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Reading and Writing Module 2

Pictures and People

Teachers Guide

Curriculum Project
May 2009

Reading and Writing 2: Describing People and Pictures Teachers Guide - 1

1. Introduction
This introduction section looks briefly at all the points students will cover in this module. Following sections focus on these points in detail.

Preview. Ask the students (in any language):

What do you know about descriptions? What do we describe and when? What language do we usually use to describe something?

Put their answers on the board. A. In groups, students look at the picture and discuss the questions. Example answers: - There is a boy in the picture. - He is sitting and looking away. - I dont think he is happy/ I think hes happy. - I think hes about 13 years old. - He is too young to be in the army and to fight a war. He should be at school instead. - Child Soldier or A Child at War, etc. B. Look at the example sentences next to the picture. Groups make more sentences about this picture, using the same sentence structure. Groups write sentences on the board. Elicit corrections from the class. C. In groups, students think of ideas to complete the chart. Write the chart on the board. Elicit ideas and write them on the chart. Example answers:
What can you see in the picture? What can you imagine about what you see in the picture?

I can see a boy. He has a gun. He looks sad.

I think he is a soldier Maybe he misses his mother I think he doesnt want to be a soldier

D. Students read the description, and marks the mistakes. Elicit correct sentences. Example answers: Hes about 20 Hes about 13. He looks happy He looks unhappy He has a small gun. He has a large gun. Hes wearing a school uniform Hes wearing an army uniform Theres an elephant beside the boy. Get students to read out a correct paragraph.
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2. Sentences
A. Elicit ideas of what students can find in a sentence. Write their ideas on the board. Try to elicit these things: words subject verb/noun/adjectives etc (parts of speech) full stop/comma/exclamation mark (punctuation) object letters capital letters B. Students decide if these are sentences or not. If not, they decide why they are not sentences. Students read the information in the box, and discuss their answers in pairs. Answers: 1. sentence 2. no verb, e.g. My friend in Mae Sot is a teacher. 3. sentence 4. sentence 5. no subject, e.g. She teaches mathematics to high school students in Shan State. 6. no verb, e.g. My fathers old blue motorcycle goes very fast. 7. sentence 8. sentence 9. no verb, e.g. A beautiful house beside the Salween River costs a lot of money. or add a subject and verb at the start: We live in a beautiful house beside the Salween River. 10. sentence

Look at the Parts of the Sentence box. Clarify anything the students dont understand.

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C. Students identify the mistakes, and make them into correct sentences. Answers: 1. I think the boys name is Maung Maung Soe. 2. He was born in a village near Pa-an, in Karen State. 3. He Didnt go to school. 4. His mother and sisters are very poor, and his father is dead . 5. There is a cinema in his village. 6. Maung Maung Soe likes going to the cinema. 7. One night, some soldiers came to the cinema. 8. They took Maung Maung Soe to the army headquarters. D. In pairs, students write incorrect sentences like the sentences in C. You may want to elicit examples and write them on the board first. They can refer to the Parts of the Sentence box for ideas. Pairs exchange incorrect sentences with another pair. Pairs correct each others sentences, and give them back. Were they right?

3. Structures to describe pictures: there is/are

In the next three sections, students focus on different grammar structures commonly used to describe pictures. The first one deals with there is/there are. Many students have difficulty using this structure, because of its unusual form. There is a pronoun used to show that something exists, followed by the verb, then the subject; There are some exercises on this page. It is quite different from most other English sentence structures, which commonly go subject + verb. Dont expect students to be able to use this structure correctly all the time, this takes years of exposure and use. A. Students decide whether these sentences are true (about their classroom) B. Students look at the examples in the grammar box, and fill the gaps with the grammar terms. Answers: There is + singular , countable noun . There is + uncountable noun . There are + plural noun . In the negative , use isnt and arent with there. Use any with plural and uncountable nouns. Check that students understand the information in the grammar box.

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C.Students complete the sentences so that they are true about their situation. Possible answers: 1. There is some food in the kitchen. 2. There isnt any gold under the classroom. 3. There is a lot of dust outside the window. 4. There is a good football team in this school. 5. There arent any tigers near here. 6. There isnt a piano in my house. 7. There are some soldiers at the checkpoint.

Extra activity: Each student writes three sentences about her/his house, using there is/are/isnt/arent. Two sentences must be true, and one must be false. Students read their sentences to their group. Can the group identify the lie? You may need to demonstrate this yourself first, on the board. D. Give students one minute to look at this picture. Then get them to close their books. Give them three minutes to write as many sentences as they can about this picture. After three minutes, get students to stop. Who has the most sentences? Get some students to write sentences on the board. Elicit corrections from the class. Look at the information in the grammar box, and clarify anything that students dont understand. E. Students make questions using there is and there are. Answers: 1. Is there a dog at your house? 2. Are there any ants in the kitchen? 3. Is there any chalk in the classroom? 4. Are there any computers at the school? 5. Is there any money in your bag? 6. Is there a box under the desk? In pairs, students ask and answer these questions about themselves.

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4. Structures to describe pictures: countable and uncountable nouns

This section focuses on countable and countable nouns. It also introduces mindmaps, and has some easy mind-mapping practice activities. Mind maps are a useful tool for students to organise their ideas before writing. They are also useful as a method to remember vocabulary.

A. Students look at the picture and read the paragraph. Get them to identify all the items in the paragraph.

B. Students go through the paragraph and underline all the nouns. Where possible, students write single and plural forms of these nouns in the chart. Answers:
single plural

child woman girl mother boy brother baby

children women girls mothers boys brothers babies

Make the point that water, soap, soap powder and sand have no single and plural forms. You cant count them - they are uncountable. Check that students understand the information in the grammar box.

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C. Students classify the nouns into countable and uncountable, and write them in the chart. Answers:

D. Students decide if the underlined nouns are countable or uncountable. Answers: 1. uncountable 2. countable 3. countable 4. uncountable 5. uncountable 6. uncountable 7. countable E. Students write some sentences like those in exercise D, with an underlined noun. Students exchange sentences, and identify the noun - is it countable or uncountable?.
countable uncountable

F. Help the students identify the categories (as in the diagram) for uncountable nouns. bread v egetable adv ice grass Put the diagram on board. Students come up and put more examples for each category. banana m eal inform ation rubbish Encourage students to look through the module for examples, and also use their own ideas. furniture w ork ex am ination colour anim al Some more categories and examples: adult w ood bam boo office num ber k now ledge rice Things you can pour: sugar, beer, grain, fishpaste, etc. Materials we can make things out of: iron, wood, wool, etc. Abstract ideas: luck, energy, love, information, etc. Religions and beliefs: Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, communism, capitalism, etc. Sports and activities: football, basketball, volleyball, weaving, music, etc. Extra activity: Play Match the Description. Students work in groups of three or four. Give each group five pictures from newspapers or magazines. Groups choose one of their pictures, and write six sentences about it. Collect all the pictures, and give them to different groups. Groups read out their sentences. The group with the picture being described holds up their picture.

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5. Structures to describe pictures: Qu antifiers

Quantifiers is a term that covers pronouns used to show quantity that is not specific, such as few, little, lot, much, many, some, none, several, couple, any, most, etc. In this module, we focus on some, any, much, many and a lot. A. Students look at the picture and discuss it. Where is this? What are these people doing? What is there on the ground? Students read the paragraph. Encourage them to use their dictionaries with unfamiliar vocabulary. Circle all the nouns that come after the underlined words, and identify whether they are countable or uncountable. Answers: rice - uncountable smoke - uncountable ash - uncountable trees - countable fruit - uncountable relatives - countable food - uncountable money - uncountable Last week, there was a lot of rice on this hill. Now, there isnt any rice. Theres some smoke, and a lot of ash on the ground. Before, a lot of trees grew here. Now, there arent many trees, and there isnt much fruit. These people are going to stay in another village. They have some relatives there. They dont have any food now, and they dont have much money. Luckily, they have a lot of relatives. B. Students classify the phrases with quantifiers (underlined words) into positive and negative, countable and uncountable, and write them in the chart. You dont need to spend a lot of time defining and explaining what is a quantifier, the terminology is not so important. Answers:

C. Students look at the examples in the grammar box, and fill the gaps with the grammar terms. Answers: We use any in negative sentences and questions , with countable and uncountable nouns We use many in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions, with countable nouns . We use much in negative sentences and questions , with uncountable nouns : We use a lot of in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions , with countable and uncountable nouns :
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D. Students fill the gaps with some or any. Answers: 1. some 2. some 3. some, any 4. any 5. some, some 6. any 7. some 8. any 9. any E. Students write 3 sentences with some, and 3 sentences with any about the picture. Students exchange with a partner and correct each others sentences.

F. Play KeepTalking around the class. The first student says a sentence about the picture, using some or any. The next student says another, different sentence. Continue around the class. If a student cant think of a sentence, or says an incorrect sentence, they are out of the game. The winner is the last student to think of a sentence. Encourage students to use their imagination - to infer things about the picture.

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G. In groups, students decide whether these sentences are true or false. Answers: 1. true 2. false 3. false 4. false 5. true 7. false 8. true 9. false 10. true 11. true

6. false 12. false

H. Students complete the gap-fill. Answers: I havent eaten much food today. I havent got much money to spend but I need to buy many things . I have a headache. I dont remember how much whisky we drank last night. I think a lot of whisky . I think I smoked a lot of cigarettes too, I have a sore throat now. I feel very lonely. Many of my friends live far away from me. Not many people want to be friends with me. Why? I. Students write true sentences about their home town using there is/are and some/any/much/many/ a lot of. Students exchange with a partner and correct each others sentences. J. As a class, think about the school resources - teaching and learning materials, equipment, facilties. Brainstorm a class list of the things the school has, and things the school needs. Students write sentences about these things, e.g. We havent got many social studies books. There are a lot of students. In the library, there are some English music cassettes. You might be able to use this information in school reports to the education department to funders, or in the school magazine. Extra activity: Usage Xs and Os. Put the students into two teams. Team X starts by picking one of the words in the chart and making a sentence with it. If they get it right, they put an X over the word. Team O picks another word and makes a sentence. If they get it right, they put an O over the word. The team that gets three words in one row wins the game.

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6. Structures to describe pictures: Prepositions

In this section, students look at the prepositions used to describe pictures, prepositions of place. Students look at photos of groups, and how to describe who is where. A. Check that students understand the prepositional phrases. Students look at the picture, and fill the gaps. Answers: 1. There are some shelves at the back .. 2. There is a computer on the right . 3. There are some chairs in the front / in the centre . 4. There is a wooden table in the front / on the right . 5. There are some drawers on the left , and some more drawers in the centre . 6. There is some paper at the top / at the back . B. Students look at the photo, read the text, and decide who is who. Answers:
Eh Gay Nay Htoo Henry Thaw Reh Jehn

Eh Mwee

Ku Mo The Writer


Charmy Paul

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C. Students decide whether the sentences are true or false. Answers: 1. true 2. true 3. false 4. false 5. true

6. true

7. false

8. false

D. Students work in groups of four of five. In two minutes, they list as many prepositions as they can. Which group has the most? Write them on the board. Students identify the prepositions of location - prepositions that show where something is (as opposed to prepositions of movement, which show where something is going, such as past, through, into, towards etc.) E. Read this passage out loud. Pause at the end of every sentence for a few seconds. Students listen, and draw the picture. Read the text two or three times, slowly. Theres an old man at the front of the picture, in the centre. On his left, theres a young girl. Shes his grandaughter. Theres a tree on the right of the picture. Theres a cat behind the tree. At the back, there are two large mountains. Between the mountains, theres a house. The man and his gradaughter live in the house. At the top of the picture, on the left, the sun is shining. Students should have a picture that looks a little like this. F. Pair Dictation. Give each student a picture from a magazine or newspaper. Students write a description of their picture, in five minutes. They should write as much as possible. In pairs, students read their descriptions to their partners who listen, and draw what they hear. After both partners have drawn their pictures, they look at the originals to see if they are accurate.

7. Using your imagination

This section of the module encourages students to be creative in their writing, to think widely of things they can write about. It looks at the skill of inferring, making conclusions based on information you cannot see or read directly. It also practices imagining - students use their own ideas to interpret pictures, make up background information. A. Students look at the picture on page 15, and think of some questions to ask about the people in the picture. Elicit a list of questions they could ask, and write them on the board. Ask some students the questions. B. In groups, students figure out the questions to these answers. Some answers are from the text under the photo. Other answers have many possible questions. Possible questions: 6. How long is the training? 1. What are these people doing? 7. What will they do afer the training? 2. How did they get there? 8. What do they do? 3. When is this? 9. Are there any men in the picture? 4. Where do they come from? 10. Is there any water on the desks? 5. Where is this?
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C. Divide students into two teams. Choose a large picture, and put it on the board. Make sure all students can see the picture. One member from each team comes up to the board. Ask a question about the picture. The first student to write a reasonable answer to the question gets a point for their team. The next two team members come up to the board, ask another question. (This will be easier if you prepare the questions and picture before the lesson) Continue until all students have had at least one turn. The winner is the team with the most points. D. Students work in groups. They look at the picture on page 5. Groups make lists of of wh- questions they could ask about the picture. Encourage students not to worry too much about grammar in the question forms. Each student should wite a list of their groups questions. E. Students find a partner from another group. They ask their groups questions about the picture, and answer their partners questions. Encourage students to think of creative answers. If you like, get students to find a new partner from a different group, and repeat the activity.

8. Writing Assignment
This is the main assessment for this module. Students should produce a detailed description of a picture that they choose, using all the structures they have practiced in the module. In this section, they draft their piece of writing. In the next section, they check and correct their writing. A. Put a selection of pictures - from the supplementary pack, or newspapers and magazines - for students to choose from. these pictures should have a person, or some people, in them. Some students might want to use their own pictures. Students answer the questions about their picture. Go around the class helping students with any unfamilar language. Students answer the question What does the picture tell us about the situation? (This is another way of asking students to infer the background to the picture). Ask a few students to tell the class some background information to their picture. B. Students complete the table with vocabulary they need to describe the picture. Encourage them to use their dictionaries, or to ask you for unfamiliar items. C. Students complete the table, with information that they can see, and information they can imagine and infer. D. Students write a description of their picture. They keep it as a working draft, dont hand it in yet.

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8. Checking Your Writing: Subject/verb agreement

A. Elicit students ideas about the meaning of subject/verb agreement. Write their ideas on the board. Elicit examples of correct subject/verb agreement, list them on the board. Elicit examples of incorrect subject/verb agreement, list them on the board. B. Students look at the examples in the grammar box, and fill the gaps with the grammar terms. Answers: Nouns and pronouns are the subjects of sentences . If a subject is singular, the verb must be singular . If a subject is plural , the verb must be plural. There are two dogs under the tree. If the subject is uncountable , the verb must be singular .

C. Students identify and circle the subjects of these sentences. They decide whether the subjects are singular, plural or uncountable. They tick the correct sentences, and correct the mistakes. Answers: 1. I has two sons and a daughter. singular I have two sons... 2. My children and I often go to the river to catch fish. plural 3. We have a small boat. The boat usually stay at a small village on the Salween river. plural plural singular singular The boat usually stays at ... plural There is a big shop... singular singular It costs 25 baht... 4. There are about 200 people in the village. The villagers are mostly fishers. 5. There are a big shop that sells petrol in the village. My cousins family owns the shop. 6. Petrol is expensive! It cost 25 baht per litre. singular singular plural uncountable plural

7. The Salween River is dangerous. The water flows very quickly. 8. There are a lot of accidents. Many people drown every year in the Salween river. 9. Luckily, my children is all good swimmers. plural my children are all ... 10. Theres a lot of information about river dangers. uncountable 11. Many older people in the village knows the river very well. plural Many older people in the village know the river...
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D. In this activity, students have to listen for mistakes in subject/verb agreement. Students work in pairs. Each partner only looks at their text, and covers the other text. The reading partner reads their text, slowly nd carefully. When the listening partner hears a mistake in s/v agreement, they say stop. They can ask to repeat if they like.The reading partner underlines the mistake and writes s/v beside it. You might like to demonstrate this activity first, by writing some sentences on the board with mistakes, and reading them aloud. Stidents say stop when they hear the mistake. Answers - Partner A Our office s/v very crowded. The are s/v teachers keeps all the school supplies in the office. Theres also a library. Weve got a computer, but its broken at the moment. It s/v are on the left of the picture. We keep it under a plastic sheet. At the back of the picture you can see some shelves. Theres some paper on the shelves. We need a lot of paper to print copies of class materials for the students. There are two cupboards on the left and right of the shelves. We store information about our students in these cupboads. You cant see the library - its opposite the s/v shelf on the other side of the room. There is about 500 books in the teachers library. The school also has a students library up the hill. Every teacher has a desk in the office. Teachers put their personal books and teaching notes on their desks. There isnt s/v many space in our office! Answers - Partner B Our office are very crowded. The teachers keep all the school supplies in the s/v office. Theres also a library. We has got a computer, but its broken at the moment. Its s/v on the left of the picture. We keeps it under a plastic sheet. At the back of the picture you can see some shelves. Theres some paper on the shelves. We need a lot of paper to print copies of class materials for the students. s/v There is two cupboards on the left and right of the shelves. We store information about our students in these cupboards. You cant see the library - its opposite the shelf on the other side of the room. There are about 500 books in the teachers library. The school s/v also have a students library up the hill. Every teacher has a desk in the office. Teachers s/v their personal books and teaching notes puts on their desks. There isnt much space in our office!

E. Fast Writing. Students write as much as they can in five minutes about what they can see around them, inside and outside the classroom. In pairs, students exchange writing. They identify each others s/v agreement mistakes. Read your partners writing. Circle all the s/v agreement mistakes, and write s/v. Students then exchange back, and correct their own writing. Ask students if they can identify the picture from the description. (its on page 14) F. Students read over their writing assignments, and check for correct s/v agreement. They write a final draft, and hand it in, together with the picture. Marking guide on next page.
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10. Describing People: Appearance

A. Parts of the face
Students should use the words in the box to label the pictures. Encourage them to guess any words they dont know. Ask them to check their answers with a partner, and discuss any problems with the whole class. Answers:
forehead eyebrow eye cheek nose jaw lips chin


B. Describing faces
Students look at the pictures and answer the questions. Answers:

1. a 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. b 6. a 7. b 8. a C. Adjectives and nouns


Students match the adjectives with nouns.

Answers: lips - full, thin nose - big, hooked, pointed, straight, bent, long, short, small hair - thick, thin, long, short, bushy, straight, wavy, curly chin - small, big, long

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D. Grammar Check

i. She has a wide forehead. ii. Her nose is big. iii. He has long, straight hair. iv. His lips are thin. E. Describe a person
Students write 5 sentences to describe one of the people in the pictures.

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F. The perfect face

Ask students to describe what makes a perfect face for a man and a woman. Choose one of these activities: Speaking only: Students talk in pairs or small groups about the perfect face. If they are in small groups it can be fun to make all-girl groups to describe the perfect boys face, etc. Once they have decided, they can share their ideas with the class. Speaking and drawing: As above. Once the pairs /groups have finished discussing, they draw their perfect face on flipchart paper. These can then be stuck up in the classroom. Speaking and writing: After the groups have discussed their ideas, they can write a short description of the perfect face.

G. Complete the description

Students should choose the correct words to describe the man. Answers: This man is a bullfighter from Mexico. He is a little overweight. His face is eyebrows are he is round , and he has a thick, black moustache . forehead His eyes are quite small , with bags underneath them, and his straight . Hes starting to go bald so I think

bushy . Hes raising his eyebrows so his

is wrinkled. His nose is middle aged .

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H. Comparing people 1. Students look at the picture, and decide on their answers to the questions. 2. Follow instructions in the students book. Make some examples of
questions together with the students. Then students work with a partner. Extension: if you have a good group of students, you could ask them to compare each other. Dont do this if your students are likely to be nasty!

Extra activities Play Whispers. Students pass on a sentence to each other by whispering t in the ear of the next student, who passes it on, etc. To make the sentences harder, use strings of comparatives, eg. My grandmother is older, wiser, and much harder - working than my grandfather. If students need extra practice with the grammar, try Usage Xs and Os (from page 10). Put the root forms (ie. old, wise, hard working) in the grid. Students should correctly make the comparative and put it in a sentence.

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1. Reading: David Beckham


1. The students should give meanings for any of the words they know.

Students need to use English- English dictionaries for this. You can do this activity as a race, either individually or in teams: The first team to put the words in alphabetical order should shout Stop! when theyve finished. They then read their list and the other teams listen to see if theyre right. Then they can do something similar with finding the definitions. Answers: controversial, hairstyle, influence, naturally, popular, tousled, tournament To make sure students understand the definitions, ask them to rephrase them in their own words. If this is difficult, ask them to translate into another language.

controversial - people disagree about this topic, or they are shocked hairstyle - particular was of arranging or cutting hair influence - power to affect somebodys actions or beliefs naturally - by nature popular - liked, enjoyed by many people tournament - a sports competition tousled - untidy (about hair) NB: the exact definition will depend which dictionary you use. For some words there will be 2 or more meanings. In this case, students should note them all down. After reading the article, ask them to go back to their notes and choose the right meaning.

2. Before Reading ask the students to tell you everything they know about
David Beckham. You can ask a few questions to get them started, eg

Whats his job? (footballer) Who does he play for? (Real Madrid - pronounced rey-al) Has he always played for them? (No, he used to play for Manchester United) Is he married? Does he have children? etc.
If students seem to know a lot about him, you can ask them to talk about him in small groups for a few minutes. Gradually elicit words about his appearance. Next, speculate (imagine) about the content of the article. The students know about David Beckham, and know some of the words they will find. Ask them to imagine what the article will say.

Tip: Before you start, ask the students to cover the article with their notebooks, so they can only see the pictures. This forces them to concentrate on speaking about what they already know, rather than reading and looking for answers in the text.

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3. Answers: (c) David Beckham is very influential in fashion is the main idea of the article. 4. Answers: 1. ever-changing (adj) = f) something that is always changing 2. mohican (n) = g) a spiky hairstyle 3. blond (adj) = e) yellow; we use it to describe hair colour 4. trim (v) = a) to cut someones hair a little, without making a big change 5. knock out = d) to lose a match and not participate any more 6. hairdresser = b) someone whose job is to cut hair 7. nail varnish = c) coloured paint for nails 5. Explain to the students that an inference is a conclusion based on evidence. They should tick the statements with conclusions that can be inferred from the article. When you check answers, ask students to refer to the evidence they found. Answers: 1 and 4 are reasonable inferences from the article. 2 may be true, or it may not be. We have no evidence from the article that it is. Students should explain where in the article they found evidence for their inferences. 6. Students should close their books, and discuss what David Beckham looks like from memory.

J. Speaking practice
This should focus on people the students know, to prepare them for the writing exercises in the next section. Encourage students to use all the grammar forms and vocabulary featured in the unit. Make sure students are using the question What does look like?

K. Getting ready to write 1. Explain to the students that later, they will write a paragraph about the person they
choose. If your students have trouble brainstorming, try these simple things to help: a) Set a time limit and stick to it (give warnings: 3 minutes left 2...) b) Give the students unlined, loose paper to write on. Encourage them to write anywhere on the page.

2. Mind map. A mind map is the first step to organising a paragraph, because it shows
how ideas are linked. Students should use their brainstorm information to complete the diagram. Check that words the students group together really are linked!
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L. Organisation: Ordering ideas 1. Students talk in pairs for a few minutes, answering the questions and thinking of some information of their own. Make new pairs, and students can explain their ideas to each other. Read the two paragraphs about the picture. 2. Paragraph two is easier to understand because the sentences are in the right order.

M. Topic sentences 1. Students identify the topic sentence for the paragraph on page 9: Answer: This is a picture of a fisherman from Chile.

2. Students, in pairs, tick the good topic sentences. Answers: 1 a) (b doesnt give enough information) 2 b) (a is too specific) 3 b) (a is a concluding sentence) 4 a) (b has too much specific information) 3. Students should write a topic sentence for their paragraph. Ask some students to read their sentences to each other / the class. Are they clear?

N. On your own
Students write a paragraph. Its probably best to start this in class (so you can make sure everybody understands), and finish for homework. Encourage students to explain why they chose the sentences they did.

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11. Describing People: Character

A. Parts of the face 1. Students work in groups of 4 or 5. Each group chooses a writer, and brainstorms a list of words to describe people for 5 minutes. Scoring: Ask someone from group 1 to read their first adjective, and spell it. If its spelt incorrectly, move to the next group. If the spelling is okay, write the word on the board and ask how many groups have that word. Check spelling! If only one group has the word, give each group 10 points; If 2 groups have the word, give them each 8 points; If 3 groups have the word, give them each 6 points, etc . Dont worry about word form (adj/noun) yet. Ask the teams to read a word in turn, until all the words have been checked, and points scored. Write each correct word on a piece of flipchart paper, so you have a class list for later activities.

2. Groups select adjectives from the list to describe the people in the pictures. Almost anything is okay, e.g. Tuareg woman: proud, angry, strong Woman with scarf: wise, patient, intelligent Smiling man: happy, kind, content Indian woman with microphone: strong, brave, angry, passionate

B. State and manner 1. Answers: State adjectives: generous honest serious shy easygoing clever stupid Manner adjectives: bored happy annoyed embarrassed confused excited glad

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2. Students work in pairs or small groups to describe themselves. 3. Ask students to close their eyes and put their heads on their arms. Ask them to think about how they feel they might think about todays lesson, what they have learnt and any problems they have or they could think about their day so far. After a few minutes, everyone should open their eyes and any students who would like to should share their feelings. (Dont force students to speak here if they dont want to). For homework, students can write paragraphs describing a) their personality, or b) how they feel today. C. Grammar Focus: Noun or adjective? 1. Answers: Nouns modesty honesty vanity greed kindness madness happiness sadness Adjectives modest honest vain greedy kind mad happy sad

2. Answers: 1. Choosing the right husband or wife is very important for your future happiness . 2. My brother is always looking at himself in the mirror. Hes so vain . 3. He has enough money; he only steals because of greed . 4. Really, you can trust me, Im always honest . 5. I think my fathers gone mad , hes wearing my mothers longyi.

D. Whats most important? 1. Students work alone and write down the most important characteristics for each person. 2. Next, they should explain their answers in small groups and compare. Get a few groups to read their sentences to the class.

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E. Grammar focus: Like 1. Answers: 1. What does Oo Meh look like? b) Shes quite tall... 2. Whats Oo Meh like? a) Shes

2. Use pictures from books, magazines or newspapers. Stick two or three pictures on the board. Write a name and 1 or 2 personality adjectives next to each picture. Ask students, Whats _________like? and What does _________ look like? Check that their answers are correct and everybody understands the difference between the questions. (Remember: Whats s/he like? Is a question about somebodys character, and What does s/he look like? Is a question about somebodys appearance). Give out all the pictures. Students work in pairs to practice the two structures. After a few minutes, they can swap pictures with another pair. .

F. Reading 1. Before reading, have a class discussion about grandparents: What do the students think a typical grandmother is like? A typical grandfather? How about when their grandparents were young? NB: Typical means usual, so the question is asking what most grandparents are like. After completing the activity, give the students time to read through the story individually and deal with any comprehension / vocabulary problems before moving on.

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2. In groups, people discuss the questions. One group member reports back to the class the results of the discussion. F. Organisation: Irrelevant sentences 1. Answers: 1. For most of its history, China had an imperial political system. An emperor ruled the people. Emperors believed they had been given power by heaven (the gods). Now China is a republic with a communist government. These emperors were part of dynasties (a system of government where power is passed from one member of a family to the next). 2. My sister, Ma Myint, is the kindest person I know. My mother is nice, too. Ma Myint always helps me if I need money to buy clothes or something for school. She doesnt say nasty things about other people, even if they do something wrong. She thinks we should forgive them. I really like to spend time with my sister because she is nice to everyone. 3. Peace-keeping is one of the ways in which the United Nations helps to maintain peace and security around the world. Member States of the UN provide troops who are sent to areas of the world where there is trouble.People are fighting in different places all over the world. Peacekeeping forces can be set up only when the countries who are fighting agree and when the Security Council supports the idea.

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2. Students look back to their paragraphs in 10 N.

They check the paragraphs for any irrelevent sentences.

G.Organisation: Expanding your ideas 1. Paragraph 2 is better because it has more details and explains the character traits. New details and examples: This is a woman, named Beatriz, from Peru. She has many wrinkles because her life has been very hard. Her home was destroyed in a flood last year, with the rest of her village. Beatriz is poor, but she is kind to all the children in the area - she always gives them food if they are hungry. 2. Students think about personality traits of the person they wrote about in 10.N.

H. On your own 1. Students arrange their ideas in a mind map. They should make sure they include examples to explain their ideas.

2. Again, its probably best to start writing in class, and finish for homework.

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12. Describing People: Putting it Together

A. Questions 1. The questions so far have been, What does s/he look like? (a question about appearance) and Whats s/he like? (a question about character). The third question, What does s/he like?, can have different meanings depending on context. For example, in a restaurant its probably a question about food. Write on the board: What do you like? Ask the students to make a complete question, filling the blanks with different categories, / sports /colour, etc. They ask answer these questions in pairs. When everybody is comfortable with this question, add the previous two questions (What do you look like? and What are you like?). Answers should be very short, 2 or 3 words at most, and the questioners should try to catch the answerers making mistakes. B. Personal ads 1. Lead a class discussion about relationships. Ask if theyve ever seen a personal ad. If so, where?
If not, where do they think they might find these type of advertisements? Personal ads are often found in magazines, newspapers or the internet.

2. Answers: 1. WLTM stands for Would Like to Meet. 2. Photo ensures reply means that the person who wrote the advert will write a letter back to everyone who sends a photograph with their letter. 3. A woman wrote the advert with Box 1103. 4. a) Box 5502 b) Box 1103 c) Box 4502 d) Box 2107 e) Box 5702

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C.Imagining people 1. Distribute pictures of people from books, magazines or newspapers, one picture
for each pair of students. Encourage the students to be imaginative as they try to answer all the questions. Make sure that discussion continues for at least 10 minutes. Before students begin writing, look back at the example personal ads and elicit the following information: - Full sentences arent important. - The adverts can be short, around 20 words. - They must include the persons age, gender (male / female), and Box number.

2. In pairs students write a personal ad for their picture. These should be

on separate pieces of paper. Stick the finished personal ads on one side of the room, and the pictures on the other. Students should try to match the pictures with the ads. Students shouldnt tell each other which one they write, or help each other. When everybody has finished, go through and check which advert matches each picture. You could have a quick show of hands at the end to see who made the most (and the least) correct guesses.

D Interviews 1. Elicit ideas from the students to make an entire story about the picture.
Write the story on the board.

2. Once your class story is complete, put students in pairs.

They brainstorm possible questions the journalist is asking. Both students should take notes.

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3. Split the pairs up and create new ones. They roleplay an interview, student A asks
questions and student B answers. They can change the class story if they like - this was just to warm up students imaginations. Simple props to recreate the picture can make this much more realistic and fun - eg. make student A carry a notebook and pretend to take notes. Students shouldnt be sitting at their desks for the roleplay; encourage movement. Ask a few groups to perform their roleplay for the class.

4. For homework or in class, ask the students to choose one of the writing activities to do
on their own. If students are interested in writing a transcript of their interview, explain these conventions of transcripts: - the name of the speaker should be followed by a colon : - each new speaker should start on a new line Transcripts should look like this:

Interviewer: How long have you lived here? Man: All my life.
Students should finish this activity for homework. Next lesson, put students in small groups and ask them to read their work to each other. If you like, ask them to choose the best / funniest / most creative piece of writing.

E. What have you learned in this module?

Put the table from the students book on the board, then ask students to complete it (this is probably best in small groups). Discuss what students have found most and least useful in the module, what they feel they understand and what has been difficult.

F. A-Z adjectives
Write the letters A - Z on the board. One by one, students come up to the board and write an adjective to describe people that starts with that letter.
angry b careful d e f good horrible ignorant j kind l m n o proud quick r stupid t ugly v w x

G. Final writing assignment

Students should write at least 2 paragraphs describing one of the following: a person that they know

a person in one of the pictures in the supplementary pack (in this case, students should imagine the persons name and character). any other person: a fictional character from TV or a film, or a real person they dont know (someone famous) This writing should follow the same procedure as the two shorter pieces of writing in the module (ie. Brainstorm, mind map, ordering, writing). They dont hand it in yet, but wait until the end of the module.
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13. Checking your writing: Parts of speech

A. What do you know? 1. Elicit parts of speech from the students and write them on the board.
Elicit a few examples of each speech part. There are eight major categories of words. These can be further split into smaller categories, e.g. noun: concrete noun, proper noun, abstract noun etc. However, for this exercise it is easiest to concentrate on the main eight categories:

Nouns, e.g. table, hunger, Salween River Verbs, e.g. run, be, look out for Adjectives, e.g. big, green, ugliest Adverbs, e.g. carefully, well, very, tomorrow Pronouns, e.g. me, it, you Determiners, e.g. the, this, our Prepositions, e.g. for, backwards, in Conjunctions, e.g. and, because, so
Students may already know a lot about parts of speech. Elicit and discuss all their ideas, if you have time.

2. Students read the text, and answer the focus question. Answer: It cant fly, it can smell, and it doesnt have feathers. 3. Students classify the words in the box into speech parts. They should decide the
categories for themselves. As this is a very easy exercise, you could give them a 3 minute time limit. Encourage them to use dictionaries if necessary. Answers:

kiwi beak wings size government people sunlight things New Zealanders

fly hurts can't smells likes see cannot want is

long strange grey bright big

Students decide on the names for each column. Answer:

The left column is nouns, the centre verbs, and the right adjectives.
Discuss how students can identify which part of speech words belong to. Elicit or point out that you can get a lot of information from the context - which words come before and after the word, and the overall structure of the sentence.
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4. Students complete the gap-fill, without looking at the text on the previous page. They identify which parts of speech are missing. Answer: nouns
Students can check their gap-fill against the origical text to see how many they got correct.

B. Classify the parts of speech 1. Students read the text.

After they have read it, allow them five minutes to classify the nouns, verbs and adjectives from the text into columns. Answers:

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2. Students circle and count all the prepositions in the text. Answers: inside, near, at, in, At, in, up, out, into, for, into, for, to There are 13 prepositions. 3. Students work in pairs. Without looking at the text, they design mind-maps
with the information about the polar bear.

4. In groups, students write sentences about the polar bear.

After three minutes, they stop writing Remind students that a sentence must have a subject and verb. Discuss s/v agreement and word order. Groups check the s/v agreement in their sentences. Which group has the most correct sentences? Look at the information about adjectives, and word order. Clarify anything students dont understand.

C. Identify the mistakes 1. Students identify the missing part of speech.

Answers: 1. verb 2. adjective 3. adjective 4. noun 5. noun 6. verb. Discuss again ways to identify what part of speech is missing from context.

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2. Students write their own sentences with missing nouns, verb or adjectives.
They exchange with another student, who identifies the missing part of speech. They swap back, and check the exercises.

3. Students identify mistakes in these sentences.

They tick correct sentences, and circle mistakes.

4. Students categorise the mistakes.

For incorrect parts of speech, they write a ww. For missing words, they draw a pointer: Answers:

1. Before I begin my story, I would to tell you a little about myself. 2. I was born in the year 1632, in the crowded of York in England. 3. correct 4. Soon after that, he my mother, who was English. 5. correct ww 6. He wanted me to get a good job and live a house, comfortable life. ww 7. But I didnt want that, I wanted adventure and an exciting dangerous. 8. correct 9. Please dont go, my said. 10. correct 11. correct This extract is from Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. 5. Students take five minutes to write about themselves.
In pairs, they echange writing. Students identify missing words and incorrect parts of speech, and write the correct symbol. If they find this easy, get them to also add corrections for subject/verb agreement (s/v) as in module 1. Students give each others writing back and correct their own mistakes.

6. Students go through their writing assignments, and check for mistakes

with incorrect parts of speech, missig words, and s/v agreement. They hand it in - for markign guidelines, see next page.

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Writing Assignment Marking Guide

When students hand in the writing assignments for this module, we recommend you mark it according to this scale. Content - 20 points Language - 20 points

- Is it interesting? - Does it describe the picture they have given you? - Give more points if they imagine or infer things, and less points if they only write about what they can see.


- 10 points

- Is it more than 150 words? - Is it easy to read? - Give more points for papers that are tidy, without lots of crossed-out changes (this should be a final draft).

- Is it easy to understand their writing? - Do they use appropriate vocabulary? - Is the grammar mostly correct? Dont worry about minor spelling or grammar mistakes, focus on the target structures (e.g. for assignment 1 on pge 19 - there is/are, countable/uncountable nouns, prepositions and quantifiers) - Give more points if the target structures (there is/are, countable/uncountable nouns, prepositions and quantifiers) are used correctly, and less points if they dont use these. - Give less points for mistakes in subject / verb agreement.

Get the final mark by adding the three scores together:

Content _____ Language _____ Presentation _____ TOTAL = ___________

You might want to tell students about the marking scale, so they know what they should focus on when they are writing.

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