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This report is intended to conduct market analysis oI telecom companies operating in the UK
with the Iocus on their customer relationship. It will take into account diIIerent companies`
strategies to inIluence customers in order to retain them Ior long-run. In addition to this, this
report will also examine market Iactors which bear inIluence on companies` strategic and
tactical choices. The importance oI telecom sector Ior UK economy can be gauged Irom the
Iact that it is increasingly becoming chieI and essential Ieature oI manuIacturing sector.
ThereIore, it is essential that competing Iirms come up with new and innovative product
range which allows them to develop a close and long-term relationship with customers. In
addition to this, it is also pertinent that other Iields make use oI telecommunication
technology to derive advantages and beneIits Ior themselves. However, it is also true that
there are number oI trends and regulations which cast deep shadow on the nature oI this
industry. International regulations determine the industry standards which are required Ior
each Iirm to Iollow. In addition to this, multimedia content and speed are becoming new
Iactors which determine the attractiveness oI service providers (Engelhardt, 2005).
Aims and Objectives
Following are the primary aims and objectives oI this report:
1. To determine diIIerent market segments oI the UK telecom industry.
2. To conduct marketing audit oI this industry.
3. To determine diIIerent Iactors aIIecting macro-environment oI the industry.
4. To determine Iactors inIluencing customer buying pattern.
5. To determine relative value oI diIIerent companies and their products.
6. To analyse customer`s attitudes in context oI customer relationship
. To determine those Iactors which allow companies to build long-term relationship
with their customers.
8. To analyse the perIormance oI diIIerent Iirms operating in the market.
9. To determine the critical success Iactors oI the industry.
10. To identiIy the Iactors that determines the relationship between customer loyalty and
provision oI service.
Industry Definition
UK telecom sector not only represents the telephone services oI diIIerent companies but it
also include all types oI access to diIIerent networks such as internet. This deIinition covers
dissemination oI all type oI inIormation which can take shape oI sound, pictures, etc. The
mediums are also several. Transmission medium can include cables, radio waves, relay or
satellite networks. Telecommunication industry is not limited to cellular technology but it
also takes into account telegraph and telex communication (Gallacci, 2006).
Background of the UK telecommunication industry
Telecommunication sector traces its roots Irom the development oI telephone exchange in the
country. However, growth was witnessed in this sector during late 90s which completely
changed the outlook oI the industry. Then in the succeeding years, deregulation and
privatization Iurther improved eIIiciency and brought new competition in the market.
Recently, the UK telecom sector has experienced increased competition which has Iorced
competitors to Iocus on both price and non-price competition. Moreover, EU regulatory
Iramework has also brought changes in the UK telecom industry. However, there are number
oI constraints which have limited the growth oI this sector. One such constraint is the
diIIerence between expected and actual demand oI telecomm services. However, on overall
perIormance, UK telecomm sector is among the Iour big markets oI the Europe. At the same
time, it also the second largest telecommunication industry as Iar as the value-addition is
concerned (Gallacci, 2006).
haracteristics of the UK Telecommunication Industry
This industry can be characterized as a mixture oI monopolistic competition and oligopoly.
Liberalization allowed induction oI new competition which introduced new and diIIerentiated
products and services. In addition to this, the market can be categorized as mass due to
presence oI large number oI customers. Moreover, industry structure demands capital and
intensive approach which means a lot oI money is required to enter this market. This also acts
as a barrier to new entrants. Service is loosely based on inIrastructure e.g. 3G, EDGE, etc.
Another characteristic which provides beneIit to present Iirms is large economies oI scale
which put them in cost-advantage against new competition.
Industry Analysis
The UK telecommunication sector has experienced phenomenal growth in last Iew years. In
200, it was able to generate revenues oI £61.5bn which made it one oI the largest industries
in the country. There are many Iirms competing in the industry but there are only Iew which
can be characterized as major players. Among these players, British Telecom is the oldest
player but lately has been losing its market share Irom new vibrant competitors. Other than
BT, the major players in UK telecommunication industry are Orange, VodaIone, T-Mobile,
O2 and Virgin (Gallacci, 2006).
Level of ompetition in the Market
The competition is high in the industry which has Iorced competitors to indulge in both price
and non-price competition. Mobile retail is the leading Iactor in industry`s revenue stream.
New technologies such as 3G are also gaining popularity which has Iurther stepped up the
competition. Voice and data-related revenues have reached Iigure oI £15.1 billion. In similar
Iashion, revenues Iorm SMS has also seen an increase oI 28°. The Iigures relating to the
industry paint a very healthy picture (OIcom, 2010). Following table shows some oI the data
relating to the industry:
Subscriptions 3. million new subscriptions
3G connections increase oI 60°
SMS 59 billion SMS in 200 alone (an increase by
MMS 59.1 billion
Revenue revenues rose by 4° in 200
SMS revenue per connection 1° increase
Adopted Irom: (OIcom, 2010)
O2 is currently the market leader as it took the number one position in 200. It enjoys Iine
run as it shares keep on increasing in comparison to other competitors. The position oI O2
can be measured Irom the Iact that it generated revenue oI about £4.1 billion whereas T-
Mobile and Virgin Mobile generated revenue pI£2. billion. Following table shows
subscriptions oI each major player (OIcom, 2010):

VodaIone 16.5 million subscriptions
O2 20.0 million subscriptions
T-Mobile 1.3 million subscriptions
Orange 15. million subscriptions
3UK 4.0 million subscriptions
Adopted Irom: (OIcom, 2010)
$egmentation Analysis
Market Demographics
United Kingdom has total population oI 60 million. Around 48 million people use mobile
phones which not only show consumer inclination towards cellular technology but also make
visible the potential oI growth. Moreover, around 0 million people have active connections
which show consumers` preIerence Ior multiple connections (OIcom, 2010).
Around 5° oI the mobile users belong to male gender whereas rest are Iemale users. It also
indicates that advertisement targeted towards male members oI the society is more eIIective
than their counterparts. In addition to this, mobile are mostly used by population under the
age oI 34. Around 59° oI mobile usage is done by market oI age 34 and below. On the other
hand, people above age oI 65 represent the smallest segment Ior mobile companies. This can
be seen Irom the Iact that this segment makes only ° oI total calls while their contribution
towards SMS stands at 5° (OIcom, 2010).
Mobile internet has been very popular in public and has Iuelled the demand oI not only
mobiles but also service providers. In 200, there was increase oI .8 million 3G connections
which only substantiates the popularity oI new technology in public.

ew Trends
Mobile advertisement is one oI new trends which have gripped the UK telecommunication
industry. This trend has taken birth Irom the explosion oI mobile internet and new devices
such as IPhone and Google Android phone which are more internet Iriendly than other
mobile devices. These mobile devices are more supportive to multimedia content such as
YouTube which are very popular among general public. Resultantly, mobile advertisement
has increased maniIolds. It is estimated that there have been an increase oI 300° in this
segment. It is also estimated that mobile advertisement segment will stand at £18m by the
end oI 2011. Similarly, mobile devices have also witnessed diIIerent trends. As technology
intensive Iield, it has seen many new innovations which have completely reshaped the
landscape oI the cellular technology. Apple iPhone and the iPhone 3G have completely
revolutionized the market. Similarly, O2 has also changed the market dynamics with the
introduction oI unlimited bandwidth utility. However, there is still potential oI growth in
internet mobile market. Only 11° oI mobile users use mobile Ior the purpose oI accessing
internet. This market segment is leveraged by mobile companies through introduction oI pay-
as-you-go models which makes around 22° oI the mobile broadband connections. Following
are some oI the other new trends that have recently emerged in the mobile market oI the
United Kingdom (Trauth & Pitt, 1992).
O Around 3° oI mobile users have used their mobile devices Ior the purpose oI
recording videos.
O Around 50° oI the consumers give preIerence to Bluetooth enabled mobile sets when
making buying decision regarding new mobiles.
O More than 20° oI mobile users also use mobile Ior downloading audio content such
as latest music tracks.
O Internet usage stands at 50° which means that halI oI mobile owners in UK use
internet Ieature oI their mobile devices.
O Usage oI mobile Ior downloading and uploading video and pictorial content stands at
O GPS is gaining popularity but it currently used by 20° oI mobile population.
O Video streaming is done by almost 18° oI the population.
O The application oI e-commerce through cellular technology is still low as only 9° oI
the mobile users use it to either make purchases or pay utility bills.
Marketing Audit
Marketing audit is done to determine and understand the inIluence and impact oI variables
operating in the internal and external environment oI the industry. There are number oI tools
which can be used to conduct marketing audit. As we are more interested in the macro-
environment oI the industry, we will be making use oI PESTEL analysis (Grant, 2005).
PE$TEL Analysis of the Industry
PESTEL analysis allows clear and comprehensive understanding oI macro-environment
which regulates the telecom industry in United Kingdom. Following is the breakdown oI
PESTEL analysis:
Political factors
The current political conditions in the country promote the environment oI deregulation.
Resultantly, new competition has emerged in the market which has increased the choices Ior
buyers. Similarly, as a result oI deregulation Irom EU Iront, UK mobile market is expected to
Iace new competition in its market Irom the rest oI the Europe (Bichta, 2001).

conomic factors
Global economic meltdown has put the UK economy into deep recession. The global
economic crisis has greatly inIluenced the public Iinances in UK and has leIt no visible path
to get out oI it. The deIicit ratio on GDP has reached 13° in UK arousing more Iear on the
investors and policy makers. The oIIicial reports on the national debt rate states that it is
about 68° oI GDP and is accelerating at continuous rate. This national debt ratio was 38°
only three years back and it now seems that it will exceed to 100° in the coming three years
(Global Economic Crisis, 2010). Numerous jobs have been lost which has decreased the
purchasing power oI general population. Such economic scenario plays its role in hampering
growth oI mobile market in the country (G.Jayalakshmi, 2009).
Social factors
Socio-cultural Iactors have deep inIluence on this sector. The emergence oI social networking
platIorms such as Facebook and Twitter has provided especially the young population with
another medium to interact. The analysis oI culture oI UK by the HoIstede (2011) dimensions
leads to the understanding that the people oI United Kingdom scored low at Power Distance
Index (PDI), the rate oI Individualism (IDV) is high among the people, the culture oI UK is
male dominated and masculinity driven which means it scored high on Masculinity (MAS),
the people in UK are not superstitious to anything and the people are not very religious in
nature this leads to the understanding that the people oI UK scored low at Uncertainty
Avoidance Index (UAI) and Iinally due to high rate oI individualism, people do not seek long
term commitments which means the people score low at Long-term Orientation (LTO).

Source: HoIstede, 2011: Cultural Dimensions oI UK
Various cultural studies noted that the culture has signiIicant impact on the buying behaviour
oI the consumers. The culture is the driving Iorce that inIluences their decisions, acceptability
oI technology and adoption oI technology (HoIstede, 1991). This has brought signiIicant
social and cultural change in not only United Kingdom but also in other developed
economies. Such happening has brought a change in the liIestyle oI young urban population.
Such change has led to increase in demand oI internet mobile devices as well as new
technologies such as 3G especially in younger segment oI the market (Ivy Thesis, 2011).
%0chnological factors
Telecommunication industry is technology dependent and technology intensive industry.
ThereIore, the emergence oI new technologies has proIound eIIect on the overall outlook oI
the industry. Resultantly, cellular companies and service providers make use oI new
innovations to gain competitive advantage. One such example is oI iPhone by Apple. IPhone
revolutionized the landscape oI mobile devices in the whole world as it introduced new
android technology in the market. Similarly, 3G technology has been very popular among
mobile users due to its advanced Ieature and high speed. 3K has the privilege oI being market
leader in this market segment. It is essential Ior mobile companies to be proactive in
anticipating technology changes in order to survive in the market. The decline oI British
Telecom can be attributed to their inability to anticipate and react to technology changes. It is
anticipated that number oI radical changes in technology will occur in this sector which will
completely revolutionized this sector. These changes will be in Iorm high internet speeds
available on internet and new technologies such as android which will make mobile interIace
Ior user more Iriendly and convenient (Liao et al., 2009).
nvironm0ntal factors
Telecom is least aIIected by environmental Iactors as unlike transportation or petroleum
sector, it does not directly or indirectly aIIect or alter environment. Gruber (2003) suggested
that the telecommunications industry is a Iast paced industry that has become one oI the
major contributors in the mobile phones industry. There are various trends in the industry that
aIIect the perIormance oI the companies. In general, the environment oI the mobile
companies is gravitating towards the global operations. The mobile Iirms like O2 Iace certain
challenges in the production and provision oI new and better products at low costs and
competitive prices.
Moreover, the globalization is another trend that widely inIluence the way these Iirms are
operating in the domestic and international markets. The global operations allow the
companies to devise strategies in such a way that ensures the large scoop oI proIits Irom their
markets. Jonash (2000) noted that such environments are monitored by the Iirms via eIIective
inIormation technology systems and internet to understand and identiIy these trends and their
impacts on the companies at large.
L0gal factors
Legal inIluence exists in Iorm oI deregulation measures adopted by country`s legislative body
or organization like European Union. Such measures directly aIIect governing rules oI this
sector. In addition to this, it also determines the level oI competition in the industry. Telecom
sector is expected to witness more deregulation in the coming years (Gallacci, 2006).
Another eIIective tool to conduct marketing audit is Porter 5 Iorces model. This Iramework
allows comprehension oI diIIerent variables operating in the external environment oI the
industry (Porter, 1980).
Porter 5 Forces Analysis
%h0 thr0at of th0 0ntry of n0 comp0titors
Threat oI new entrants in UK telecom sector is signiIicant. This is due to that Iact that there is
still potential oI growth in this sector. However, Iollowing are some oI the Iactors which
reduce the level oI this threat (Bichta, 2001).
O Huge capital investment required to setup telecom operations.
O Economies oI scale enjoyed by companies currently present in the market.
O Customer loyalty oI present brands.

%h0 thr0at of substitut0 products or s0rvic0s
The threat oI substitution is very high due to presence oI similar products and service, low
switching costs and ease oI access to product`s inIormation. However, companies make use
oI new and innovative technologies to gain competitive advantage over their competitors
(Trauth & Pitt, 1992).
%h0 bargaining po0r of custom0rs
Customers are the king oI UK telecom sector as they enjoy signiIicant bargaining power. Due
to regulated nature oI the industry, there is cut-throat competition between rival Iirms. Such
competition only beneIits customers who are oIIered diIIerent products and services at
relative prices (Porter, 1980).
%h0 bargaining po0r of suppli0rs
The suppliers mostly consist in Iorm oI companies which provide mobile operators with
technology inIrastructure needed to setup mobile operations in the country. In addition to
this, mobile manuIacturers are also the suppliers Ior this industry. Due to presence oI large
number oI suppliers, the bargaining power oI suppliers is only moderate.
%h0 int0nsity of comp0titiv0 rivalry
The intensity oI competition is very high in this industry. Rival Iirms make use oI both price
and non-price strategies to gain competitive advantage over their rival Iirms. Another
indicator oI intense competition is the level oI budgetary allocation Ior marketing and
advertisement purposes. Another indicator is the expenditure on research and development in
order to develop new technologies which could allow companies to gain advantage over their
rivals (Gallacci, 2006).

ustomer Decision Making Process and the Role of RM
Customer Relationship Management is deIined as enterprise-level system intended to conduct
customers` interactions with the organization in most eIIicient manner. ThereIore, it is
essential Ior any organization to make use oI CRM systems to improve their relationship with
customers. For telecom sector, which is entirely dependent on IT inIrastructure, CRM holds
a central position. As a result, companies like O2 and T-Mobile are increasingly cognizant oI
its signiIicance and are making use oI it to develop long-term relationship with consumers
(G.Jayalakshmi, 2009).
CRM enables organization to take a complete and holistic view oI customer decision making
process. It provides it with real-time inIormation which enables it to react to customer needs
in most appropriate and timely manner. CRM allows telecom companies to interact with their
customers in order to entertain their queries, orders, suggestions and complaints. CRM also
assist companies` sales Iorce in identiIying and prospecting new leads. It identiIies problem
areas as well as perIormance gaps in the provision oI goods and services. Telecom companies
can use CRM in Iollowing ways to improve their services and hence build long-term
relationship with their customers (Fendelman, 2010).
1. To provide their sales Iorce with real-time and relevant inIormation which could
allow them to respond to customer needs and demands in Iace-to-Iace contact.
2. CRM system can be integrated with call centre operations in order to collect customer
data relating to consumer needs and wants. Later, this inIormation can be used to
extract trends through application oI tools such as data mining.
3. CRM can be used to identiIy inIormation which is mostly enquired by customers.
This inIormation can then be provided on internet Ior the convenience and ease oI
In addition to this, CRM system can allow any telecom company to determine buying pattern
oI their customers. For instance, T-Mobile can use CRM system to determine the
demographics oI their users which mostly conduct international calls. Such data will allow
them to respond to this market segment in most personalized manner. Customization oI
service allows Iirms to build a sustainable completive advantage (Kotler, 1988).
Evaluation of Product Range
It is known Ior oIIering simple pay-as-you-go packages. However, it is bit expensive in
comparison to other operators and has poor signal range in some parts oI the country. Its
geographic coverage does not include whole country and its 3G signals are not up to mark.
Nevertheless, it oIIers best customer service in the industry (Telecoms Market Research,
VodaIone was the Iirst mobile company to enter UK telecom sector. It is currently the world
largest telecommunication group. In United Kingdom, it oIIers comprehensive coverage
encompassing almost all oI the country. It is also known Ior its pay-as-you-go service and
oIIers one oI the best customer service which can be substantiated Irom it large customer
base (Telecoms Market Research, 2008).
It oIIers service in relatively higher prices to other operators. Their customer service is also
reported to be very poor. It also oIIers good network coverage with strong signal strength. It
also intends to oIIer greater 3G service in the country (Telecoms Market Research, 2008).
The recent merger among T-Mobile and Orange in their UK operations has made it the
largest mobile phone operator in UK with more than 28.4 million customers and increased
market shares above 3°. This merger has become the competitive advantage Ior both oI the
companies (Wray, 2009).

Pay-as-you-go vs. Long-Term ontracts
The introduction oI pay-as-you-go has revolutionized the competitive setting oI UK telecom
industry. It has liberated consumers Irom suIIering agonizing post-paid service and its related
charges (Fendelman, 2010). However, there is still a market segment which preIers long-term
contracts due to their personal and business considerations. The popularity oI pay-as-you-go
can be gauged Irom the Iact that some people preIer to use pay-as-you-go pricing even when
using long-term contracts. Following are some oI the Iactors which determine the choice oI
the consumer to either use pay-as-you-go or long-term contract (Fendelman, 2010).
1. The Iinancial ability oI consumer. A person with regular and stable income stream
will most likely to go Ior long-term contract.
2. Age is another important Iactor. Young segment oI the market will most likely to go
with pay-as-you-go packages as they usually are limited by Iinancial constraints.
3. Usage. Customers with repetitive and routine usage will most likely to go Ior the
long-term contracts.
4. TariII. Pay-as-you-go usually oIIers more choices oI pricings than long-term contract.
5. Packages oIIered by diIIerent operators are also one oI the Iactors which inIluence the
decision oI consumer.
Usually, pay-as-you-go packages are considered more cost-eIIective than long-term
contracts. This can be substantiated Irom the Iact that it is gaining more popularity than latter.
Following table shows tariII rates Ior pay-as-you-go package Ior O2.
Price Minutes Messages
.50 0 unlimited
10.5 100 500
15.5 300 unlimited
Adopted Irom: (Fendelman, 2010)
Role of Promotion $trategies in Building Long-Term ustomer Relationship
Promotion is done to increase the awareness oI the product as well as to persuade consumer
to give preIerence to a speciIic brand in his decision making process. There are number oI
promotional tools which are available to manager which can be used Ior the purpose oI
inIluencing and altering consumer behaviour. Following are some oI the tools which can be
used by manager to build long-term relationship.
1. Advertising. It is deIined as paid presentation oI a brand where sponsor can be clearly
identiIied. The primary beneIit oI advertisement is that it can make use oI diIIerent
media. Similarly, it has large market reach than other promotion tools. Telecom
companies excessively make use oI advertising to promote their products and
services. For this purpose, they allocate a large amount oI resources in their budget
(Assael, 1998).
2. Sales Promotion. It is another eIIective way to promote one`s product. Using sales
promotion, companies can induce customer to make purchase. This is quite relevant in
telecom sector as it can be used to make sales oI complementary products and
packages. Sales promotion is used by companies to increase sales in short-term (Liao
et al., 2009).
3. Personal Selling. Sales Iorce is responsible to conduct personal selling. CRM can play
essential role in personal selling. It can provide salesmen with the relevant
inIormation which can be used to close the deals. As personal selling entails direct
interaction and communication between consumers and sellers, CRM can enable
organizations and their sales Iorce to provide customized and personal service. Such
service goes long way in building sustainable relationship with customers (Liao et al.,
4. Publicity. Publicity is the below the line promotional methodology which is directed
on the consumers without letting them know about it (Kotler, 2009). Publicity is
mostly Iree oI charge and it is a part oI public relations maintained by the company to
obtain the Iavourable reviews oI the customers, employees, stockholders, government
oIIicials, and society in general (Berkowitz et al, 2000). Once publicity is done, it
cannot be repeated. It is an unconventional method oI promoting products and service.
It is usually non-paid communication using diIIerent mediums but organization
indirectly incurs publicity costs. However, it can create both negative and positive
perception about the brand (Trauth & Pitt, 1992).
It is pertinent to note that managers and their organization do not make use oI single method.
Instead, they develop promotion mix which makes use oI each above-mentioned tool
according to their eIIiciency and eIIicacy.
AIter conducting market analysis oI the UK telecom industry, we can deduce Iollowing key
1. There is potential oI growth in this sector as there are number oI niches present in the
market such as internet, mobile commerce, etc. which can easily be identiIied by
organizations. Focusing on such segments will allow telecom companies to establish
their Ioothold which could eventually result in increased proIitability.
2. CRM plays signiIicant role in developing long-term customer relationship. It is on the
basis oI eIIicient and eIIective CRM system that O2 was able to achieve status oI
market leadership.
3. DiIIerent Iactors inIluence the consumer choice in selecting either the pay-as-you-go
or long-term contract.
4. DiIIerent promotion strategy is required Ior each oI the above-mentioned options.
5. New trends such mobile internet, advertisement are rapidly changing the competitive
landscape oI the industry.
6. Technological changes have proIound eIIect on the competitiveness oI the industry.
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Research Methodology
Secondary data was to use to conduct this analysis. This secondary data was mostly in Iorm
oI books, article journals and research papers. The studies relating to customer loyalty and
role oI CRM in telecom sector was given preIerence and priority. The inIormation derived
Irom these studies and research paper was used to conduct thorough analysis aIter which
conclusion and recommendation were given.

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