

life.

One

or two questions will

clear the groimd.
Is it better to

commit a

selection of prose or poetry to

memory

at a single sitting, or is it advantageous to distribute our efforts over several days? Which plan brings the desired result with the least expenditure of energy?

Quite a number of investigations' have been

made and

Bancels, L'Annee psychologique, vol. 8, p. 185. C. H. J. Larguire des Bean, op. cit. M. Browning, D. E. Brown, and M. F. Washburn, American

2S6

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK

there is general agreement that a distribution of periods of study gives the best results. Ebbinghaus found, in committing nonsense-syllables to memory, that thirty-eight repetitions distributed over three days produced the
tions at a single sitting.

same

results as sixty-eight repeti-

two students. They of which worked ten minutes at a time twice a day for six days; the second group twenty minutes at a time once a day for six days; the third worked forty minutes every other day for six days; the fourth did the entire task at one sitting of two hours. The results showed a great advantage for the shorter, more widely distributed periods. The two-hour period of work at one sitting was a bad fourth. The advantageous periods of work in this experiment seem short, but the occupation consisted in associating numbers with letters, a task which would quickly
cause fatigue.
Jost carried these experiments much further than any of the other investigators and proved that neither fatigue nor inattention explains the advantage of this distribution
of time.

Starch experimented with fortywere divided into four groups, one

Having eliminated these two factors, he undertook to determine the best arrangement of periods of work, and he found that twenty-four repetitions, distributed over twelve days with two repetitions a day, gave better results
than less distributed periods. He inclines to an even more extended distribution. If we accept Jost's view, that the

Journal of Psychology, vol. 24, p. s8o. Hermann Ebbinghaus, Memory, p. 89; Grundzuge der Psychologie, third edition, vol. i, pp. 657 £. John Bigham, Psychological Review, vol. i, p. 453. Alfred Binet, L'Annee psychologigue, vol. 10, p. 116. W. F. Dearborn, Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 1, p. 273. Adolf Jost, ZeUschrift f. Psychologie, vol. 14, p. 436. E. A. Kirkpatrick and Abbie F. Munn, op. cit. J. H. Leuba and Winnefred Hyde, Psychological Remew, vol. 12, p. 351. O. Lipmann, op. cit. E. Meumann, Psychology of Learning, pp. 265^. G. E. MuUer and A. Pilzecker, op. cit. Max Offner, op. cit. Nellie L. Perkins, British Journal of Psychology, Adolf Pohlmann, op. cit., pp. 82 £. Fritz Reuther, op. cit. vol. 7, p. 253.

D. Starch,

op.

cit.

MEMORY AND

ITS

IMPROVEMENT

257

advantage of distributed practice and study' lies in the greater effectiveness of old associates, Miss Perkins' results^ "indicate that this process of consolidation continues
for at least forty-eight hours,

and

stiU longer

if

four or

more

readings are

Putting these investigations into general terms, the experiments show conclusively that an extensive distribution of study periods for a given piece of work is advantageous both for
[of practice].

made on each day"

rapidity of learning and for permanent retention.

The

period favorable for one sitting and the length of intervening time will depend, among other things, upon the nature of the material and the difficulty of the task, with its

accompanying

fatigue.

instead of finishing

The economy of distributed study, what one is engaged upon and theii

dropping it, may then be considered established. Jost next sought to determine why it is more advantageous to spread study or practice over several days instead of finishing the work at one sitting. He came to the conclusion that older associations those which were established earlier are more easily renewed than the more recent ones. This explanation, however, still leaves the question Why? unanswered. Some find the explanation in the effect of activity upon the nutrition of the organ exercised,^ and in the dropping out of interfering associaThis would be a satisfactory explanation were contions. siderable practice always involved. But the same advantage of distributed study is observed when the selection is read but once each time. A "setting" or "fixing" of associations, on the other hand, apparently satisfies condiThose that are older have had more time in which tions. Since it is difficult to imderstand in to become "fixed." what this "fixing" consists, unless it be the result of cere-

'

Jost experimented only

upon learning and releaming,

i.

e.,

memory.
Woodworth,

2

Op.

cit.

'Physiological
p. 581.

Psychology,

by G. T. Ladd and R.

S.

258

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
we seem
at present compelled to

bral nervous activity,

take this view.

This explanation of the "setting" of associations during is also indicated by experiments in releaming skilful acts after a long interval without practice.
periods of rest

The

writer at one time acquired considerable proficiency

in tossing

two balls with one hand, one ball being caught and thrown while the other was in the air. More than six
In eleven days he greatly exceeded the
skill

years later he again tested himself in this feat.

which he had acquired six years before after forty-two days of arduous practice. The following curves show the progress during the original learning process, and during the test in relearning the same feat six years or more later. The curve of relearning is on the left. The rate of progress is shown at the left of the perpendiculars, and the days required in each case are indicated under the base line.^ The practice in which the skill was first gained was finished six years before this memory test was made. After the conclusion of the first investigation there were five monthly tests of the effect of intermission of practice, and one memory test two years later. With these exceptions there had been no practice
during the six years. The writer has also determined the effect of intermission of practice on the typewriter.^ In this instance, the mem-

ory test was made more than two years after the close of the first experiments by which a certain degree of skiU was attained. During the intervening two years he had not used any style of typewriter. The original investigation covered a period of fifty days, while in the memory test, two years later, only eleven days were required to reach
the degree of proficiency with which the original investigation closed.
'This curve
p. 17.
'

is

reproduced from the Psychological BuUetm,

rol.

7,

Psychological Bulletin, vol. 3, p. 185.

iUUU

1500

uoo

1300

36o

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
short time needed in both of these inskill,

The remarkably

vestigations to regain the former

after the long inter-

val without practice,

shows the persistence of neurostill

muscular memory.
is

A

more

significant fact, however,

disclosed

by the curves

for ball-tossing given above.

It

be observed that in eleven days, after six years of cessation of practice, the experimenter acquired much greater skiU than that with which he closed his experiments of forty-two days, six years earlier.
will

upon the nutrition and the dropping out of interfering associations do not accoimt for the persistence and rapid improvement of skill after such long periods of inactivity. The astonishingly rapid gain in skill in ball-tossing beyond
It
is

clear that the effects of activity

of the organ exercised

that originally acquired indicates not only a "fixing" of nervous and muscular associations, but also, during the long interval, some sort of integrative nervous activity by which the skill was further improved. At present there is no other tenable explanation. Batson, in his investigation,^ also observed improvement in skiU during intervals of no practice. "After a long rest period," he says, "the subject is found to be in a condition to improve very rapidly. In some cases the results show that they have actually gained power during the rest period." The matter of "rest periods" has wide application.
Jost's investigations, as well as the others to

which

refer-

ence has just been made, emphasize the value of repetitions, but always with an interval between them. book, a legal opinion, an investigation in medicine or in science, which one wishes to remember, should be read again, but

A

not at once.

It

is

always important, however, that the

meaning be as
that gives the

clear as possible in the first reading, because

of elaboration rather than of

memory a freer field; and, when it is a matter memory alone, the recon^Op.dt.

struction of the thoughts, as a result of cerebral proc-

observations. a book. And an intervening day gives better results than an immediate rereading. "Cramming" is clearly unpsychological. ful rarely ever clarified without further These investigations also make conscious and thoughta method which has been followed instinctively. As a practical deduction from these investigations it and be said that students would save time and effort by keeping at least one day ahead in their studies. quite imintelligible when read clear the for the first time. One reason for the meagre results of cramming is that reduced to their sequence in the text. or. for accumulated repetitions within a short time have only a temporary effect. unconsciously. but this is hardly sufficient to explain the increased significance that a second reading produces after an interval of a day or so. however. Children who "go over" the lesson just before class are acting upon this principle of dis- tributed study. may That which is learned in this way vanishes quickly. at any rate. or chapter. It seems to be another illustration of the integrative nervous activity to which reference has just been often amazing how made. Had the reader stopped with the first reading nothing would have been remembered. The wider meanings do not have a chance to assert themThe bearing of Elssodations upon memory may. association of ideas is . Deepening impressions by repetition might account for the greater clearness. Something is indicated. may seem or two. and the last reading. ITS IMPROVEMENT may 261 has a better is start.MEMORY* AND esses. but mere confusion study. selves. To older persons. however. in addition to reinforcement of memory impressions. like the earlier ones. Upon second it is reading. if Error be corrected. after the lapse of a day misty statements become. One now sees meaning in what before was unintelligible. but now the confusion takes an orderly form. should be as rapid as following the thought permits.

or d.000." Another of these mechanical memory systems is based upon visualization. what is this statue of justice but the image of law ? and the words image of law translated back from the significant letters m. the number of pounds in $1. ih. or c soft. give you 3-6-8-5. you cement your chain of association to the idea which is most prominent in your mental question. Memory systems o£fered for sale are of the first sort. /. Finally.000. "Now. Associations may be strictly or they may artificial and mechanical be significant and interpretative.685 pounds." the writer of this system . You go about it in this way: "How much does $1. "Statue of thing justice.000. "The and that you fear to forget.000 in gold weigh? "Weigh "Scales — —statue of scales. z. One of these systems which has been long in the market teaches the purchaser to remember nmnbers by translating them into letters of words. "sup- pose you wish to memorize the fact that $1.262 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK perhaps. be best illustrated by comparing those at the two extremes of usefulness. for example. is represented by s." Tkis or dizzy would then stand for the number lo. What do you weigh with ? Scales. justice.000 in gold weighs 3. "All the other letters" [of the word] "are simply to fill up." continues the writer of the book from which we are quoting. blindfolded and weighing out award and punishment to man. "We must not impress upon the memory mere wordsj'but turn our attention and train our minds to see the objects or ideas they represent. Double letters in a word count only as one. Zero. i by /. "What does the mental picture of scales suggest? The statue of justice. and catch or gush for 76.000 in gold. image of law. g soft. [mirabile dictui]. is the weight. and I. associated or combined in mental pictures. "The process is simplicity itself" you wish to recall. Consequently.

picture the mop larger than the chair. some tinue and multiply indicates buyers. "Trustees similar in sound to rusty. ITS IMPROVEMENT 263 A list of a given. . the bridged. "We may form strut about." Suppose. See a large hen four feet high. and see the hen Knowing our index words will enable us to remember a number of varied items. . Put the black silk hat on the hen's head. In the case of 3964. . Yet these systems are That they confairly representative of those on sale. of which hat hundred "code" or "index" words is and hen are the first two. . "Do not see a hen of ordinary size. Its associative machinery is so crude that the rattle is distressing. He will also observe details and repeat what he wishes to remember as he never did before the expenditure made it worth while. or any dear combination of stamps and hat. by recalling the picture as chair —mop 6439. can be avoided by having the first object much larger than the second." we are told. instead of transposing of 3964. a picture of a large hat decorated with postage-stamps. the easier will it be to recall it. but by and a goes back to visualization of the objects represented the "code" words. of the purchasers must feel that they receive value for the The explanation seems to be that if a man is price. and visualize a rusty can." Letters are to stand for figures. . The more conspicuous and striking the picture. sufficiently interested in improving his memory to pay an exorbitant price for a "system" he will continually keep the thought of remembering in mind.MEMORY AND says. "A combination picture of a mop chair will represent 3964." Of course there is no fault to find with any of this except with the whole of it. so if we make gap is it all trustees suggest rusty. Consequently. that we wish to buy stamps. that of exaggeration. into the picture. now put motion . ." But there are also other associations in this is system. "See the hat and the hen in the picture together. such as errands. but use one strengthening principle of imagination. now. The danger figures.

think about what one wishes as we have said. in general. process which can be put through a course of training and afterward be good for aU kinds of material. in connection . They show that if one works hard however mechanical one will obtain observable results. A student may learn a mathematical or chemical formula as he would learn a series of nonsenseIf. The value of associations with meaning is emphasized by the results of the grotesque memory systems from which we have quoted. syllables. not remember them long beyond the trial of his case. enough on any system of and meaningless it may to remember any historical facts that she has may. however. The to secret of remember —to think memory is to it. but he wiU forget it after twenty-four hours. We have memories. may be able to recall the dishes served at a score of dinners to which she was invited. that memory is not just one mental. We in certain by practice in those lines. or rather physiological. be. In the same way a lawyer may study court dewithout reference to their causes. however. after payiug twenty-five dollars for lessons the purchaser works at the system so as to get the value of his money. cause and effect. he learns to work out the formula he will remember it. But if he study the earlier decisions out of which they grew. however. and a poor memory for others. Naturally. but the common belief that the memory. for example. It should not be forgotten. not a memory. place. If he would be half as diligent with real relations between ideas as he is with these artificial ones. A woman.264 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The basis of a good memory is to discover valid relations. improve our ability to recall lines read. he will become an authority in legal cisions as isolated facts. men and women have a good memory for certain kinds of facts. will and he matters. yet be unable association. similarity and dissimilarity. may be trained is erroneous. such as those of time. In x)ther words. his memory would be marvellous.

MEMORY AND ITS it IMPROVEMENT 265 with other facts with which prets it. ment. p. 1902. F. mentdle Psychologie. Bair. and that it will be remembered much investigations bearing directly relations with meaning. when first read. 19. P. Memory. ' This. op. 436. such as cause No longer. 1. A. op. and this organization proceeds with reference to the successive phases of the problem upon which one is working. Organization of knowledge is essential. Psychological Review J. and it is only after considerable points. and that the more "sense" or "meaning" one sees in what one is reading the longer it will be retained. p. American Journal of Psychology. or other relation that gives it excites my admiration. 433. of course. 4. s. temporal. meaning and interThinking presupposes a question or problem which one wishes to understand.3S6. vol. puts the matter very inadequately. vol. cit. J. Henri. Book. no. University of Montana BulleMary W. Grundziige^der PsycholHugo Miinsterberg. vol. but we know that memory depends upon association. third edition. "I have no quickness of apprehension or wit which is so remarkable ia some clever men. 685/. Experiments' have shown that prose and poetry can be learned with vastly greater ease than an equal number of disconnected words. E. 2. vol. cit. therefore. vol. 69. has a spatial. Information that is referred to principles is easily remembered. no. Binet and V. G. Hennann Ebbinghaus." reflection that I perceive the weak upon the value of and effect. p. Psychological Review Monograph Suppletin. 1896. for instance in Huxley. H. Calkins. . His retrospect also shows the value of rethinking what has been read that memories not at first available may have a chance to assert themselves. Miiller and A." he says in his Autobiography. Smith. have been made. p. Darwin has told us how organization and classification of knowledge attained results with himself. no. W. L. 6. Monograph Supplement. BeitrSge zur expeiriogie. "1 am. generally causal. Pilzecker. S3. a poor critic: a paper or book. Facts are classified under general principles which in turn explain or lead to the interpretation of the question under consideration. Bergstrom. 7. W. A. American Journal of Psychology.

In science and history one point of view should be thoroughly mastered before passing to other opinions and criticisms. . in the early stages of learn- however. To commit is memory verbatim would require It One ing. The significance of this in the acquisition of knowledge is obvious. and then combining them? This is an important question for public speakers.266 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK or more. The to mem. and decide upon his strategic movements. other hand. This. Declenconjugations. so we turn now to the manner of committing prose or poetry Is it better to read the entire selection through rnitil it is learned. and idiomatic constructions of one for- made automatic before beginning a second. a new kind of work with opposing responses may be undertaken without observable interference. or is the work done more quickly by committing limited portions.ory. memory obstruction interfering associations. Until he has acquired sufficient knowledge and skill to live upon the country he must constantly return to his base for suppUes. of course. proficiency in one thing has been attained. makes the selection of the first book to be read or studied a matter of supreme importance. An entire chapter. it is important that he be substantially provisioned with the fundamental necessities as an aid to memeign language should be ory. For example. must underlie the superstructure. can be read in a short time. This has been observed both in acts When. Consequently. that this interference is especially likely to produce confusion. this to and the substance repeated on the following day. one may learn to write with equal skill on two typewriters with different keyboards provided one becomes an expert with the first before starting to use the second. Economy in memory has many points of approach. on the of muscular skiU and in mental activities. because it is to be the base of operations from which the reader goes out to survey the terrain. of the noticeable causes of is many hours. A sohd foundation sions.

the human disinclination to move on to attempt the new and strange causes the learner to keep repeating the first part. Ernst Ebert and E. vol. Miss Steffens found that individuals differ widely as to the manner of distributing their repetitions over the selection. 63. immediately progress while the be In addition. d. E. pp. Christo Pentschew. pp. f. but aU divide first part. cit. Psychology of Learning.Max Offnar. 4. ' Larguire des Bancels. 4. ap. The "whole" method requires fewer repetitions time than the "part" method. or lists of words. the object. 669 f. since retail is rial to be learned increases. op. Grundz-iige d. Ephrussi. Memory. Meumann. and when he has started ahead to return again to the first few lines. p. Mexunann's experiments show that the time and repetitions required for memorizing a selection increase with the number of parts into which it is divided. What is learned by the less and "whole" method is remembered longer and reproduced more accurately. it into sections with undue attention Children especially waste time upon the first few lines by continued repetitions. .. third edition. But more important than the saving of time and labor is the better retention. 233 f. This is true of nonsense-syUables and material with meaning. eit. In learning connected any sort. Arclm. the economical method is to read the whole through from beginning to is end until everything memorized. cit. Die experimenieiUe POdagogik. op. Which method produces requires for the result to "whole" method more time — — the firmest retention and the most accurate reproducJ. the final question is. The chief reason for this practice of both to the adults and children is probably that learning in sections noticeable produces observable. isS. And the advantage of the "whole" method is greater as the amount of the mateOf course. i. x.MEMORY AND discourse of ITS IMPROVEMENT 267 investigations^ are quite decisive. cit. Hermann Ebbinghaus. Lottie Steffens. p. op. 61 J. cU. P. But it is more noticeable in the latter case. pp. vol. vol. Psychologie. and neglect the latter part. op. This is true of both adults and children. Meumaim. Gfinter Neumann. gesamte Psychologie.

gesamte Psychologie. pp. Later investigations. p. have shown that this is not altogether correct. but there is another closely related question. so that it is not merely one word or line that recalls the next. also. F. One of the objections to learning prose or poetry Is by sections that interfering associations are established. ' . Psychology 0} Learning. vol. Knors. but conversations with different persons on varying subjects do not recall one another. pp. even though one immediately follows the other. Archiv. backward and forward. experimenteUe PSdagogik. assoformed between the parts.^ however. vol.f. for example. p. These associations impede continuous reproduction. and that is. but also those remote from one another are influenced by associative bonds. We have been considering economical memory methods.268 tion? PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK And in these respects the "whole" method again excels. 46^. but rather the imity of all that precedes and follows. The end a section is associated with its beginning instead of with the first few words of the following lines. ciations are ^Memory. 27s /. for associations work in both directions. Zeitschrift f. E. Does the difficulty of memorizing increase proportionately with added quantities of material? Ebbinghaus* concluded from his experiments with nonsense-syllables that the number of repetitions necessary for memorizing increases with enormous rapidity as the number of syllables increases. Opinions expressed on one topic by several persons. tend to be recalled because of their numerous connections. Not merely the contiguous portions. must be connected. 8. C. i. Meumann. d. however far they may be separated. 297. and time and effort must be expended in suppressing them. Weber. In the "whole" BreaJks between the sections of method the learning selection is is equally distributed and the entire By tihis method. The larger the quantity to be learned the relatively fewer repetitions are learned uniformly. 17.

however. The the initial disin- ^is are strengthened. And in memory. as in other matters. A survey of memory from the vantage-ground of its strength and weakness brings into view certain facts and First of all.MEMORY AND ITS IMPROVEMENT 269 needed to memorize it. and the associations In this way the work is accomplished in a proportionately shorter time. without something to overcome. on the other hand. Unwillingness to recall related knowledge and to make the application cause many lapses of memory. as we have It is seen. The mature can remember better than children if they have more knowledge and use it. Then. and it can be gained in no other way. make Conse- or distinction between memory no mental emphasis. not try to remember everything. In other words. no outstanding facts which special attention is given and around and principles to which related matter is grouped. the desire to save time leads to immefeel diate and persistent concentration period of "warming clination — up" —overcoming of attention. quently. fits his demands—to it the obstacles. adults can no longer accuse their age for their memory failures. to the resistance. shortened or eliminated." One explanation of this fitting of memory to its task is probably the general ten- dency to adjustment. as one of the iiiyestigators puts it: "Our ability to memorize increases with the demands made upon it. relaxation sets in. If one's abilities are to be tested it must be through a bigger job. He does not do consciously. Individuals values. — a few little memory no is troubles begin here. their In committing to memory a short selection one does not that much effort is required. one that calls for the best that can be given. Without the pressure of resistance. a sort of organic adaptation. efforts to the Man. Not principles. if the man has adequate reserve power he uses it because the result is worth the effort. there . We should. men reveal power only in response to pressure from without. With a larger amount.

and facts are many. So their retention is not difficult. scientific. The is that these people are inIndeed. or literary interpretation. and then there should be no dall3dng. They are few. its comprehension will require special attention. Anyworth remembering deserves the effort that wiU fix it. their stories have another humorous aspect. and thinkiag is fundamental to memory. this sort. After material has been selected as worthy of a place in memory. conclusions and principles should be remembered. and should be written down. should not be overlooked.' statistics. and many details are matters of Engagements are of only temporary moment. thing that is Repetition. however. and thinking guarantees retention. for which comparatively few dates are needed.270 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK have said that much of the infonnation which we We expect to use can be readily found in books of reference. contiguity. and through this wider significance it is later recalled. Findiag meaning is the basis of thinking. of which explanation. There must be reasons for the conclusions and interpretations. Intervals of a day or more should separate them. of course. principles will usually carry with them essential details. The memory should not Dates. But the repetitions should not occur at once. figures. or similarity and These relations are interpreting connecby which the thought that we wish to remember acquires meaning. . But imderstanding has a wider reach than is usually attributed to it. be needlessly encumbered. Historical information should be grouped by landmarks. the next move is to understand it. of succession. contrast. If it is historical. and besides. In science. tions with other ideas Interfering associations are likely to occur recall unless the thinkiag is accurate and obstruct and clear. veterate story-tellers. quite apart from their content. Surprise is often expressed at the ability of some men to remember humorous stories. and these reasons involve relations with other facts —relations of cause and effect.

then. repetition should not be neglected. should be the plan. Therein lies their success and failure. and tries to get the import. and also knowledge of one's personal memory deficiency. associations reach out further and include all related thoughts." with as rapid reading as clear comprehension permits. with care for the methods of improvement. Here. or. Memory. It is with the "fixing" process that the investigations contained in this chapter deal. Darwin says nerve-cells probably cannot be of himself: "My memory is cautious extensive. yet hazy: telling it suffices to make me by vaguely me that I have ob- served or read something opposed to the conclusion which I am drawing.MEMORY AND habit ITS IMPROVEMENT 271 the envied narrators are not conscious. one reads. But here. — Repetition fixes the stories. Training coimts for much. the "whole method. The repeating is so fixed that they tell the stories several times to the same persons. The problem of memory therefore resolves itself into getting the right associations and "fixing" them. Although the impressionability and retentiveness of improved directly. Associations ^not artificial ones but those with meaning in them ^we have found to be the compelling force through which ideas are recalled. In selections to be committed order. In this case. but no effort is made to remember those to whom they have already been related. When. in favor of it. on the other hand. It is subject to law and Some of its laws have been determiaed by the investigations to which we have referred. — — to memory the associations are given in the text. also. and in repeating new meaning will be discovered. indirectly they may be influenced by severe attention to what has been selected for retention. however. freakish process that it is sometimes thought to be. is not the capricious. getting the full meaning with all its implications and organizing the knowledge thus obtained are the foundation for remembering. and after a time I can generally recollect where to search for .

but neither with him nor with Darwin does the defect seem to have been a serious handicap in what they set themselves to accomplish." ^ Montaigne also speaks of his poor memory. tasks And the more humble if may do as well. They organized their minds and work to retain the information they needed.272 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK authority. AtUobiography. he will man with smaller only apply the principles is upon which a serviceable memory ' built —and think. my So poor in one sense is my memory that I have never been able to remember for more than a few days a single date or a line of poetry. .

was that he became tion. Jester had three young deer in his wagon. Assuming an earnest desire to relate the facts as they occurred. he fell into conversation with Gilbert Gates. preliminary hearing. When they reached Jester's explanaParis. few years ago the writer's attention was directed to a rather remarkable criminal trial. with their animals to meet expenses. drawn by two small pony horses. and in the answers are revealed some interesting peculiarities of human psychology. and Gates a buffalo They decided to travel together and give exhibitions calf. at the homesick and sold his outfit to him that he might hasten 273 A . a yoimg man who was returning from homesteading land in Kansas. and in the social world the narration of conversations or events often disrupts a The community and destroys the happiness of all concerned.CHAPTER VIII THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TESTIMONY AND RUMOR is accuracy of reports of what has been seen or heard a matter of wide interest. In courts of justice it decides the liberty or life of the defendant. Missouri. Perhaps these questions may be best approached by a concrete case. and does the feeling of accuracy assure a reasonably correct reproduction? These questions are fundamental to court testimony and to social intercourse. Gates had disappeared. While fording a stream near Emporia. Young Gates was travelling in what was then known as a prairie-schooner drawn by a pair of heavy horses. as the horses were drinking. In 187 1 Alexander Jester started east from Kansas in a light spring wagon with canvas top. what are the chances for a truthful narration.

especially in a blinding snow-storm. one was taking his wedding-trip on horseback. as will be seen later. heavy team the heavy horses and various other articles known he sold home by Jester with his own have belonged to Gates. Even the prairieschooner could hardly have been exceptional enough to attract special attention. for unusual observation ? Second. tain exceedingly interesting psychological features. with a Jaook-nose. after the lapse of thirty years. be witnesses remember. would observers. and was not brought to trial. Jester was soon arrested but escaped. but which he claimed were It is not the purpose of the writer to decide the merits of the case. snow-storm at the time when the crime was supposed to have been committed. there was a blinding called upon to testify. powerful physique. of the witnesses two women described the size heavy team. until 1901. But let us turn to the testimony. vmder these circumstances. since.274 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK rail. and large the trial When was held. when the "saw" the things which they related they were not aware that a crime had been committed. but rather to call attention to certo purchased. was seen leaving Paris driving Gates' Later lighter team tied behind. a little over six feet. of course. and color of all the horses. and. Thirty years had therefore passed since the events concerning which witnesses were Besides. with his wife behind him on the same horse. weight about one hundred and eighty pounds. the figure and appearance of Jester—height. the minute details of what they had seen? The incidents were of the unimportant. and at a time when no reason existed. the peculiarities of a chance traveller on the road. Two preliminary questions thus suggest themselves: First. gray eyes. as carefuUy as the subsequent testimony indicated. the harness of the . terfered with accurate observation. would any one note. uninteresting sort that were likely to frequently experienced at that time. so far as known. this would have in- Further.

said anything about their observations until Gates' disappearance and Jester's arrest had been pubUahed. with veils tied over their faces. he and his father saw the body of a young man of eighteen or twenty years of age floating down the stream. man with his throat body was that of young Gates.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR hands. the canvas blew back and he saw the body of a cut. during the thaw and heavy rains of spring. and they gave this testimony confidently. notwithstanding they were twelve and fourteen years of age. and that. while helping Jester start his wagon. and tinother wit- ness that. . in this coimection. other thoughts and interests would seem to be occup5ang his mind. when they passed buffalo-robe A farmer swore that the still was covered with blood. A man who had just been married. being on his hone3maoon. testified that later. and this in spite of the fact that his own horse was description of the The going at the "single foot" gait. wagon of a and though they were riding at a canter in the face heavy snow-storm. and the horses which they met were travelling at a fast trot in the storm. He described the color of his and complexion. It is interesting to note. when the events transpired. His description of the shirt agreed with that of Mrs. who consequently was six years of age at the time of the crime. thirty years after the crime. Gates of a shirt which she had made for her son. that Jester's horses were trotting past. and the dog. the wagons. described the horses attached to each wagon. they saw lying in the bottom the outlines of a human form with a buffalo-robe thrown over it. 275 first They as it further testified that. A man of thirty-six. nor the man who helped start Jester off. looking into the approached. respectively. that neither the father of the six-year-old boy nor the girls who saw the outlines of a human form in hair the wagon. that it was snowing hard. and was taking his wife behind him on his horse to their new home. and said that he had on a bluechecked shirt and blue overalls.

in the highest terms of these witnesses. assume that they were dishonest. Of course the case was featured in the county newspapers. pictures of the dogj and pictures of scenes in the chain of events leading to the alleged crime. Pictures were published. It is quite evident that. pictures of and Gates. culnoticeable and least interesting details? mystery lies in the way in by suggestive questions and statethey conversed.' to whom the writer is indebted for the facts in the case. and in human psychology. a practising Saint Louis lawyer. The man would think it likely. and soon that it did. in the publicity that it received.276 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK whatever the merits' of the case. a prospective witness said that there was a buffalo-robe in the wagon the detectives would ask if it covered the outlines of a human form. after a lapse of thirty Yet it would be imfair to years. The detectives. Mclntyre." he says. After Jester's final arrest. and reportorial imagclass Jester ' Mr. as they secured one fact after another. When." preparatory to the then was the explanation of their remarkable exactness. was amazingly exact. It was a firsttivated the information ments to those with whom news story. They could be relied upon both in word and deed. The pictures were based on what witnesses said they saw. the best people of "They were among Monroe County. the testimony of these witnesses. Joseph S. pictures of the horses and wagons. The attorney for the defense. All of those from whose testimony we have quoted were people of good standing in the commimity. for example. me overnight trial. even in the smallest and in some instances least What The key to the which the case was worked up. "They and they were very friendly to me. . speaks. when I was looking up evidence wanted to be entertaining truthful. Pinkerton detectives were employed and seven or eight leading criminal lawyers of Missouri and Chicago were engaged to assist the prosecution. and what the detectives said they must have seen.

A few. The undetected vagueness of memorydetails of the witnesses furnished a fertile soil for the growth of imaginary pictures. The he had with him enumerated. the facts to which certain witnesses would swear were told to other witnesses and reported in the newspapers. ask a group of persons to indicate the kind of a figure six which is upon They will be found to divide between their watch-dial. whose "memory" is more accurate than that of the others. It is a well-known principle of psychology that if you tell a man something often enough he finally accepts it. VI and 6. recalling that the figures take their line of direction from the centre of the dial. Indeed. As an illustration. there are many ways in which the memory may be disturbed with- out the individual being aware of the alteration. reporters. and detectives were portrayed and described with much the effect of a. Despite the best intentions of truthful people. except those to whose attention figures upside down. all the events of the crime as it was conceived by witnesses. and as he continually repeats it. Then he believes that he saw or heard it. We must not forget that all this happened thirty years after the events. The attempt to see faces in the moon is comparable to their experience. With a dim outline. Yet. even as a possible fact. or a sketch with several possibihties. and a brief reference to some of the causes of these memory dis- tortions will reveal the fickleness of this reproducer of past experiences. it ends by becoming fijrmly fixed. These alterations of memory have a bear- . wiU Mnrite the All. usually with what is in one's mind. the peculiarity has already been called. movingpicture representation. in watches with a second-hand articles Gates was described. the there is no six. until fact and fiction were indistinguishable.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR ination supplied whatever 277 clothing of was lacking. will "remember" seeing the figure. there is always a strong tendency to fill in the outlines.

278 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK ing upon reports of events given either as sworn testimony or in social intercourse." says James. be strictly Prinoiples 0} Psycholegy. the fiction expels the reahty from memory and It is not necessary. saturated with the mysterious. and in the or done rather than But. illustration James quotes a from Carpenter's Hours of Work and "It happened once to the writer to hear a most scrupulously conscientious friend narrate an incident of tableturning to which she appended an assurance that the table rapped writer being confounded when nobody was within a yard of it. . the The lady.i "is the accounts we give to others of our experiences. So strong is this inclination that if there is nothing unusual in the occurrence the ing than the truth. 313 J. "The most frequent source of false memory. Man good Play. vol. The tendency to enlarge upon a story is human." that we be participants in the events. The note was examined. story-teller transforms the We common into the imcommon. reigns in its stead alone. One of the causes of unintentional perversion of is memory the constant talk that an exciting occurrence produces. Such accoxmts we almost always make both more simple and more interest- quote what we should have said what we reaUy said or did. though fully satisfied of the accuracy of her statement. ere long. first telling we may be fully aware of the distinction. There is always a tendency to say what we wish might have happened. and was foimd to contain the distinct statement that the table rapped when the hands of six persons rested upon it I The lady's memory ' as to all other points proved to i. promised to look at the note she had made ten years previously of the transaction. however. and all are intimately related to the psychology of the day's work. by this latter fact. is This is is especially true when the marvellous involved. pp. This is especially true when we ourselves participated in the events.

The reasons behind this are much the same as those that produce this result through much talking.. Afterward the cleaning is remembered as having been done just before the writing. usually ends in their recollection. We think of what we wish had happened. and trying to recall whether they occurred or not. e. but our examination was made before the hour of the crime. We may have performed the act. he is very apt to come in the end to seem to remember clearly things of which he was at first very doubtThis happens ful. that we examined the ground where an alleged crime occurred. insert this act later in the memory This is especially noticeable series. it may be a transposition of events. and soon we are unable to distinguish between things that actually happened and our thoughts about what might have occurred. At times this takes a form that may be called retroactive memory. we. much . of possible interpretations of actions.n frequently thinks over his experiences. In other words. been cleaned by the sitter. and sometimes fears. In all cases "in which a Ta. in descriptions of occult phenomena where unusual care Many times the slate has is needed to detect deception. Knowing what we ought to have done on a given occasion we think the action into the memory series. Again. It may be. and his memory is likely to be wrong. i." 279 good and in this point she had erred in entire Closely related to the effect of fluence of much talking is the in- Long-continued pondering over details which one feels must have happened.a. and then allowed to pass intct the hands of the medium. and the slate as not having left the sitter's hands.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR correct. however. but not at the moment when we locate it in the chain of events. Our wishes. are the controlling factors. hopes. for example. through a confusion of what he at first rranembered and what he afterward often imagined. faith. after the crime. he forgets that he has only imagined a thing of which his thinking.

453. at the end of near thirty years. Johnson. memory was not has imagined as is an illustration. "in his Essay and Genius of Dr. JMurphy. pp. I am persuaded without any consciousness of error. L. Boswell. finds striking departures from the truth. Adam. though highly intellectual. any recourse In spite of their earnest defirst opportunity they strike off to the right or left. p. His memory. Criminal Investigation. pp. It is difficult to believe how far the imagination of emotional.28o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK certain. i6. edited by G. and he supposes himself to have been present at a scene which he has probably heard inaccurately described by others.^ "that an honest witness will at all hazards stick to the truth. We must not think. though he is entirely oblivious of inaccuracies. it if and then remembers what he were a real memory of an actual fact." he sa)^. B. he says. 90. in which I tration' of this. the Life on ' ' ' Kuhlmann. taken on the very day. Gross. Hill. In my note. F. a warm imagination often leads one to believe that events have been experienced when the only to suggestion. easily emotional persons can be made to relate occurrences which they have never seen or heard. . American Journal of Psychology. commenting upon this influence of t3ie imagina- tion." Moreover. vol. 39s/. sire to stick to the exact truth. on the source of information concerning them of others. i. One has only to note how persons will carry them. but which never occurred as he relates them. has given an account of this meeting considerably different from mine. and at last can no longer distinguish between what they have really seen and what they have only imagined. . 77. has undoubtedly deceived him. note. Boswell's Life of Johnson. vol. is the narration This of course subjects the "remembered" facts to all the inaccuracies of hearsay evidence." ' The old soldier with his wonderful tales of events in which he participated. and that without . referring to his first meeting with Johnson^ gives an illus- "Mr. translated by John and J. .

p. Hodgson says. of this gentleman. after which it displayed the same propensity to gymnastic feats as the or three other travellers were evening of the same day. has given an erroneous account of this She pretends to relate it incident." Piozzi's account of escaped her.* A Hindoo juggler was sitting upon the groimd making wooden figures. The juggler repMed in the affirmative. It made may easily be imagined that this. . leap from the An officer who was ground and strike one another. and coins two feet from him dance around. vol. as of many others. ' Proceedings 0/ the Society for Psychical Research. in her Anecdotes." Mr. "and asked the juggler if this coin would also jimip.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR am confident I is 281 marked everything material that passed. She has represented it as a personality.. present "drew a coin from his pocket. and the coin was then placed near the others on the ground. vol. and I am sure that I should not have omitted one so well known in the literaryno mention world. an incident and conversation between Doctor Johnson and himself. p. with all its circumstances. my first in- terview with Doctor Johnson. when the fact is that it was communicated to her by me. made a strong impression on my mind. Two 1 Op. 4. referring to Mrs. 216. as if she herself had been present. he said tba/ he had taken a coin from his own pocket and placed it op J^'^ juggler's own coin. and the true point has tered with pecuHar attention. Referring to the movements of the coin. Boswell says:' "Mrs. note. cit. from recollection. Piozzi. 385. 2. and in present at dinner in the the course of the conversation the officer described the marvellous trick which he had witnessed in the afternoon. An illustration of this tendency has been related by Hodgson." Another cause of false memory is that the purpose to do something at the moment may later lead us to insert the act in its proper place in the series of events without our being aware tiiat we did not do it. and would be regisAgain.

dexterously. I had watched the transaction with freaks as the other coins. hopes is not true. would have been frustrated. the juggler leaning forward. but we also forget that it has been distracted. received the coin from the fingers of the ofl&cer as the latter was stooping down. but had allowed the ofl&cer himself to place it on the ground. the ofl&cer's imagination of himself as placing the coin upon the ground suppressed and finally obliterated the impression made by the juggler's action in receiving the coin. as I knew what was necessary for the performance of the trick.282 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK this coia ground himself. These interpolations account for many of our distortions of facts. yet that had indulged in the samt His wife ventured to suggest that the juggler had taken the coin and placed it on the ground. and appealed to me for confirmation. He was. mistaken. If the juggler had not thus taken the coin. This is a phase of the tendency to forget what one prefers not to believe. To the preceding causes of defective observation and memory disturbance we must also add biased opinions. They almost iavariably lead one to overlook details opposed to one's personal interests or convictions. We not only allow our attention to be distracted by actions which are or are not intended to produce the distraction. The officer had apparently intended to place the coin upon the ground himself. as actually performed. and then we fill in the gap by some conjectured or imagined events which form a juncture with the contiguous portions of the memory series and from that time on they appear to be an integral part of our memory of what happened." Evidently. the trick. and laid it close to the others. but in some way they are repressed by the opposing ideas that . and in a most unobtrusive manner. special curiosity. or is in opposition to opinions which one holds and perhaps has already expressed. but the ofl&cer was emphatic in repeating his statement. but as he was doing so. however. A person does not intentionally forget these things.

at which I was present. 38^-390- . Long-continued thinking about matters which have a controlling personal interest.' averred conscientiously that the fabric was not withdrawn. Every one is susceptible to this subtle force. ters perceived this clearly. but one. simply because of the absorption of the spectator's interest in the supposed 'supernormal' manifestations. Because interested witnesses are persuaded of the justice of their case they have dominatcongenial." he says. "a supposed 'spirit-form' appeared. by Firman. When the figure retired to the cabinet. the door closed upon a portion The door opened again slightly. and the end of the robe. earlier chapter to more ing beliefs. cU. waving it to and fro. in fact. glide past or are swiftly forgotten." Hodgson relates an incident which came under "At a materialization stance given his own observation. and in courts of justice the testimony of interested witnesses is subject to this defect. Scores testimony of believers — » Op. and imagination readily supplies the evidence for their truthfulness. would make a comparatively deep and lasting impression upon consciousness. pp." ^ Bias naturally prepares the way for the influence of suggestion as a mental disturbance to any one giving testimony or "repeating" conversation. is likely to end in the recollection of the desired circumstances. " Events that under ordinary circumstances. or if the witnesses were intent upon discovering a trick. Most of the sitof the robe was drawn into the cabinet. a 'believer. but an acquiescent state of ndind enables the effect to be produced more easily. draped in a semi-transparent flowing robe so transparent. and that he saw it slowly melt away. and trying to recall whether certain things happened..TESTIMONY AND RUMOR are 283 Reference has been made in an Darwin's observation of this failing in himself. This mental attitude renders the in the "occult" valueless for "supernormal" exhibitions. that Firman's bare arm was visible behind it.

or Hereward Carrington's Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism. "and after the lapse of of gaslight. It was widely and daily discussed. P." one deception is easy. was being written. 4. husband in the same illuminated mask. for the case caused great excitement. We then joined hands. J. more directly. vol. "were not only characteristic of my beloved sister while in the form. posing as a medium. Then an A conjurer. No mortal has faculCharlotte. Here illustration." the recipient said. about ten could dis- minutes.'" These lines ties to comprehend infinity. 405- . a and hear the communicacopy of which I herewith strive in vain to unlock append: 'My dear Brother: You the hidden mysteries of the future. there cannot be a shadow of doubt as to its identity. "was found plainly written. the resemblance to the writing of his sister and mother must have been imagined by a submissive mind yielding to the suggestion that he would receive messages from them. "but the handwriting so clearly resembled hers that. washed clean and placed "flat upon the table with a bit of pencil about the size of a pea underneath. or pectant. The suggestions in the Jester case were given by the questions of the detectives and reporters." And again. "a short communication from my mother. Proceedints (4 the Society for Psychical Reseofck."" Since the "medium" frankly says that he wrote both messages with his own hand. in her own handwriting. So ideas were planted in the minds of those to be called to • Instances can be found in various books which reveal the methods of "mediums. to my mind. It was a common slate. p. as well as.284 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK have seen the face of a departed sister." as D. brother. of those present states. Davey. Abbott's Behind the Scenes ivilh the Mediums. confiding state of mind is is all that is needed. by published pictures and newspaper stories." the same recipient insisted.^ An ex- of people wife. and by conversation in the country stores. ' S. produced a slate communication from the sister of a sitter. under the tion that full glare we tinctly see the slate undulate.

than when the statements are made spontaneously on the part of the subjects without special questioning questions are always more or less suggestive in the first place. once said: "It is a good point of cunning for a man to shape the answer he would have in his own words and propositions. subjects are on their guard against such extraneous also." ^ Experiments have proved that. 395 /. ing the results c^btained by the experimental method that in most of the laboratory tests the subjects know that an and memory is being made. Further evidence of the influence of suggestion » is ob- Essays ' " Of Cunning. they will never be called upon to make a deposiIn the laboratory. they are more observant. and they may as frequently suggest the wrong thing as they do the right." It should be remembered in compar. with that keen insight into human nature that he always showed. about one-fourth of his statements are incorrect. "Memory illusion. so far as they are aware. and for this reason the results are more favorable to memory than in matters of every-day life when events come suddenly and unexpectedly upon the observers and when. Lord Bacon. "and this tendency to false memory is the greater the longer the time since the original experience and the less carefully one has observed. again. . drawing on a number of investigations. pp. i6. is not the case with what they see or hear on the street or in social interinvestigation of observation course. enforces this view. in general. tion regarding what they see or hear." ^ Kuhlmann. . for it makes the other party stick the less. the influences as suggestion.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 285 the stand." : American Journal of Psychology. "is greater when statements made are answers to particular questions. . Consequently. and this. vol. when the average man reports events or conversations from memory and conscientiously believes that he is telling the truth. and when planted they grew." he says.

as. turned suddenly into another street. the testimony indicated. as carefully as but were unable to learn of and I are considered close observers. however. waiting for a car. Another form of suggestion was recently reported to the writer by a physician.the accounts of to which reference the several witnesses of Davey's ejthibitions. We made inquiries and watched the newspapers any such accident. the witnesses are never in agree- ment even regarding critical matters. have already been made. the account is usually indorsed as written. with few if any corrections. without commimicaany kind from the beginning of the seance till the separate accounts of the same sitting reports have been finished. and citations A study of . especially at a time when no reason so far as known. .' When. Reports of observers of other performances reveal the same disagraement. The horse ran rapidly for a block. My sister and we would have been wilKng to swear that the wagon was demolished and that some one was severely injured. we asked two preliminary questions regarding the value of some of the evidence given in the trial of Jester: First.286 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK example. The inference from these two facts is strong that the "remembrances" of the co-signers of the account are greatly aided by the suggestions of the written report placed in their hands. But to our amazement no horse or vehicle was in sight nor was there any evidence of a collision. "when suddenly a runaway horse and wagon came dashing by. traveller existed. We rushed to the comer to assist the injured. a so-called spiritualistic tained from the study of reports of different witnesses to a series of events. "My sister and I were standing at a street-comer one afternoon. will show this. ' the pecuHarities of a chance on the road. and then apparently stopped with a loud crash and shriek. for seance. would any one note. the report is written by one of the observers and then passed to the others for criticism or approval. are written tion of Whenever by the different observers." As will be recalled. for unusual observation? Second." he said.

p. The keenest interest and closest attention. for memory is exceedingly and prone to error. is tained between sealed double slates. as I think. as in the Jester case. But persons are often called upon to give information regarding matters that attracted no special attention when they transpired. and psychology replies definitely. 405. to which reteence was made above. second-hand accounts and those told or written some time after the events have occurred are still less dependable. to be sure. with its generous mixture of error. Indeed. see article by S. intended actions not carried out. to both questions.. Unrehable. as memory based on observation may be. and attention. however. and suggestion. » Op. continuous thinking about the affair with numerous fictitious insertions. 399." Omission of things that actually happened.^ 1 Social gossip. as will be seen later. are evidently the rule in mem- ory rather than the exception. For excellent examples. in Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. will plastic Hodgson says' that "a series of incidents which indicate. however. tend to fix facts and descriptions in memory. and writing. No. Davey. cU. not assure truthful accounts. how the chief trick was performed. which according to the original re- port is described as having been obtained on an ordinary described in the later version as having been ob- slate. biased opinions. Speaking of an abridged account of a stance. vol. but the answers bear upon reports of events in general. together with the substitution of events which did not occur. are entirely omitted. of course. experiments discredit positive statements many made in reporting experiences or conis versations even Interest if the information given shortly after the events occurred.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 287 would observers be likely to remember the details of what they had seen after the lapse of thirty years? These questions were asked with reference to a particular case. and it is always exposed to the deflecting influences of repeated narration. J. p. . 4.

I have seen many witto which others . This observation. that the general belief in the and the fact that the witnesses had talked over these details for talked to many years. fit the substitutions. "that all of the witnesses. "I have every reason to think. when an earnest desire to relate the facts as they occurred is assimied? the answer of psychology is equally definite: the feeling of accuracy is no proof of a correct reproduction. though their stories were told and their testimony was given thirty years after the events which. transpositions. feels that he is telling the truth. Then they become a part of the recollection. say.288 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK prepares the stage for innumerable omissions and substitu tions. and that they thought they actually saw all of the details which they related. and soon it is assumed that they happened. or witness. The honest narrator. Certain things are reported to have been said or to have occurred. Does the feeling of accuracy assure a reasonably correct reproduction. convinced. I may. that they had been would swear. As for the more general and fundamental question. however far his statements may deviate from the facts. and interpolations without mental disturbance. and it was so with the witnesses in the trial of Jester. I am guilt of Jester." says the attorney for the defense in the Jester case. when they were observed. even the man who was six years old when the events occurred and who described minutely the color of the shirt naturally into the series memory and overalls of the body floating down the stream. and that they had seen many pictures of the events. believed that they were testifying truly. did not have the element of interest needed to fix even the attention. however. that they had been told the things by detectives. all produced such a psychological effect upon the witnesses that they confused what they remembered with the creations of imagination. has been verified by my subsequent experience in trial courts. The omissions are forgotten.

and those opposed to confuse them. and suggestion are always exerting their influence. are given. in every-day life. and every effort is made to confuse the memory instead of to assist it in recalling. abimdant proof of the wa3nvardness of altered the practice of trial courts. The writer is aware that. Honest witnesses are subjected to the same sort of cross-examination as is applied to those under suspicion. and reports of conversations are subject to the same inaccuracies. and inserted the of events observed. personal bias. Suggestions. and has been lost from — say. series omitted. in American practice. actions. obtaining and producing evidence is the duty of the parties' attorneys. Statements are misunderstood. the attorneys too often try to confuse the truth.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR nesses 289 telling the truth but who unquestionably thought they were who wholly failed to do so. Then the task of separating truth from error to the jury. or falsehood of is left which is too often composed distinctions and drawing inferences. much is forgotten. Theoretically. or toward the whole situation. memory has not Unfortunately. so far as court rules and decisions permit. . transposed. toward the one is a large determining factor. the judge is merely to decide on its admissibility. substituted. the personal attitude whom we are quoting. views are perverted. the purpose of men who are inexperienced in making in the trial is to lay the facts before the jury. and conversations Actions are in Observation is unreliable. The mental attitude at the moment. and in this last. qualifjdng remarks pass unnoticed. Practically. Then that which memory is replaced by products of the imagination. The speaker is made to say what we think he should have said what we would like to have had him opinions added. The attorneys for one side endeavor to nurse remembrances." fickleness of the The which this attorney menaory of well-meaning witnesses has observed in court trials is equally true of the reports of events. however.

275. It would seem as if the time had come when it should be some one's duty to discover the truth rather than to obscure it to promote JusThough in court practice tice rather than to win cases. Pat. ^ 143. of the causes discussed under the Jester case. 922. said: "The confidence of the attacking witnesses is often in proportion to the distance in time that one is removed from the other. thinking also of the element of time. B and A. 284.. — success is striven for regardless of its consequences to others. S. Rep. 924. another judge says that courts are "fully aware of the ease with which honest witnesses can persuade themselves that they remember some bygone circumstance which they are ingeniously induced to think that they remember. Cos.. lo. « 33. 22. Antisdel. expressed the ^pinion that "the ' ' * J. Quoted in Hawes v. 143. U. referring to the effect of much thinking and of the imagination. Mr. said: "Witnesses whose memories are prodded by the eagerelicit testimony favorable to themselves are not usually to be depended upon for accurate information. S. and beguile their memory. Pe''. in evaluing memory after a long period of time."* Judge Choate. . in the nature of things. Referring to errors of A few quotations will show memory from some this. Justice ness of interested parties to Brown twenty-five years expressed the opinion that "after the lapse of it would. per Shipman.290 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is Their aim to acquit or convict. giving the opinion of the United States Supreme Court. 275. Their imaginations are wrought upon by the influences to which their minds are subjected.. be it highly improbable that any witness the single day it accurately." ^ And. Justice Brown.. 289. Justice Swayne." ' And again. E£p. Rep. judges in their decisions are taking some of the facts of psychology into account. It is sometimes said in praise of a criminal lawyer that he has secured quittals than more acany other lawyer. once more."^ who saw this fence for was exhibited would be able to describe Mr.

Observers then become possible witnesses. and we repeat events until we are ready to swear." * When a matter becomes serious enough to be a persistent subject of conversation it assiunes an importance in the minds of those who were present which it did not possess originally. 341. Mr. ' 4. yet people continue to have perfect confidence in what they "see. again. Rep. S. we shall be able to strike a balance between truth and fiction. in the utmost sincerity. the residue of fact left in the memory after an experience. Rep. between what may be expected from the memory and that which is the product of the imagination stimulated by suggestion and the other mental excitants that have been mentioned. 42. and as they think about it and talk it over. if we can determine." ^ gives the result of his experience with witnesses quite as when he says that "things are told to persons they verily believe that they witnessed them. The regular work of the class was in progress. speaking much conversation about a case. With this purpose in view the following scene was enacted before a small class in psychology. Fed." Now. from defective recollection. » MUler Gotten. they imagine that they gave it closer observation than was the case. 349. one of the young women being engaged in making a report on an investigation which she had made.. . That we do not observe events and the persons engaged in them as accurately as is commonly supposed is often proved in matters of every-day life. U. that we were spectators of their occurrence. The instructor in charge definitely till ' 4.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR effort of the 291 memory often supplies circimistances harmonious with the general impression of a fact or event. but which are supplied only by the imagination and the associaof the influence of And." ^ And still another judge tion of ideas. s G«. says: "Some.. Justice Field. will blend what they themselves saw or heard with what they have received from the narration of others. 741V. 52. approximately. 730..

The entire scene occupied less than thirty seconds and it was startling to the class. dashed into the room. and as he arose he threw a small torpedo on the floor. custom when his students give reports. crjdng. picking up the brown-paper package which had been dropped near the door by Miss R. then the door burst open and four students. immediately after entering. and aU struggled across the room to the side opposite the door. K. He stood up at once. flourished a large yellow banana as though it were a pistol. This package contained a brick so that the occurrence might not be too inconspicuous.. believing that riot. dropped a brown-paper package on the floor.292 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Since this is his sitting with the class. But it also produced a condition of ." especially the young women." and was caught by Miss R. Miss T. violent interruption of her paper might give too serious a nervous shock. "I'm shot. all of whom jumped up and crowded back against the waU. few moments after the beginning of the report an altercation was heard in the corridor. It was feared that an unexpected. protesting at the interruption. Miss R. H. AU then hurried out the open door." This assurance cut out at once tbe element of reality. fell back. The only member of the class who was aware that anything out of the ordinary was to happen was the young woman who was to give the report. It ex- ploded with the intonation usual with these children's Fourth of July torpedoes. two young men and two young women. where the writer A was sitting among several members of the class. so she was informed just before she began to read that there would be a sudden interruption and that she should not be dis- —the writer—was turbed by it. were in such a state of fright that it seemed a wise precaution to reassure them with the information that the scene was "made to order. it caused no expectation of anything unusual. it was a real Some of the "witnesses.

They were Then there were two men and two readily discernible. since they were seated in an irregular circle. but definite instructions were given to name the participants and to describe their clothing as accurately as possible. after they had finished writing. and the events occurred within the circle. Three of those who burst into the room were members of the class. None of those who took part were in any way disguised and the brief scene was enacted in full view of the spectators. as was usual with that class.. whether the names and faces of any of the participants were unfamiliar to them and they all said that they were not. Care was taken not to make any suggestions. prominent in college activities. was not a member of the class but she was a senior. This adds greatly to the significance of the meagre observations. Those who had crowded back to escape the "danger" breathed again. Four persons burst into the room. Blankbooks were immediately distributed and the members of the class were asked to write down what they had seen. Yet — — . and since the class was small there were twenty-nine students in it they were well known to their associates. women.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 293 comparative mental calmness. and weakened the force of the one or two suggestions offered by the scene. enabled the observers to review the events more clearly. The third. This number was not so large as to be confusing. The effect of the announcement was at once observable. To avoid uncertainty regarding this the observers were asked. and all of the class knew her. Miss R. It is doubtful whether an arrangement of persons could be planned more suitable for easy observation. and returned to their seats. If the reader will turn to the "scene" it will be noticed that only a few things were done and that these few things were quite definite and conspicuous. The "play" was not overloaded. Let us now see what was observed with sufficient accuracy to enable the "witnesses" to record the information at once.

" That only three actually observed the number was conclusively shown again when they tried to name and describe the participants. It seemed the better plan. they could recognize an acquaintance whom they had seen at least three times a week for eight months. in this respect. no one recognized them. though without suggestion. The result so far as concerns recognition by the twenty-nine "witnesses" is the following: 7 recognized 3. to select the actors chiefly from the class. o. Failures and omissions were therefore quite clearly due to inability to comply rather than to persons dashed into the room. 4 recognized Surprising as these figures that. the results are nevertheless too . This is important because. In doing this the "witnesses" were forced to face the question of numbers. II recognized 7 recognized 2. to a few less than four. i. To the others it was an indefinite number. This could not well be avoided without taking chances of having the unknown to members of the class. favorable to observation and memory." only three 1 knew that four These three also realized that two were young men and two were women. but to the majority more. Though the class four participants were well known to the all of and no disguises were used. therefore. but this left three vacant chairs. some characterized them as "a crowd" or "a mob. inadvertence. narration was supplemented by what was essentially interrogation. for recognition by elimination of those present played its r61e. It should be emphasized that the "witnesses" were definitely asked to name and describe the actors. and probably participants some of the "witnesses" unintentionally noted the absen- . may seem to those who think even under excitement.294 of the PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK twenty-nine "witnesses.

As a matter of fact. one. Only thirteen of the twenty-nine attempted any sort of description even of whom they recognized. still another young woman. and on this day his shoes were polished as usual." with the exception of one who gave "bluish gray. who wore a green skirt. those three." the Only color of another suit that H. H. as to mistaken identity. and who never have an article of dress out of order. wore a dark-blue suit. white chiffon blouse. They said either "dark suit" or "blue suit. but none of the eleven made that distinction. and a . Of these eight. by one. a yoimg woman who had never been in the class and was not present was "saw" a member of the class "seen" by two. however. two noticed a conspicuous red tie. Eight "saw" persons who not only took no part in the performance. 295 though they were requested to rely wholly upon mem- The writer is of the opinion. that the ob- servers tried honestly to conform to instructions. and. and one "saw" that his shoes were muddy and his face dirty.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR tees ory. but who were either not present or who sat at a distance from the place where the scene was staged. a former member of tlie class who had withdrawn about three months earlier. he is one of those young men who are always neat.. the object of these descriptions. since this by time they were greatly interested in the experiment. Some "described" only one. neither of which statements was true. These descriptions referred to Miss T. AU except one of these were women. Now. The descriptions of clothing were so general as to be worthless for purposes of identification. by one. had occasionally worn. again. and others two or The largest number of descriptions of any one actor was eleven. The next largest number of descriptions of any one of the actors was six. likewise not a member of the class and not present. a member of the class who sat at a distance from the scene.. three who sat in the second row of the circle.

One said that he had a black eye. One said that he had on a dark-blue suit. One clothed later was "remembered" as the only color. nevertheless. a dark gray. she. she wore none. which was not true. was the only observer who noted the tie of one of the young men minutely enough to recall its red of the of handkerchief on his neck. As a matter of fact. That the "de"Mr. two of them putting a feather on it. with coat collar turned up. This was the color of the hat which she had worn in class up to this time. Miss R." And finally. which was true of her brown hat. No one noticed her black hat. "the [identity unknown] "wore a light suit. No one noticed that his suit was green. One saw her in a long grayish coat. who wore a greenish suit. "both of the boys had on dark suits and one of them a green and red striped tie. was described by three. though this observer saw practically nothing but confusion. Another. and though she "recognized" one who had never been in the class and who was not present on this occasion." Neither The young men was painted." scriptions" may be complete I' will quote them." young woman" [this observer saw but one] "had on a large. Three said she wore a green suit. and neither wore any sort Recall of the "red and green striped tie" on one of the young men is interesting because. dark hat. the young man dark clothes. but four "saw" a red one on her." And again. All of these said that her hat was black. . and no one observed that his coat collar was turned up. K. and still another. She was described by three. and a brown hat.296 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Only one of the six described her skirt as green.. her in a brown skirt. wore a black skirt. and another in a tan coat. with a red handkerchief around his neck. Evidently. other attempts at description were either with mistaken recognition or without recognition. "I saw a man all painted. white blouse. green left an impression which black hat. without mentioning her white blouse.

Examination and cross-examination. however. which can be filled out in a variety of ways to satisfy the bias of the witnesses or the needs of the prosecution. These descriptions of the participants are all that were given all that the "witnesses" were able to remember after the excitement through which they had passed. trivial incident. and innuendoes in court trials.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR and green stripes. an abundant crop of imaginary pictures and scenes will be readily grown. and without suggestions of any sort. women identified scribe the clothing in addition. of an unplanned. is an accurate description." quite as well as they apply to the actors themselves. I do not mean that lawyers deliberately set themselves to the task of bringing out false testimony. for example. "saw" several things that did not occur. and with soil so admirably prepared for the purpose. and who. side-light An illuminative upon the kind of things observed. Rough outlines which can be filled in are the structures out of which illusions are made. was observed and recalled. Their inadequacy for — purposes of identification is apparent. Of even greater importance. even under excitement. and by a witness who was unable to deof any of the participants. however. 297 Evidently. . and it she and the young All this woman sitting next ex- changed the seats. and the mind's imaginings are the material that gives Hfe One who was and reality to the picture. They fit scores of men or women who might have been in the vicinity of the "crime. are in their very nature suggestive. seen shortly after the events. is the fact that the indefiniteness and vagueness of these descriptions indicate a state of mind that makes a fertile soil for suggestions in the form of questions. newspaper reports. One of the young women in recovering in her excitement dropped her purse. The descriptions illustrate the rough sketches mentioned above. as was afterward learned. inability to recall and deis scribe certain things not necessarily proof of the worth- lessness of all observations of a witness.

suflSicient incitement to produce in an exceedingly interesting Two of the witnesses Since no dog was present interpolation man"saw" a dog in the room." This was aU that was said during the course. however. This. while one thought it was H. some one shortly before entering the class. No one saw Miss R. of was the result of suggestion. . but five of these This said it was Miss T. and finally as present at the time. staggered back. and..298 is PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK thought of in connection with them. The yellow banana and then pointed at H. one of the young four noticed women drop something it. was able to describe the package as a brown-paper parcel. Only one of them. by James Sully. pick it up as she hurried out. crying: "I'm shot. all that impressed these six in this connection was that something was picked up. Three of the five saw the flash. "I saw the blaze. was flourished ' Those interested will find abundant illustrations in Illusions. The persons who were not present at the scene were inserted by some of the Conversation with spectators for one reason or another." was the statement of a young woman. or merely the sight of him. Apparently. this must have had its origin in a stray dog that had been wandering around the quadrangle during the morning and which these two witnesses afterward remembered having seen. who did illustrates the tendency to fill in the outline memories. and the word was not used. At that moment the toy torpedo was exploded and H. That sight alone is "memories" was ghown ner.' Several things done plainly in front of the witnesses were Six saw either not observed or were wrongly observed. might be sufficient to cause his insertion into the scene as one of the participants. Five heard or saw a pistol-shot. however. of these. "I know some one fired a pistol because I saw the flash. Six saw some one pick up the parcej." wrote one of the young men.

I will quote the statements of those who described the entrance of H. As an illustration of the different ways in which the same thing is seen by several witnesses. not what they heard. "Mr. Besides." "Mr. one of the yoimg men wrote: "They were attempting to hold back a man with long. but who withdrew several months beLater.'s hair. was throwing his arms about wildly.) "H. One "noticed Miss T. and Miss T." "They appeared to be trying to subdue H.'s necklace. H. was a member of the class. they reveal the illusory possibilities of the hxmian mind. came rushing in and fell on his knees. and he seemed to be a kind of leader. except ." "H. caught H." This was suggested by the fact that H. Further." "They seemed to be pursuing H." and ordered them out. to quiet him. black hair. into the room." This evidently refers to H. however. the "witnesses" were asked to report what they saw. named the Italian among the participants.. the pistol-shot was not suggested Several other things seen by the spec- which did not correspond with the facts are also worth recording since. was short.." though she did not wear one and had not been accustomed to do so in the college. when the "pistol" was fired he was the one at whom it was pointed. entered the room first. looked as though he had been seriously injured. by the question. as he seemed about to fall. The description is that of a young Italian who had been a member of the class earlier in the year." "All were beating H. It is another instance of interpolation. and the others seemed to be pursuing him." "I recognized only H. One short report is worth quoting in full because. taken in connection with the things mentioned above.. H. U. this witness in his deposition fore the experiment. tators but Hence. whom they dragged out of the room." (U. was trying. since the other young man had hght hair and followed H. except as the instructor protested the presence of the "rioters.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 299 performance. Finally.

300 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK one of the participants. five of the reports did not contain an item of truth or fiction. and confusion. and with a red handkerchief around his neck. "I heard screaming. The writer is aware of the difficulty of arranging even a — it is carried out exactly In the one of which we have been speaking. there were two women though she saw but one. "was Miss T." The young men were not below the medium height. These witnesses saw nothing except a mob bursting into the room. The young men had on dark clothes. Then I saw a man all painted. dark hat and a white shirtwaist. "the door was pushed open." The testimony of the only member of the class who had been forewarned-^the yoimg woman who was to have given her report on an investigation ^is especially interesting because surprise should have been largely absent in her case and fear must have been wholly eliminated. Six otfiers were unable to testify to anything more than the identity of one of the participants. Finally. "All I saw. the struggle was followed by a report that I thought was a revolver. certain things were definite and these are the ones short scene and being sure that as planned. They appeared to be below the medium height. with a tin bucket in her hand. They were followed by a young man." she wrote. the "witness" for the recognition of unintentionally reconstructed the scene from her imagination. was that of an intelligent young woman who calmly viewed an exciting scene in a more or less impersonal attitude. all else was a blank. She had been told that she would be interrupted and that she should not be disturbed but should observe what happened. however. The young woman had on a large. I don't know who he was. To these. as we have seen." she wrote. with hair standing on end. . a young man rushed in with a young woman hanging on his arm. Yet it contains nothing of evidential value." therefore. They went right in front of me. I cannot tell who the people were. and. Her "testimony.

The "witnesses" had little definite knowledge of what actually happened. vol. dropping of the package by one and picking it up by another these are aU matters con- — cerning which there can be no uncertainty. fundamental in criminal cases. and that Zinny. Identification is. . threw the things thief. the attempted flight and pursuit. Only a few identified actors. the thief. Further. unless the aUbi is convincing. p. for purposes of control. who had followed the rehearsals of the scene. gesamte Psychologie. in away. 71.f. color of clothes. In our drama-experiment the observers were well acquainted with the participants. Their minds were therefore prepared. Ziimy.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR 301 upon which we have judged the evidence. d. named Zinny. was accused of having stolen cerThe evidence showed that the tain articles from a house. to recognize one against whom there might appear to be corroborative evidence. A seventeen-yearold boy. Yet it would have been accepted because they were eye-witnesses. 9. and positive recognition is persons by well-intentioned. Had a crime been committed their testimony would have had shght value. had the affair involved a real crime. the yellow banana. a departmental instructor. Further. two men swore that the defendant was the man whojji they had seen carrying the ' Arckk. and in several instances these identifications were so uncertain as to be readily transferred to some one else under the influence of suggestion. uninterested commonly accepted. yet they were surprisingly incompetent as witnesses. when caught and brought back was at once recognized as the robber by the wife of the janitor She also identified the defendant as of the apartment. of course. The number of persons bursting into the room. their identity. A case^ in a German and police-court illustrates this transfer of identification also indicates that such mistakes may not be infrequent in actual court cases. was present to see that nothing was omitted and nothing done that was not provided for in the programme.

yet all conform reasonably well to the conditions of an actual writer.302 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK identification things out of the gate. in the opinion of the complex they test observation of details that could hardly be expected imder excitement. though perhaps not intentionally untruthful. by others for the same Some of these scenes. arranged with Ziimy to exchange r61es in the court proceedings. and the judges could be convinced that the testimony of so many honest folk was erroneous only after the real Zinny and the jailer were brought before them and had verified Nowakowski's identification of himself.ter are Von Liszt. had participated in the original case against Nowakowski. but Nowakowski. The explanation of this farcical ending to a serious trial was that some days before Nowakowski had been convicted by testimony which he knew to be false. He had. To the amazement of the court he replied that the verdict did not interest him in the least because he was not Zinny. The court felt that its dignity had been trifled with and its feelings cruelly wounded. are too — who la. to the further discomfort of the judges. professor of criminal law in. It was then learned. therefore. seemed perfect and no witnesses were Before passing sentence the called for the defense. and a subordinate court official. several drama-experiments similar to the one described from the classroom of Washington University have been enacted purpose." one of the presiding judges. and yet did not recognize him when he appeared before them as defendant in the assumed r61e of Zinny. He took Zinny's place to show the judges how little reliance can be placed upon testimony regarding identity. that one of the prosecuting attorneys in the trial of "Zinny. the University . judges asked the defendant whether he had anything to say for himself. The and who was pursued and caught. Returning now to the general question of observation and its evidential value. crime thrust unexpectedly upon the attention of witnesses called into cow^t to testify to what happened.

He insisted that all questions. since the affair would doubtless be investigated in the courts. were because of rather startling attacks upon the value Binet had previously published^ a mass of of testimony. vol. the revolver and was fired. "That's an insult. suggest details to the witness which he then honestly befirst tried ' L. 2 La . and others at varying intervals of time. von Liszt seized the dropped to the level of the breast of his adversary man's arm. 12. of the seminar were discussing Tarde's Professor von Liszt asked: "Has any one floor to the first something more to say before I give the speaker to trine sum up the results ? " One of the students arose and was given the floor. were then told that. jumping up. Zur Psychologit d. The members of the seminar. As was to be expected. rising excitedly." exclaimed another student. who still be- lieved that they had witnessed a real quarrel which just missed being a tragedy. 183. Reviewed in L'Annee psycho- logique. drawing a "Keep — revolver and thrusting Professor it into his face. and the real actors were made to do things that had not occurred. still until you're spoken to. SuggestibiUiS." shouted the first. Those who took no part were made participants by word or deed. they had better write down what had occurred. convincing evidence of the subtle influence of suggestion. p. advancing with clinched fist." shouted the second. "I wish to discuss Tarde's docfrom the standpoint of Christian ethics. Aussage. in- The members vestigations. such as have been outlined. no one saw and heard what had happened. "Drop your hands.l-Kyi'lMUJNY AJND of Berlin. even the most innocent. "If you say another word " exclaimed the first." "That's all nonsense. W." cried the second. staged the following RUMOR scene^ 303 in his seminar. Stem. Some of them did so at once. Drama-experiments.

and the movement of it so exactly that it was the greatest matter of amazement to him in the world that everybody did not see it as well as he. to cite a more recent instance." Again. of course. disappeared on a sudden. and thus he came every day making a strange hubbub. by a row of alms-houses. they force the memory suggestion rise to self is combined with the forcing process the errots 38 per cent. "and this was in going through a narrow passage from Petty France into Bishopsgate Churchyard. that one fancied he saw it." he says. well known. and. p. They were "seen" by many. through London at the beginning of the present war. After the witness has committed himthere is a tendency to adhere to the statement and it. considering it was in so narrow a passage. and he was talking mighty eagerly to them. . and pointing now to one place. the posture. and then the ghost would seem to start. finally to believe The growth and spread of suggestion is. 27. in to be exact in matForced memory. now it comes this way. and affirming that he saw a ghost walking upon such a gravestone there. Binet ters that are vague and uncertain. foimd.^ "Another encounter I had in the open day also. every one remembers the Cossacks tiptoeing . . 1900. On a sudden he would cry: There it is.304 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Even if they do nothing worse.' Then. and as many people as the narrowness of the passage wovild admit to stop without hindering the passage of others. 'Tis turned back' till at length he persuaded the people into so firm a belief of it. till Bishopsgate clock struck eleven. as if he were called away. but Defoe gives such a good illustration from the Plague of London that it is worth quoting. ' ' . and. then to another. . London. In this narrow passage stands a man looking through between the paKsades into the burjdng-place. When a moderate Keves he observed. and another fancied he saw it. gives 26 per cent of errors. He described the shape. though they vanished like • Journal of the Plague Year. Binet's opinion.

TESTIMONY AND RUMOR ghosts. and then wrote a deSometimes they were questioned about the things they omitted or upon which they only touched. to the psychology of other observers. The conclusions from these experiments were sufi&ciently impressive to attract the attention of jurists. facts similar to these that led Binet and Stern' to doubt the accuracy of much of the testimony that is given. but it was maintained that the picture-test is a long way removed from the conditions of every-day life with which courts have to deal.000 to 1. covered in drama-experiments. and the change escape the observation of the participants. BeitrUge zur Psychologie d. Besides. these errors in the production may be to a great extent eliminated by having some one present who knows what should be done. So von Liszt. Ausiage. Some of the experimental results so-called picture-method. To be sure. prepared and staged the drama-experiment to which reference has been made. this control-witness is subject. at Stern's request. were obtained by the The "witnesses" examined a less. with events and "adventures" in which emotions play a leading part. But even then something regarded as important may be slurred and the defect in the performance ones. As a matter of fact. it was said. are difficult to stage exactly as prepared. and to undertake the experimental examination of evidence. He is not altogether immune ' L. even short Something be inadvertently introduced or omitted. They are concerned. Scenes. however. Stem.000. scription of it more or from memory. It was. their 305 number was variously estimated from 35. may escape the attention of the control-witness. if in a less degree. . Picture-tests easily lend themselves to scientific accuracy. then.000. as was the case in the writer's dramaexperiment. picture-tests have demonstrated a number of things in the psychology of testimony that probably could not have been singled out and dis- picture for a minute. W.

148. from seventeen to forty-six years of age. even imder these exceptionally favorable conditions. the test was devoid of excitement and of personal prejudices. For these reasons the results may be regarded as revealing the least average errors for observation in daily life. So the confrom picture-tests must supplement those gained from scenes more comparable with the events of life. p. and averaged lo per cent in the subsequent Out of two himdred and dghty-two reports only seventeen were correct. and there were no suggestions either by questions or by conversation among the participants. allowing them to examine a picture for forty-five seconds. 298. It is generally agreed that questions increase the range there of testimony regarding is less what has been observed. Further. Stem^ tested a number of unistudents and professors. Since the observers were forewarned that it was a test of observation. vol. i. vol. cit.f. they naturally examined the picture in detail and with great care. Mile. The imagination helps out the versity memory. > . and thirty-one days. Let us then briefly consider a few of the results of the to the contagious emotions of the clusions picture-tests. See also Arthur Wresdmer. They were then requested to write immediately a description of the picture. Moreover. the observers were intelligent persons in the best years of their mental vigor. p.3o6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK moment. and that they would be asked to write what they remembered. All investigators agree that accurate testi- mony is the exception and not the rule. These descriptions were repeated at the end of five. Yet. d. fourteen. Borst^ found op. descriptions. Archiv. but acqjuracy than in free narration. 3. gesamte Psychologic. Theire was the maximum of attention. the errors were nearly 6 per cent in the reports written immediately after the observation. 'Archives de Psychologic. and fifteen of these were among those written immediately after examination of the pic- tures.

. that the credibility of a witness is one of the things to be settled before accepting his testimony.^ Attention is rigorously selective. Indeed. for example. Borst. yet evidence regarding these matters is conmionly unreliable.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR questioned. however. the tidiness is size. quantity and quality of testimony are frequently in inverse ratio.. and unlimited freedom to talk himself out gives valuable evidence regarding his accuracy. Narration. observes that for- one condition of reliable testimony. but the 307 a few more correct statements when the witnesses were number of replies in which errors were mingled increased in a greater proportion. and there were no personal or emotional factors involved. The experimental investigations of this question are probably too favorable to delayed evidence because the "witnesses" were usually asked not to discuss the matter with one another. p. was less reliable than in free narration. and duration of time. there is not complete agreement. with keen psychological insight. Colors. is thought by some to give too loose a rein to fancy. are often funda- mental in court cases. and this selection is based on the relative importance of the details. The net result. however. provided aware of his tendency to forget. cit. Its significance as evidence may be quite different. As to the effect of lapse of time between observation of an object or event and testimony regarding it. A thing has only the importance that one gives to it. and every question is another temptation. especially when the case is one that causes much talk and gossip during the interval. on the other hand. It should not be forgotten. accuracy seems to decrease at a rate which may seriously discredit honest testimony. One is always prone to tell more than one knows. getfulness is and in this connection Mile. As personal or public interest in a matter increases. therefore. but it should be remembered that the choice of what is important is a personal matter. > Op. 301.

has followed the lawyer's method of confusing the issue with much irrelevant matter. is of the opinion that. This witness. Borst concludes* from her investigations that about a twelfth part of sworn testimony is false. Professor Wigmore. 399. Aussage. unrestrained by a judge.* Testimony is a solemn affirmation. vol.3o8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK this subject of Another approach to influence of the oath. One of the "sworn statements" obtained by Stern is worth quoting. and their social function gives them a peculiar in» ' 2 op. Stern puts a lower value upon it. Another pigeon is perched on the roof ready to fly down to be fed. Wigmore's popular article in the Law Review. These latter differ from testimony chiefly in the occasion that prompts them.^ after reviewing various investigations. 214. testimony is the The manner of administering the oath in these investigations is to ask the "witnesses" to underline the statements to the accuracy of which they would be wilHng to swear. . Mile. Those who are interested will find 127 titles at the end of John H. the successor of the BeitrUge zur Psychologie d. It is already too extensive to treat in a single chapter. The statement. p. p. In this way his article is made more interesting but less Illinois valuable. 12. usually given imder oath in courts of justice. He is watching the old man feed a pigeon. 3. attempt has been made to cover the literature of this subject. in general. and Larguier des Bancels." As a matter of fact there was no pigeon in the picture. No ciL. Its social coimterparts are repetition of conversations. spreading of rumors. A small boy stands at his left. occupied the eighteenth place in the list based on the percentage of errors. 313. angewandte Psychologie. and reports of scenes which have been heard or read. VAnnie psychologique. p. written three weeks after the observation of the picture. runs as follows: "The picture shows an old man seated on a wooden bench. a young man. a tenth of the honest evidence given imder oath is untrue. The boy himself was being fed with a spoon by the old man from a dish held in the man's lap. Subsequent investigations are listed in various numbers of the Zeitschrift f. vol.

According to this report. subdivide the "story. and declares that the vessel must have struck a mine. of course. members of the beginning class in psychology in Washington University to which freshmen are not admitted and each of these six immediately repeated it from memory to a group of five. 309 Let us therefore see how accurately such reports are reproduced. and the third to the second sentence." but it seemed best to to further take the large conspicuous features. and the first officer. gave the wrong position of the ship. of this error the arrival of aid was delayed and the number of victims was increased. that the captain was kiUed by the explosion. this selection was divided into six statements. both the leaders and members of the several groups. the Sussex carried only four lifeboats. victims was increased. then wrote it down: Greek naval ofl&cer who was on board the crossChannel steamship Sussex when she was damaged by an explosion made a report of the occurrence in which several Greeks lost their lives. All. This. the second to the first sentence of the second paragraph." In estimating the accuracy of memory. The last paragraph was divided into three statements. that the first officer gave the wrong position by wireless. The first corresponds — — "A to the first paragraph. on sending out a wireless call As a result for help. "The officer asserts there is no reason to believe that the Sussex was torpedoed. "The captain of the Sussex was killed when the explosion occurred. which were not sufficient to accommodate the passengers and crew. of course. gave the story-teller the advantage in estimating the accuracy .TESTIMONY AND RUMOR terest. possibly one of British make. and that as a result of the delay caused It by this error the number of would have been easy. In order to test memory of a short narrative the following newspaper item was slowly read to six college students.

however. memory of what one has been told should always be regarded with suspicion. was neither whoUy right nor wholly wrong. their reproductions were not remarkable for accuracy. Of the leaders of the groups. at times. four made sixty-six and two-thirds per cent. and who wrote it down as soon as they had repeated it to their several groups. one of fifty per cent. substance of the statements was required the results are rather startling. another interesting question connected with this matter of reports and rumors.3IO PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK errors. even with this added incentive. This increased Yet. This was especially noticeable with those who remembered little or nothing of what they heard. Among the members of the groups to whom the leaders repeated the news story immediately after it was read to them. in part. nimiber added incidents not contained in the selection. estimated. and two failed to remember any zero. There is. were. In such cases the percentage of correctness had to be. to whom the news item was slowly read by the instructor. The writer is aware that mathematical accuracy cannot be ascribed to these figures. It should be emphasized that these students knew that their thirds. four thirty-three and one-third. therefore. Since only the the hearers would remember the wording. omissions were but a statement was regarded as correct It was not expected that if the central thought was given. the figures are essentially correct. counted as They of the story. Through how many mouths must a story pass before it loses its identity ? . and he believes that they are fairly representative of the accuracy of stories in the second and third repetition by different persons. Recollection. however. In computing the results. three made a record of sixty-six and twothirds per cent of correct reproduction. In the writer's opinion. of the story their attention. marked A memory was to be tested. Evidently. one fifty per cent. twelve sixteen and twoof the reports. and two of thirty-three and one-third per cent.

His case was adjourned for a week. had better be quoted that the readers may see how it started down the line. "Thomas McCarthy. repeated it at once to the next. McCarthy was held in $10. He tried to pass checks formerly used by Leighton in the department stores. " There was a man named Thomas. The orders had been filled in for varying amiounts." evidently because of the The story now becomes: story heard two days before. was arrested for forgery. He forged a check for $100 and was arrested. in turn. perhaps. and so on to the end. The seventh report was so far reduced as to be worth quoting. were some of those stolen by yeggmen a month ago from a Post Office in St. none of which were more than $100. As soon as a student had heard and repeated it. Louis.000 bail. who formerly gave the name of Burr and Buss. He went by the name . was arraigned yesterday on the charge of having conspired to forge and pass stolen money orders. he (or she) immediately wrote it down. with frequent changes in the aliases.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR To test this the following class 311 newspaper clipping was read to who. which the man was accused of passing at department stores. The trial will come in a week. He was arrested last Monday night in a comer saloon." Beginning with the second attempt at reproduction of the story there were continuous and increasing omissions and additions. Since none of the amounts were over $100 he was let out on $1000 bail before the district at- torney. who has also used the names Burns and Hopkins. It will be observed that the story is shorter than one member of the the preceding: "Thomas McCarthy. It is as follows: "There was a man named McCarthy who went by the name of Bumey." The first paper. The Assistant District Attor- ney said yesterday that the score of money orders." Nimiber eleven lost the surname and changed the alias to "Sussex. He was arrested on Monday night in a saloon.

Does the feeling of accuracy guarantee substantially correct statements in testi- . We have found observation itself exceedingly defective and unreHable. and the final outcome is likely to be so different from the original as to be ahnost unrecognizable. with the deflecting influence about the events and the excitement of the imagination. These students were interested in the experiment. Suggestion is always operative suggestion of actions when one is an observer. the testimony of witnesses becomes ex- tremely undependable. They concentrated their attention to the Hmit of their ability. gave memory have in matters of every-day life. let at the beginning of this chapter. what are the chances for a truthful narration of that which has been seen or heard ? Clearly. There was rivalry to see who could remember most accurately. and when to the inaccuracy of observation there of conversation is added the disturb- ing effect of intervening time. The second question was. Here the This test. in conversation or when on — the witness-stand. of Sussex. us refer again to the questions asked First. they are quite certain to have little or no resemblance to the original that with which story. and suggestion from questions. We do not usually expect to be called to account for our information. Hence we are less attentive. Second-hand reports are undependable.312 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK He forged a check for $ioo and escaped. like the prean advantage that it does not ceding one. and after they have passed through three or four mouths. even of fact. and intention to do something translates the thought into deed. In conclusion. in intervals of several days. Expectation of an act may cause it to be seen. the chances of even a reasonably accurate narration are small. Yet the results were chiefly remarkable for their omissions and additions. Imagination reconstructs events with many omissions and substitutions." story may be said to have lost all resemblance to number one began.

He is then "remembers" that it happened. Finally. Confidence and assurance signify A man may think an occurrence so intensely in it con- nection with other events that assimies a place it among Bias. 313 or conversation? The evidence and experiments again enter a denial. exerts a powerful influence and at the end ing of accuracy.TESTIMONY AND RUMOR mony little. and conviction self are the best guarantees of truthful reports. operative both in observation and in memory. by oneThe most be positive witnesses and narrators of conversation are to regarded with suspicion because of their very assurance of accuracy. course. . upon the feel- knowledge of the inadequacy of observation and of the possibility of error memory. of them.

" 'The Pasmers are the dullest and most selfish people in the world. " 'Neither do I. interests. that I learned to recognize the thorough and primitive duality of man. ruffling her feathers defensively. —^more characters than gowns—and put them on and them off just as often for different occasions. Brinkley was speaking of the Pasmer family but with special reference to Alice Pasmer. shared. who in common with all great novelists. I don't think that's her character. but my that half the time they're the other thing. natures that contended in the I saw that of the two field of my consciousness. this was Stevenson the observer of human nature. are also distinctive. contradictory characteristics become apparent." CHAPTER IX OUR VARYING SELVES It could hardly have been Stevenson the romancer who made Doctor Jekyll say: "It was on the moral side.' she exclaimed. We readily distinguish between ourselves dividuals.' We the all of us think that we know what it. Mrs. 314 They may be . possessed much of psychology and a bit of philosophy for the reflective moments of his characters. She has no fixed character. and otier inand emotions. thoughts. and in my own person. to a generally.' said Miss Cotton. the "self" moment we try to describe difficulties arise is but and its various. is We all have twenty different characI take know you think each person experience is permanently this or that. it was only because I was radically both. No girl has. ters Nobody has. Howells has graphically described these varying selves in the same person through the observation of one of his characters in April Hopes. even if I could rightly be said to be either." Rather. '"Oh. Our feelings.

too. the outward expression of our varying and conflicting emotions. the "self" becomes evident. and family. self-advancement. but our own radiate a warmth Here. self-preservation. with the rights of others. tagged for any length of time. and ambi- tion conflict with hiunility. Perhaps. At times the variations pass beyond the normal and an individual exhibits peculiarities so diverse that they have no common bond. himself at any moment. It is the intention of the writer to consider only normal variations. or its more modern counterpart. eat a peck of salt with a No one can be labelled and No one completely reveals before Proverbs such as man "You must you know him" in- . biography. except for one case of pecuUar interest because it approaches the parting of the ways. Just because people are prone to think themselves more consistent than they are and because the opinion is rather prevalent that only under pathological conditions do varying personalities dwell side by side in the same individual and reveal themselves successively. Some recompense for the effort may be a quickened understanding of human nature and a keener appreciation of its incongruities and consequent frailties. 315 that by makes them others. material prosperity with social and ethical ideals. history. and this defense has passed over into law in the distinction between premeditated and unpremeditated homicide. A bit of reflection will soon convince us that we are a strange composite of selves. neighbors. it is in action. Even the crowned heads of Europe offer a crop for the garnering. begin to consider this question — all literature. "I was not myself when I did that. not even that of memory connecting the varying selves. though. that the contradictory character of the "self" is most noticeable." is a frequent excuse. Just for that reason a survey of alternating selves in the same person seems profAll is grist that comes to your mill if you once itable.OUR VARYING SELVES certain extent. diversity -within Self -appreciation personal. your friends.

companions. twenty characters "I pray every neither deI night and every morning that I pressed may become success. ambition. but perhaps this was another way of saving the country from the inefficiency of the other generals." ^ And. besides. Brinkley thinks every one has. self may change with physical conditions. General George B. environment. by disaster nor elated keep one single object in view the good of my country. and the necessity of reckoning with these factors has become axiomatic. The familiar amiabihty after a good The dinner and the distorted mental vision due to fatigue or pain are generally recognized. we possess two selveg strug- dicate that the experience of the race confirms this characteristic. and that I had struck them harder blows when in the full prime of their strength." Compare this himiility with the attitude expressed in the following passages in which modesty has entirely vanished and his view of himself is immensely enlarged. Again." ' There is even evidence that he so far forgot "the good of my country" as to permit thoughts of a dictatorship to flash through his mind. McClellan's cellent illustrations of Own Story ^ contains ex- two or three of the that Mrs. "Had the measures recommended" [by himself] "been carried into effect the war would have been closed in less than one-half the time and with infinite saving of blood and treasure. "How — by and that may . age. Just how far the control of the self is possible to conduct fit is will be touched upon later. either consciously or unconsciously. fatigue. he tells us of the acknowledgment of generous enemies "that they feared me more than any of the northern generals.3i6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK human Sometimes we reveal alternately different selves. and what its relation But first let us turn to some of the to many types of personalities that refuse iQto an orderly scheme and yet are not unusual. We may dismiss briefly the influence of physical wellbeing and fatigue. or conflicting gling for the mastery. and mood.

by Gamaliel Bradford. In a letter to Dana.streams without overflowing their banks and mingling with one another. And back of the labor." he is is reported to have said their love to one very near to him." ^ This is interesting from one who devoted tireless energy to organizing victory. an enormous. They commenced in infidel France with the Italian campaigns and resulted in Waterloo. 7. Who can organize victory? Who can combine the elements of success on the battlefield ? We owe our recent victories to the Spirit of the Lord that moved our soldiers to rush into battle and filled the hearts of our enemies with dismay. 1862. "and what a power there to prevent my hands ! What my taking hands?" Could one ask for two more widely var5dng selves? Yet each was apparently unaware of the existence of the other. " Recollections of the Civil War. "From the moment he took hold of the war machine. Dana. Stanton seems at times to have exhibited even more striking contradictions. are not aware of the contradiction because the two systems of thought flow along in parallel. p. by Charles A. like those of the McClellan type. driving energy. . 294. Quoted by Bradford from Piatt's Memories of the Men Who Saved the Union. he saw that every part was in order. was the animating soul. written in February. so that his own work and others' work would not be thrown away. he exclaimed: "Much has been said of military combinations and of organizing victory. p.— OUR VARYING SELVES these brave fellows love places in 317 ' me. the insight. I hear such phrases with apprehension. p. the system. ' Union Portraits. which thrust contradictory. 15. Sometimes the two clearly sets of ideas or beliefs are more People with such conflicts. A study of McClellan's life has convinced the writer that he was earnestly desirous of serving his country at the cost of any personal sacrifice and that the other self the self-aggrandizement came into no noticeable conflict with his self-sacrificing the government into my — loyalty.

and sometimes a certain complaisance. the charter of the Society would not have forbidden the collection and use of the money for relief of the sufferings of human beings. Again as we have fomid. very life and heart of the war depends on railroads. Murray and from the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. pp. people of some scientific knowledge. would not turn back. Impressions and Comments." Sir John Hawkins offers another illustration of this conHis love for his fellow tradiction of ideas and beliefs. i88 Jf.Verified in all essentials by letters from Mr. would not The would not falter. are misled by an orgy of sentimental sympathy through the phrase "cruelty to animals. Stanton sees it and gets men like Haupt and McCaUum out of civil life to do feats of engineering which command the admiration not of America only. Havelock Ellis remarks: "I have often noted with interest that a passionate hatred of pain infficted on animals is apt to be accompanied by a comparative indifference to pain infficted upon human beings. 'December 15." ' This does not look like trusting to the " Spirit of the Lord that moved our soldiers to rush into battle and filled the hearts of our enemies with dismay. Consequently. As an instance of the curious separation of personalities in some of these people.3i8 right PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK . even pleasure. the slaves being treated far worse than cattle. but of the world. in such pain. 1917. had the Society so desired. as it turned out—was raised by — popular subscription. The money over $1. .400. by Gamaliel Bradford. ." ^ The truth of this observation is supported by a news item in the daily press ' immediately after the • ' Union Portraits. . pital for indigent sailors. on through obstacles and difficulties. who surely realize the supreme importance of human life. 154." to oppose animal experimentation for the relief of human suffering. Yet this fortime was made in the slave traffic in which on his own boats and with his knowledge the most atrocious cruelties were practised. p. sailors led him to devote his fortune to founding a hosyield.

000 from the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. women. 319 "R. The report of the commission has not been published. siren. H. and sufficient money could not be obtained to relieve the anguish. It is doubtful if it ever will be. there are people who. though well aware of the bacterial origin of certain diseases. A man may be hard and even cruel in his business dealings yet give generously to philanthropic organizations and to his church. when out of hearing of their enticing average. The gift. And their manner of reasomng. be- . The recent investigation of vice in Baltimore is an extreme illustration." And this money was sent for the relief of homeless animals when men. As though bullet-holes in heart and lungs could be closed by thoughts Yet these persons accept scientific values in other matters than bodily injuries. believe that bacteria can be thought out And they would also treat the woimded of the body. is quite up to the The same irreconcilable conflict not infrequently exists between altruistic and business ideas.! OUR VARYING SELVES Halifax explosion. They recognize cause and effect in the external world. Murray. children. which is to be used in caring for animals injured or made homeless by the disaster. when himian beings were suffering indescribable agony from their injuries. and babies were dying of cold and himger. came as a great surprise to Mr." the communication says. bodies of soldiers by the action of the mind. "announced to-day the receipt of a telegraphic contribution of $1. Yet these good people are not by nature brutal. Chairman of the Animal Relief Committee. Murray and was deeply appreciated. Turning to a different type of var)ang selves. The Massachusetts Society has also sent two of its trained agents to assist in the animal rehef work. It is just an amazing exhibition of two selves which are not allowed to intermingle so as to make one consistent self.

"'If you'll speed this machine I'll give you a quarter of a cent a you make over ten.ooo-a-year manager of a large company. he had an interest "One day man in the contract. "I'How many pounds do you turn out?' he proceeded. soraetimes as much as thir- '"What ' " teen. Twisting a screw a sixtieth part of an inch too far might smash all the tools on the head-block. arose and said that he also wished to plead guilty.' I replied. but it gave me an object in life. exceptionally convincing illustration of the business as distinct from the social and reHgious selves. is the capacity of this machine?' he asked. I have lived two lives. social. No free man imderstands what that means to a fourth- — up without breaking it pound for every pound That meant perhaps ten class convict. and must be sped up cautiously. cents a day only a little. "The nut-machine was a delicate thing. as I was driving my machine a well-dressed stepped up beside me and watched the nuts hammering out into the box. is given by Al Jennings as a part of his experience as a convict in the Ohio penitentiary.— 320 cause PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK it would expose the double personality of too many men high in business. I quote this and the following figures from memory. Not long ago a $6. an auditor of another large corporation. An self. sir. suddenly rose in court at his trial in Brooklyn and cried: "I am guilty. a respectable one and that of a highwajonan." When he sat down the other defendant. By the end of the month I had earned — if I remember right .' he said.' I repHed. "'Sometimes only eleven. I nursed it like a baby. I recognized him. I may have them wrong. and religious Hfe. who was accused of being the leader of a gang of highway robbers. and ran it almost to capacity. Fourteen pounds an hour.

sir. mals. pp. manager of our shop. On pay-day I presented myself in line for the money. Sumner takes no interest in claims unless they be from black people. So far as his thoughts are concerned this is accomplished by allowing them to arrange themselves in more or less isolated systems of ideas which." ^ Gideon Wells.— OUR VARYING SELVES 321 aomething more than two dollars. 24. He looked sorry for me as he said: '"I don't want to hear any more about that. Like the lower anito cause the least possible discomfort.'" 1 It may be said that this contractor could not have been a respected member of good society but. A poor woman whose claim had been rejected by the Senate was asked why she did not take it to Sumner. constitute separate personalities An instance of isolated systems of thought is reported of Charles Simmer. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. "Oh. They would be uncomfortable if Consequently. man recoils from the unpleasant and seeks that which produces an agreeable feeling. sir. ideas arrange themselves so as This is a phase of man's imconsdous adaptation to his environment. yet. Mr. It is the mental side of the adaptation. vol. The clerk stared at me he couldn't find my name "I copiplained to the general on the list. It's an old trick. once said: "Sumner would not only free the slaves. but elevate them above their former masters. Rhodes. 204/. He did it to prove that you could speed up the machine. "I did. speaking in a similar vein. the facts of this and other similar cases do not justify this view. the senator from her State. p." she replied. VI. but really. it were. . as dijfferent selves. by James F. unfortunately. Such men often have good intentions but they do not allow their moral ideas to overlap and disturb their business methods. they did. with all his studied philanthropy and love ' ^ Beating Back.

1. it was a perpetual attempt to spread his mental feathers over the whole task before him. in his picturesque way. He in whom the contest is waging may not even know that anything is happening." In the instances given above it would seem as if the contradictory natures existed without even a struggle There is. vol. describes two of these opposing selves as they manifested themselves in Mr. "This double refraction of his mind. upon his capacity to take as impersonal and objective a view of his own actions If he can stand off and look as he gets of those of others. (The italics are the present writer's. He had a subconscious delusion that he had laid it. The world from the latter point of view was his egg. "by which a concentrated and individualized BritKng — did but present a larger impersonal Britling beneath. in the consciousness of the person. G. himself he may see the joke or the tragedy. but to his impersonal conscience he was answerable for the whole world. The variety and interest of his talk was largely due to that persuasion. however. and so on. He had a subconscious suspicion that he had let it cool and that it had addled. though he thinks he is. 502. p. His ability to know himself depends largely upon his sense of humor.) Mr. 102. worried almost to distraction about the troubles of England and his own affairs. at H. including his pleasant though naughty little love ' •Dtorjr. Now one gains the upper hand. carried with it a duplication of his conscience responsibility. which comes to the same thing in the present instance. another group in which two selves fight for supremacy. He had an urgency to incubate it." ^ After Mr. and the Dower House he had made. .32 2 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK unwilKng to fellow* for the negroes in the abstract" [he] "is ship with them. Britling had lain awake for a long time one night. p. Britling Sees It Through. To his personal conscience able for his private honor and his and sense of he was answerdebts. and now the other." he says. Britling. or. Wells.

^ when I felt the yearnings to break loose and run amuck.OUR VARYING SELVES intrigues. the reformed trainrobber. He would put things so plainly that squabbling folly would have to cease. 'That's famous. Direck's room. It didn't happen all at once. .. only a deep passion of sanity. "What mobile? is the good of grieving over a smashed auto- "The next morning Mr. . In the bath room he had whistled like a bird. So did I.. There should be no abuse. with my new hope. It should be done austerely. and. 242 /. I found the worst nature going down and the better coming up. pp. But I managed to control these impulses. 323 he suddenly threw back the bedclothes. He was going to write certain 'Plain words about Ireland. in commenting upon this. with a sort of ironical directness. He was pink from his morning's bath. no bitterness. they became weaker and Apropos of our struggling > less frequent. felt matches on his bedside table. Irish this returned to his desk stirring the lemon in his glass He would write the plain common sense of this situation. Only I believe that in me those two natures are more widely separated than in most men. "He of tea.'" Victor Hugo once said that at times he felt two natures struggling within him. Now. as time went on. I had my bad days. and Al Jennings. 'Had a good night?' he said." natures. reference may be Beating Back. . says: "I worked that out for myself before I ever heard of Hugo. "lit the stove and then strolled to his desk.' He lit his study lamp and meditated about it until a sound of water boiling called for the him to his tea-making. Britling came into Mr. I kept the better nature dominant until the killing of my brother Ed. From then on the worst nature ruled my actions.

According to one writer. "wrote an introductory paragraph. The fact that he cannot talk back and defend himself urges even his bitterest enemies to fairness. with a frightful warfare between them. and a great advertising success.' self. "On the other hand. May 5. She believed. "that no editor had the intelU- gence to appreciate Hubbard." The sage of Aurora. It was a real Elbert who took the threadbare clergyman to Chicago. During the hf& of Fra Elbertus the best that one conamonly heard said of him was that he was Of the original." with his wit and dash and originahty. After a man is dead it is comparatively easy to estimate him with calmness and justice. there were many. and preached a glowing idealism even after the highly ' Rolliii Lynde Hartt. of protest. just as I do now. and an occasional interpolation. He zines but his manuscripts were always rejected. would have and none But in his bitter disappointment the other self appeared." says one of his reviewers. His early literary experience made was the agony of failure. . and published the essay over his own signature. Harry Taber was the author of "A Message to Garcia. a conclusion. His better of those very Roycrof ty perhaps his real self. Boston Evening Transcript. witty. From a lady formerly employed at the Roycroft Shop I learned that he had times of bitter repentance and would go and hide in a hut where no one was allowed to come near him." continues Mr.' Mr. received the manuscript for publication. who represents a phase of human psychology by no means rare. "I have Kstened as cordially to accounts of the man's nobler side. that there were two Elbert Hubbards. Hartt tells the story. 1915." A fair-sized volimie could be filled with other unlovely acts reputed to this exponent of beauty. Hartt. unbeautiful things said. ' "Then there would have been no 'Philistine' and no gospel jokes. as Mr. both real." persisted. and befriended the ex-convict.324 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK to Elbert Hubbard. besieged the leading maga" Strange.

' while exploiting the sort of woman who would 'pay twenty dollars a volume for a book like that. it was a moral revolt. If he could not be what his best self earnestly wanted to be he could fight in behalf of his best self's aspirations. if Mr. wishing to God he were rid of them. After his failure to get a hearing in the leading magazines. Turning aside from varjdng types of personality.OUR VARYING SELVES peculiar 32^ and re- circumstances It attending his divorce marriage. nevertheless. "At the same time give him credit for a courage. In Hubbard. Hubbard refused to." But his pretensions made him very vulnerable. And there are many such things especially if one uses vague phrases which arouse emotional effervescence instead of thought. the business self. with which he was richly endowed. and he continued diligently to expose himself.' It was a real Elbert who won the undying loyalty of his admirers. over his weaknesses. emerged with all its imloveUness. conceived the idea of a magazine of protest. to stand up for his ideals in the very face of his known failures. Hartt has rightly interpreted him. Hubbard understood hxmian nature well enough to know that people enjoy a So he fight so long as they are safe within the side-lines. Most men. and yet lacking the moral vigor that would have destroyed them root and branch. and it was not hypocrisy. striking at whatever the multitude would enjoy seeing hit. exposed as he was exposed. was a real Elbert who announced himself as the 'American successor of William Morris. capatearing his hair ble of generous purposes an(J fine deeds. I recall a letter that said hotly: 'How can you traduce that good and great man?' "Good? Yes. doubtless — ^better than most of us. rare in our day. The struggle of a suppressed self for expression takes various forms in different persons. let us . would have shut up about sweetness and light and the Ufe beautiful.

of course. and the nervous system is not less easily affected. and hence play a hidden r61e in action. and the influence of the forces that contribute to the final response of a human being cannot even be estimated." but psychology forces us to admit the all but resistless power and final triiunph of the the man is which comes to the same thing from the outside world. or. consciously simulated attitude which finally becomes so fixed that the original personality reveals itself only when taken off his guard. much less measured. summation of stimuli. his convictions and aspirations assert themselves. "every man has his price. The differing selves of maturity. Environing conditions are probably quite as responsible for the behavior of other men as they seem to have been It is not correct to say that in the case of Jeimings. . which alternate with more or less regularity are a composite product of the natural endowment of the individual and the social or commercial environment. and sweep ideals In cahner moments the individual's past life. They consti- tute the undercurrent that always influences the flow of thought. of impressions Racial factors are continually in evidence. Growth. or. as in the case of one who tries to act a part. self and the teachings and habits of the individual. in the present instance. always brings the changes of development and advancing years. but in stress and strain it is a contest between the forces of the racial these racial tendencies rise to the surface aside. tional vortices. In emo- when thoughts run madly round and round. It is. Constant dropping finally wears away the stone. but these alterations do not exhibit contradictions. the surrounding opinions. of course. however.326 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK briefly consider some of the explanatory influences. and the apparent demand for cerThe result is a consciously or untain views or actions. an intricately complex process. when the better impulses of a weak man with high ideals occasionally assert themselves in opposition to the pressure of environmental influence.

two selves manifested by Seward. Seward. . his biographer says: "Seward continued to hear the two voices ^in fact. if ever. and. of the GarrisoaOn the other hand. changed the program to suit conditions. with its accompanying publicity and ruin." One cannot help wondering whether this continuous battering of the stimuli of political of the life is the explanation if Frederic Banhim is correct. Only the strongest characters can withstand the effect of summation of stimuli. and tried to win all classes of Adams Seward was ardently antislavery and expected to live in history as a great philanthropist. and becoming slowly incorporated with my second and worse. ' Life of William B. thougtitful disinterested statesmanship and opportunism. It was John Quincy Adams Seward who uttered the telling phrases and made the severe arraignments and was the hope of the radicals like Gerrit Smith. II. croft's estimate' of — — kept in close relations with the party organization. Theodore Parker. small amoimts which they confidently Soon. the resistance lessens. aggression and caution. lofty patriotism and self-advancement. . 86jff. after a long period of continuous battering. They begin with expect to return. vol. his family heredity and early education. at first assert themselves.. and then the final defalcation. Weed men. but. take large simis of money at the outset. It is probably this fact in human psychology which Stevenson had observed that led him to make Doctor Jekyll say: "All things therefore seemed to point to this: that I was slowly losing hold of my original and better self. pp. Speaking of the two "voices" to which Seward was always listening radicalism and conservatism.OUR VARYING SELVES 327 In moral actions a man's better self. he watched the plans of the politicians. he continued to act two distinct r61es.. however. the stimuli from lower ideals are usually victorious. at times. Thurlow Weed Seward ians. follows. Defaulting bank cashiers rarely.

they would deny such a utilitarian thought. They are the beneficent monarchs. this In group is the German Kaiser. common clay unilluminated by the In a speech at Koenigsberg. to realize his ideals is the way he sometimes puts it to himself. he was yet a consummate opportunist. . in their little realms. . but he also desires to have the money needed to make a good appearance in society. nothing of which absolute knowledge is impossible is more certain than that he was never consciously live in the ." As we have already shown. are appointed by God to govern and to lead the people whom it is given us . among others. and consequently incomparably divine spark. These social aspirations occasion the impressions and thoughts that. They do not put it in that way. However. as opportunity offers. he said: "Considering myself as the instrument of the Lord. is not illegal. belong those to whom the end justifies the means. again: "It is a tradition of our house that we.. are. Here. the HohenzoUerns. no one is composed of just one set of ideals converging toward a definite.328 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Seward was determined to control the patronage and to White House. lead to attempts to secure their fulfilment. in 19 lo. as most men he continues to justify his actions to himself on the ground that it is good business. superior to those of I go my way alone for ment of our fatherland. without being misled by the views and opinions of the day." the prosperity and peaceful developAnd. A statesman in character and purpose. Indeed. who regards himself as the viceroy of God. If the man is well-meaning. or it will enable him to benefit his fellow men. But the good as these men see it. . conscious end. either in reality or in thought. inconsistent. A man wishes to be honest and upright.. is the supreme thing and they are the ones appointed to achieve the result. Some of these are the strong characters who override law. straightforward and fair.

' "He loves pomp.. with a good education. . . with clouded brow and flashing eye. And yet how do you explain this? this insult to the Anointed of the Lord? Strange Strange " At another time. tive as the Inquisition. ." The Kaiser's attitude toward those who dare to disagree with him to whom God has transmitted his wisdom throws an illuminating side-Hght upon his self. 165/. . and finally said to the waiting official: 'It would seem that this man hitherto has not been a criminal son of respectable parents. Bebel. . one to the Middle Ages. and secreThere are two Kaisers. Of his two natures. One talks freely. unconscious of heterogeneous intentions. for their well-being 329 and the advancement of their material and intellectual interests.' OUR VARYING SELVES to rule. He is the legitimate offspring of Romanticism and Modernity. He read and re-read the papers in the case with the closest attention. both of whom labor for the benefit of the realm. he turned to the officer in attendance. . by Asa *0p. ." — — — ! ! ' . One is despotic. but his children He is a mystic are reared with bourgeois simplicity. p. one belongs to the twentieth centiury. . . himself in a respectable walk of life. 165. perhaps too freely. containing some animadversions upon himself. and remarked in a voice trembling with passion: 'And all this to me J To me I What is the country coming to?'" ^ The Kaiser's two selves have been analyzed by one of his devoted admirers. "after reading a speech of the Socialist leader. one democratic. William was genuinely amazed that such an unnatural crime could ever have been committed. and a rationalist. one is silent as the sepulchre. cU. ' The Kaiser. pp.. ' George Sylvester Viereck.. each in his separate way. Shortly after his accession "he was requested to sign a judicial sentence committing to prison one of his subjects who had been found guilty of hinting something disrespectful about his sovereign. . Don Dickinson.

Life of italics are WUUam H. They are talking to themselves quite as much as to others. of hypocrisy of which They have not yet reached the stage Samuel Butler spoke when he said until that "no man is a great hypocrite knowing that he is a hypocrite. to hazard myself in the experiment. the present writer's.) (The 1 . for example. II." Indeed. Seward also reveals the beKef. "The President is determined that he will have a com- poimd Cabinet. But a distracted country appeared before me. vol. and the bank president. I did not dare go home or to England. 45. At all events. I get only a living.. The tramp does it. that he alone discerned the right and had the wisdom and power to execute it. in drift easily. "Why My men who talk continuously about uplifting others should be held under suspicion. Impressions affect them more virtues. p. so human is this need for self-justification that illegal. not so strong. are a part of it.— 330 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK following letter The by William H. employer will keep the rest of what I produce. though considerably diluted. and I withdrew from that position. Besides. for a time. I do not help to make others rich. I beheve that I can endure as much as anyone. They But are not so vociferous in proclaiming their all must justify their actions to themselves. I did refuse. and even permanent. I was at one time on the point of refusing nay. and that it shall be peaceful. and I can get my living without working." he has left off The environment influence." ' Others. less whom the thought of benefiting those in their charge is whom a wise Providence has put consciously. and leave the country to chance. and by Frederic Bancroft. who is la37ing away a snug little sum by means perhaps not altogether does it. should I work ? " said a tramp to the writer. Seward. ' includes much within its sphere of Opinions. They are trying to satisfy their consciences. and maybe I can endure enough to make the experiment successful. "If I work.

without them there could be no en]03rment." He has altered his personaUty so completely as to be no longer recognizareform. were they alive to-day. According to ' Francis Adams. it is requisite that great nxunbers should be ignorant as well as poor."^ These men probably would not know themselves in their antiquated opinions. for. and they constitute a by no means insignificant part of the "self" we know them. Indeed. 46. If one who has always been admirably conventional and never indulged in the of acquaintances as foolish practices of reflection so destructive to authority and respectability suddenly becomes an enthusiast for is said to be "beside himself. They constitute an integral part of the self even though they are shared by one's fellow countrymen. History of the Elementary School Contest in England. once said: "We hold most strongly to what we are least capable of demonstrating. the more easily his necessity may be supplied. the surest wealth consists in a multitude of laborious poor. Knowledge both enlarges and multiplies our desires. besides that. he ble except through the face that clothes his thoughts. as that keen observer of himian nature. But opinions and beliefs are a matter of time and place. they are the never-failing nursery of fleets and armies. and the fewer things man wishes for. Like the cut of clothes they are settled by fashion. Samuel Butler." One's opinions are so clearly true that they require no demonstration. . Yet men are not aware that there is anything peculiar and personal about This is a phase of the psychology of the their views.OUR VARYING SELVES 331 opinions are conspicuously temporal and local. and no product of any coxmtry could be valuable. p. so vital a part of one's "self" are one's opinions. Some time ago the opinion of a large body of respectable men in England held that "in a free nation where slaves are not allowed of." National customs and tastes offer a further illustration. "self. To make the society happy and people easy under the meanest circumstances.

"I have a queer feeUng just after sunset." Allied to the alterations in personality through opinions are the changes that come from growth and development. anything holy." said Michael to Chator. I have all sorts of queer feelings. They live the lives they picture. So strangely imreal to the mature are the fantastic day-dreams of youngsters that they seem like tales from Gulliver's Travels when related by Kenneth Grahame and Coningsby Dawson. rors conjured up by their instincts and fear the and forebodings. a sort of curious dampness inside me. Sometimes I feel as if there wasn't any me at all." Michael agreed dubiously. when the Prince of Wales's marwas celebrated in Mentone by a dinner to the Mentonese. the dishes of the coiintry were pronounced impossible by the-British managers. ter- "Funny thing. Then often I feel as we were ing at a certain moment had been done Then at other times I have to hold on to a tree or hurt myself with something just to prove I'm there." said Chatoi:. if all Do you have that doing or sayor said before. But when I see a letter . and the guests were served with roast beef and plum-pudding and "no tomfoolery. in Compton Mackenzie's Youth's Encounter. Yet these imaginings make up a large part of the selves of children. it does with me." "Yes. Children have their peculiarities of self of which adults have no knowledge except as it is imparted by a sympathetic understanding of the ways of childhood. .332 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK Robert Louis Stevenson. Do you ever have it?" "I only have it when you start me off. Do you ever have that feeling?" . riage experience the adventures of their fancy. and I'm surprised to see a letter come addressed to me. feeling ? I'm still more surprised. I fed absolutely great as if I were Shakespeare. And then sometimes I think nothing is impossible for me. "But it goes when we sing . 'But if I drive it away it comes back in tie middle of the night. I've written.

Animals low in the scale respond to fewer stimuli. vol. 43. but the interpretation of this stimulus alters and becomes richer as the child grows into the adult. It is. The nervous system needs time to develop. and with man the possible interpretations are much more numerous. because I never have had any sense of being identified with that office. and the excitations are interpreted in limited. In between things that I have to do as a public officer. a matter of general observation. 100. as well as of scientific knowledge. if at all. not suddenly but gradually. Functional response is also elaborated. because known facts do not justify positive assertions. it may mean flight. in his address at the National Press Club: "I really feel at times as if I were masquerading when I catch a picture of myself in some printed description. movement in objects means but one thing. Wien&r medizinische Wochmsckrift. AfckitfUr PsychitUrie und NenenhrankheiUn. The nervous receptors. definite ways.OUR VARYING SELVES 333 This feeling of unreality is not so common with adults. in the course of evolution. vol. either to flee or approach. 1734 and 1770. however. p. Far down the scale. in animals. have become adapted to one kind of stimulus. MUnckener medizinische Wockenschrift. Time for maturation of nerve-elements is evi- dently needed. is difficult to say. new fibres appear after early childhood. At any rate. with dogs. however. to the feelings of childhood. growth in complexity of the nervous system keeps pace with increase of intelligence. 45. . there is ' Kaes and Vulpius. 775. but President Wilson is reported to have said. pp. Certain investigators* seem to have found a new growth at about seventeen or eighteen years of age. I never think of myself as the President of the United States. To what extent. It is necessary to speak guardedly in ascribing definite changes to the nervous system as development proceeds. vol. Functional connections between nerve-centres must be made. for example. 23. that." Returning. It is the stimulus for Higher up. p. a change comes.

Observation usually detects the transition. This was the greatest. Arnold Bennett gives a good illustration in a scene between Edwin and his father. The nervous system of the boy of nine who. . the stimulus is applied abruptly. "I thought we were going out to have a good time. when his mother was dressing him in his best clothes for a trip on a steamboat. the child becomes a man. Boys who have endured many minor indignities with childish submission flare up with the unexpected anger and resistance of maturity when the insult passes the limit of forbearance. remarked sadly. under these circumstances. Sometimes these changes in the self appear to come suddenly. . who in the grossness of his perceptions and his notions had imagined his son to be a thief. for such an excursion. and he was suddenly animated by an almost murderous hatred and an inexpressible disgust for his father. Then the break seems to be sudden and. xmless ye're a mighty lot cleverer than Where did ye get it from ? Ye don't mean I take ye for. in Clayhanger. When. Where did ye get it from? There's nowt wrong here. the unexpected reaction is startling both to the actor and the one who calls forth the response. and his eyes smarting. selects his necktie with scrupulous care. but that is because whatever produces the alteration of personality of childhood and youth is gouig on below the surface. 'Loathsome beast!' he thought savagely. . in a moment. but at times the adequate stimulus which would reveal the man in the youth has not been at hand. !' to teU me as ye saved it up "Edwin had had some shocks in his life." is different from that of the same boy at fourteen who.334 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK no doubt that new paths are opened and functional connections established. Darius. "Darius turned on him glaring: 'I'm tr3dng to get at where ye got the brass from to buy them three books as I saw last night. He could feel his cheeks and his hands growing dully hot. .

Edwin snatched his hat off its hook." Perhaps it is just as well to pass from early Ufe to its This is an especially happy method in the present instance because a passage from the unfinished autobiography of Robert Louis Stevenson pictures in his inimitable way the terminus to which life sweeps us on. but those of old age appear less difficult to describe. so far as the characteristics of the self axe concerned. The destinations of different persons. a touch of malaria. '"Let me come out!' Edwin shouted. except in rare instances. the same comments would give an accurate description of each. close. — Much is written to interpret the thoughts. and because from two years of anxiety and. Probably this is because the course of life narrows as the end is approached. but persistent is health had much the same effect as advanced years. and am content to sit here by the fire and await the course of fortune. and actions of children. pushed violently past his father and. their uncertainty. sticking his hands deep into his pocket. The selves of childhood and of youth have a common characteristic the wide range of their possibiHties. because I am living absolutely alone in San Francisco. and even of human curiosity. the self of The sketch touched with the quaint humor that the artist did not lose even when too weak to finish his drawing. I know. myself that he draws an old man . Darius saw that his son's face was all drawn. They were very close together. and. . Stevenson was not ill an old man at his death. "I have the more interest in beginning these memoirs where and how I do. emotions. according to the doctors. Indeed. bear a striking resemblance to one another. I may say I am almost changed into another character. I know only a few neighboring streets. strode into the street. After weeks in this city. .OUR VARYING SELVES " ' ' . $35 What do you mean by calling me a thief ? Edwin and Darius were equally startled by this speech. I seem to be cured of my adventurous whims.

" To while away the dreary monotony Langford recited to Hauser Milton's description of the meeting of Satan and Death at the Gates of Hell. p.'' Mr." of the journey Curious ways the self has! Strange inconsistencies! Our town or city is so much a pu/t of our selves that. and soon after they had camped for the night he was overheard sajong to a brother teamster: "I tell you. in company with Samuel T. the one that always carries that doublebarrelled shotgun. we become ^ The Cornhill Booklet. The Mormon driver was observed to give close attention to the stirring passage. 2.o one another. I heard him harangue t'other one today for haK an hour. "^ People calculate human equations from the conditions given in their own selves. with its organized beliefs. voL 4. 13. is a powerful talker. and as I am changed in heart. The best example that I have been able to find is an instance related by Nathaniel P. is so sufficient and compelling that one cannot conceive easily of other selves constructed out of Either such selves are made out of different thoughts. he had pretty much the same ideas that we have. poor material or else they do not exist at all. . both. The self. and I rather think it would trouble Brigham Young to say nicer things. though we criticise it severely *. And. 55. Langford. I hope I have the more chance to look back impartially on all that has come and gone heretofore. Hauser. p. He can overlay Orson Hyde and Parley Pratt. Those who hold views that radiate from a different centre are ex-centric. Langford in Vigilante Days and Ways. and he talked mighty fine. afterward governor of Montana. was making a trip from Bannock to Salt Lake City in a Mormon "freighter. In the latter case one spreads one's own self to cover the ideas and experiences of others. after all.356 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WOliK no longer. ' Vol. One's ideas and classifications are the known factors and the points of departure. This is true of all ages. the youngest of those men in my wagon.

Indeed. a reflection on that part of one's "self" represented by the members of one's family. I think it's quite time you did. we deny and justify to others the very faults that are admitted in private. of jealousy at the regard or affection shown by another discloses itself. Mrs. And is It for a son or brother. If they a personal matter. of course. when. 337 moment an by outsider says anything against our selves. friends. of our family." though the intimacy one is anxious that it arouse indignation. She was sure that Mrs. unpleasant for social reasons. not infrequently. as a curtailment of one's "self. are an integral here a curious attitude sometimes a feeling of resentment and. Pendyce's anger. Bellew. For how can others fail to share one's own regard? Yet indifference is desired.OUR VARYING SELVES indignant the it. at times. BeUew looked hei. Of course one wants one's is relatives appreciated. but intimacy resented. I told him so It is — yesterday. she was tired of George and did not love him. and as she smiled she seemed to become a httle coarser. Pendyce stammered: "'I don't understand. Pendyce heard these words.' "Mrs. was a shock and. is Stranger still. but I don't now. Bellew was to blame the other one always is—and she called upon her to say that the friendly relaBut Mrs. because of the impossibility of such indifference to her son it aroused Mrs. Bellew's frank confession that tions must end. also. bee-/ — . and cease. Galsworthy gives a splendid illustration in his Country House.in the face and smiled. are a part of Our are not appreciated others it is The members part of our self. again.' "Mrs. I don't love your son. denial of affection may. which made so words which should have ~a wonderful a difference vast. once for all. I did once. Pendyce was much disturbed over the attention which her son George was showing Mrs. "Mrs. "'Well.

man not. for example. hmnan "My re- I hope. Bellew. as in the case of a Pittsburg congregation whose pastor requested the women to remove their hats so as not to obstruct the rear. that the young women will do me the favor. "'You have tired of him? You have given him up? Then the sooner I go to him the better ! Give me the address of his rooms. Only a few complied. least there exists Such play-acting multiplies a real and a seeming self. of course. At times this selfdeception takes another form. " She felt only a blind sense of insult and affront. youthfulness. They act the part and through deceiving an interesting himian feigning By themselves think that they deceive others. But the knowing something of psychology. with eyes that had never before held hatred.'" Intentional adoption of a personality for «provisional effect is. people what they are come to acquire an assurance of being what they assiune. is this fetage effect usually involves Indeed. it is also an adaptation to the tendency to accept a man at his face value at his own appraisal of himself." In a moment every woman in the church had removed her hat. view of those in the pastor. on whose face was a kind inquisitive compassion. of course. "'You don't love him?' she cried. does not apply to elderly ladies. and all her up into her eyes. however. This in the himian belief that others — .338 like PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK wafer in a wilderness spirit flaxaed — ^with a sort of horror. the ease with which trait. quickly added: quest. the self —at common. please. This adoption of a make-believe personality originates do not see what one tries But it is interesting to observe that to hide from oneself. Pretense of by women advanced in years is a never-failing source of amusement to those who see below the surface of the color-mixture. a partial self-decepdeceives himself But tion. "This woman tire of George! Tire of her son! She looked at Mrs.

course every one has his individual limitations. Conversation with a number of these has convinced the writer that some of them. Which It is is the true self in this contest of personalities? not always easy to say. A man may have failed to and have yielded to the lower impulses in his efforts to get on in the world. and is now one of the leading surgeons of his State. when in power. dropped his work. The more worldly self. and we have found them numerous and. Nevertheless. A view of the is not so easily obtained. Yet it is a part of their training to assume that a stranger is not what he represents himself to be. Suggestion plays its part here. obscure. gloats over its conquests. because it is much easier to fall than to rise. Every one knows of ambulance-chasers and quacks who started out with good intentions. at any realize his higher aspirations not altogether at peace of mind. Man seems to be a reservoir of Of possibilities that is drawn upon by the environment. but a number of years ago a physician began deliberately as an advertising quack. and the carr3dng power of a suggestion is largely determined by the confidence and self-assurance of the performer. We have been trying to discover the motives underlying variations of the self to indicate a few of the explanatory influences.OUR VARYING SELVES is 339 It depends true. The ease with which bankers are deceived by personal appearance and demeanor is often a matter of comment. the number who succeed is sufficiently large to establish a rule of ac- tion for social and business charlatans. of course. and the more spiritual. in many instances. laments its weakness. in turn. are reverse side of the pictiure — . graduated from a high-grade medical school. only of certain individuals. upon the skill with which the man carries the part. Either he must be thoroughly convinced that he is the character which he assumes or else he must be a consummate actor. became disgusted with himself. but within his range the combination of qualities that make him what rate.

' The condition is unusual for adults. ' Quoted by Mrs. Yeats. the moral or intellectual revolt which we have observed in some of the other cases did not exist. however. and the man who. S. His other self was rather the cry of himger from a starved soul. William Sharp's two selves have been described in the absorbingly interesting book by his wife. but in no other sense abnormal." His moral principles. by Elizabeth Sharp. man soaked in respectability and yellow with the golden pollen of eoimtless virtues becomes one of "the bo)^.) was really to all intents and purposes a different being." is k when those "I think thoughts worth while not an uncommon remark of who usually think in terms of conventional ecstasy. We it is have been considering the varymg life. by Una Hunt. How real this alternating personality was may be gathered from a letter of Mr. In society it is difficult to recognize the stem man of affairs All of what a recent writer or the thoughtful moralist. swollen almost to bursting. when they will win creditable admiration." He would "come — • 2 William Sharp : A Memoir.340 he PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK seems countless. among the thoughtful. many a his reputation. Here the philosopher revels in verbal luxury. are temporarily laid aside to be brought out again at a favorable juncture of the stars. is noted for the prominence of his imperceptions draws on the unearned increment of Among rou6s. At times he (W. and the vivid reality of his second self is not uncommon in children. in his presence. selves as they occur in every-day An that instance has recently been of special interest because made known. See Una Mary.* With William Sharp. has called "instinctive idiocies" comes to the surface. .* "Fiona Macleod was a secondary personality as distinct a secondary personality as those one reads about in books of psychical research. is on the border-line between the normal variations commonly observed and the abnormal. Shajp. on the other hand.

OUR VARYING SELVES
and

341

sit down by my fireside and talk, and I believe that when 'Fiona Macleod' left the house he would have no recollection of what he had been saying to me." The vivid earnestness of Fiona evidently led Mr. Yeats

into the error of thinking that amnesia existed between the
personalities. As a matter of fact this is not necessary even in abnormal cases. "It is true, as I have said," writes his wife, "that William Sharp seemed a different

two

person when the Fiona

no

recollection of

what was

mood was on him; but that he had said in that mood was not the
it,

case.

That he did not imderstand
could not be

is true.

For that

mood

commanded

at will.

Different influ-

ences awakened

it, and its duration depended largely on environment. 'W. S.' could set himself deliberately to work normally, and was, so far, master of his mind. But for the expression of the 'F. M.' self he had to wait upon mood, or seek conditions to induce it." This was not an attempt on the part of Sharp to write on different topics. Fiona Macleod was not a pseudonym. She was a personality. "My truest self," he wrote in a letter, " the self who is below all other selves, and my most intimate life and joys and sufferings, thoughts, emotions and dreams, must find expression, yet can not, save in this hidden way." The Sharp personality seems to have been an unnatural growth forced to develop by severe economic William Sharp's style was calm, uninspired, conditions. critical, prosy; while Fiona Macleod wrote poetic prose in an extremely imaginative style. Descriptions of nature, Her themes full of color, with spiritual phrases, abound. were the life, customs, and superstitions of the Highlands,

while Sharp wrote chiefly biographies and reviews.From the time when "he stifled the critical, intellectual
of WiUiam Sharp to give play to the development of new-found expression of subtler emotions, toward which he had been moving with all the ardor of his nature there was a continual play of the two forces in him, or of
this
.

mood

.

.

342

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
mind

the two sides of his nature: of the intellectually observant, reasoning

—the

actor,

vant, spiritual

mind

—the

and

of the intuitively obser-

dreamer, which differentiated
other,

more and more one from the

and required
. . .

different

conditions, different environment, different stimuli, until he

seemed to be two personalities in one. He was wont to say: 'Should the secret be found out, Fiona dies.'" Fiona seems to have had a life of growth and development altogether independent of William Sharp, passing, as Mrs. Sharp puts it, from youth in Pharais and The Mountain Lovers through maturity in The Barbaric Tales and Tragic-Romances "to the greater serenity of later contemplative life in The Divine Adventure, The Winged Destiny, and Where the Forest Murmurs." At one time he wrote: "Sometimes I am tempted to believe I am half a

woman." But each
interests,

of his two natures had its own needs, desireg, and friends. For a time there was such opposition between them that it was difi&cult for him to adjust his life to the two conditions which were equally imperative in their demands. "His preference, naturally, was for the intimate creative work which he -knew grew out of his inner self; though the exigencies of life, his dependence on his pen for his livehhood and, moreover, the keen, active interest 'William Sharp' took in all the movements of the day, literary and political, at home and abroadrequired of him a great amount of applied study and work. The needs of each were not always harmonious one with the other, but created a complex condition that

.

.

.

led to a severe nervous collapse."
If

we look

for the source of this dual personality in Sharp,

any rate, in early childhood. an extremely imaginative child, but he was also a real boy who loved the activities and adventures that appeal to boys. "About the dream and vision side of his life," his biograf^er says, "he learned early to be silent.
find its beginning, at

we

He was

OUR VARYING SELVES
He
of the confused

343

soon realized that his playmates understood nothing memories of previous lives that haunted him, and from which he drew materials to weave into stories for his schoolfellows in the dormitory at night. To his surprise he found they saw none of the denizens of the other worlds tree spirits and nature spirits, great and small so famihar to him, and who he imagined must be as obvious to others as to himself." "In surveying the dual life as a whole," says his wife, " I have seen how from the early partially realized twin-

ship,
self,

'W. S.' was the first to go adventuring and find himwhile his twin 'F. M.' remained passive, or a separate

self. When 'she' awoke to active consciousness 'she' became the deeper, the more impelling, the more essential factor. By reason of this severance, and of the acute

conflict that resulted therefrom, the flaming of the dual

became so fierce that 'Wilfion' as I named the inner and third self that lay behind that dual expression ^realized the imperativeness of getting control over his two separated selves and of bringing them into some kind of conscious harmony." Yet, notwithstanding this conflict, each personality was
life

complete in
acteristics.

itself.

Each preserved its own pecuKar charThere was no interference or confusion; no

exchange or overlapping of natures. This consistency of Fiona Madeod is important. It is what makes her a personality. Consistency in matters necessary for identification may be assumed and maintained for a short time. But it finally breaks down. There have been fairly wellauthenticated instances of the substitution of a spurious "long-lost" son, who played his part successfully for a A somewhat similar deception is illustrated brief period.

by men who
alibis.

seek to justify a reprehensible act
their, defense,

have had time to prepare

and
is

also

when they by false
the

But

in all such cases something

forgotten;

stories

do not, fit, and inconsistencies are soon discovered.

344
It

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK

is impossible to feign successfully what one is not, to play intentionally the part of two widely varying characHabits of thought and action are too controlling, ters. too compelling. A man cannot be constantly alert. The

he

on the attention is too great, and it lapses before aware of the change. So one is unable to be continuously mindful of what one says and does. Impostors
strain
is

are surprised out of their security.

Though

it is

a well-

known method

of lawyers to lead a witness peacefully

along until he feels mentally comfortable, the attention meanwhile losing its edge through adaptation to the feeling of satisfaction with the answers, and then suddenly, when he is off his guard, to spring a question, the plan usually succeeds. In the more common matters of life
this variation in the efficiency of attention is

observed in

the difficulties of conversation

good impression. How one would gladly recall.
not "ourselves."
effect is disturbing.

when one wishes to make a often one makes remarks which The usual excuse is that we were
to produce a favorable
is

The very attempt
It

like walking.

What

does not

follow automatically reveals its awkwardness.

Some one

has said that nothing can replace wisdom, though silence But in playing a part one cannot is the best substitute. be always silent. The consistency of "Fiona Macleod," then, is the most important bit of evidence in establishing her claim to perHer interests, her feelings and emotions, her sonality. thoughts and style are too diametrically opposed to those of Sharp to permit the assumption of intentional adoption. His early topics and mode of treatment were the
surface response to the

demands

of the reading public as

Dependent, as he was, upon his pen, literary criticism, for which he had taste and talent, offered the quickest and surest way of earning a living. But there was a deeper self, a personality suppressed for a time by his economic and social conditions. Had this

he interpretaled them.

OUR VARYING SELVES
submerged have risen
self

345

might never was more truly himself than the austere critic that represented WiUiam Sharp. So it asserted itself and finally became the controlling force of his life. That memory, at tunes, seemed almost discontinuous indicates that we have here a border-line case between the common variations in the self and the condition of double personality which is so far from the Hne as
less real,

been

less vital, it
it

to the surface.

But

to be called abnormal.

Returning now to
the
self,

the

more common

alterations

of

the illustrations have disclosed startling variations in the character and purposes of the same individual.

always rivalry and conflict between the different one gains control, and now the other. It is not always possible to say which Hne of conduct most truly represents the man. In some it is the baser acts, and the nobler deeds are done with conscious purpose to maintain a social position. Fortunately, such men are rare. Most people have good intentions, and their failures are due to moral weakness influenced by social or psychological causes. Man desires, at least, a satisf3dng unity in his life. Every one Ukes to feel that he is true to his ideals; and the strugis

There

selves.

Now

made

is seen in the excuses which are from the higher code of action. Consequently, man is prone to deceive himself with the conviction that his acts are justifiable because others do them, or because they wiU enable him to do counterbalancing good in other ways, or else he drifts and finds excuses afterward. These by no means exhaust the categories. Man's actions are exceedingly complex, as much more complex than those of the lower animals as is his nervous system, and for just

gle to secure this feeling
for deviation

that reason.

The
is

action of animals

is

usually predictable.

It always

to one

who knows

their

ways.

They

are severely con-

Inconsistency, curiously enough, comes with development, at least with a certain stage of development.
sistent.


346

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK
this is

Perhaps

due to the

fact that

development means,
of reacting to

among
is

other things, multiplying

ways

what

superficially the

same

situation.

Man

sees a greater

number

of possible reactions ^more ways of behaving with reference to external situations than do the lower animals. Primitive man, also, was consistent imtil he learned inconsistency from contact with his civilized
teacher.
fusing.

The

larger

number

of possible responses are con-

Putting them in order reqmres the organization of information and moral principles, as well as insight into the effect of acts; and thinking in terms of cause and effect is a comparatively new instrument of behavior. The man of good intentions, however, who yields to moral weakness has moments of keen remorse. But the
effect is

momentary.

He

repents

and

sins again.

Some
certain

people have the repentance habit.
solace

They gain a

and even joy from the excitement. It is a sort of emotional debauchery in which they indulge periodically,
their sorrow in drink. This is one which the emotions ooze out ineffectually instead of producing action which is the phylogenetic justification for their existence. In time, inaction, with such people, becomes a fixed mode of behavior. They are continually making resolutions which are never carried

just as others

drown

of the

ways

in

out.

This feeling of remorse easily leads to the self-deception
to which, as

we have
that he

said,

man

is

prone.

He

is

much

more naive
does not

in this than are those
is

who

observe him.

He

know

practising self-deception though
This, again,

he
is

may have
human

—seeing quite clearly in acquaintances what one
be a selection of the self to which that I would not, if I could,"

observed this trait in others.

does not discover in oneself, though it may be patent to all the rest of the world. It illustrates a certain human
blindness.
Finally, there should

we

yield submission.

"Not

OUR VARYING SELVES
says James,

347

"be both handsome and fat and well dressed, and a great athlete, and make a million a year, be a wit, a bon vivant, and a lady-killer, as well as a philosopher; a philanthropist, statesman, warrior, and African explorer, as well as a 'tone-poet' and saint. But the thing is impossible. The millionaire's work would nm coimter to the saint's; the bon vivant and the philanthropist would trip each other up; the philosopher and the lady-killer could not well keep house in the same tenement of clay."

One or the Which?

other will finally dominate.

The

question

is,

CHAPTER X
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION
"It looks so good that
it

makes

my mouth

water"

is

a

common saying; and it is not merely a figure The mouth actually does water at the sight of
food.

of speech.

appetizing
since the

That

is,

the flow of saliva begins.

Now,

food has not been tasted the cause of this flow must be
altogether different from that which stimulates secretion

when food is actually eaten. Evidently, the mind is at work here, with its expectation of approaching pleasure;
and
this anticipation is

one of the psychical contributions

to digestion.

Its effect, in the feeling of the
is offered, is

mouth when

a matter of common experience. It is not so generally known, however, that visions of pleasant eating also make the stomach "water." As long ago as 1852 two investigators* noticed that the sight and smell of food started gastric secretion in the stomach of a hungry dog, and twenty-six years later Richet reported^ evidence of a generous flow of gastric juice in one of his patients when such substances as sugar or lemonJuice were chewed or tasted, though the act of swallowing could not be completed on account of a closed oesophagus. But the importance of these observations was not understood at the time, and the investigations were unproductive. More recently, however, a Russian physiologist, Pavlov, repeated the experiments on dogs, under improved conditions, and demonstrated the significance for digestion of the
appetizing food
psychical factor, desire or appetite.
'F. Bidder and C. Schmidt, Die VerdauungssSfte und der Stofwechsel.
Leipzig, 1852.
"

Journal de VAnatomie

et

de la Physioloiie, vol. 14, p. 170.

348

or to cast in sand. when we merely drew the animal's attention to the — substances in question. is put into the mouth saKva begins to flow. starts the digestive process. in certain articles of diet. traonslated by W. "In the course of our experiments. Thus. Then the saliva begins to flow. and see what this mental co-operation means. If the animal has found from past experience that it tastes good. p. the success of the experi- ment depends upon the anticipation elicited by the sight of what is offered.^ "it appeared that all the phenomena of adaptation which we saw in the salivary glands under physiological conditions. if On the other hand. a secretion either immediately appeared or it did not appear. or to pour in something disagreeable. The advantage of this is to moisten the food and render easier the act Animals deprived of the parotid saliva swallow dry food only with the greatest difficulty. namely. In of swallowing. making them perceptible it to the nerves of taste. no saliva is will secreted. the saliva dissolves the soluble constituents of food. and especially dry food. Of course when food. As might be expected. finally. such. i5>»o. Thompson. . H.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 349 But let us begin with the first stage of digestion. this or that when we offered it kind of food. and. with the saliva. 152. the glands begin at once to pour out their secretion abundantly. addition. Now Pavlov has shown experimentally that it is not necessary for food to be put into the mouth to excite the salivary reflex. reappeared in exactly the same manner under the influence of psychological conditions that is to say." says Pavlov. for instance. AU that is needed with a hungry dog is to direct his attention to the food. previous experience has shown that the substance offered not taste good. as the introduction of the stimulating substances into the buccal cavity. in accordance with the properties of the substance which we had previously seen ' The Work of the Digestive Glands. when we pretended to throw pebbles into the dog's mouth. or.

the dog seems to make this distinction. consequently. W. "If a definite musical note be repeatedly sounded in conjunction with the exhibition of meat-powder. of pleasant food. 6. i. p. distinguish certain colors. Journal filr Psychologie und Neurologie. wiU be sufficient Curiously enough.. Whatever has been associated with the substances that physiologically excite the salivary secretion may arouse it psychologically. eral does • A. after a time the sound of the note alone is effective. his taking the dog into the room where he is wont and the any one of these to be fed. Nicolai. vol. vol. Journal fUr Psychologie und Kmt- rologie. the vesSel usually containing the food.' same color as the add water produce a Since it is the color that exerts the influence. illuminated circle be finally excite If an shown with food the circle alone will the reflex. Meisl. substances which effect stimulate the reflex in a purely mechanical way. Rundschau. 10. cit. Indeed. dogs appear to distinguish between these figures.SSo PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK and nature physiologically excited to flow. dogs. 85. Wien. rpa. p. in furthering of the phases of digestion with which saliva is concerned. . irrespec- have the same —the sight of will the bottle containing the acid that starts the secretion chanically. vol. furniture of the room. Anything that is regularly connected with it at an enjoyable meal will be sufficient to stimulate the reflex. Similarly with the exhibition of a brilliant color. for example. Siace an illuminated quadrilat- not have this effect. expectation of a pleasant taste plays an important r61e in promotto regulate the quantity all ing the flow of saliva and." of the juice when In other words." ^ Since a difference of a quarter of a tone produces no result. kl. But anticipation reaches far beyond the sight or smell The food itself need not be present. then me- in the bottle of the like effect. If the acid is dark. The attendant who feeds the animals. tive of enjo3Tnent. p. footsteps. to produce the flow. 17. ' Pavlov. according to Pavlov. 375. op. p.

perhaps whoUy accidental. 1904. ceptions finally citation. Repetition of these simultaneous perceptions strengthens the union between them and soon into an integral part of the sign is identical with the food. have in our hands never failed to stimtdate the salivary glands. and. by reason of association with The latter has its explanation in the evolutionary biological history of the species or The psychological reaction occurs because of a relationship established between the excitation of the sal- ivary reflex and certain definite perceptions. either by mechanical means accomplished by applying these stimuli simultaneously with the action of the salivary glands. vol. This was selected. of. p. "Any ocular stimvdus. or by forcing certain substances into the dog's mouth. An unessential. this action having been evolved by giving certain kinds of food. second. British Medical Journal. first. These per- come to represent the cause of the ex- This connection between the salivary reflex and objects whoUy unessential to gratification of the appetite. 2. but nevertheless made it by the conjimction in time of the two perceptions. a musical note. of another perception wholly imessential to the satisfying quality of the first. vol. 871. 3. race. ture. It was formed by the simultaneous occurrence a taste so pleasant as to excite the salivary reflex. for example. 1906. i Abteil." its secretion ^ In considering the "psychic" flow of saliva before the food it is actually tasted —^which means — must ^we remember that occurs only the physiological response. any desired sound. although they were all of them at one time supposed to be insufficient for such a purpose. Huxley Lec- . is a temporary asso- ciation. as. p. skin. any odor that might be and the stimulation of any part of the or by the application of heat or cold. property of the object has thus ^ Ergebnisse der Physiologie.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION Pavlov found that this 351 animal can be so trained that his salivary glands will respond to any excitation by associating the stimulus with food that gives pleasure when eaten. 177.

By such means functional activity is better adapted to the siuroimding conditions. . reflex. Trappers seek to avoid such associations by this case the furnishings of the country — — removing odors. on the other hand. . cit. the connection in being between the food and what may be called the trees.352 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK is become. offers illustrations of olfactory and visual associations. concerned." * Illustrations of the ftmctional activity way in which these associations aid and promote the adjustment of the animals to their surroundings readily suggest themselves. The estabhshment in this way of temporary relationship between external objects and important hfe processes. as well as the ease with which they are lost. The association of food with a region. these perceptions reinforce one another with a strength approximately proportional to their associative bond. Avoidance of dehcious bits in traps because of incidental connection with odors of himian hands." Pavlov thinks. etc. Undoubtedly. In the same way danger may be associated with a given territory. while. the object it- The visual. and by giving the location of their traps ' Op. . simple . and association of the locality with the call of food-animals are cases in point. "It would appear. value to the organism. 86. when thrown into action by the becomes a point of attraction for influences from all organs and regions of the body specifically excited by other quahties of the object. contoiu: of the land. or olfactory perception of these accidental qualities of substances pleasant to the taste influences the salivary centre through the various and cir- cuitous nerve-paths which lead from the several senseorgans. or with certain appearances. the association may be based upon the characteristics of the region.. are matters of very considerable "as if the saUvary centre. auditory. or upon one or more animals which are feared. readjustment is readily permitted when the conditions alter. p. As before. so far as the animal self.

as of man. case perceptions are overemphasized and applied indiscriminately. When the idea becomes dominant such a person sees the world of thought in a perverted form because his ruling idea is always the centre of reference. but return later after man has come to find pleasure in their presence instead of hunting and again. and no one idea. When carried over into the realm of thought. this condition may be a passing phase due to the temporary presence or hostility of dangerous animals. can house the explanation of any himian problem. This repellent association may even exist between a favorite food-animal and a certain region. This is seen to-day. deer. which are meaningless except in the overwrought mental complex of their possessor. thereby serving as a protection during a transitory period. It should be added that fanaticism is a matter of degree.— THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 353 a natural look with shrubbery and other devices. squirrels. As an instance of readjustment. as in the closed season. to observe that these associaqualities of objects It may be well. in passing. the animals in whom the repellent association existed return. When the cause of avoiding the region is removed. From these "imperative" or "fixed" ideas arises that state of mind which characterizes fanatics —the men who seek to square the by their circle or to brand of religious elixir. Human behavior and consequently the world of action ^is too complex for so cure all social ills own special — . To the extent to which a man ties himself to one idea and allows it to become "fixed. however much truth it may contain. tions of which we have been speaking between objects or of the —chance connections —are fvmdamentally In the latter same sort as perverted associations." he approaches fanaticism. The feeling for proportion is lost. these incidental and accidental associations may establish habit-psychoses the periodic recurrence of which produces obsessions. killing when them. and other animals desert a section of country.

But to return to our theme. and consequently allows no conflict. if one is to contend one should be quite certain that the argument is worth gastric disturbance. but that this expectation of pleasure is carried over to whatever is associated with the food that promises pleasure. Even food does not always accomplish the complete result. Only that serenity in error which admits no doubts. and pacifists. It is not set off by merely putting something into the mouth. are incidental in the sense that they are not a necessary part of the conditions or circumstances. We have seen that anticipation of an enjoyable meal not only excites the salivary glands to action. religion has admittedlyships are disturbed. Consequently. this decision revolves on the "imperative" idea. Evidently. Anything which prevents a person from seeing things in their right proportion disturbs digestion to the extent to which it brings him in conflict with others less insane than himself. These associations. this physiological process is not purely mechanical. and so the vicious circle continues its satisfied whirl. It depends on the attitude of the animal or man toward the food. If they arouse agitating emotions they interrupt certain physiological processes in the same way as we shall find anger or fear does when an animal faces opposition or danger. to mention only a few. but to-day anti-vivisectionists.354 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The "fixed" idea prevents its simple a solution. anti-inoculationists. indicate a rather alarming widening of the range of association-psychoses. is compatible with a healthy digestion. In any individual case. . furnished the largest number of this particular aberrant type. possessor from understanding other ideas because thought relationIn the past. A mental factor is involved. however. the reflex does not respond to food or other substances which do not awaken expectations of enjoyable sensations. On the other hand. like those of which we have been speaking in the lower animals.

interference with the secreof saliva may also be set up.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION But which tion 355 in addition to the inertness of certain substances. for the secretion started at the sight of bread is also quickly stopped if the animal sees another dog eating the same food. As in many other primitive ordeals and ceremonies the gods received credit for a psychological principle which has slowly proved itself in the experience of the race. only a certain amount of nervous energy is available. saliva. the "watchful waiting" to hear his name called is an illus- This psychological effect of suspense has been utilized by primitive people as a test of guilt. There are. which is The explanation must be by anal- never quite satisfactory. The sight of flesh has. which for the time is the . inhibited the salivary response to bread. The one who ejected it dry was declared guilty. and anger. at a given moment. It is not merely the greater desire of the dog for flesh that causes the inhibi- tion. Now. It is clear then that the mental state profoundly influences the secretion of sahva. It is too dry. Anxiety. in some way. again. and that the nerve impulses are likely to take the line of greatest activity. after a generous flow has started. interferences If of another sort. and then to eject it for judicial examination. We know that. It is impossible to be very definite in account- ing for this inhibition. may or may not be food. ogy. In fear. At the sight of bread the salivary reflex is excited. all stop the secretion of an angry person at dumer will turn psychological investigator for a moment he will notice how difficult it is to swallow his food. however. worry. however. The dry mouth tration. one of the physical characteristics is a parched mouth and throat. In India those suspected of a crime were compelled to chew consecrated rice for a short time. Pavlov observed that if flesh is shown to the dog the secretion of saliva ceases. fear. It has long been known of the inexperienced public speaker during that in certain mental states the saliva refuses to flow.

but when this food was swallowed it feU out of the exposed end of the oesophagus in the neck tric Juice. therefore. Action. . organs are drained. Briefly svmamarizing the results of these investigations. We turn now to the psychic effect upon the flow of gas- Pavlov divided the oesophagus of a dog and exposed the two ends. other activities 3deld to their demand. Digestion. But interferences may occur to delay or inhibit the process. The anticipated pleasure of the meal presses the button that starts the physiological machinery. This shown in the first instance by the vigorous efforts to obtain the flesh. It is much the same as when an animal fights or flees. and glandular action concerned with it. and still connected with it. The muscles call for blood and nervous energy that they may perform their function. The dog could now be fed either through the neck opening of the oesophagus leading into the stomach. It could also be fed as usual through the mouth. efforts to reach the other dog and take the bread from him. centre is excited. and so other bodily Consequently. is paramount. In an emergency the organs needed to meet the situation are the ones that the blood and nervous discharges hurry to assist. All of the available energy is directed to vigorous muscular activity. must wait. An opening was then made into the stomach. and the nervous impulses are directed toward making it as vigorous and efl&cient as possible. The muscles. or through the direct opening into the stomach (gastric fistula). Enjoyable surroundings promote this pleasure by creating a mental attitude of expectancy. experiments have shown that the salivary reflex is set in motion by a psychical factor. directed by the motor area. and in the second. are the centre of influence. and reflex reactions which by the contribute nothing to their strength or skill are delayed.3S6 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK In both of these cases a motot is path of least resistance. and when once the appetite flow begins the physiological processes continue the secretory activity with increasing vigor.

Yet pure gastric juice at once made its appearance and steadily increased in quantity. whatever gastric juice appeared would be the result of psychic influences alone. are evidently transmitted to the gastric glands by nerve-paths.c. He observed further the changes produced in the gastric juice by varying sorts of food. fluences. and some of the dogs lived in ease and comfort for several years. at the cardiac end of the stomach. a cul-de-sae.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 357 instead of passing into the stomach. of the purest gastric juice were secreted. This dog was contented and happy. In this way all the plfesures of eating could be experienced and their effect upon the flow of gastric juice accurately determined." the pleasant sensations of the enjoyable taste. though not a particle of food had reached the stomach. All of these experiments included. enjoying every minute of the period. One dog continued eat' ing for five or six hours. The effect of this "sham feeding. . and proved that the gastric juice secreted in this smaU stomach was in all re- spects representative of that produced in the entire organ. Pavlov also produced a miniature stomach. "Sham feeding" has the advantage also of never satisf3dng the animal. and in that time 7cx) c. the food that he swallowed passed out at the opening in the neck." So the persistence of the psychic effect can be measured. He was tity thus enabled to estimate quite accurately the quan- and quality of gastric juice secreted as the result of different methods of feeding. When Pavlov fed the a dog with divided oesophagus through mouth he ate greedily but. of course. mouth did not reach the stomach. Indeed. the appetite —a psychic among other in- factor. He can go on eating indefinitely without feeling "full." This secretion produced by psychic influences Pavlov called "psychic" or "appetite" juice. the comfortable feeHng that comes from well-being Since the food taken through the is essential to the success of the experiments. continuing to flow as long as the animal was "fed.

and he swallows it. but Emotional on the other hand. Either sight or taste may start the "psychic" both together disturbances. selection. not only imagines that he is eating food. or and then the taste. however. Only by this be brought in solution into contact with the taste organs. Getting not merely a physiological matter. so far as he knows. anticipation. The emotional conditions unite both re- . lov's feeding. There is no disappointment in what he is doing because the food tastes good.3S8 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK stimulation of the nerves of the gastric glands The extent. The gastric secretion obtained during the hour and a half sight of the meat was somewhat greater than that produced by sham smell. Desire. So he eats greedily. some of which are psychological. reflex will greatly enlarge the flow. is of immense importance for gastric Consequently. one of Pavdogs was excited by showing him meat for an hour and a half. As with the salivary glands. but. for food can be tasted only when means can it dissolved in the mouth. that inhibit the salivary check the gastric secretion indirectly by blunting the taste. by the act of chewing and swallowing depends then. The pleasant taste increases the effect of the agreeable feelings aroused by the sight of the food. and the will to obtain. aU play their r61e. he actually eats it. judgment. secretion.. juice. As an illustration. and the gastric juice flows abundantly. the first and strongest excitation for the gastric reflex is the sight. The effect is. cumulative from both points of view. He was then given a sham meal. to a large upon a psychic factor which starts a physiological The physiological activity underlying digestion is thus shown to be a very complex reflex act. involving the co-operation of a number of organic processes. Taste. therefore. The dog with divided oesophagus process. emotional states stimulating to the salivary reflex should prevail at meals. The food is evolutionary significance of this is clear.

p." We found in discussing the psychical response of the any object or action regularly connected with obtaining pleasant-tasting food is soon associated in the mind of the animal with the meal itself. vol. * The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. "so important to life and so full of mystery into a to science. by Anton Julius Carlaon.— THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION flexes. Carlson. were sufficient to excite the gastric glands. and Joined with this anticipation is the physiological preparation of the stomach to receive the food tiie reflex response of the gastric glands. A. A. 31. 221. Skandmavisches Archiv fiir Physiologie. The same observation was made on the secretion of gastric juice. The psychical aspect of this longing tion is the desire and expectaawakened through the excitation of the distance receptors. "Thus appetite. Lataxjet. and becomes transformed from a subjective sensation concrete factor within reach of physiological investigation. If the dog was hungry the appearance of the attendant. There must be some point to the response. Sasaki. pp. And this impulse is the craving of a hungry animal for food. 15. to check or stop the process. in 359 the one case to aid digestion. here at length assumes a tangible existence. 209. something that gives it meaning in relation to the organism. F. vol. found ' ^ a relatively slight and incon- Adolf Bickel and K. Homborg. something that drives the animal irresistibly in pursuit of that which promises pleasure to the taste. even his footsteps. Delicate response to stimulation of those organs that sense from a distance is not stifl&cient for the preservation of the species. at least so far as the effect of tasting pleasant substances is concerned. 237/. and any movement that he salivary reflex that was wont to make when giving food. several investigators'^ Pavlov's observations on dogs have been verified by on human beings. vol. Deutsche medizmische Wochenschrift. . p. Journal de Physiologie et Pathologie General. in the other. p. and. 7. however. Cade et A. 1829." as Pavlov says.

and it is quite possible that the routine collection of the juice may. that any olfactory stimulation induced secretion of gastric juice in the resting stomach. . Carlson himself suggests this in the "It is probable. as Carlson suggests. But Pavlov observed great variation in this respect in his dogs and. which he was unable to confirm. or possibly his main interest was not in the food. tory evidence of the influence of thinking about eating the observation of secreted in is Cade and Latarjet* that gastric juice was a young woman when her favorite food was the differences there is subject of conversation. In referring to the observations of Kaznelson and Bickel. or thinking of food in the man with whom he experimented. there p. however. the psychic- the sight and smell of food. and which may account tion of gastric juice. cit. 230. Whatever individual effect of thinking ' about food. smelling.. set up inhibitory processes. cit. op. for example." he says. the man whom he himself tested may belong "to the group of individuals in whom the taste of food is the aU-important factor in the psychic secre- There is. so that he might partake of the food. " that under these conditions the primary and normal effects of seeing and smelling the food are inhibited by the consciousness of the experiment." Psychic influence is emphasized by Carlson in explaining the findings of several investigators. he says: "It is possible that in this young woman every gustatory and olfactory stimulus when manipulated by the investigators led to thoughts of food through idea associations. may be in the very general agree« Op." for the failure of Carlson's man to secrete gastric juice at shall see. by the very disagreeableness of the experimental procedure and irritation at delay. but the expiration of the experiment. secretory As we mechanism is especially sensitive to inhibitory influences." * Among the confirmacase of his patient.36o PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK stant secretion from merely seeing. another element which must not be overlooked.

"The mere act of chewing indifferent substances and the stimulation of nerve-endings in the mouth by substances other than those directly related to food cause no secretion of gastric juice. and not merely of having something in the mouth or of chewing. This has been verified by Carlson. taste. Carlson foimd that "the secretion is proportional to the palatability of the food". where there is no appetite this is absent." Rather should we say that appetite of the secretory nerves of the stomach. agree with Pavlov when he says that "to restore appetite to a man means to provide him with a large stock of gastric juice wherewith to begin the digestion of a meal.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION ment regarding borg's care 361 the influence of taste. The question as to whether one should eat when one is not hungry. We are therefore justified in sajdng with Pavlov " that appetite is the first and most potent exciter which emsomething able to compel the empty stomach of the dog during the fictitious meal to secrete large quantities of the strongest juice. and the second is comparatively meagre without the itself to p. . It is the initiator of the secretory process and digestive activity. the pleasurable sensations caused by the smell. and he is of the opinion that "the significant appetite secretion in man is that induced by tasting and chewing good food.. cit." We caimot." ^ Evidently. 23s. however. as in the lower animals investigated. or thought of enjoyable food serve as a stimulus to the gastric reflex. it is a matter of taste and enjoyment. then. but rubber brought no secretory response. a factor itself bodies in means gastric juice. therefore reduces • the problem of ere* op." In man. A good appetite ia eating gives origin at the outset to a vigorous secretion of the most active juice. first. Except in stomachical dis- ease one probably never has the first without the second. secreted in the stomach of a boy who Gastric juice was came under Horn- when he chewed agreeable food.

and that little gastric Pavlov demonstrated this by two experiments First. is stances of physiological repugnance. Besides. while the animal's attention was diverted by patting and caressing so as to keep him from seeing the food. are primarily psychological matters. . In the dog without sham feeding. The difference in the loss of weight through digestion was striking. during which the dogs were left alone in separate rooms. the flesh had been reduced by only six grammes. After an hour or more not a drop of juice had appeared. while in the case of great importance. We have said that appetite means gastric juice. both of which had been operated upon in the same way. In both cases the pieces of meat were attached to a string. all that has been about exercise has psychological significance in this connection. A glass rod passed into the food of the stomach came out dry. The same weight of pieces of meat was then put into the stomach of the second dog through the direct opening.362 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK As will ating an appetite. and dislikes —except Food habits also — ^likes in certain comparatively. and it was scant during the first hour. and only secondarily The meaning of this in the rearing of children reserved for later treatment. he introduced bread and coagulated egg white directly into the stomach of a sleeping dog through the opening that had been made. rare inphysiological. Flesh excited some secretion. the meat was withdrawn and weighed. In order to show that the loss of value of food without attention and desire was not caused by the fact that the animal was sleeping. Pavlov next took two dogs. Into the stomach of one pieces of flesh were introduced through the direct opening. food without interest produces comparatively secretion. and after an hour and a haK. but at the same time he was given a sham meal. its digestive action was weak. but its appearance was considerably retarded. and consequently without interest in the process. said in an earlier chapter be seen later.

Pavlov's conclusions have been verified by Bickel and Sasald. The difference then. 247. ' Op. It shows. It is the tonic effect of appetite upon the alimentary canal. Pleasure in what one gastric juice. and his desire for it."^ Both factors "psychic" juice and tonus ^are evidently present in keen anticipation of interesting food. .i who observed a generous flow of gastric juice in dogs while they were being given a the sham fictitious meal. Carlson emphasizes another phase of this complex psychophysiological process of digestion a factor big with psychological meaning. "The significance of — hunger and appetite for digestion. developed by the taking of food. speaking somewhat more technically of the tonic effect. cU.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 363 of the one who was given a fictitious meal when the meat was put into his stomach there was a loss of thirty grammes. and later maintained by the stomach itself.. realized by the pleasant taste of masti- Cannon. the importance of the psychical factor. in other words. says: "Tonus as an essential factor of gastric peristalsis is first given by vagus impulses. of the interests of the one in what he was eating. both on the motor and on the secretory side is in fit handle the ingested food. and lack of interest delays the process. is eating starts and pro- motes the flow of gins. and in that time a large quantity of pure gastric juice was collected." The vagi and the splanchnics "are nerves which increase or decrease chic tonus is ' Op. and each is greatly increased when condition — to — is the expectation cation. in the case of these two dogs. Probably a psy. p." he says. cU. In one case when feeding lasted for only five minutes the secretion continued for twenty minutes. lessens the quantity when the secretion be- and seems to reduce its digestive value. . "is apparently not so much in the actual yield of appetite gastric juice as in the fact that when these sensation-complexes are present the entire gastro-intestinal tract. . rep- resents the digestive value of appetite.

the dog his chain. 29. Bickel and Sasaki then continued the test of the effect of anger by giving their dog a interferences may sham meal. and in emotional states by the presence of splanchnic impulses. He was hungry and ate ravenously. of the salivary reflex. in states of exhaustion. attention Disturbances of one sort or another may. 250. Bickel and Sasaki brought a cat into the room of one of their dogs. for fifteen became violently angry and struggled ag£iin at Though the secretion had been well under way minutes. ' Internationali BeitrUge zUr Pathologie und Therapie der EmiUirungtlor- icngen. inIn speaking was called to the fact that be started and the process inhibited. Both conditions result in absence of gastric tonus. The cat was then removed and the dog was given a sham meal. vol. Twenty minutes after the meal ended only nine cubic centimetres of juice of a rather poor quahty had been secreted. and after the gastric secretion again bringing the cat into the room. The dry mouth during nervous tension was mentioned as an illustration. and thereby affect peristalsis. p. can stomach movements. .364 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK The absence of the tonus of gastric musculature. vol. yet little gastric juice was secreted. however. had secured from twelve to fifteen cubic centimetres of pure juice in from six to ten minutes. for example. only a few drops of a poor quality of juice appeared." ' terrupt the anticipation of interesting food. So rage checks the secretion of all the juices that are essential to the chemical ^ changes in food American Journal of Physiology. in a calm dog. 1. s. The effect of the previous state of excitement continued and checked the flow. Inhibition has also been observed in the secretion of gastric juice. be explained by the failure of vagus impulses. The animal became furious and struggled to reach it. Oechsler^ has also found that Che secretion of the pancreatic juice is suppressed in animals by anger. As was well started before. p. while Pavlov.

emotional influences unfavorable to digestion are stronger it. ArchivfUr d. and gastric fistula. all depressing emotions delay digestion. tion ceases. H. The child. Indeed. became angry and began to cry when shown food that he was not allowed whom Homborgi moment to eat. It is clear then that not only are pleasurable emotions favorable to digestion. Bogen. p. when he was calm and the food had been given to him. cit. vol. are eager to be fed and they dance around joyously. the secretion was not disturbed.^ One of his patients. Clearly. After the dogs became accustomed to the restraint. than those that promote » * Op. 117. gesamle Physiqlogie. imder these circumJuice at the sight of food. a boy with closed oesophfor the agus. no gastric juice was secreted. The same observation was made by Bogen. With his animals inhibition occurred when they were tied. but also worry and anxiety. however. Le Conte found that. It will be remembered that gastric secretion when well started under favorable conditions may be quickly checked and stopped by anxiety or anger. We are now able to understand why the child upon experimented failed to secrete gastric Dogs. inference may be drawn from these investigations which greatly increases the significance of these striking results. Timidity may give the same result. but those that are unpleasant retard the process juice. fear of strange surroimdings delayed the secretion of gastric juice. as the iavestigations of Bickel and Sasaki led them to conclude. in dogs. .THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION during digestion. on the other hand. 365 For some time violent rage is after a But fit of anger digesnot needed to produce the inhibition. and prevent it from being carried on with A further its customary vigor when once it has started. stances. became so angry at the sight of food which was withheld that. 136. then. by preventing the secretion of gastric Not anger and rage alone have this effect.

or if it the animal be startled in any way. Walter B. p. The movements shortly appear again.. 1916." ^ Cannon found that the same changes occur under similar conditions in dogs. and "during that time not the slightest beginning of peristaltic activity appeared. 347. in addition to the external manifestations of rage. "the activities of the stomach and intestines are stopped. Op. however gentle the experimenter may strive to be. ' John Auer. When a cat becomes infuriated. and guinea-pigs. so likewise there is probably a psychic tone or psychic contraction of the gastro-iatestinal muscles as a result of taking food." if "But Cannon watched the stomach of a vigorous young male cat for more than an hour. struggles. ' » . « Op. p. saj^ Cannon. American Journal of Physiology." Investigations have sustained Cannon's conjecture. April 17. 13. Hunger. p. Cannoa.^ But violent excitement is not needed to inhibit the movements. 15. 18. and be exposed to a wide area of the intestinal wall for absorption. Auer* observed that the handling required to tie rabbits to the board. p. motion is again abolished for some time. American Journal of Physiology. yet the only visible indication of excitement in the animal was a continued quick twitching of the tail to and fro. IS* Walter B." ^ • Walter B. Fear.* Fear and distress in the cat had the same effect as rage. yet they do not close the story. To insure proper digestion the food must be carried along through the alimentary canal so as to be acted upon by the digestive juices in different parts of the canal. vol. stops peristalsis for a variable length of time. Cannon.^ that "I was led to infer that just as there is a psychic secretion. igiS.366 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK All of these facts are immensely important in the psychology of daily Kfe. vol. It was while studying these mechanical aspects of digestion. Address at Johns Hopkins University. rabbits. cit. ciL. and Rage. Bodily Changes in Pain. 6. p. 251. Cannon. stopping aU movements in both the large and small intestines.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION Lommel observed ' 367 the same effect of slight degrees of ex- citement. p." And "some peculiarly constituted persons. p. and Roosbach^ has established the stoppage of intestinal peristalsis in man from the same causes as those that produce it in the lower animals. and the all cease whenever the animal shows signs of emotional excitement. "who take their work and obligations with a kind of seriousness that amounts almost to fear. vol. " ' Cannon. op. 1899. should be emphasized that the "psychic" starts digestion.. the peristalsis and the kneading movements" [segmentationj "in the small intestine. the "psychic" juice initiates rapid digestion which is afterward aided by the • Felix Lommel. 2. 323. Fisher and Fisk sum up^ the more recent investigations by sajdng that "the X-ray has detected the arrest of the peristaltic movements of the stomach and intestines because of a strong emotion. cit. it pleasure which this food affords dogs. p. as Pavlov found. . With meat. Among them all. j6. Deutsche! ArcMvfiir kUnische Medizin. 46. He noticed that small dogs placed in strange surroundings frequently showed no contractions of the stomach for two hours or more." ^ Auer found that irritating odors also produce temporary reversed peristalsis in the large intestine. 1903. no. p. The digestive processes seem to be at a standstill until then. Essehnont' likewise con- cludes that majiy emotional states stimulate peristalsis. "Like the peristaltic waves in the stomach. 1634. MUnchener medizinische Wochenschrift. cannot eat anything of consequence until their day's work is ended." they add." Appetite is thus seen to have a wide physiological reach. 899. and that other emotional conditions inhibit the movements. inhibition of gastric motility. p. Report 0} the British Association for the Advancement of Science. It touches digestion at various points. and the significance of this in proJuice moting the continuance of the process cannot be overestimated. * « How to Live. Finally. because of the however.

6gsff. and depends on the producmucous membrane of a specific sub- stance or hormone. In such cases the appetite juice digestive process." * 'Pavlov. will there for a long time without the least appearance of change. Ernest H. and therefore with the nature and amount of substances produced in the preliminary digestion of the gastric contents by means * of the psycliic juice. . and for this reason it has been called by Khizbin 'igniting juice. which acts as a chemical messenger to all parts of the stomach. The juice secreted in the second phase must vary according to the quantity of gastric hormone produced in the pyloric mucous membrane. . cit. or by gastric secretion is two factors. and bringing them into connection with the physiological processes^ simimarizes the results for physiology as follows: The normal of "due to the co-operation and most important is the nervous secretion. is further secretion caused The stay of food in the digestive canal thus shortened. p. Human Physiology. The first The second the arousing of appetite in the higher parts of the brain. tion in the pyloric chemical. 12$. Starling. estimating the conclusions of Pavlov and others.368 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK by this first excitant. With seems even more lie "Bread or egg white eaten without appe- or introduced into the stomach unobserved.'"! Starling. . which provides for the continued secretion of gastric juice long after the mental effects of a meal is have disappeared. certain other foods the "psychic" juice indispensable. tite. factor. op. . the digestion of these foods proceeds spontaneously. is the sole initiator of the When started by its assistance. being absorbed into the blood.. determined through the vagus nerves by stimulation of the mucous membrane of the mouth. pp. igniting material The 'psychic' juice here plays a similar role to that of the which sets the fuel in the stove ablaze. 1913. of the various secreting and thence exciting the activity cells in the gastric glands.

science task. The science consists in determining the suitable dietary in a given case. and. This is the physician's The art lies in planning conditions that shall pro- mote the physiological processes favorable to digestion. Simply taking food even the right food does not fulfil the process — — requirements of nutrition. Henry Ward Beecher's epigrammatic cry that dyspeptics cannot many Kingdom of Heaven was not a joke. There is no doubt that they increase and prolong the secretion of gastric juice. but they are not the nutritive foods. and of men and women in their personal arrangements. and others are designed to furnish an agreeable end to the meal.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION It is 369 clear then that digestion is not merely physiological. and to this discussion we now turn. digestion is not second'. and intelligence requires conservation of aU the factors that contribute to health. Desserts have immense importance in the psychology of eating. in many cases. There are other high places this side of Heaven from which they are barred. Successful eating is both a and an art. among these. These conditions are devices to produce the anticipatory mental states which start the "psychic" juice and this planning is primarily the function of the home-keeper. Some are worth eating for what they give us. adjustment of one's personal life to the facts disclosed by these experienter the ments is imperative. and the latter are the things that would often be omitted by choice But they are if one consulted only the vagaries of taste. This would naturally lead to the elimination of the less palatable and. Foods. the more substantial foods. For health and happiness. The is very complex and includes psychic factors which precede and initiate the physiological action. In interpreting these investigations for guidance in the psychology of Hfe the first thought Ukely to come to the amateur thinker is that he should eat only what he wants. the also the foods that the body needs. ' . however. Consequently. EjEciency means first of all efl&cient Hving. have different nutritive value.

In its milder forms this causes lassitude and headaches. Many more persons than are commonly supposed suffer from intestinal intoxication the acctimulation of toxic products from undigested food. and consequently for digestion. and the more rapid circulation of the blood aids this elimination and promotes a vigorous metabolism. after being advised is a skilled physician. likes and dislikes are due altogether to . to to create by an appetite rather than humor it. pay to have it exercised. After one has produced a vigorous appetite tiiis advice regarding eating. or walk five miles a day. Those who are too indolent to exercise their own body. ride horseback. Barring is physiological repugnance. It quickens and improves metabolism by a more rapid circulation of blood and an iucrease of the oxygen supply.370 first PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK dietary problem for an adult. Exercise in the open air tends to eliminate these toxic products through the various excretory organs. but for the anaemic. headachy. when given by an intelligent physician. Exercise purifies the blood by increasing the intake of oxy- gen and the output of carbon dioxide." Having taken exercise in the open. and then eat what you want. "Eat what you want to eat" depends upon what you want. r61e in Training in childhood evidently plays an important producing likes and dislikes for food. of exercise in the open air. is good. the body will demand substantial food and the — appetite will crave it. Here then is seen the further significance for appetite. which is far less common than usually thought. Much of the value of osteopathy and massage consists in giving passive exercise to the organs and muscles of the body. toxaemic man or woman the first admonition should be: "Play tennis or golf. The sight and smell of roast beef with vegetables wiU then be more enticing and therefore produce more "psychic" juice than the most delicate meringue air-bubbles.

For this important that business and professional men have pleasant places in which to lunch. Regularity in meals is advocated because the digestive organs need rest. When meals are served at definite hours. The foods that shall appeal to the man and woman. Some of the choicest delicacies of the modem epicure. and by defeating the first it greatiy weakens the second the continued production of gastric For the "psychic" juice is the "igniting juice. This is especially the case when one anticipates naturally turn to eating reason it is something pleasant to the taste. when This prepares the saJivary and gastric reflexes for stimulation. which a man does not anticipate entering and in which the surroundings are disagreeable. A noisy restaurant. again. caviare." juice. peculiarities in eating. which is to excite the digestive reflexes. Saliva may even be secreted at the thought of the hour. Women. activity of which we have been speakthe thoughts the time arrives. and that women in the home have the table prepared and limcheon served in quite as interesting a way as if they were to have guests. This is surely important. defeats the first purpose of taking food. and calves' braias are abhorrent to sight and taste before the liking has been acquired.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION eajly environment insects eaten 371 and training. eels. If one observes oneself at such a time one will often find the mouth watering. It is Every nation has its not necessary to refer to the whose diet is by certain primitive peoples abhorrent to civilized races. but there is also a psychological argument ia its favor that has a bearing upon the secretory ing. as frogs' legs. who eat a "picked-up lunch" are in much the same position as the dogs into whose stomachs food — . and excite the salivary and gastric reflexes so as to prepare the way for vigorous and healthy digestion are decided in the homes of boys and girls whose mothers are often more mindful of the moment's indolent ease than of the future welfare of their children.

This is the explanation of the importance of the grade of the luncheon restaurant. and previous pleasurable thoughts of the meal defeats the psychology of digestion shows that eating without its end. but these are relative terms having reference to the value of their content.372 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK was introduced through the gastric fistula. The absence of attention and interest in the dogs prevented the secretion of gastric juice. wholesome foods. the vulgar rich those who display their wealth in sensuous indulgence ^who are continually seeking some gastronomic novelty soon lose pleasure in foods they should enjoy. Their tastes and emotions are diseased. Satiated by superfluity and novelty they are like the children in such families to whom the usual toys at Christmas bring no joy. On the other hand. so much with unusual foods as with delicacy and attractiveness in the manner of serving. The sensitiveness of their digestive reflexes is dulled. thing is The important that the anticipation be "normal" and find its gratification ia weU-prepared. The knowledge of what is to be served also has the same effect. It is well known that excellent quality of food and cooking fails . The sedentary fife of business and professional men in the strain of the world's work lowers the physical vitality and raises the threshold of appetite. Excess has blunted the sensations liiat should arouse agreeable feelings. conditions of effect in other The So the taste must be tempted. The longdelayed anticipation and the continued odor of the food fatigues and duUs the taste-secretory mechanism. They are pathological — — gastronomists. so that when the meal is served it fails to start the "psychic" flow of the salivary and gastric juices. and the food remained long undigested. Not. We are accustomed to speak of higher and lower thoughts. Probably here also in lies the explanation of loss of appetite some women who do their own housework. modern life produce much the same ways. however. which are the beginning of appetite.

Even though anger does not arise. but there It would shoTild be agreement upon the place and hour. Manyagreeable sensations working together have more value in brightening the emotions than their sum when applied separately. a too active mind starts resistance to the action of lower reflexes that in their very nature are sensitive to obstructions. like ideas. Appetite. Social likes and dislikes will take care of this. again. One's business is too serious for table talk. Investigations have shown that moderate excitement of a disagreeable tone quickly reacts upon the bodily activities. This is the psychological reason for the abolition of "shop talk" at meals. then contagious.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION to 373 tempt if the service be not neat. but the interest should be of the amateurish sort. by setting up interferences. the subjects should be those in which the group ested. would arrange be well if business and professional men their luncheon groups with much the same thought as they plan a dinner. without the excitement of fixed convictions. In digestion the effect is probably produced by draining off nervous impulses through the excessive activity of higher brain-centres. In part. it is the psychological principle of the summation of stimuli. taking care that the members be congenial. Naturally. the tension of too serious discussion tends to inhibit the reflexes and check the secretion of gastric juice. Pleasant conversation with choice friends adds to the zest. like worry. The psychology of the crowd also plays its and a few congenial friends ia animated conversation is always make a psychological crowd. In any case. Time enough should be allowed to avoid the feeling of hurry. is inhibiting in its effect A fifteen-minute limcheon is a business blimder as well as a psychological error. Business efficiency consists in taking . should be avoided. however. Heated discussions. and partly. is inter- The conversation should be in lighter vein. r61e. for hiury. On this account the associates should be selected with some thought.

The stage should be set to create both the bodily feeling and suggestion of pleasure. They would save more time. and gradually lose Because of loss of appetite they limit them- selves to the lighter. and their shortened life appetizing. Some things not usually thought of in connection with appetite are important in starting the "psychic" flow. This is feeding but it is not eating. and some things are expensive at any price. them. and digestion is certainly one of these factors. digestible foods. through so as to get back to business. Indeed. The psychological effect of change of clothing is an illustration. men often go across the street to a cafeteria that they may think about some matter which is troubling heavy interest deposit to the credit of business. and the pastry is swallowed with a gulp of coffee. Bustle begets nervousness. The atmosphere of these places is hurry. and from the belief that cheapness is altogether a matter of dollars and cents. hurry their appetite.374 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK all account of the factors that enter into tfae result. and in America this . and some one is waiting for a vacant seat. At the noon-hour they are crowded. We have seen that putting food into the cafeterias are psychological monstrosities. They eat much the same things each day. more The on the accumulated minutes which they In these places there is no incentive to keep the mind from the work one has just left. Efficiency depends more upon one's physical condition than upon anything else. stomach does not necessarily mean digestion and nourishThose who eat in cafeterias might as well stay in their offices and be fed through gastric fistulas. coffee. The importance of appetite for digestion shows that Their popularity springs from the mistaken notion that minutes are all that count in business efi&ciency. Conversation with those who lunch in these eating shops has almost iuvariably brought the same reply. ment. and money they save by is and frequently less doctor usually gets the this economy.

this much the same effect. All of this puts one into condition to be pleasantly affected by the sight and odor of food. alwajrs down to dinner. of course. when camping. the familiarity of prolonged ings seem to be quite as mind. at any rate. psychologically. The clothes look fresher merely because one has not seen them during the day. and it is well known that even slight relief from friction is refreshing. Change in refreshing. The influence of change on digestion is stiU more noVacations. But that is the reason for . This is true even when the shoes do not fit so well as those removed. the important psychological factor here. they require change of habits. and that produces a different feeling. and. The relief that comes with change of shoes when one is fatigued from walking is a matter of common knowledge. just as it Business is of the business attached to garments is connected with the office. Change of any sort usually some alteration in the feelings and attitude of the individual affected. Change is. The business or professional man comes home raiment is He makes sits only the toilet that cleanliness requires. one sees oneself differently. The friction association that makes common. The writer has often observed. but they are different. one of many even short ones. Feel- much a matter of clothes as of on the body is altered. And removal of business clothes rids thoughts and worries associated with them. ticeable when the environment is altered. Besides. tired. The smoothness of the and dumer clothes seems to iron out some wrinkles of the body. The clothes may be no better than those that were removed. and the digestive reflexes respond more readily to the psychic influence. If it is not exactly contempt in the present instance it is. Familiarity breeds contempt in more ways than one. are good digestive and business proposiVacations are abhorrent to some merely because tions. that change to an equally disreputable suit has freshens causes body and mind.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION is 375 too largely overlooked.

Probably this is due to stomachical tonus chiefly of psychological origin. and his digestion works meThe writer once saw a motto on a business man's desk which read. He chanically. and the man begins his work with a more alert judgment meals. He has a better perspective. The worries of business are not as troublesome since he sees that some of the matters are not so important as he thought when he stood facing them. The distinction from bodily death is that he who is mentally dead thinks that he is aHve. does the "next thing" mechanically. "Do the next thing. Routine kills. goes to his office mechanically. sees proportions more clearly.376 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DAY'S WORK taJdng them. on returning. Change of scene animates the mind by relieving It of the weariness of "the same old things". The things that one has been doing are no longer a part of oneself because one can no longer do them. when the experience is not repeated too frequently. There is no selection. Habits are stultif5dng. That is its value. Their magnitude diminishes with distance. one awakens the following morning mightily refreshed. the old takes on a new look. A physiological jolt benefits the organs and improves digestion." Now one who does "the next thing" never gets anywhere. . Other things settle themselves. So a man is able to view them objectively. no discrimination of values. is slower and less ef&cient. both internal and external. If it does not kill the body it blunts its sensory edge. takes a vacation does things mechanically. A startling change ia environment. It has been observed that sometimes at a banquet one can eat vastly more than the stomach would take care of under routine conditions. and it kills the mind. or rarely. acts beneficially and this mental composure re- upon digestion. with its necessary alteration of habits. throws one out of gear for the moment. both bodily and mentally. Response to stimulation. and the mental refreshment puts one into condition to anticipate one's Later. and. A man who never.

" promotes a vigorous metabolism. in addition. in the habits that we form. And quickening the bodily activities arouses the appetite and promotes digestion. They function together and derangement of one exerts a powerful influence upon the other. It causes a greater preliminary flow of "psychic" and. digestion is never a silent partner. Any break in routine is refreshing. in our thinking and acting. healthy sult of determination to and an totally separate and different. to control. and even in the selection of the "self " that is to control our Uves. and the shaiper the break the better. is a marvellously sensitive process. with occasional change of environment. then. in the onslaught of fatigue. and here the significance of outdoor exercise.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIGESTION 377 because his metabolism is improved. So we see that the mental juice. But in years of maturity few are unaware of the frailty of the machinery by which food is changed into the energy that produces the day's work. whether the rebe pleasant or of the bodily care that improves the "feelings. Its delicacy is not noticed during the vigor of youth by those who lead a free. creating a tonus that promotes the proper treatment of the food. naive people. becomes apparent. James once shocked certain Puritanic. monotony stale is of immense importance in the digestive process. whatever philosophical difficulties may arise in defining this relationship. devoid of humor. In determining our reconstruction will of the conditions to which we adapt ourselves. active life in the open air. is Indigestion sometimes an organic habit produced in part by the of sameness. This gives a keen appetite. . digestion plays a prominent rdle in the drama of Ufe. by saying that change is so important that even a spree has its value. has a tonic effect upon lie whole digestive tract. An active attitude of anticipation produces both psychological and physiological results. Digestion. Clearly. The psychical factor yields readily mind. Mind and body are not active.

.

157. Bradley. Jean B. i. M. 79. 12. Charles Francis. 100 Jf. Charles. Louis. Adaptation. 82. Dalibard. Adrenalin. Carlyle.. 86... 24. 149. and memory. of. Aristotelian theory. 86. 271. 356. Josh. Darwin. 271/. and 353 f-i physiological basis recall. interfering. blunders in. and digestion. sij 66. 20. Colorado penitentiary S3rstem. Automatic writing. 117. James. Billings. 283. 55. 147. 23. 39/. Adams. Bushido. CsBsar. 66. 208^. and fatigue. and adaptation.. latent. 53/... Dante.. 10/. 38/. 38/. Rear-AdmiraJ Sir Francis. Coimt de. 142/. 28. 17/. of infants and chil- and habit. 240. Ludwig. fixing. 216^. i... 77. Benzenberg. 3S. Johann. 203. Oliver. tive. King. 257. August. 38/.INDEX OF SUBJECTS Ability. Charles. 4/. 160. 60. 16. 2. King. and "reasonis. 208/. 268. unreflec6/.. 117. 18. and education. Charles. 134. 48. success of. 118. general. Edith. 191 Jf. 13. 78. 12. Beecher. in United States.. 107^. 321.. 33. Bebel. 266. 17.. 58. Charles the Tenth. 270. Henry Ward. from organic diseases. 184/. Association. 136. 17. 29. Copemican theory. 348^. and efficiency.. I. 117.. and habit. 62. of animals. 32. 27. Aptitudes. 44. 56. 369. IS9of. of man. 7j5. Bradlaugh. 115. 24/. 217. 27. 23/.. 124. Coincidences. Business problems. 21. Julius. principle ^53. 4.32. Advertising. 269. 38.. Brahe. 94.. 30^. Attention. and habit. intelligence. BufFon. and efficiency.. 30. Death-rate... 55. and learning. reasons for increase of. and adaptation. 69. Crystal vision. 124/. perverted." and 26. 3. 329. Clairvoyance. 262 _^. 121/. 131/. 88. 55. 28/. Cyrus. 52. 249/. 203. 217.. 152.. 265.. 62. 104/. 115. Beauford. 62. Tycho.'3o^.. 49. 224. ing" in animals.. Daguerre. Curtis. 80. 149. 136. dren. Adventures. and environment. 239 jf. 3/. 102.. 31/.. 69. 24. 71. 4/. 20s/. in Europe.. 145. and memory. 30. Cuvier. experimentation in. 379 . 30/. Agassiz. 24.. 257/.. Behavior. Biot. 32/.. Automatization. Beethoven. Diamandi.. 119. Louis. 144^... Cavell. Baron. Glenn. 156/. 126/. Cromwell. 4ff. "OeverHans. 93jf. value of. Thomas. 221 _^. significance of. 63/.

George. 176/. ^sjf. 22. 30. and emotions. 200 _^. 176. 348^.. and i. blunders Gladstone. 3S6/. I2S. 47. 152.. Emotions. 3sf. and daily life. conservatism _ of.. 3/. 196. 377. and psychic secretion of saliva.. 13. 51/. 4/. v.. and efficiency. 361 J". Facts. 13.. on animals. 181 _^. 39.. tric juice. habit. 168^. 107/. 3*8.. 67. mental complexes. meaning of. 184. 168. 170 J^. 197. effect of. E. causes of. Ericsson. Energy. 35. 13s. 63. 18. adaptation to.. Fatigue. 369/. i(>sf. stimulus EfiEort. and unpleasant emotions.. 49. 1S2/. and W. 70 jT-. 86. 19. and thinking.. 184... Exercise. Edison. "experts" in. 38. 115. Benjeunin... Forgetfulness. Efficiency. 72_^.. 27/. 48 J". Captain.. and of.. indifference to.. rapidity of.. measure in. i94#. Firman. 20. 180. uneventful. and exercise. igi.. and education. 176. and change. . Experience. and work. military. of animals. appetite in. 117. 3S6/.. r. 181/. Robert. loi. and response.. 42/'. and endurance. 9. 52 Jf-' in science. 241. busi- ness 61. Michael. change in. and fatigue. definition of. Thomas.. S3. 24. 23. frugality of. and exercise. reconstruction of.. 162. 63^. of. 165 jf. Germany.. 50. 225.. and Filene Co-operative Association.. 148^. 162.. 55 f-. 87/. and Extramarginal processes. 36s. 176^. 196/. Franklin. 76. 24.. 22. and adaptation. 8^. 117. 67/. Gastric juice. Fixed opinions. 365^. 38. cause of. substances. importance Experimentation.. 19s. 174 #. 13s. and memory. and prejudices. bias in. 103/- Endxu-ance. 188/. 232 _^.38o INDEX learning. Education. motive in. ig. 253/. 48. stimulating.. 137^.. 179/. /. 104. learning.. and adrenalin. Galileo. 368. 7. 6g... 22. 283. 70. muscular. Galvani. 88. 370. 45^.. i77. 24. 197.. 67/. and school work. 364/-. Genius. 75. 104. of Germany. lack of. Faraday. Franklin.. 119.. 88. social problems. 18s/. 119. 114^. 66. 24. 38/.. 183/.. 42.. Sir John. i2j. Diseases... psychic secretion of. 88^. 44.. Environment.. Fryatt. and practice. Fulton. 105. and endurance. 12/. s. and incentives. 33. and energy. 52. 168. 174^. Eliot. and psychic secretion of gasof.. 40. Galen. 87. General. and diet. Diet. variance of energy in. and 176^. and and experience. 22. 113. need of and habit. G. enjoyment.. 24.. 20. 66 Jf. of. 65. 184/. 181. 369^. 20. 7°. 7. Fox. 364/. 373 FalkenhajTi. of man. and digestion. Digestion. 49 Jf. 184. 148 Jf. John. conserved. 151.. and pl^urable emotions. and effort. character of. 25.. and fatigue. food. 14/. and rest.. classification of. tendency to minimum. 4S#-. interpretation of. sSflS7_ff. importance 170/. importance of.. and digestion. 191 Jf. 31/. 181/. 370. 152. 18/. 23. method of. 134. and monotony. 12..

and experience. 135/.. and memory. Intelligence.. 39. Inefficiency. Mclntyre. Liszt. and nervous activity. Hansard. £. P.. John. rapidity and reasoning.. S.^. 199... Samuel T. the periods for formation of. 156^. 273 Jf. 128/. 153.. 208/. Meade. 122. 340 J^. in animals. James J. and association. 147/-. 59/. 49. 56. Professor von. Joseph. 105^. 136. General George G. 113/. 85/. 151 f.. 163. 249/. man. 149. and . 83. 129. 98 jf. 279/. Hill. 117. physiology of. D. 2.. Elbert. 32/. 9.. 239/. Edmund. 154/. 324/.. 21. Joseph S. German. Claudia. Mai thus. no Halley.. 69/.. Abraham. of. 46/. of. Robert. 55.. Claude F. Indolence.. S. 153/. 107.40. 121. Lincoln. 117. Hypnosis. 46. 46. 152. Doctor Oliver Wendell. time ^t 155/-. 266 j^. of thought. Hooke. Lardner. Lovering." 160/. portance of. 23/. 269. Irwin. 284. incentives to. advantages 87/. and 44.. 137 jf. 93. 123. McClellan. and habit. 88. 61. 85.. 45. General George B. no/. association.. 241 J^. 107. 68. and adaptation. 153. 88. Johann. ijo. 97 jf. I47jf. and 104^. eco- nomical method of. 280/. 126 f. IS5. progress in. 117. 113/. 290. 305. 241. Doctor. and nervous system. 150. 163. 96. Instruction. Imagination. 142.. and Jackson. Jouffroy. Sir John. 95 Jf. Health. and instinct. 17/. Jeffsrson. 67. 153. 124/.. 123. 151.. 318. McClure. ress. U. 25. selection of..INDEX Golf. 47. 333/. Hubbard. and attention.. 162. practical motives in.. Humboldt. 175. and effort. Kepler. and mental attitude. 119.. 88. Johnson. 117. 88. 121.. measure of. 132. Hawkins.. and learning. S.. 60. Holmes. von. 139/. 149. 85. Kaiser. Alexander. 6. 222..... Stonewall. Hugo. function of. 152/. 271. 162. and tendency to forget.. Inaudi. 47. Reverend S... Lebon. 149. Habit. 217. 23. Langley.. 257/.. Martineau. 117. Lee. Jester. 22. Hauser. Huxley. Hooker. 102. Philippe.. General Joseph. 197.. 302. racial.. 316/. 49. Will. Victor. iioff. Professor Joseph. 2. 134. least resistance. of individuals. imin 49.. 244/.. 265. 381 286/. 156/. Lide. 221 f. 20... 124/. 39.. and monotony. Memory. 262/. 207/. Grant. Fiona. Instinct. Thomas. age. 276. and prog- Knowledge. and memory. Patrick. 116.. 328/. unconscious adoption of method. "Intuitions. 117.. Antoine. 150. 18. Keble.. Massaria of Padua. 130 ff. Macleod. General Robert. Learning... 212/. Harriet. Lavoisier.. 336. S. in. and instruction. Henry... 251. 323.

98. 219/. 216^. conflict between the.. Seneca. 46. 340. Georg. 344 #. Sherman. 45. 198 Jf. 173. 21. 271. 330. Wolfgang. 221. 67^. 218. 215/.. Retention. 2^. Prison-life. 309^. and habit. 271. 66. 156. 338. 257. 326/. 137^. Nerve-cells. Resistance. Piozzi. 260.. 269/.. and mental attitude. 339/... 38.. associative. 315/. 107.. 2S7. 23gjf. types of. physical basis of.. and associations. Recall. Thomas. tions. 2i6jf.. 69 J^. Napoleon... and learning.. 271. accuracy of. 181 /. 77. mental complexes. Mozart." and retention. 283. 242/. Louis. and rapidity of learning. 254/. 117. and sources Mollet. S3Natural selection. 55. 253/.. Observation. 197.. 40.. changes in. 234/. 70^. 251/.. Plenciz. 60Nogi. Theodor. Captain L.. and knowledge. and memory. 184/. Powell.. 266^. William H. Michel de. 271. 333/. of error in. 236. 238.. 117. INDEX and forgetfulness. 262/. theories of. 54. Ohm. Pasteur. Newcomen... Selves. 78. disregard of rules.382 fatigue. 67/. and fixed opinions. inconsistencies of> 33^ff-t make-believe personality. 47. Simpson. Marcus von. 200. General. 240. 167. 175.. 271.. 215/. Mommsen. 238^. Mental complexes.. 234. 106.ff. mrai- Pinkston. 156/. Riunor. and quantity of material. 332_^. 200/. Owen. 240. S&mces. 308. 287.. 241.. 85/-. 250. 34 tal eSect of. 268/.. Doctor James.^. Montaigne. and recall.. 264 _^. Sir Richard.. Sir Isaac. 281.. Smith. 348^. 267/. 2is^. 52. Prejudices. 291 _^. 272. 4sff. in. 27. Military achievements. 216 f.. 36. changes from develop- ment. 216^. 2'jijf. in criminal jurisprudence. Sir Baden. JT. Ruckle. 225/. 257. 240. Plateaus in learning. Saliva. Reflex actions. Abb6." 11. 216. Fremont. 80. Physical deterioration. "Psychics. Older. and vigor of body. and Nervous system. 64. 271. 118. and "rest periods.. 269. 302... 117.. 20. psychological effect of. 221.. 3. Newton. 217. IS. 17.. 340. 270/. 220. 76. 219. 76. and repetition. 283/. physical basis of.. 16/. 83. Robespierre. value of.. 267/.. Reasoning.. 128. 69/-. 234. 238. and intelligence. abnormal varia- Nowakowski. 78. 115.... selection 239/. factors in. 38. P. Psychophysical parallelism. 270. and voluntary effort. 240. psychic secretion of. 346. Palmer. .. warfare against. 328/. Robertson. S4. and imagery. sjrstems of. Alice Freeman. 270. 94. 250. and fatigue. 34S^. illustrations of. and interest. 203. varying. Phrases. 244/... SI Jf. of to-day. General William T. Neurones. Mrs. fatigue.. 158. Sharp. 246 Jf. William. 119. 327. Seward.

166. 283/. 198/. 24. Thomas. and thinking. Survival of fittest.. and talking. 282/. Charles. and Tynan.. method 61^. Rudolf. 289. 303/. 35/. 306 /.. 340/. influ- ence of oath. 69. 273. and biassed opinions. 28/.. observation. 321. 71. W. 27.INDEX Slogans.. 76. 38. 2^^f. 307/. transfer of. Alfred Russel. association of ideas. Yeats. memory. S3. 309 J. Weston. Gideon. 53/-. Young. 279^. 203. i6. 88. 66. accuracy of reports in. 170... Voltaire. 313. 49. Wallace. and feeling of accuracy. 48_#. West. 173. 117.. illustrations of. identification. B. Warden Thomas Typewriting. 308. 10. in trial courts. 277 Jf. Virchow. and memory. ob- Torricelli. President. 125.. fatigue. Themistocles. 78^. mental attitude in. Wilson.•. 289. factorsin. 53Synapses. bodily organs. geniuses.. 137/. 329. 223.. narration and questions. 18... and and suggestion. of. 288/. and reasoning. Suspended judgment. lapse of time in. 312/. Stimulants. 312. Wells. W. 48. 303/. Harry..." 8/.. former Governor. Zinny. 301/. 289/.. 42. 162. 383 Thinking. Sumner. in.. 87. 321. George Sylvester. Suggestion. 324. WUl. 333.. . 301/. 15. 42. 41/. 312. 39. Thackeray. "Trial-and-error method. Taber. SI Jfv 82.. Viereck. Testimony.. 283/. Edward Payson. 30s/. 58 J'. stacles to. 29r^. 28.. M. 63/. experiment J. picture-tests... adaptability of.. and 240. 289.

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C. 90. Dawson. 284. W. 241. i6. 245. O.. E. Sir Carpenter. 131. 363. Cutten. Adolf. 330. G. 33... Doctor George W. M. Davey. 267.. 177. Brown.. Binet.. 265. Aschaffenbm^. 255. BriU. Walter. Lloyd T. Anton Julius. 363/. 148. A. Hereward.. 253. Culler. Brown. A. Mademoiselle... L. Calkins. Franz. D. 245. Adam. J. 68. Batson. 265. 290. Dodge. George B. 330/. 91. Samuel T. 241. C.. 146. 332.. 83. 131. . A. 247. Stephen S. Baird. Auer. Bolton. Degand. J. Clodd. 245. 212. C. Ebbinghaus. 290. Bagehot. 255. 10.. Dearborn. Wm. 241. 38s Brown. Smith. Adams. H. David P. Choate. Bigham.. Seymour. F. Denis. 234... Burckhardt. J. 29. Jacob. A. Bair. W. 303/- W. 284. J. Chittenden. Gamaliel. 46. 114. 3r7. John.. Deming.. F. Charles A. 334. J. H.. Robert S. Boswell.. 148. 267/.. S4- Cave. Decroly.. Larguier des. 192... Daniel. H.. Chapman.. Alfred. 182. Bryan. 308. B. Bennett.. and J. S7. 286/. Theodore A. John S. 243. M. Ball. W. Carlson. Bradford... Justice. John. Russell H... James.. 256. Boas. 46. 331. 227/. 57. J. Samuel. Bancels. 191. Bancroft. 2SSMr. 46. 146. Wm. 91. 327. 366/. 115. 24r. 222. Bean. Edward. J. Judge. Crile. Borst. Bayliss. 26s. Cannon. J. 204/. Asa Don.INDEX OF AUTHORS Abbott. 317/. 149Dickinson. Colvin. Gustav. 57. 359/. 177. Carrington. Bickel. 260. 280/. Hermann. 207/.. 246/. 187. 250 /> 253/-. Book. 187. Bogen. 120. Boyd. 265. Arnold.. 256. F. Arthur J.. Dickinson. Barrett. 24s. 195. C. 92. J.. Warner. 241. 284. 71. Dewey. 241. 219. Edward. 166. sS9f- Baker. Defoe. 329. L. T. F. W. G. Dockeray. 348. Abbott. Coleridge. Lowes. 265. 36. Brown. Bergstrom. Bourdon. S. 365. Butler. C. Dana. Cohn. 265. William B. Coningsby. 86. 304. 255Benedict... Browning. F. W. B.. 192/.. 359/. E. Mary W. 249/.. Bidder. 256. Jonas.. H. Cade. . 306^. Francis. 366/. Frederic.

J. Lyon. Gal ton. Harter. no. 179. 232/. Justice. H. J. V.. 109. 25. 191/. 176. Frink. Lowrie. 248. Graham. 5°. 172. 340. 318. 253. Wood. 347. 15. 260. 226. 280. 359. 256. 167. 241. 280. R. E. . Mr. Jost.. D. Wm. Felix. Finkenbinder. Otto. Doctor H. 26. A. 20. R. 268. 254. 256. Finzi. 177/. 314. W. 247. John. D. Thomas. Elmo.. 252.. 183/. Ewald. George Parsons. H. 246.. 367.. Francis. R. Doctor Ernst. Foster. Mary W.. N. V. W. 246/. Winnefred.. 359/- Hawkins. Frederic C. 251. 267. Galsworthy.. 241. Th. 165. Hopkins. Kaznelson. E. 377Jennings.. 188. B. Field. 234. 367. 246.. 26s. 75. 44. Homborg. C. 116.. 229/. 194. Howells. 225/. Grahame. 254. Kingsley. 148. 336.. 320/. William. Stanley. 246... 113. 169/. 281. 34.. Jacobs. Kaes. 332.. A. Justus von. Michael. Jacobs. Lay.. Fisher.. 192. 104/. Heck. 243/. W.. Gruber. Michael. 102.. Benjamin. 351. 106. Esselmont.. J. 257. T. J. 251. 137/. 365. 256/. 360. F. 367Folin. IS4. 192. Doctor H. C. 220. Hill. 189. Harvey. Helena. N. 181.. B. 66.. Livermore.. Hill. Charles. 337. 222. W. Freud. Owen.. Donald.. 333. Lusk. Walther. Knors. O. James.. Keller. 254. Langford. Helen. P. 59- 367Fisk. Horace G. 256. Gross. 283. Nathaniel P. Ephrussi. Gotch. 51. E.. 192. F. O. Kirkpatrick. Jevons. Roliin Lynde. A. 176. 324/... 251. Doctor W.. 109. loi.. H.. Harvey. 176. Ellis. Leuba. Kemsies. Kipiani. 278.. INDEX T. 2S4. Henry.. Lee. Adolf. 244.. Lipmann. 109. 291. Henderson. Franklin. Jones. 50. Kenneth. 17. 175 f-> 187. Francis. 241. Al. Hunt. A. Harris. 287. 100/. L. 96. William. 113. E. F. C. Keen. Otto. 361. Kuhlmann. Irving.. Lyman. Hyde. Hodge. 251. Jones. Hodgson. 115. Jacopo. Ladd. Holder. L. Leonard. 2ig. M. 34. 65. Lobsien. W. 241. Hering. Sigmund. Hartt. A. 245. E. Hans. Charles F. Eugene L. Una. Faraday. 200^. 253. IS9. Lewis.386 Ebert. 246/. Lommd.. 75. M. 246/. 220. 157. Ernst. Henmon.. A. i. 256. Lathrop. 106. 50. Latarjet. Huxley. Henri.. Johnson. Liebig. 191.. Elliott. G. Hucthinson. V. Havelock. 267. D. St. 223. F. loteyko. Chas. 187. 58^. J... F.

186. Myers. 121. F.. r54. 246. Neumann. 332. 251. 60. 250/. 267. 173.. 69. M. 12^. 256.. 267/. Meumann. /.. 256. Elizabeth. Pohlmann. M.. Sharp. Clay. 253. 251. J. 318/. Stefinsson. Netschajeff. James. F. Schumann. Nellie L. E.. Repplier. Edwin. Doctor Charles D. 363/. Ernest H. Herbert.. M... 254. 253. Lloyd. 350. 348 jf. 166.. 253. 160. Marchant. Louise Ellison. 220. 167. Powdl. 116.. Hugo. Rousseau.. O. 254. Stafbuck. Doctor Morton. A. Sargent. 246/. 180^. Abbie Miinsterberg. CMEner. 317. Prince. 246. Bertrand. A. Walter W. 241. H. A. Schafer. General George B. Magnus. 193. Myers. 224. Nice. Edward L. Ordahl. Roach. Jean Jacques... Max. Pentschew. May. 90. 9. Edwin D. Magneff. Rhodes. Eugenio. 213 160. 30. Schmidt. 251/. Harriet. 256. Wm.. SpencCT. Murray. Oscar. Agnes. 256.. 246/. Richard. Rubner. 32. 368. H. E. Meredith. B. K. 137/. 68. J.. F. 253. 189. A. A. Robinson.. 205/.. Pyle. 256. Fairfield. Mackenzie.. 253- Max... O. Nipher. Reuther. Morgan. 246. 185/. Starling. E. 253. Quantz. 220. Henry Osier. Pavlov. 117. Radossawljewitsch. Nietzsche. 245. 177. 241/. 348. 387 246. K. 367. Nicolai. 267. Gfinter.... Dudley A. T.. Meisl. 348. 246. 90. Rittenhouse. 187. Russdl.. 220... 251.. Ivan. E. Schuyten. rsi. Doctor William.... B. 254. Moon.. D. G. Richet.. 166. ii8. Rossbach. 246/. F. Martineau. L... iio^. 179. 253. !o8.INDEX MacCauley. 127. Perrin. Noisworthy. P. G. Ogden. Smith. 220. Pierce. 244/. W. Robertson... 131. R. 55. L. E. Piper. i8o. Friedrich. E. 9.. C. Smith. Segal. McClellan. 256. W. Charles. Smith. 265. Fleming A. 265.. 187. R. W. 246/. Starch... Rignano. Naomi. Rejall. 154. 36. James F. 31/. A. Sasaki. A. 251. C. Miiller.. 267. 75. Frederick Y. 253.. 176.. Ruger. 251. Hugo. N. A. 256/. H. 256.. J. J. Francis E. George. Stanton. Smith. Adolf. 241/.. 254. Semon. 265. 350.. Munn. Mosso. 256. . R. 254. 218. C. 26/. Vilhjilmur. 340 J.. 359.. 2^6 £. Pfungst. R. McCaU. Fritz.. 191. Maggioia.. 251/. Compton. C. 316/. Perkins. Pilzecker.. 321.. 251. Osbom. 246. Meigs. Henry A. C. 89^. W.. M. Christo. E.

251. Alfred Russd. Edward L. 303.. 187. Wallace. ig$. W. 306.- Swayne. Woodworth. W. 138. Wreschner. 134.... Robert Louis. 190. Edw. Whitehead L. von.. Sully. 210/. Colonel.. 267. 333.. Wm. G. W. H. Washburn. Strong. 314. J. Wigmore. 196. Wirt. Yoakum. Stem... Shiro. Lottie. 167. H. C S.. 246/. 251. Mr.. W. James. 8. Justice. 23. W. Romiett. Weber. L. 332> 335Stirling. Max.. 127. . G. 155. S3.-'^ Sybel. Tasliiro. _/. Mrs. 268. Thomdike. Verrall. John B. Wessely. John H. 241/.. 130.388 Steffens. INDEX Verworn. 244/.. Wimms. K. Rudolf.. 160. 155. Wells. A. H. R. Winch. 166. Swift. 255Watson. 53.. 196 Vachfie. M.. 308.. Edgar J. 327.. Arthur. Oscar. 23.. Wm. S. 251. F. 99. 308. H. 130/. F. 254. Jr. 290. 183. Stevens. Vulpiu!. 2g8. 141/. A. 26.. 241. 148. 130. 257. 246. "9> 322. 305/. Thompson. . ISO. Stevenson. 216. 349. R. Wright. 253..

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