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From Revolution to Krizis: The Transcending Revolutions of 1989-91 Author(s): Richard Sakwa Reviewed work(s): Source: Comparative Politics, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Jul., 2006), pp. 459-478 Published by: Ph.D. Program in Political Science of the City University of New York Stable URL: . Accessed: 06/12/2011 14:38
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From Revolution ToKrizis
The Transcending Revolutions of 1989-91

Richard Sakwa

"Wars and revolutions...have century."' So Hannah Arendt determining, between Russia historical

thus far determined

the physiognomy of the twentieth begins her study of revolutions. Wars continue to be has changed, case wrote: as has the relationship of 1989-91 of power in in that the exemplary is the revolution

but the nature of revolutions

war and revolution. An cycle inaugurated

and eastern Europe. Vladimir


"it is now obvious seizure

by World War

I, the Bolshevik

Russia inOctober 1917 and the long European ideologicalwarfare that followed
nature of the "revolutions" "refolution" to indicate ha[s] come to an end."2 There has been a long, if unilluminating, discussion of these years. Timothy Garton Ash coined the combination of reformist political over the the term

style and the pro

foundly revolutionaryconsequences of the events.3 JiirgenHabermas dubbed the an process "the rectifying revolution," attempt to overcome the distortionsof "actu
ally existing socialism" while recognizing that the logic of capitalist accumulation described the way battered down the "Chinese walls" (as the Communist Manifesto that cheap commodities forced all nations to adopt the capitalist mode of production) of postcapitalist as well precapitalist societies.4 Leslie Holmes characterized them as "rejective" revolutions, and in the case of eastern Europe they are doubly rejective, repudiating not only Communism but also the Soviet domination with which itwas

Communism, of the fall of will discuss some aspects of the "epochality" in particular, the repudiation at the social level of revolution as an is defined as the eschatology of endowing parochial emancipatory act. Epochality events with universal significance. The emergence during the eighteenth century of a discourse of progressive social change based on a universal model of rationality and This article development This ideology all) was applicable to all societies was clearly an event of epochal significance. thinkers (but certainly far from in the hands of some Enlightenment a revolutionary approach political to social change, that the act of effect. For want of a better above all by Karl

combined with

rupture itself had a liberating and progressive idea of political Marx, revolution was combined with

term, it can be called Enlightenment revolutionism. In the nineteenth century this
a social agenda, based on the idea that through an act of political rupture society could achieve


representedthe overthrownot only of a specific power system of emancipatory revolution on the repudiation of the social philosophy It was this repudiation. were most "national" in practice.however. attempted to put an end to revolutionism while retaining the emanci patory core of Marxism. By the end of the twentiethcentury. which it was based. R. This ideology can be called emancipatory war developed revolu tionism. the tension between universalism and particularism did not disappear. The Communist ure. Thus. To understand precisely what ended in 1989-91 460 .9 The permanent revolution "detours" and "agonies" associated with it suggested that the experiment was a fail crisis of the regimes and their ultimate dissolution certainly betoken failure. as much as the geopolitical rearrange ment of the international order. The pursuit of emancipatory revolutionism provoked a permanent crisis of the regime. but this combination can be classified (which harked back as an experiment. the notion of emancipatory lost whatever one tries that claimed when to be building eastern it once might have had in the coun on its basis. In The End of the Communist Revolution.This utopian project displaced political discourse from pragmatic reason towards a political practice that generated closure and exclusivity.6 The pursuit of transcendent and universal (epochal) goals Even when Soviet leaders underminedhuman specificity and nationalparticularism. the first attempt to build a society based on the rejec of time. General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between 1985 and 1991 and initiator at that time of what he called perestroika (restructuring)."8 In the end. V Daniels details this process in a chapter entitled "The Long Agony of the Russian Revolution. but also in a deeper revolutionism and the contradiction arising from the combination of Enlightenment it is necessary emancipatory agenda. but in the modern social change."7 Neil Harding also talks in terms of "the Marxist-Leninist detour. and itwas implement revolutionism 1989-91. The Russian Marxist revolutionary tion of western modernity while trying to fulfill it. to the Prague and the various Springof 1968) ultimately failed. Three Circles of Revolution Epochal thinking since the ancient world is characterized by a sense of the unfolding era it became allied to a progressive understanding of revolution was the first large-scale attempt to implement theory. Mikhail Gorbachev. but also the project that in one way or another Lenin and Stalin sought to and that after popular the second world resonance Communism in eastern Europe. but the roots of the collapse lie not only in specific inadequacies of performance and adaptivity to changing global circumstances. the events of after another shook off the European country Communist incubus.Comparative Politics July 2006 its emancipationnot only from oppression but also from subordinationto contin gency in the very broadest in Russia sense. that rendered these events epochal.

The next two types of revolution sought to transcend precisely the tyranny of the past. and contingent. and he thereby repudiated the modern notion of revolution itself. Astronomy. gave way to a general concept of revolution just as in his De revolutionibus orbium caelestium in 1543 had noted the circu of the planets and the stars. The concept thus gained a new meaning. Enlightenment Revolutionism Modernity is associatedwith a certain uniform quality of time that develops towards an unknown but usually improved version of the future. inherited authority. it was revolutionary socialism based on civil war that he sought to transcend. realizable future. as Clarendon Charles noted in the case of the reestablishment cyclicity II in 1660. Naturalistic of the monarchy as a form of revolution in the person of (the turn of the wheel) is passive. as an infinite turn of the wheel of fate in individual lives and the rise and fall of constitutions in public life. In the seventeenth century as circularity. and ascriptive identities. and its social manifestation in the form of astrology. and thus he sought to prevent a return to the contingencyof naturalisticcyclicity.10 Revolution would give way to restoration. and constitu tions gave way to a new concept of revolution as an instrument of progressive social change. fulfilment."Il Koselleck's translator raised the prospect of unending utopia was was progress and human improvement. He did not. Naturalistic ineluctable: this vision Copernicus larmovement Medieval messianism's vision of the future was clear and Cyclicity the final judgment and the end of the world. European and the hopes revolutions. of the French These rationalism transformed and unknowable utopias laying the basis product of modernity.each of which representsa theoryof politics and a concept of the epoch. Enlightenment vision was unknown ment. states.society which now perceived potential as accelerating guarantees contained a hope of the desired into civil war..13 What made it great was the appearance of Enlightenment revolutionism. later.. in the political and this program toward an fulfil into a future. The French revolution is the first trulygreatmodern revolution.RichardSakwa to disaggregate threeconceptionsof revolution. reactive. Only by understanding the nature of emancipato ry revolutionism as a political practice can one begin to comprehend the reason for its failure. The pas sage of time retained a progressive element. however. repudiate the notion of a humane and democratic socialism.14 Its exemplary exponent 461 . introduced the transhistorical concept of revolution into the popular mind. but within embodied through its articulation and. The naturalistic cycles of the rise and fall of empires. As Koselleck notes: "The concept of 'revolution' is itself a linguistic summarizes the shift as follows.12 utopian in them in turn became of modern conflict of their own for the transformation The logic of revolution as civil war was precisely the one repudiated by Gorbachev during perestroika.

"18 Although to the attempt violence was not eschewed. and the task of the intellectual was to act as no more to which modernity can reduced."16 of mankind tern of the Paris intellectual. it the view that history is both knowable and was.Comparative Politics July 2006 "by appeal to reason and faculties. controllable. Marxian revolutionary revolutionism. It proved difficult between what was politi throughout the rest of the Soviet experience cal and what was social.23 and the logic of the emancipatory superstructure of law. "socialized. It is odd in this con text that Kojeve should have taken Hegel's arguments to suggest the end of history.21 While repudiating the historicism implicit inMarxian revo lutionary socialism. in fact. itwould to sweep away the old and to create a new world but based on character and fate. Revolutionary 462 . Historicism.ForCondorcet. has no other limit according to the pat Condorcet's project called for "the destructionof than the durationof the globe. the beginning. Enlightenment to encompass all aspects of the social. 20 view that philosophi modern history and. but itwas socialism revolution was highly political.24 The power of the Russian inwhich and the social were to differentiate in 1917 was derived patory revolutions fused. independent of any power that might wish civilizations and the standardization to halt it. individual freedom." with "the political" of social processes in the hands of Marx itself becoming little more act itself. fact that nature has set no term to the perfection fectability of man now onwards all historical was of human and that the progress of this perfectability. and his fol than an that provided itwith specific civil war of utopian change. was born. but deepened socialism was a variety of a broader species. that the per from was theMarquis de Condorcet. and the state was reduced to no revolution and emanci in part from the coincidence the political of the Enlightenment than an exploitative mode of production.22 Emancipatory Revolutionism that provoked the permanent of Marxian ry revolutionism If Enlightenment lowers it became epiphenomenon The whole more Enlightenment revolutionhad provided the charge the emancipato social content.moreover: "Theword 'revolutionary' be applied only to aim is freedom. The French revolution inaugurated the modem concept of history. step had been taken."17 As he put it in Progress than the acid corroding revolutions whose be subordinated order.15 He sought to demonstrate is truly indefinite. of the Human Spirit. gave way instrument of human reason and progress." without law and legiti as an irre all obstacles to modernization. Francis Fukuyama only succumbs to the more profound histori cism embedded inEnlightenmentnotions of progress andhuman development. above all formulated by Hegel's cal absolutes were now revealed in the realm of human affairs. custom was to be replaced by reason. 19 There was still some way metaphor macy sistible for the cyclical to go before the traditional concept of a revolution to the idea of revolution but amajor as a "ups and downs of human destiny. perhapsmore importantly.

. Daniels is quite right to argue that of the revolution. The putative restoration of naturalistic rendered emancipatory revolutionism structurallyobsolete.31 David Hoffman rational and harmonious features of Stalinism." as "endemic. inwhich the promise of universal salvation is translated into a programme of uni versal human emancipation. Tucker note the way thatMarxism sought to provide a secular and materialist idiom for traditional millenarian aspirations. self-generating and.29 nated "Russian"intellectual Walicki has recent ly demonstrated vision."34 Itwas consid reason that the social contradictions that provoked the had not only not been resolved the dissolution had been of Communist in the "actually exist of power in the Soviet but in principle could not be resolved.30 Similarly. 463 . however. stressing of commodity in particular production and all that it entailed. and the hubris of rational are indeed more Because of its ideological roots. in principle."27 Lenin added a distinctive political style thatArfon Rees The has called "revolutionary Machiavellism. not because social developments cycles were the solution and found. notably the attempt to achieve a social order. . endless.RichardSakwa socialist ideologydrew liberallyfrom theEnlightenment of perspective progress.provokedproblemsof its own. Erik van Ree argues that Stalin remained the Marxist were stresses it would "important branches" the Enlightenment be mistaken of the Enlightenment that both Jacobinism tradition.Koselleck considered the revolution.25 Both Raymond Aron and Robert the wrong to attribute "all the misery headed ideas of revolutionaries whose thinking supposedly traces back to the Enlightenment Revolutions intervention in the affairs of society. ered endless ing" socialist endemic rise of emancipatory for the simple revolutions. how close the Bolshevik revolution remained recognizably to the basic Marxist and firmly within and Bolshevism also above all the destruction tradition.decul turation. but because technological (above all in the sphere of information and communications) during perestroika."33 complex than that."28 paradoxof Leninismwas ultimately that it failed to sustain the emancipatory elements of Marxism while ruthlessly imple and menting thepolitical aspectsof Enlightenmentrevolutionism the social aspectsof revolutionism. This condition socialism civil war ended with Union. These twomodernist transcended cyclicity.defined as "civil war. reflecting complex patterns of his torical development and attempts to overcome specific social and political crises and at the same time evolve in response to changing circumstances.26 History transcendsthe naturalisticcycle of hubris and nemesis and moves towards its denouement in a moment of transformation. emancipatory The destructive storm launched by Lenin after October 1917 failed even to reach the level of "the Paris intellectual" but was patterned after the standards of a deraci with a severebehaviorialdisorder. As John Gray puts it: "Marxian communism is a secular version of Christian eschatol ogy.32 Of course. and denationalization but added to it an emancipatory agenda that sought to liberate the individual from the tyranny of time itself.

instrumental reason and impersonality had triumphed the expense of individualresponsibility.andmany others."35 In The Protestant the political Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Weber and above all condemned it advanced. The epochal significance 1909 was that for the first time in such a formal (Landmarks) collection of essays of manner a group of the Russian intelligentsia. of the the for the revolu Russia. critiques of the ideology of emancipatory revolutionism had devel of the Vekhi even before the revolution.43 Perhaps most surprising is not that they came to repu diate revolutionary practices. Eduard Bernstein.ComparativePolitics July2006 The Transcendence of Revolutionism Enlightenment revolutionism and its emancipatory socialist offspring appeared to have exhausted themselves intellectually even before they expired as a political movement.39 For most socialists. theEnlightenmentnotion of revolutionand its emancipatoryversionwere accompaniedby a sophisticatedand explicitly antirev olutionary ideology. repudiated both the concept political and the content of revolution.36Inmethodological terms. which meant tools" of Marxism.42 drank deeply at the fountain of critiques of revolution practices. The politburo member Alexander Yakovlev. "a social order inwhich maximum regulation. tionism. but that it took them so long. and his analysis of the development nalism.41 at the height values against (De Profundis-From the Depths) of 1918. Stepun put it. Iz glubiny thirst for revolution."led him to at believe mode that socialism "was poised to intensify inWeber's this system view. Weber rejected theMarxist hierarchy of in history. From Edmund Burke and Joseph de Maistre to Max Weber.38 A century of Russian thinking was dramatically reversed. of action and political itself became representedthegreatestobstacle to social self-regeneration. rather than to abolish revolutionism as a archaic and it. determinations giving up on the idea of a "final goal. has outlined The avatars of perestroika ism and its moral intelligentsia's reassertion some of the same authors published of moral reflected on the terrible consequences Brezhnev's stagnation. edge of modernity. many of whom had been sympathetic Fundamental oped in Russia to socialist aspirations. but only for a small group. the revolution was idealized "as a kind of dazzling archangel. as F."40 The critiqueof revolutionary philosophy and thephilosophy of revolution was developed in which Rubble). the intellectual force behind Gorbachev's reforms. whose sudden appearance had brought happiness to in a later book.while reasserting the centrality of democracy in the socialist project and the unity of ends criticized the limitations of the "intellectual strategy of modernization of bureaucratic pater and means.Bernstein's revisionism repudiatedapocalypticconceptions that capitalismwould collapse because of its inherenteconomic contradictions.Karl Popper. called In that tradition Iz pod glyb the incompetent cynicism (From under of Leonid of a decayed 464 ."37 Rather than representing the cutting discourse.

and thus he repudiated Lenin's mental class-centered view of morality and Stalin's organicist view of society.He tried to purge emancipa of while drawingon theuniversalprogressivismof tory revolutionism its distortions was cleansing.Yakovlev of the French Revolution in July anniversary not only argued that the USSR should adopt the separation of powers judiciary. although couched in in the rhetoric of revolutionism. A deep gulf had opened up between the system's core and operat ing ideologies. He sought to overcome sought to "remoralize" the gulf between ends and means was integrative."50 Although still defending the "socialist choice. to strip the revolution of some of its social content to allow the language of individualrights to be relegitimatedinSoviet discourse. on which to base his integrative postrevolutionary politics. revolution 465 . Gorbachev's revolution deformations agenda. Gorbachev political was one of the first to realize that the choice was indeed between and thus instru most profound sense of political philosophy. His attempt to put an end to the permanent civil war inherent in emancipatory revolutionism transcended the language of class poli tics but failed to find an adequate revalidated nation or people. or indeed individual social subject.ethics. but itwas farmore than this. the cleansing process came into contradiction since integration in the event turned out to be something much larger than simply a return to core principles.However. Itwas his as a political order was accompanied by tragedy that the dissolution of Communism the disintegration of the Soviet Union as a state."46 Many and other leaders of the period noted the gulf between their public pronouncements their inner beliefs." the concept of as civil war had been decisively repudiated."49 By the time of the twenty was describing itself as "the party of party congress in 1990 the CPSU ple.47 Gorbachev questioned "Marx's formula that revolutions are the locomotives of history" and proclaimed that "I renounce revolution as a means of solving prob lems. Zdenek Mlynar.Gorbachev's antirevolution Gorbachev Gorbachev politics. in his 1987 book that "perestroika eighth national consensus.44 his addresson the occa 1989. in its Kantian ver sought to return to the agenda of the Enlightenment sion. and reformand revolution. and accretions of the operating ideology to allow a return to the core with his integrative ideas. He insisted.45 Throughout. to overcome the double consciousness."48 In its place he adopted a policy of evolutionary reform. for exam the early days of perestroika is a revolution. This coincidence was in part an out come of a long-term economic crisis. Unlike his Czech colleague and long-time friend. but he also condemned the Bolsheviks' romanticiza and an independent insisted tionof revolutionary violence as opening thedoor to Stalin's terror. who after the crushing of the Prague Spring understood that it would be impossible to devise a democratic variant of the practice. to remove the Enlightenment revolutionism.he that above all perestroika had been a "revolution of conscience.RichardSakwa his views sion of in numerous works the two hundredth that together represent perhaps the most sustained and In intelligentcritiqueofMarxist-Bolshevik revolutionism.

60 In his Francois Furet. He alone did it. both elements of which only confirmed the crisis in which it found itself. asserted that "noth 466 . Out of this situation emerged confusion of the winter of discontent of 1990-9 1. which came ever more into contradiction with the real transcendence of these ideas that had taken place among large sections of society.53 Gorbachev's translatorputs it..58 It represented a turning point no less profound than 1789 or 1917. however.52 By the summer of 1988 at the latest Gorbachev small group of supporters ary changes-both in the Soviet the Communist system.. goes too far when he argues: All epochal changes in the history of humanity are prefigured by powerful ideological currents. above all the intelli gentsia."54 Gorbachev's adviser. Habermas last book been denigrated by almost every major commentator argued that not a single theoretical innovation came stressed the untheoretical on the issue. out of eastern Europe.And he alone decided on it. to act on this knowledge. influentialorganizationsor political parties. and thus objective pressures drove Gorbachev into alliance with parts of the nomen klatura elite at the very time that he was repudiating the principles on which the rul hensible ing status of that elite was based. putting in doubt the successful political andmaterial prospects thatawaitedhim. He did so. how courage that caused maximum confusion because of his continued adher genius and political lay in the recognition ence to Enlightenment revolutionism and neo-Leninist principles and his cleansing strategy. The sig nificance of the new epoch and the role of eastern Europe in establishing it has. however. but it lived on in a social order that oscillated between conser vatism and reform.55 The revolution as an ideology and set of political practices had been thoroughly refuted long before.Nothing like thiswas at Gorbachev's dis posal.57 Only sections of the bureaucracy remained loyal to a residual Leninism. "Gorbachev and his As leadership had set out to achieve with in the country itself and in its relationship world-by using evolutionary methods. 56Gorbachev's and he had the moral ever. mass movements.Comparative Politics July 2006 Gorbachev Leninism. placing himself at great risk.59 Claus Offe the historian of the French revolution. the almost incompre The Antirevolutions as Transcending Revolutions From this argument theoretical it can be suggested that the end of the Communist era entailed a shift affecting not only former Communist countries but also the wider world.5' socialist remained Gorbachev loyal to within-system envisaged perestroika trying to remain reform and the modernization of as the repudiation of the logic of the true to the spirit of democratic was committed social to dismantling revolution the outside revolution while ism. nature of these revolutions.. in a manner of the depth of this crisis. Anatolii Chernyaev.

63 its frame of reference."based on the affirmation that "modernity had to be produced solely by the force of reason. however. of the old regime had the courage 467 . moved beyond the discourse of revolutionary thinking that kept the people in thrall and precisely in this sought freedom. The exhaustion of revolutionary very few defenders the regimes were clearly at an advantage. and that nothing should which would destroy all social and cultural traditions. To borrow Joseph de Maistre's distinction.64 The former found few takers while the latter triumphed. resist thatuniversal inspiration This rationalcapitalistic andwestern-cen all beliefs."61 of the onset Communism familiar brought The final phase of the transcendence of postcommunism. (opposed to the revolutionary process in its entirety)."65 In fact. lexicon of revolutions also made obvious The avoidance of the traditional militarized tactical sense. was apparent in the fact that to talk in terms of defending discourse. into play a rich tradition that was anything but untheoretical logic of the "antirevolution" of politics have been has launched an era in which away.RichardSakwa ing else of is visible in the ruins of the communist societies other than the familiar of or the of These commentators miss the largersignificance repertoire liberaldemocracy. but it opens the door to a fourth phase in our understanding of historical time. Opponents of the transcending revolutions were not labeled counterrevolutionaries because that would have legitimatedtheiropposition and con ceded precisely the intellectual terrain that the antirevolutionists sought to free. that so-called empty witticism contains one of the most profound insights of our times. The concept of revolution. an empty witti cism. The landmarks opened Communism that is anything but derivative up the era of postcommunism and retrograde. The transcending revolutions were part of the logic of what may at the end of the whole period of modern development. moreover. and everythingwas conducted their own terms. Arendt was quite wrong to comment that de Maistre's statement "has remained what itwas when he pronounced it in 1796. The new period ismarked by a return to naturalistic cyclicity. a term coined by Condorcet within and applied by the Bolsheviks to define their opponents in The revolutionwas everything. since if it came to shooting. It would have meant adopting the language of the system that they sought to transcend. The events of 1989-91."62 tered view of modernization envisage an alternative. even became dominant. The transcendence swept bereft of ideas. was one of the main forms in which the tyranny was sustained. and even today it is difficult to less with the failure of the Communist and most modernizationprocesses. privileges and communities. in the French and Russian revolutions. but "thecontraryof revolution" revolution"(a counterrevolution. nationalisticallyinspired In the past thosewho opposed revolutions were called counterrevolutionaries. Alain Touraine has argued (echoing Condorcet) that "the idea of revolution is at the Antirevolutions be called antirevolutions of heartof the Western representation modernization. the rejection of revolutionary socialism was not "a contrary narrowlydefined).

a profound but also logic not only in in the mere coming fact of the fall of the Communist in the manner were transcending.70 The argument human destiny would the political practices that the and logic on which naturalistic cyclicity. The ticesof the transcending revolutionsthemselves.71 Much of the writing on the fall of the Soviet system incorporates ele that the thinking.67 The revolutionsof 1989-91 generatedamiserablyweak countermovementfor the obvious reason that the historical conjuncture that the original socialist revolutions The concept of an emancipatoryrevolutionhad reflectedhad long since disappeared. as of internal point out. Adam Michnik detailed the strategy whereby the insur regime not only made redundant the classical antino gency against the Communist my between revolution and reform but also rejected classical revolutionary strate of 1976. only over not which theywere disposed of. the nature of democratic citizenship.66 The Soviet regime sapped the via bility of its own ideology by suppressing all sources of internal renewal. "reveal serious reflections on the banality of mass society and the ill effects of technology and instrumental ratio nality on modern life. but also repudiating based. On the theoretical level.69These revolutions the Communist systems of power. Michnik concluded that gies.Comparative Politics July 2006 the gains of the revolution."73 Isaac concludes by insisting that "the most dramatic development of contemporary history has been the recent defeat of the Jacobin revolutionary model that has been heralded by the revo lutions of 1989." 74Barbara Falk took up the challenge to assess the contribution of 468 . The order on which Horvath and Szakolczai even before dissolution revolutionary socialism was based. and in the absence of a new universal transformatory ideology thewhole concept of revolutionfell intodesuetude. for example. became both the subject and the object of the changes.The Japaneseoption of without revolutionappears to have triumphed. rather than the state. itself become an irrelevance. had already undergone a long process the events of 1989-91. However. but perhaps has opened the way to a fourth circle whose outline is as yet indistinct but which draws on the prac devoid of transcendent purpose. in the antirevolutions of 1989-91 does not neces the transcendence of Communism sarily mean two steps backwards to naturalistic cyclicity. In his seminal article "A New Evolutionism" the systems were unreformable and thus proposed a third strategy in which civil society itself. More broadly. This argument would suggest a historical dead end. they were where so far has suggested would leadback to of transcendence Enlightenmentand emancipatoryrevolutionism be contingent and once again transcending antirevolution would transcend transcendence itself. and the importance of civil society.72 philosophical He argues that the essays of Vaclav Havel." while publicistic works contained "numerous arguments about the ethical and strategic prospects of different forms of resistance.68 transformation Features of the Transcending Revolutions There was regimes. Jeffrey Isaac has suggested ments of Michnik's issues raised by 1989 are far more profound than usually suggested.

but the features remain at best vague. First.80 The self-limiting of a understanding by recovering sphere of politics separate from the state. thinking on antipolitics contained a critique of liberal capitalism as well as the general discontents of modern times. The closely associated with George Konrad. Lenin's the explicit less by con nature of the politics of the self-organization theories of spontaneity of civil society can be explained idea of revolutionary normative characterof these antirevolutions. however. itwas intrinsic to the very model of they aspired.81 The "carnival of revolution" in 1989 prefigured the 469 . reflecting not the amorphous the positive classlessness goals of the universal of earlier debates about the end of ideology but expanding class of modernity. and thus differed from Marx's view on its ultimate transcendence or the anarchist denial of a valid role for itwhatsoever. a policy of circumvention that proved extremely effective in delegitimating the Communist regimes in eastern Europe and eroding their base in society. and she concurs with Isaac in dismissing the view that theyhad nothing new to offer intellectually. returning to Europe in the philosoph ical sense of reconnecting with traditional liberal discourses of the West from to Locke. did not deny a legitimate role for the state. The role of intellectuals the expansive dynamic remains a matter of debate.75 The subjectof the transcending revolution was no longeran elite bandof intellec tual-revolutionaries nor the desperatemass of exploited peasants or immiserated workers of classical revolutionarydiscourse.78 Itwas both their strength and weakness. sciousness) thanby the inherently The natureof these revolutionsreflectedobvious tacticalconsiderations. While the absence of organized leadership in the popular revolutions of the late 1980s was not a new phenomenon. In the latter sense the concept assumed and capitalism notion of antipolitics ismost of the new politics communism the outlines of a positive program to transcend both politics for the social body itself. Mill. and the "resubjectification" of civil society as a political actor on a global scale rep resent in her view an epochal shift in civilizational development. "Solidarity was at the same time a social movement and an action for the liberation of society.77 "self-limiting" But their "gentleness" was more transformation to which than incidental. The classic lib eral distinction between state and society was maintained in repudiation of the spirit of 1917 and indeed of 1789.Richard Sakwa East European modes dissident thinking. it is a form of resistance."76 The antipolitical style of the struggle of civil society against the Communist state marginalized the role of institutionalized political leadership. it is an act of historical reconstitution. The rejectionof Jacobin-Bolshevik of thinking. As Alain Touraine puts it. in the transcending revolutions is used in at least three specific sens Civil society es.79 Third. but the Polish case demonstrates of its antirevolution. and beyond. it is a form of emancipation. in particular. but society itself. While Havel's critique condemned modernity and technology in general. whereby Hobbes oppositionists sought to create spaces in civil society where the logic of action did not so much directly challenge the party-state as ignore it. Second. (against. the assertion of a civic and nonviolent mode of political change.

and in the electoral politics inwhich official candidates were defeated throughout Russia in the March scending 1990 parliamentary revolutions elections.85 in Because of the lack of a tradition of an autonomous sphere of civil association Russia. In their refusal to take up arms. in the explosion of social activism. the tran that had for so long been a beginning with and culminating the various in the for struck a direct blow at the violence the prevalence of forum politics. beyond is resis in and Konrad focuses on a notion of power and politics elevated that moves heroic idea of the state as the monopoly and social struggle of legitimate violence. with society. was the notion of living in truth. As the idea. A second feature was roundtables mation that negotiated their way out of Communism of antipolitical bodies like Civic Forum in the Czech lands and Citizens in Slovakia in November 1989. the regime had a point when it argued that it had no one with whom it could 470 . limitations soon eclipsed hopes for a self-managing transcending revolutions were rich in political too.Havel stressed the element of moral recupera tion in the revolutions Prague of 1989. intrigue. where popular mobilization was far more two years rather than ten days as in Czechoslovakia. but is perhaps even more impressive in Russia."84 And compatriots. In the harsh light of postcommu on the scope of politics.82 The notion Michnik. This practice has been much noted in the case of eastern Europe (with the singular exception of Romania). Russia lasting and the Baltic some republics. where the opening for overt political activism was measured not in decades but by little more than sev eral dozen months. tance movements against oppression. society triumphed. systemic featureof Communist despotism. extended. mafia. as a thepolitics of parrhesia (truth-telling)thatSolzhenitsyn had for so longurged on his a form of reconstitution it played the idea of civil form of resistance towards 1989-91. practices. theWeberian delegitimated of antipolitics that can be constructed from the works of Havel. In was witnessed in demonstrations of hundreds of thou popular mobilization sands of people between 1989 and 1991.Comparative Politics July 2006 development of antiglobalizing social forums and other forms of popular political intervention. lawless except for us to occu ness. Ukraine. liberalism. was nism The it was a crucial part in the transcending the antipolitical revolution that led but as a form of emancipation its necessary school of thought that itself transcended by the fall of Communism. occupation dirt. 1989. civil society activism was instead directed towards the state. privilege and persecution. declaring a revolution to a crowd that they had achieved "against violence. in the USSR such a strategy. State power to the status of the classic on December 10."83 Konrad noted that "I know of no way for Eastern Europe to free itself from Russian military py them with our ideas. One of them was the repudiation of violence and the practice of the mass peaceful popular demonstration. of course. If Michnik against Violence sought to subvert the Communist regime by ignoring it.

Nomenklatura elites had ceased a mental the viability of the old ways and had already achieved solution.Nowhere in easternEuropewere thereorganized counterelitesor serious to sustain a counterideology. All this was swept away in 1989-91 together with the ideology of civil war and its concomitant cold 471 . and with it plans for the wholesale reordering of human affairs. which tied the idea of revolution thus inalienably to the notion of the liberation of a class. the disappearance of emancipation from the historical hori zon. Instead. an inner transcendence that preempted a Tiananmen Square inAugust 1991 reveals the extent to revo even in the heartland of the Soviet system the ideology of emancipatory lutionism had been transcended. but they emerged out of a long tradition that tran and emancipatory revolutions.Gorbachev's personal decisions were scended the premises important. in particular Poland to believe and in Hungary. has profound effects on social theory and political practice. a cold war in which the pro tagonists were allegedly locked in battle until the end of history.Richard Sakwa negotiate. As Bauman notes. Gorbachev's policies had deep social roots and shouldnot be considered a voluntaristicact divorced from the context. not necessarily taking a violent form but dominated by the logic of a society riven by conflict and characterized by a shifting war of position between two great forces in which politics was no more than instrumental. The heresies that the Soviet regime called dissent. The emancipatory revolution had fulfilled whatever historical potential it may have had. The Marxist revolution was associated with civil war. This tradi Kantian ethics of both progressivist tion repudiatedthe political bases on which the revolutionaryemancipatoryproject was based and sought instead to ground politics in at least a minimal of personal responsibility.the system itself sought to sponsorparties and other civic associa tions.86 The thirdpoint follows from the second: the negotiated (and electoral)natureof the exit attempts from Communism in a number of countries. Contemporary humanity has to get used to "living without an alternative. From Revolution toKrizis: The Fourth Circle? The decline in the pursuit of transcendental revolutionary goals opened the way for with temporal matters of policy thehistorically locatedpursuitof politics. The domestic roots of the cold war should thus be stressed."87 of 1989-91 The revolutions put an end Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts to the age inaugurated by Marx's of 1844. shifted to problems of achieving coherence within the constitutional state. grounded in the religionof Communism. The weakness which of the attempted putsch liberation from revo lutionary socialism. concerned rather than the achievement of suprapolitical goals. and the culmination of one era made possible the antirevolutionary integration of social existence on a new basis.

politics is once again concerned with chance and probability. the concept of time in Enlightenment and emancipatory revolutions is linear and the ultimate goal chiliastic. Emancipatory revolutionism had exhausted itself and with it. the notion of crisis needs to be elaborated more. Enlightenmentand emancipatoryrevolutionismsustainedcritiques that sought to transcend the brute reality of the given. Another place of the imagination longerexists. as evidenced by the rose revolution in Georgia in November 2003. the tulip revolution in Kyrgyzstan in spring 2005. The absence of utopia and the possibility (however illusory) of a total and revolutionary change in social existence afflicts art and culture in the broadest sense. almost as an afterthought. politics has always If the Revolution been defined by the Revolution. The new politics is torn between a return to naturalistic cyclicity and the development of a fourth circle of political activism ground ed in the practices of the transcending revolution itself. the Orange revolu tion in Ukraine in fall 2004. ceases to be desirable.Mobilized forms of resis tance to capitalist of the wheel whereas come to the fore. The price to be paid for the end of the revolution has been noted by the philosopher Bernard-Henri Levy. revolu tions as liberationfromoppression.89 Liberatory to restore legitimate authority and are rooted in naturalistic cyclicity. one that was prevalent in the premodern era. The very language used to describe politics. the naturalistic appears to revolt typical of the epoch of natu ralistic cyclicity. the Leninist party. the language of political analysis and the terms applied to describe political concepts."90 The revolution has ended. With the crash of the future-oriented Enlightenment and emancipatory revolutionarycycles. no Moreover. The revival of the medical metaphor of crisis in public affairs. History has lost its goal and. Perhaps what we are witnessing now is the death of politics. then so does politics. leaving only the traditionalist emancipatory. "In France.Comparative Politics July 2006 war played out on the larger stage. and discourses and practices revolutions at the global and local levels may well return to the idea of a re-volution as a turn possibly any number of other revolutionsof the colors. of political intervention paralyze conscious consequences The bases for political intervention are not clear. the transcending antirevolution enormousconsequencesfor the con has duct of politics in the postrevolutionary era.and elitemanipulationwill continue.poverty. but a disenchanted order takes its place in which the unpre dictable and multiple political mobilization. buckle under the pressures generat ed by the end of the revolution. the historiosophical reality that the practice and conduct of politics has indeed revolved back to an earlier period when class struggle existed but lacked the dimension of social emancipation and when revolutions were liberating rather than reflects have been restored.With the end of the idea of revo lution as a way of overcoming contingency in human affairs. For the Greeks krizis was amoment of reflection in the life of the 472 . The end of Soviet Communism put an end to all talk of revolutionary socialism.88 Of course. as Jean Bodin always stressed.

"92 living by truth and rejecting doubt. there is no longer in progress subjectivity have a ten spirit of the antirevolution of naturalistic cyclici such as theWorld Social Forum.. Contemporary dency towards the passive. Conclusion: The End of Epochality? Historical time. and they now act as the basis of a new moral its own dangers. to the passivity The politics of krizis is a form of resistance arise from the realities of society. Contemporary countries have done little more to objectify social processes inways reminiscentof Enlightenmentand emancipato ry revolutionism. theprimacyof cultureover socially determined of directed political action. as he puts it. an opportunity the neglect of the inequalities of sovereignty. The new culturalism.94 out of new patterns of stratification.91 At lives on inmovements politics and popular political the same time the positive pretations of human destiny. experience experience between past and In the is heavily histori the at a future or.93 But it also provides as amoment of history. Contrary words). worked in particular as potent weapons against the party no emerging to treat the the than state. technologi Ethics andmorality.Richard Sakwa community. type.. contains political Only subject the lie. There and indeed the relativization ty and provides an opportunity to devise nonepochal solutions to the problems that is a renewed emphasis on Tocquevillian toMarx (in Ash's modalities of political action themes. Transcendental increased emancipatory localized historicism of the Fukuyama fulfill these expectations is decreased. economic. but it also poses a new challenge. Although Societies where to modernity cism has given way expectation on the future are structurally that the future will progressivism (given the failure of the past). The antirevo lution has not yet fulfilled its potential by provoking a politics of krizis. "consciousnessultimatelydeterminesbeing. but now without a social subject other than the state itself acting in the name of objectified processes like globalization and marketization. according world to Koselleck. while the Chinese character for the concept ismade up of symbols for dan inter ger and opportunity. military. is defined by differentiating terms.objective conditionof states-political. to examine hierarchies a critique of naturalism can allow human development In the countries of the antirevolution Russia and other postcommunist itself to become it remains latent.the key to the future lies not in the external. cal but in the internalsubjectivecondition of individuals. but there is still crisis. culture. but a crisis born no longer out of a belief but by its absence. Today.95 between and expectation to the former as a result of the failure of utopian aspirations vested in the per civil war of emancipatory to the mean revolutionism. reached its apogee are being reintroduced 473 . in anthropological postcommunist weighted manent demands modernist the balance and expectation. The language of crisis in part reflects a return to naturalistic revolution.

" New Left Review. 8.thepostcommunist restorationismore complex than those fol lowing theEnlightenment revolutions. P. Arendt.97 For emancipatory that endowed them with a into the political is subsumed to the environment itwas precisely the impossibility of adaptation tenuous quality. the regimes." (London: Routledge. J?rgen Habermas. Konets Utopii? Proshloe 1990). Jerzy Szacki. The Revolutions of 1989 chapter (London: Macmillan. Leslie Holmes. where the social revolution. For this reason. Timothy Garton Ash." Oct. "The Marxist-Leninist The Unfinished Detour. 1989." ed. "Reform or Revolution?. Vladimir Tismaneanu. Post-Communism: i budushchee sotsializma sis.. in Hungary and Poland. pp. 1993). 508 BC toAD 1993 (Oxford: Oxford University 474 . Robert V Daniels. in John Dunn. 183 (September-October 1990). xi md passim. eds. 47-55. 159-76. The antirevolu mark not only the point at which the revolution ended but the resolution remains to be found. p. 11.Comparative Politics July 2006 time when weight ones. like to thank Yitzhak Brudny. Neil Harding. "Refolution The New York Review of Books. (Moscow: Novosti. 2.. Rather. pp. see M. 1990). The Concept of Utopia (New York: Philip Allan. for New Thinking on the Left. The Soviet 1990). 27. p. also. The End of the Communist Revolution (London: Routledge. to the USSR. 1999). 1. 1988. of Communist Power (Oxford: Polity Press. Only with the fall of the revolutionaryregime can a politics grounded tions of 1989-1991 in the political concerns of society emerge. inauguration of a new type of politics of crisis whose NOTES Iwould 1. i 6. The Enlightenment revolutions were not fol lowed by the anticipated could be built. Revolution "What Does Socialism Mean Today? The Rectifying and the Need 4. "The Age of Paradox: The Anti-revolutionary in Twentieth-Century inMoira Donald Revolution and Tim Rees. Journey. 3. compensated gave way by the to spatial rationalistic technocratism. See Ruth Levitas. 7. Press. 1993). 1997). On Revolution 1973). An Introduction (Cambridge: Polity Press." The New York Review of Books. revolutions fundamentally adapted society after the delay and native in the arrival of the anticipated tradititions. 2001).96 The social optimism is on the wane. millennium. pp. Some of the ideas in this (London: Penguin Books. are drawn from Richard Revolutions of Sakwa. ed. Gilison.Today the the of the future in social enhanced value of foreign role models consequence with as temporal utopianism fundamental of the end of the revolution revolutionary that change is that the epochal to thinking associated the modem metanoia. "Introduction. pp 155-88. Robert V Daniels. For an interesting Soviet analy (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Image of Utopia 5. 1975). tradition has now given way of heart on which a new the possibility of a groundedpolitics. 3-21. 17." Europe Hannah in Vladimir Tismaneanu. Timothy Garton Ash. Democracy: Press. price of thepursuitof justiceproved toohigh. For application traditsiya (Moscow: Progress. 9-15. Leslie The End Holmes. Kapustin. Aug. The future is no longer justice but a thin consciousness has decreased. 1993). and Andreas Umland for their support and help ful comments.. p. Reinterpreting 1989-91. also. Utopia see Jerome M.

see Guy Debord. The sacrificial came out against revolution. 17. 161. 12. for example. Fred Halliday. was and World Politics: The Rise and Fall of the Sixth Great Power (Durham: Press. 1995). of Historical p. it signified 11. Francis and the Last Man (New York: Free Press. 9. 40. On Revolution. Mass." Arendt. see. University 18. The Development State: A Sociological Introduction (London: Hutchinson. 1988). p. 2004). p.Richard Sakwa For a useful the USSR. Revolution Duke University Italy. Keith Tribe. but in form it they claimed to be ancient liberties and rights. University 20." The National The Society of the Spectacle (New York: Interest (Summer 1989). for example. From Enlightenment to Revolution (Durham: Duke is by Eric Voegelin. Time (Cambridge. Raymond of North Democracy Carolina Press. 1982). 29. The Soviet Experiment: is the concept of experiment States (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1992). It was on the "C'est une exclaimed. Press. See Reinhart Rousseau. Class and Civil Society: The Limits of Massachusetts Press. "The End of History. 2003). 475 . p. Idealist: as a Critic of the Enlightenment Oakeshott (Exeter: Imprint Academic. As a himself of the Progress of the Human Mind." to which his informant. Time and Revolution: Marxism (Chapel Hill: University 26. 1997). the late Enlightenment thought. of legitimacy. esp. Stephen E. ix and Critical of Marxian and Jean L. 47. Arendt. The characterization Condorcet and Modernity (Cambridge: Cambridge p. see Roy Tseng. 1985). exposition Zone Books. Gianfranco Poggi. p. Andrew Arato University Political Theory (Cambridge. 10. Marquis is A Sketch for a Historical Picture The main work by Antoine de Condorcet. Hanson. p. For comments 23. Cohen. also. Michael For a recent study. 3-17. "Translator's Introduction. The End of History on Marx's weakness as a theorist of politics. Aron. but also for the first time in its new sense of revolution of the type pursued by the American Liberatory type of universal revolutionism. On Revolution. 167. de Caritat. of theModern 1978). Francis Fukuyama. in 1794. 5. See Jean L. 1999). 42. human sacrifices." 22. Press. 21. 24. movement to the future. Cohen. 16. and the Design passim. ch. 1998). p. n7. see David Williams. Cited inArendt. 19. Marquis (London: 1955). 1975). gave his famous correction: "Non. 1968). 4. and Totalitarianism Theory (Amherst: Civil Society and Institutions of Soviet (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 13. For a brilliant Polity Press. r?volte. by Michael Oakeshott. Russia. on hearing news of the fall of the Bastille. approach was far from universal. However. 31. Fukuyama. Cf. Sire. cited in Alex Callinicos. inKoselleck. written Girondin deputy. (Cambridge: 1999). (Oxford: Oxford Critique and Crisis: Enlightenment of Modern Society Press. xv. This view was con in 1776 now gave way to a new stresses of Enlightenment paper only one aspect outcomes would be worth that suggested benevolent philosophisme This demned. the year that he poisoned in prison. p. that Louis XVI. Press. 1789. of the Progress of the Human Mind Social Theory: A Historical Introduction p. p. see Ronald Grigor Suny." The American revolution from 1776 might in defense of what have been epochal in its consequences. "Time and History. University 15. of this theme. empirical analysis. and the Pathogenesis Koselleck. the Duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt.: MIT Press. 25. when the concept of revoluzione emerged in late medieval radical change that returned to an earlier era. Futures Past. he had been incarcerated by the Jacobins. The Sceptical for example. A Sketch for a Historical Picture de Condorcet. 1992). For a recent study. The word "revolution" was here used for a revolt of colonists the last time in its old sense of the restoration an irresistible colonists 14. night of July 14. c'est une r?volution. notes that.: MIT Futures Past: On the Semantics Reinhart Koselleck. and the Successor not developed theoretically. Mass. 25. On Revolution.

to Stalin: E. The Protestant The Russian Revolutions 38. A. 1990). The Marxian Revolutionary 1970).. in Russia 44." 22. "1917: (London: Routledge. S. of Revolution: Contemporary theHistory Press." the Secret Archive (New Haven: Yale University Press. K gumannomy. 2003). 34. 42 (September 2000). Socialism: A Criticism and Affirmation (New York: Russia. 1995). 1992). 1967). demokraticheskomu zayavlenie XXVIII s 'ezda KPSS the (Moscow: Politizdat. Gorbachev. Although of the West: Russia and Intellectuals and the End of the Cold War (New York: Columbia Gorbachev. Stalinist Values: The Cultural Norms of Soviet Modernity. Alexander (New of Violence the Idea Haven: Yale University Press. rather. 1993). Sovetskaya 46. Posev. Erik van Ree. p. Eduard Bernstein. English. (Moscow: the threat posed to the achievements 39. 42. July 15. John Gray. Marxism of Freedom: Communist Utopia (Stanford: Stanford University Press. C. 47. E. Cited by John Keep. 41. except where his own family and closest associates were concerned. 45. The Unknown Lenin: misanthrope.Comparative Robert 27. Press. Hoffman. 33. David Anin noted that in 1917 the inability to understand of "was not an accidental the February revolution feature but a 'psychological by left-wing maximalism state' that pervaded all parties or. Vladimir Dissent and Reform in Soviet Russia (London: 2005). 1989. as argued by Robert D. Press. 43. p." Papers/Revue Tribe. the whole The Tyranny of Paris over Petrograd. Canadian 34. with Gorbachev Conversations Mlyn?fi. in particular. (New York: Columbia University of Socialism 476 . (New York: M. Pipes notes Lenin's "utter "Lenin is life. p. From under the Rubble (London: Fontana/Collins. to a collection In his introduction 29. 11. Mikhail Gorbachev and Zden?k Prague Spring. The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin (London: Routledge. pp. 7. 32. 1995). See Philip Conscience.. Max Weber. Perestroika: 1987). Quoted retrospectively New Thinking for Our Country sotsializmu: Programmnoe and the World (London: Collins. Solzhenitsyn et al. "Etika nigilizma. Ibid. (New Haven: Yale University Press. Mikhail Gorbachev. 1974). S. 1995). The Fate of Marxism In English. David L. Max Weber. the role of westernized elites is important. xv. Palgrave Macmillan. 11. Tucker. Political Thought from Machiavelli Revolutionary Machiavellism (Basingstoke: 2004).. RoutledgeCurzon. 1917-1941 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 40. Slavonic Modernization and the Paradox of Twentieth-Century "Revolution. 175-210. Russian 20. 36. 28. disregard revealed From for human of hitherto unpublished documents. pp." Prospect (November 2004). Alexander Yakovlov. 2001). 2002). Politics July 2006 Idea (London: Allen & Unwin. 2000).. University 49. 35. 250. 23-24. 1961). 2002). Rees.M. 68. Boobbyer. (1968-69). reprinted Frankfurt a." in Vekhi: Sbornik statei o russkoi intelligentsii (Oxford: and the Spirit of Capitalism 'Iz glubin'. were no less significant. p." Soviet Studies. 49. 37. 2002). intelligentsia. 3. A. Press. 8. M. Striving for Law in a Lawless Land: Memoirs of a Russian Reformer A Century in Soviet Russia Yakovlov. 50. pp. 51. Andrzej Walicki. and the Crossroads on Perestroika. Sharpe. and the Leap to the Kingdom The Rise and Fall of the 30. p. 1909. Iz glubiny: Sbornik statei o russkoi revolyutsii (Moscow: 1989). kultura. On My Country and the World (New York: Columbia 48." as a thoroughgoing in these documents Richard Pipes ed. Polity Press. "Fanatical Unbelief. The Challenge Russia in Mau and Irina Starodubrovskaya. Frank. Canadienne des Slavistes. native sources of antirevolutionism University see Alexander Yakovlov. See. 31. 2000). Evolutionary Ethic Schocken Books. 1996). (Oxford: Oxford University of Revolutions inM. Robert V Daniels.

(Cambridge: Cambridge University "La contre-r?volution 18. N. 58. 1995). Chernyaev. to Communism of allegiance up to and beyond the 1991 coup "Amidst Moving Ruins. Solidarity and the Politics of Anti-Politics: Opposition 1968 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 519. p. 865-902. "The 1989 Revolutions and the Idea of Europe. N." eds. of Communist Eisenstadt. Revolution: The Theory and Practice "Introduction." Political Theory. 18. Ibid. 105. Ibid. in Krishan Kumar. "A New Evolutionism. and Twilight Universalism Transaction (New Brunswick: of Radical 1 (1994). David Ost. University inDark Times 72." in Considerations 1994). p. Models of Conflict Resolution the Transformation of Societies: and Ferenc (London: Kegan A Comparative "The Breakdown in Tismaneanu. 56. Japanese Revolution and 1990).. Le Pass? d'une illusion: Essai sur l'id?e communiste 1995). 58 (Winter 1991)." and Nicolson. Joseph de Maistre. 1998). and Shevardnadze: Pavel Palazchenko. 9. p. 1 (June 1990). "The Friends and Foes of Change: Reformism and Conservatism in Rethinking Soviet Union. Gorbachev's continued declarations is sensitively portrayed by Leszek Kolakowski. (New York: Free Press. p. 1978)." the Soviet Experience: Politics since 1917 (Oxford: and History Press. 56. Press.." p. p. ed. p. of California Press. A. pp. Culture and Society." in Tismaneanu. cited inArendt. 1991). Svobodnaya mysl'. S. 66. "Supposed Dangers of a European Idea 64. "Revolyutsionnye S. Archie tion." Social Research. 648. Interpreter (University 52." 71. in Claus Offe. ch. 60. 1997). of Krishan Kumar. Eisenstadt 68. ed. Horv?th and Arp?d Szakolczai. 308. Adam Michnik. ne sera point une r?volution contraire. 1985). and Reform and Other Feh?r. Regimes. p. Krishan Kumar "The Idea of Revolution. 2. 63." "What Does Socialism Mean Today?. esp. 640. Fran?ois Furet. Cohen. Arendt. mais la contraire de la The Dissolution of Communist Power: The Case of Hungary 1992). on France of Counter-Revolution. (London: Routledge. "The Revolutions Society. The Grandeur See also S." 70. "The Strange Silence in Letters from (Ithaca: Cornell Prison Books. 89-107. The Memoir My Years with Gorbachev of a Soviet Park: Pennsylvania State University 370. See Stephen F. 53. 54. p. Paul. 121. Progress-Kultura. of the question. Democracy ter "The Meanings of 1989. Eisenstadt. Habermas. r?volution. ed. 5. pp. Shest' let s Gorbachevym: Po dnevnikovym zapisyam (Moscow: in the Oxford 1993). Press. Laffont/Calmann-L?vy. "Capitalism by Democratic Design? Democratic Theory Facing the Triple Transition East Central Europe. 309-56. The Gorbachev Factor (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 21 Studies.." Theory. in Poland since Essays (Berkeley: University Press. Europe: Citizen Intellectuals and Philosopher University 477 . 5. reads as follows. 75. University 57. Alain Touraine. 62. 1990). The original.Richard Sakwa Brown argues that Gorbachev was "an evolutionary rather than a revolutionary by convic Brown. The Dilemmas Kings (Budapest: Central Jeffrey C Isaac." 65. On Revolution. Barbara J. 1989: Socialism." Archie 55. of Dissidence European in East-Central Press. 40 (September 1992)." 73. Agnes On Revolution. p. 2003).. the chap 23 (November of Political Theory. Political 59. au XXe si?cle (Paris: Robert 61. See also S. 74. Study of Civilizations see Agnes Heller For an illuminating discussion 69. 309 andpassim. N. tsikly Rossii. p. 439-61. 13. Jeffrey C Isaac. 135-48. 1986). Dmitrii Furman. p.. 67. Falk." Capitalism Theory and Krishan Kumar. (June 1992). 1996). and Eyal Ben-Ari. (London: Weidenfeld 1971).. and Democracy.

Identities in Russia (Aldershot: Ashgate. 78. in particular. 135. 23-47. the clerical Gamble. and popular nature of the movement peace Press.. Jonathan environmentalists. encompassing and even professors of sociology. Social Revolutions in the Modern World by Theda Skocpol. p. was accused of being a KGB stooge in the democratic movement. Time for Revolution 90. the abolition of private property and the market would appear to be slim. Press. A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe (Princeton: stresses the long-term. p. 87. Arato. The Observer. Antonio Negri. eclectic. A point argued. (Princeton: Princeton University 86. 478 . 1991). The The Democratic Paradox (London: Verso." 12. An argument made by Voegelin. See M. pp. Press. is still prone to crises. Schopflin eds." i ikh realizatsiya. Democracy from Scratch: Opposition Revolution Press. 1984). An Essay George Konr?d. From Enlightenment 97. notes how at the time of the RCDM's founding congress Vladimir version of Zhirinovsky.. May 7. Alain Politics Touraine July 2006 Poland 1980-81 et al. The End of "isms "? Reflections Politics subject. Self Limiting Revolution (Princeton: University 1984). 613. p. see Alexsandras 88. Politics and Fate (Cambridge: Polity Press. 84. 47 (1981). One of the founders of the Russian Christian Democratic Movement." in G. (Westport: Padraic Kenney. Death of the Dark Hero: Eastern Europe. Return One author who has most systematically tried to deal with of the Political (London: Verso. Bo 1993). 1995. xxiii. (London: 1987-90 Cape. 2000. p. esp. "Civil Society against the See. 1988). Solidarity: Poland's (Cambridge: Cambridge Princeton University Press. pp.. Intimations of Postmodernity (London: Routledge.Comparative 76. John Keane. Power and Civil Society: 81. after Communism's (Oxford: Blackwell. Koselleck. and N. 2000). 200-1. 83. 2001). 252. p. University that swept the Communist pop musicians." Telos. 7 and 8. 92. 2000). 89. 16. "Interpreting 1989. p. Nowak. 1995). Wood. Stephen campaigners. Zygmunt Bauman.. 96. Konr?d. Chantai Mouffe. in the New Russian and Regime Fish. 91. and John Keane. National Self-images and Regional p. 1990). The landmark western formulation State: Poland State: New 1980-81. of course. (Cambridge: Cambridge University 94. 129. Perspectives European of the strategy is Andrew Arato. 85. 107-12. Party. for example. 77.. and other works. systems away in 1989. 2003). for example. 1992). "Zamysly Apr. Jadwiga Staniszkis. Timothy Garton Ash. Greenwood Press. for example. 93. 1989). to Revolution. chs. 2002). 203. See. 95. David Selbourne. Democracy 1988). 82. 57. the former priest Vyacheslav in 1990 he "refused the honour of being Polosin. (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Antipolitics: L. this question is Chantal Mouffe. 1983). but the immediate prospects of an ideology based on Capitalism. Andrew (London: Continuum. p. 79. 80. Antipolitics. In Search of Central Europe (Oxford: Polity Press. 4. 236. Collapse 1994). Petersson. Towards a Dynamic Theory of Real Socialism Princeton Society (London: Verso. ed. "Does Central Europe Exist?. p. 1994). feminists. See. Civil Society and the and Civil (London: Verso. Cf. the leader of the Liberal Democratic Zhirinovsky." p. NG-Religii. For an excellent debate on the on the Fate of Ideological Shtromas ed. ed.