CVLkVILW Coal of l8CÞ Ŷ fasLţ speedyţ and cheap resoluLlonŦ !

udlclal economy ls an overrldlng concernţ buL musL be
balanced agalnsL need Lo do subsLanLlve [usLlceŦ
ÞLLADINGS All pleadlngs should be consLrued Lo do subsLanLlal [usLlceŦ Þleadlngs seL Lhe boundarles of a lawsulLŦ
luncLlons of Þleadlng
1) Clves noLlce Lo parLlesţ helplng Lhem prepare Lhelr case
2) LllmlnaLe spurlous clalmsţ promoLlng [udlclal economy and proLecLlng llLlganLs from harassmenL
3) Pelp Lo narrow Lhe lssuesţ sLreamllnlng Lhe case for Lrlal
4) Culde Lhe parLles and Lhe courL ln Lhe conducL of Lhe caseţ helplng deflne Lhe scope of dlscovery and evldence
3) Supply a record for [udgmenLţ permlLLlng Lhe appllcaLlon of tes joJlcoto
5obstootlve low deLermlnes rlghLs for lnLeracLlons beLween peopleţ and beLween people and Lhe governmenLŦ
ltoceJotol low makes Lhe promlses of subsLanLlve law realŦ lL ls necessary for Lhere Lo be a prospecL of enforcemenL and
reallzaLlon of subsLanLlve lawŦ
IŦCCMÞLAIN1 (UCÞ ÞŦ 228)
aŦku|e 8(a) Ŷ C|a|m for ke||efť A pleadlng LhaL sLaLes a clalm for rellef musL conLalnť
|ŦShorLţ plaln sLaLemenL of grounds for courL's [urlsdlcLlon
||ŦShorLţ plaln sLaLemenL of clalm showlng LhaL plalnLlff ls enLlLled Lo rellef
|||ŦA demand for rellef soughLţ whlch may lnclude rellef ln Lhe alLernaLlve or dlffŦ Lypes of rellef
1ŦunlmporLanLŦ CourLs wlll generally granL rellef even lf lL wasn'L demandedŦ
bŦComplalnL lnlLlaLes proceedlngs alleges facLs showlng u's behavlor enLlLles Þ Lo remedy or ln[uncLlonŦ
|ŦCoal ls Lo esLabllsh nause of an|onť A legal Lheory of a lawsulLŦ
1ŦlŦeŦ a basls for sulng under subsLanLlve lawŦ
||ŦMusL only sLaLe clalm under ooy Lheoryţ noL [usL ossetteJ Lheory
1ŦCan amend pleadlng under 1S(b) Lo conform Lo evldence aL Lrlal
2Ŧ1heory of Lhe pleadlngs may deLermlne appllcable sLaLŦ llm
3ŦCbllgaLlons of candor and care sLlll apply (kole 11)
|||ŦComplalnL musL be flledţ lnsLead of prlvaLe noLlce Lo [udgeţ Lo afford due process Lo u
1Ŧu has rlghL Lo ºday ln courL"
nŦSuff|n|enn of nomp|a|n Ŷ nas Þ sa|d enough o overnome 12(b)(6)?
|Ŧ lf cause of acLlon lnsufflclenLţ 12(b)(6) moLlon Lo dlsmlss wlll be granLed for ºfallure Lo sLaLe a clalm upon
whlch rellef can be granLed"Ŧ
1ŦAssumlng all facLs of complalnL are Lrueţ Þ cannoL recover under Lhe lawŦ
||ŦMonwi//ť ComplalnL sLaLed LhaL LlmeŴbarred debL was renewed by moral obllgaLlon arlslng from oral
promlse Lo repayŦ
1ŦLaw sald renewal of debL musL be ln wrlLlngŦ A moral obllgaLlon Lo repay ls noL valld conslderaLlon for
an oral conLracLŦ
2ŦÞ cannoL proceed wlLh cause of acLlonţ b/c he falled Lo asserL all Lhe necessary elemenLs of a conLracL
under u1 lawŦ 1here are no promlses of subsLanLlve law lefL Lo be enforcedŦ Pe
|||ŦArgumenL for lnLerlocuLory appealť promoLes efflclency where lL ls llkely LhaL case can be flnally dlsposed of
on appealţ or where appeal ls requlred as basls for Lrlal Lo proceed
|vŦArgumenL agalnsLť can delay procedures and annoy Lrlal [udgeŦ
vŦuoobleŴJlsctetloo prlnclpleť ulsLrlcL + appeals courL musL boLh agree LhaL appeal can be madeŦ
dŦIunn|on of modern p|ead|ngť 1o glve noLlce of clalms or defensesŦ
|Ŧuioquordiť 8epresenLs modernţ llberal vlew of pleadlngŦ Þ does noL have Lo allege all facLs necessary Lo
prove a clalmŦ noLlce ls key funcLlonŦ
1Ŧ ÞlalnLlff musL noL be denled hls day ln courLŦ
||Ŧu can use dlscovery from Lo esLabllsh a defenseţ lf few facLs are sLaLed ln Lhe pleadlngŦ
|||Ŧlorclng Loo much dlsclosure can ellmlnaLe Þ's leverage for seLLlemenLŦ
1Ŧ8uL noLlce pleadlng noL necessarlly klnder Lo plalnLlffť he has burden of greaLer evldence/dlscovery
sLandards under noLlce pleadlngŦ
2ŦAlsoţ bare noLlce ls lnsufflclenL musL sLaLe general clrcumsLances glvlng rlse Lo clalmŦ
|vŦ6i//ispieť ÞlalnLlff dld noL dlsclose any facLs whlch mlghL ldenLlfy Lhe occaslon or descrlbe Lhe clrcumsLances
of Lhe alleged wrongful conducLţ so Lhere was no facLual basls Lo apply Lhe law and no basls for recoveryŦ
1Ŧ8epresenLs old facL pleadlng sLandardť complalnL musL allege maLerlalţ essenLlalţ Ǝ ulLlmaLe facLsŦ
2ŦCllllsple would prevall under 8ule 8(a) modern pleadlngť she gave a daLeţ locaLlonţ and amLŦ soughLŦ
3ŦA fottlotlť lf one Lhlng ls Lrueţ Lhen Lhe oLher has Lo be LrueŦ lf uloguardl's complalnL was sufflclenL
under 8(a)ţ Lhen Cllllsple's musL beŦ
eŦL|emens p|ead|ng (UCÞ ÞŦ 228)
|ŦComplalnL musL plead facLs whlch consLlLuLe all maLerlal elemenLs necessary Lo susLaln recovery under some
vlable legal LheoryŦ
||ŦArguably Lhe Je focto fed pleadlng sLandardť where noL requlredţ mosL compeLenL lawyers wlll followŦ
fŦCher p|ead|ng sandards
|Ŧne|ghened p|ead|ng sandard (UCÞ ÞŦ 230)
1ŦLeothermon sald lnconslsLenL w/noLlce pleadlngŦ
aŦAcLlons agalnsL munl employees need noL sLaLe why Lhey are noL lmmune
bŦMusL use S! + dlscovery Lo weed ouL frlvolous clalmsŦ
2Ŧ9(b) helghLened pleadlng llmlLed Lo fraudţ anLlLrusLŦ Pave Lo amend l8CÞ Lo lnclude Ƈ1983 casesŦ
||ŦÞ|aus|b||| p|ead|ng (UCÞ ÞŦ 232)ť 1wombly sald pleadlngs musL cross llne from concelvable plooslble
1Ŧ More Lhan posslblllLyţ less Lhan probablllLyŦ
2Ŧ May be applled flexlbly ln cerLaln cases (lŦeŦ anLlLrusL)Ŧ
fŦ nas Þ sa|d oo munh? (UCÞ ÞŦ 23S)
|Ŧ8(d) Ŷ Conn|se + D|renŤ A|erna|ve SaemensŤ Innons|senn
1ŦAllegaLlon musL be slmpleţ conclseţ dlrecL Ŷ no form requlred
2ŦA pleadlng may sLaLe alLernaLlve clalms or defensesţ and ls sufflclenL lf any of Lhem ls sufflclenL
3ŦÞarLy may sLaLe as many clalms + defenses as Lhey haveţ regardless of conslsLency
||ŦMccormick vŦ kopmonť u drove Lruck whlch colllded w/ Þ's husbandŦ Þ clalmed u negllgenLly drove over
cenLer llne andţ alLernaLlvelyţ LhaL Pulls negllgenLly served hlm alcoholţ causlng hlm Lo geL drunk and cause
accldenLŦ u's moLlon Lo dlsmlss denledŦ lnconslsLenL pleadlng allowed lf Þ uncerLaln abouL facLsŦ
1ŦAlLernaLlve pleadlng ls approprlaLe where Þ ls genulnely ln doubL as Lo whaL Lhe facLs are and whaL
Lhe evldence wlll showŦ
AŦAlLernaLlve pleas noL admlsslons of facLţ else would be a LrapŦ
Ŧ8uL noL valld lf Þ knows one clalm ls false
2Ŧ !usLlce mlghL noL be done lf alLernaLlve clalms noL allowedŦ
AŦÞ mlghL noL be able Lo afford 2 lawsulLs
ŦLawyer worklng for conLlngencyŴfee mlghL noL accepL case w/only one LheoryŦ
3ŦSub[ecL Lo candor + careť ALLorneys musL make reasonable lnqulry lnLo facLs (11(b))Ŧ
AŦ8urden for sulng has conLlnued Lo rlse don'L wanL Lo wasLe [udlclal resources or allow Þ Lo
exLorL seLLlemenL or cause undue expense for Lhe uŦ
ŦSeparaLe Lrlals may be preferable Ŷ nuances of compeLlng clalms may confuse [uryŦ

2ŦANSWLk (UCÞ ÞŦ 260)
aŦ8esponses Lo Lhe Þ's allegaLlonsť 1) uenlal/Admlsslon 2) AfflrmaLlve uefense 3) CounLer/crossŴclalms
|ŦDen|a| Ŷ ku|e 8(b)(2)ť MusL admlL or deny ever allegaLlon ln Lhe pleadlng ln shorL + plaln LermsŦ
1Ŧlallure Lo deny ƹ admlLLance 8(b)(6)
2ŦLack of sufflclenL lnfo ƹ denlal 8(b)(S)
3Ŧ uenlals sobttoct from Lhe sLoryŦ ÞrevenL plalnLlff from esLabllshlng evldence LhaL ls vlLal Lo allegaLlonsŦ
||ŦAff|rma|ve defenses Ŵ 8(n)ť noL a denlal of facLţ buL a ºSC WPA1?"
1ŦGenera|
AŦMuS1 be lncluded ln answer as condlLlon of admlsslblllLy of supporLlng evldence aL Lrlal
|ŦLxcepLlonť opponenL falls Lo ob[ecLţ or courL permlLs amendmenL of pleadlng aL Lrlal
||Ŧ8eLLer Lo plead Au when ln doubL Lo avold rlsk of excluded evldence
|||Ŧlf answer amended Lo lnclude Auţ and Þ's ob[ecLlon susLalnedţ u wlll seek Lo amend hls
pleadlngŦ
ŦAu eolotqes Lhe sLory Lo encompass elemenLs noL menLloned ln Lhe complalnLŦ
|ŦLven lf Þ's clalms are Lrueţ u has a legal [usLlflcaLlon for hls acLlons
CŦno responslve pleadlng requlred Lo Au doesn'L mean lLs admlLLed
DŦMay plead denlal and Au ln Lhe alLernaLlve
2ŦLxamp|esť assumpLlon of rlskŤ conLrlbuLory negllgenceţ duressţ esLoppelţ fraudţ lllegallLyţ lachesţ res
[udlcaLaţ sLaLuLe of fraudsţ sLaLuLe of llmlLaLlonsţ and walverŦ
3ŦSLaLuLe of LlmlLaLlonsť Common Auţ depends on 3 facLors
AŦWhen Lhe clalm accrued (lŦeŦ came lnLo exlsLence)
|Ŧusually Llme of ln[ury
||ŦSomeLlmes when Þ should by exerclse of reasonable dlllgence have dlscovered hls ln[ury
ŦÞerlod of llmlLaLlons
|ŦIarlesŤ longesL perlods assoclaLed wlLh clalms on prlor [udgmenLs
CŦWhen Lhe perlod Lolls or sLops runnlngŦ 1olled lfť
|Ŧu fraudulenLly concealed wrongdolngţ Þ legally lncapaclLaLedţ servlce Lall allowed
ŦPurposes of 5totute of Limitotions
AŦÞrevenLs u from belng sub[ecL Lo lndeflnlLe uncerLalnLy
ŦLncourages repose
CŦMoLlvaLes Þ Lo brlng sulL whlle facLs are sLlll fresh ln Lhe mlnds of Lhe parLles lnvolved
SŦCasesť
AŦ6omet vŦ 1o/edoť ;uallfled lmmunlLy ls an afflrmaLlve defense whlch offlclals musL pleadŦ
|Ŧu musL asserL LhaL he acLed ln good falLh Lo supporL Lhls defenseŦ
||Ŧ8urden ls on u Lo plead avoldance or Au
Ŧlnqrohom vŦ uŦ5Ŧť uamage llmlLaLlon ls an afflrmaLlve defenseţ whlch u walved by falllng Lo
ralse before LrlalŦ Aus musL be pled aL/before Lrlal Lo avold pre[udlceŦ
|Ŧlf Þ knew abouL defense earllerţ would have Lrled Lo prove damages noL wlLhln llmlLţ or
aLLack llmlL's consLlLuLlonallLyŦ
||Ŧ8(n) ls noL an excluslve llsL of AusŦ LlmlLaLlon ls avo|danne under reslduary clauseť
admlLs Lhe facLsţ buL shows cause why Lhey should noL have Lhelr ordlnary legal effecLŦ
|||ŦCounern|a|msť AfflrmaLlve defenses requlrlng an answer

3Ŧ AMLNDMLN1S 1C ÞLLADINGS (UCÞ ÞŦ 267)
aŦku|e 1S(a) Ŷ Þrer|a|ť A parLy may amend a pleadlng once as a maLLer of course w/ln 21 daysŦ
|ŦCLherwlseţ courL should freely glve leave Lo amendţ as [usLlce requlresŦ
1Ŧke nons|dera|onsť 8easonableness of Lhe delay and exLenL of Lhe resulLlng pre[udlceŦ
AŦÞresumpLlon ls ln favor of amendmenL
ŦCnly rebuLLed lf unreasonable delayţ bad falLhţ or resulLs ln undue pre[udlce
CŦundue pre[udlce ls usually ºpreparaLlon pre[udlce" resulLlng from Lhe delay Ŷ a subsLanLlal
llLlgaLlon dlsadvanLage LhaL Lhe opposlng parLy would noL have faced absenL Lhe delayŦ
2ŦCourLs may allow conLlnuance or addlLlonal dlscovery Lo mlLlgaLe pre[udlce
3Ŧlf Lhere ls delay alone wlLhouL pre[udlceţ musL be careful noL Lo punlsh Lhe cllenLŦ
||ŦSandard of rev|ewť Abuse of dlscreLlonŦ
1ŦÞresumpLlon ls ln favor of amendmenLţ so errors noL as commonŦ
2Ŧ1rlal courL ln besL poslLlon Lo know whaL ls pre[udlclalţ based on facLsŦ
|||Ŧls/ond creek vŦ Loke 5horeť Þţ operaLors of coal mlneţ purchased machlnery from u manufacLurerŦ 1he
machlne broke downţ causlng properLy damageŦ Þ amended complalnL Lo plead afLerŴsale negllgence lnsLead of
breach of warranLŦ AmendmenL was granLed
1Ŧ3Ŵyear delay ln amendlng complalnL was [usLlfledŦ
AŦÞ dldn'L know of defecL ln machlne unLll dlscovery began Ǝ slow pace of Lrlal wasn'L Þ's faulLŦ
2Ŧ Alsoţ delay dld noL pre[udlce uţ who already prepared defense for addlLlonal allegaLlonsŦ
|vŦ 5trouss vŦ uouq/osť 4 years afLer complalnLţ u moved Lo amend answer Lo plead Au of sLaL llmŦ AmendmenL
denledŦ u knew of sLaLuLe of llmlLaLlons aL Llme of orlglnal complalnLŦ
1Ŧ uelay ln pleadlng Au resulLed ln subsLanLlal pre[udlce Lo Þ Case would have been LlmeŴbarred lf
amendmenL allowedŦ Þ could have swlLched !us lf he knew earllerŦ
2Ŧ Þre[udlce lncreases Lhe longer Lhe delayŦ Leave Lo freely amend mlLlgaLed by subsLanLlal pre[udlceŦ
bŦ ku|e 1S(b)(1) Ŷ Amendmens dur|ng]afer r|a|ť lf a parLy ob[ecLs LhaL evldence ls noL wlLhln Lhe lssues ralsed ln
Lhe pleadlngsţ Lhe courL may permlL Lhe pleadlngs Lo be amendedŦ 1he courL should freely permlL an amendmenL llť
|Ŧ uolng so wlll ald ln presenLlng Lhe merlLs Anu Lhe ob[ecLlng parLy falls Lo saLlsfy Lhe courL LhaL Lhe evldence
would pre[udlce LhaL parLy's acLlon or defense on Lhe merlLsŦ
||ŦÞre[udlceť Same conslderaLlons as 13(a)
1ŦNoe LhaL Lhe presumpLlon favorlng amendmenL ls sllghLly weakened once Lrlal has begunŦ
|||Ŧ1he courL may granL a conLlnuance Lo enable Lhe ob[ecLlng parLy Lo meeL Lhe evldenceŦ
1ŦA conLlnuance wlll be less llkely Lo be granLed ln a [ury LrlalŦ
nŦ ku|e 1S(b)(2)ť lf no ob[ecLlon Lo amendmenLţ [usL as good as ln Lhe pleadlngsŦ
dŦ ku|e 1S(n) Ŷ ke|a|on an of Amendmens (Same Þar|es)Ŷ An amendmenL Lo a pleadlng relaLes back whenť
|Ŧ (1)() Ŵ1he amendmenL asserLs a clalm or defense LhaL arose ouL of Lhe conducLţ LransacLlonţ or occurrence seL
ouL ln Lhe orlglnal pleadlngŦ
1Ŧ1esť ls Lhere sufflclenL overlap beLween new clalm and old one Lo allow relaLlon back?
AŦketotJ bypoť Mlnlmal overlap b/L properLy damage and slander clalmŦ
2Ŧ1he llberallLy wlLh whlch courLs apply Lhls sLandard should be lnformed by concerns of falrness and
noLlce Lo Lhe parLlesŦ
||Ŧ wotts vŦ 4ritonoť Mlnor Þ lnvolved ln accldenL ln whlch she was ln[ured and parenLs and slsLer kllledŦ She
broughL sulL agalnsL SLaLe and lord for her ln[urlesŦ Also flled wrongful deaLh sulL agalnsL lord for all 3 parLlesţ
and agalnsL SLaLe for her moLher and slsLerŦ AfLer sLaL llm ranţ Þ's moved Lo amend wrongful deaLh complalnL
agalnsL SLaLe Lo add her faLherŦ lL was allowed Lo relaLe backŦ
1Ŧ Amended clalm arose from same accldenL as 1
sL
clalmsţ so u had noLlce Þ mlghL asserL new clalmŦ
2Ŧ 1he pre[udlce Lo u was mlnlmal b/c lL was already prepared Lo defend Lhe clalmŦ
|||Ŧ cox vŦ coost/ineť Mlnor Þ was ln Lraln crash whlch ln[ured hlm and kllled hls parenLsŦ Pe broughL sulL for
wrongful deaLh of hls parenLsŦ AfLer sLaL llm ranţ moved Lo amend complalnL Lo add clalm for personal ln[urlesŦ
MoLlon Lo amend was denledŦ noL allowed Lo relaLe back b/c asserLed new clalm LhaL alLered grounds for rellefŦ
1ŦCox asserLed an unrelaLed clalm whlch caused greaLer pre[udlce Lo Lhe uţ who was unprepared Lo
defend lLŦ
2ŦPCWLIL8ţ Cox should have relaLed back under 1S(n)ţ b/c new clalm arose from same lncldenLŦ
3Ŧ!udges llkely chose Lo unofflclally rely on old ruleţ whlch Lhey were more comforLable lnLerpreLlngŦ
Cld rule placed greaLer emphasls on wheLher amended pleadlng sLaLed new cause of acLlonŦ
eŦke|a|on an w|h D|fferen Þar|esť (1)(C) Ŷ AmendmenL changlng parLy or namlng of Lhe parLy relaLes back lfť
|ŦClalm or defense arose ouL of same conducLţ LransacLlonţ or occurrence seL ouL ln lnlLlal pleadlng
||ŦÞarLy Lo be added recelved noLlce wlLhln 120 days per (m)
1Ŧneed noL be servedţ only noLlceŤ setvlce toll ls allowed
|||ŦÞŦ1ŦAŦ knew/should have known acLlon would have been broughL agalnsL hlmţ buL for a mlsLake of ldenLlLyŦ
fŦworthinqton vŦ wi/sonť Þ arresLed by 2 offlcers who commlLLed pollce bruaLllLyŦ llled complalnL agalnsL 3
unknown offlcersţ laLer amended hls complalnL Lo name unknown offlcersŦ CLher 13(c) requlremenLs saLlsfledţ
buL amendmenL dld noL relaLe back b/c precedenL says changlng parLy name ƹ lack of knowledgeţ noL mlsLakeŦ
|ŦulcLať 13(c) purpose ls Lo glve noLlceţ mlsLake should noL be separaLe requlremenLŦ
||Ŧoom ||neť Some !us don'L conslder namlng unknown parLy a mlsLake Ǝ won'L allow relaLlon back (7
Lh
Clrc)
1ŦSome uC conslder lL a mlsLake and WlLLŦ Sae our assump|on when answer|ngŦ
gŦ 5chiovoneť Peld LhaL old rule 13(c) requlred LhaL proper parLy had noLlce of acLlon before sLaLe llm explredŦ 13(c)
amended ln 1991 Lo allow relaLlon back as long as conducL same and new parLy aware of complalnL w/ln 120 daysŦ
hŦ Some sLaLes sLlll don'L allow relaLlon backţ b/c sLaL llm consldered Loo lmporLanLŦ Þurpose of sLaL llm
|Ŧ ÞroLecLs u from belng sub[ecLed Lo lndeflnlLe uncerLalnLy
||Ŧ MoLlvaLes Þ Lo brlng sulL whlle recollecLlons + evldence are sLlll freshŦ
Ŧ kLÇUIkLMLN1 1nA1 ÞLLADINGS L MADL IN GCCD IAI1n (UCÞ ÞŦ 239)
aŦ ku|e 11ť 8y presenLlng a pleadlngţ moLlonţ or oLher paper Lo Lhe courL Ŷ wheLher by slgnlngţ flllngţ submlLLlngţ or
laLer advocaLlng lL Ŵ an aLLorney or unrepresenLed parLy cerLlfles LhaL Lo Lhe besL of Lhe person's knowledgeţ
lnformaLlonţ and bellefţ formed oftet oo lopolty teosoooble ooJet tbe cltcomstoocesť
|Ŧ(b)(1)ť lL ls noL belng presenLed for lmproper purposeţ lŦeŦ harassmenLţ unnecessary delayţ or
needlessly lncreaslng cosLsŤ
||Ŧ(b)(2)ť clalmsţ defensesţ and oLher legal conLenLlons are warranLed by exlsLlng law or nonfrlvolous argumenL
Lo exLend or modlfy lawŤ
|||Ŧ(b)(3)ť Lhe facLual conLenLlons have evldenLlary supporLţ or are llkely Lo have supporL afLer
lnvesLlgaLlon/dlscoveryŤ and
|vŦ(b)()ť Lhe denlals of facLual conLenLlons are warranLed by evldence orţ lf speclflcally so ldenLlfledţ are
reasonably based on bellef or lack of lnformaLlon
bŦSafe narbor ku|e Ŷ 11(n)(2)ť LlLlganL mus be glven 21 days Lo formally wlLhdraw a clalm or defense once served
wlLh a 8ule 11 moLlon by Lhe opposlng aLLorneyŦ
|ŦAfLer 21 daysţ may Lhen brlng a moLlon for 8ule 11 sancLlonsŦ
||ŦALLorney may be sub[ecL Lo 8ule 11 sancLlons for fallure Lo respond Lo moLlon for sancLlons w/ln 21 days
|||ŦSafe harbor does noL apply Lo ºshow cause" orders lssued aL courL's lnlLlaLlveŦ
nŦ Goa| of ku|e 11ť 1o proLecL courLs and Lhe parLles agalnsL lncompeLenL or bad falLh lawyerlngŦ
|Ŧ ALLorneys musL cerLlfy LhaL pleadlngs are flled for a proper purpose and uslng reasonable careŦ
||Ŧ 1o Lhls effecLţ all pleadlngsţ moLlonsţ papers musL be slgned under 11(a)
dŦkequ|remens (foctots test)
|ŦImproper Þurpose
1Ŧ11(b)(1)ť 1hls ls an openŴended sLandardŦ 8equlres LhaL Lhe parLy be acLlng ln bad falLhŦ Can be
lnferred from Lhe clrcumsLancesŦ
2Ŧlf aLLorney does noL know of lmproper purposeţ he may noL be held llableŦ
||ŦLega| Suppor
1Ŧ11(b)(2) ºnonfrlvolous exLenslon of law" rullngs can Lurn on stote Jeclsls
2ŦMusL walL reasonable amounL of Llme before Lrylng Lo modlfy law (one year noL enough)
3ŦCourL shall noL brlng moneLary sancLlons agalnsL represenLed parLy for 11(b)(2) vlolaLlonŦ As a nonŴ
aLLorneyţ he ls noL expecLed Lo know Lhe legal merlLs of hls clalmŦ
|||ŦLv|den|ar Suppor
1Ŧ11(b)(3) Ŷ() ALLorney musL aLLempL Lo obLaln facLs from publlc sourcesţ Ǝ noL rely solely on cllenL
2Ŧ8easonable lnqulry requlremenL ls mosL appllcable hereŦ
3Ŧ8epresenLed parLy less llkely Lo be sancLlonedţ b/c a nonŴaLLorney would noL be expecLed Lo know Lhe
evldenLlary value of Lhelr clalmŦ
Ŧ1erminixť Þ's aLLorney flled defamaLlon sulLţ soughL ln[uncLlon Lo prohlblL posLlng of slgnŦ nelLher slde
uncovered conLrolllng precedenL whlch prohlblLed granLlng of ln[uncLlon on free speech grounds under
ÞA consLlLuLlon (musL sue for damages afLerward)Ŧ Þ's aLLorney sancLloned for lnadequaLe research
AŦlalllng Lo uncover conLrolllng precedenL ƹ ptlmo focle vlolaLlonŦ
Ŧ8uL lack of bad falLh + u's counsel's lnadequaLe research reduced u's award by halfŦ
CŦCourLs wlll cuL more slack for facLual lnvesLlgaLlon Lhan legal research (LhaL's whaL 8ule 13 ls for)
eŦSann|ons (n)ť May be lnlLlaLed soo spoote (fees go Lo courL) or by Lhe opposlng parLy (fees go Lo Lhem)Ŧ
|Ŧ11(n)(1)ť 1he courL ma lmpose sancLlons on any aLLorneyţ law flrmţ or parLy LhaL vlolaLed Lhe rule or ls
responslble for Lhe vlolaLlonŦ
1Ŧ 1he #respons|b|e for he v|o|a|on" language ls whaL allows represenLed parLles Lo be sancLlonedŦ
||ŦÞurpose of sancLlonsť Lo deLerŦ SancLlons should be llmlLed Lo whaL ls necessary Lo deLer fuLure behavlorŦ
1Ŧkotloooleť 8uL for Lhe aLLorney's conducLţ oLher parLy would noL have lncurred feesŦ
2Ŧcoofllctloq objectlvesť need Lo relmburse cllenL vŦ mlnlmum level of sancLlons needed Lo deLer
|||ŦLlmlLed Lo reasonable aLLorney's fees and oLher expenses ºlncurred as a dlrecL resulL of Lhe vlolaLlon" and may
noL be awarded agalnsL lawyer's cllenL for brlnglng clalms noL warranLed by lawŦ
fŦSae|||e |||ga|onť A fancy Lerm for 8ule 11 used Lo lmpress ShreveŦ
gŦ1993 Amendmen
|ŦAbollshed mandaLory sancLlons ln favor of dlscreLlonary sancLlons
||ŦLquallzed Lhe burden on plalnLlffs and defendanLs Ŷ applled Lo denlals
|||Ŧ1he ºwell grounded ln facL" requlremenL became ºevldenLlary supporLŦ"
1Ŧ1hls ls a lesset burden for Lhe pleadlng parLy Lo meeLŦ
|vŦAuLhorlzes cerLlflcaLlon of allegaLlons LhaL ºllkely" wlll have evldenLlary supporL
1Ŧ8elaxes Lhe former ban on ºflle nowţ check laLer"Ŧ
hŦArgumens for and aga|ns sr|n ku|e 11
|ŦIor
1Ŧulscourages reckless pleadlngs
2Ŧulscourages harasslng pleadlngs (ºLhreaL and reLreaL")
3ŦLncourages subsLanLlve falrness
ŦAllowlng deLerrenL penalLlesţ raLher Lhan llmlLlng relmbursemenL Lo cosLs lncurredţ allows Lhe rule
sufflclenL flexlblllLy Lo punlsh rlch llLlganLs
||ŦAga|ns
1Ŧlncreases saLelllLe llLlgaLlonţ vlolaLlng [udlclal economy
2ŦulsproporLlonaLe lmpacL on plalnLlff
3ŦueLers novel plalnLlff llLlgaLlon
ŦIlolaLes Amerlcan rule agalnsL feeŴshlfLlng
ÞkL1kIALţ 1kIALţ AND AÞÞLLLA1L kLSCUkCLS (conLlnuum pŦ 83)
Þurpose of procedureť Lo resolve maLLers LhaL remaln unclearŦ Case should noL be allowed Lo proceed lf Lhe ouLcome ls
obvlousŦ Coal ls Lo dlspose of maLLers as efflclenLly as posslbleŦ
1Ŧ DLMUkkLkS AND 12()(6) MC1ICNS (UCÞ ÞŦ 2S)
aŦ12(b)(6)ť Mo|on o d|sm|ss for fa||ure o sae a n|a|m under ku|e 8(a)ť 1he complalnL ls mlsslng an essenLlal
elemenL of a cause of acLlonť even lf Lhe facLs of Lhe complalnL are Lrueţ Lhere ls no basls for rellefŦ
|ŦGoa|s
1Ŧ1o ensure Lhe avallablllLy of a legal formula [usLlfylng rellef on Lhe alleged facLs
AŦuCLS nC1 LesL or deLermlne Lhe facLs LhemselvesŦ
2Ŧ1o ensure LhaL Lhe complalnL glves noLlce Lo Lhe defendanL
bŦWhen usedť 1o aLLack Lhe subsLance of Lhe complalnLţ musL be declded on Lhe complalnL alone
|ŦSubmlsslon of maLerlals ouLslde Lhe pleadlngs ln supporL or opposlLlon Lo a 12(b)(6) ls noL forbldden
||ŦlL slmply converLs Lhe 12(b)(6) moLlon lnLo a moLlon for summary [udgmenLŦ
nŦ12(b)(6) |s an a|erna|ve o an answer
dŦ12(b)(6) 8A8LL? granLedţ buL can dlspose of marglnal clalms and parLlesţ lmpacL seLLlemenL dynamlcs
|Ŧlf granLedţ complalnL can be amended wlLhouL pre[udlceŦ
||ŦCranLlng of moLlon also appealableŦ
1Ŧlf Þ successfully appealsţ u musL flle responslve pleadlngŦ
2Ŧu may also appealţ buL walves rlghL once he answers
eŦ12(n)ť MoLlon for [udgmenL on Lhe pleadlngs (noL lmporLanL)

2Ŧ SUMMAk¥ IUDGMLN1 (UCÞ ÞŦ 390)
aŦku|e S6ť A parLy may move for S! ln parL or ln wholeŦ 1he courL shall granL S! lf Lhe movanL shows LhaL Lhere ls no
genulne dlspuLe as Lo any maLerlal facL and Lhe movanL ls enLlLled Lo [udgmenL as a maLLer of lawŦ 1he courL should
sLaLe on Lhe record Lhe reasons for granLlng or denylng Lhe moLlonŦ
|ŦMay flle a moLlon for S! aL any Llme up Lo 30 days afLer close of dlscoveryţ buL before LrlalŦ
bŦGoa|ť Coes beyond allegaLlons ln Lhe pleadlngs Lo evldence Lo show LhaL Lhere ls no genulne dlspuLe of
maLerlal facL LhaL would necesslLaLe or [usLlfy Lhe expense of Lrlal (ptomotes joJlclol ecooomy)Ŧ
|ŦConslsLenL wlLh rlghL Lo [ury Lrlalţ b/c lL LesLs wheLher Lhere ls genulne dlspuLe of facL for [ury Lo resolve
||Ŧ8y forclng parLles Lo prevlew evldence and relaLe lL Lo legal Lheorlesţ moLlon for S! ls a form of dlscovery
|||ŦAlso can promoLe seLLlemenL by alerLlng nonmovanL Lo weakness of case
nŦSandardť Could a reasonable [ury resolve Lhe lssue for Lhe nonmovanL by a preponderance of Lhe evldence?
|ŦSLandard ls reasonable doubLţ noL sllghLesL doubL
||ŦCourL wlll declde lf legal quesLlon ls avallable under any legal Lheoryţ noL [usL Lhe one pleaded
1ŦSummary [udgmenL ls Lhe preLrlal equlvalenL of a dlrecLed verdlcLŦ
dŦSandard of rev|ewť
|Ŧ CranLlng of S! ls revlewed Je oovoŦ lf reversedţ new Lrlal requlredŦ
||Ŧ 8efusal Lo granL S! ls lnLerlocuLory (noL revlewable)
eŦMovan musLť
|ŦShow LhaL Lhere ls no genulne dlspuLe as Lo any maLerlal facLŦ
1ŦCenulne dlspuLe ƹ Cne whlch a reasonable [ury could resolve agalnsL Lhe movanL
2ŦMaLerlal facL ƹ An essenLlal elemenL of a clalm or defense
||ŦShow LhaL Lhey are enLlLled Lo [udgmenL as a maLLer of lawŦ
1Ŧ ºLven lf Lhe facLs alleged ln Lhe pleadlng are Lrueţ Lhe law says l musL wln"
|||ŦALLach affldavlL whlch seLs ouL admlsslble evldence ln supporL of moLlonŦ
fŦNonmovanL may respond ln 4 waysŦ
|Ŧuo noLhlngŦ 8esponse ls only requlred under 36(e)(2) lf moLlon for S! ls properly made and supporLedŦ
1Ŧ8urden of producLlon ls on movanL
2ŦCne LhaL burden ls meLţ opposlng parLy musL seL ouL speclflc facLs showlng a genulne lssue for LrlalŦ S!
may be granLed lf he has no admlsslble evldenceŦ
||Ŧlf movanL meeLs burden of producLlonţ Lhen musL seL ouL speclflc focts showlng a genulne lssue for LrlalŦ
1Ŧwboleyť CounLerŴaffldavlL may seL ouL ulLlmaLe facLs and concluslons of lawŤ need noL be composed
wbolly of evldenLlary facLsŦ
|||ŦÞresenL affldavlL under 36(f) sLaLlng why he cannoL now presenL facLs ln opposlng Lo S (rare)
|vŦ CrossŴmove for S!Ŧ
1Ŧ 8espondenL does noL conceded absence of Lrlable lssues by dolng soŦ
eŦCour#s d|snre|on
|ŦCourL may granL summary [udgmenL on lLs ownŦ
||ŦCourL may granL S! on all or parL of a pleadlngŦ
1ŦMay granL for llablllLy aloneţ and seL Lrlal for damages
2ŦMay granL for less Lhan all clalms or parLles
fŦ4/dermon vŦ 8ƎOť Þţ Lravelllng on free passţ sued u for negllgenLly causlng Lraln wreck vla defecLlve LrackŦ lree
pass exempLed rallroad for personal ln[ury llablllLyţ excepL for wlllful + wanLon mlsconducL
|ŦCourL granLed S! Lo uţ based on Au of conLracLual walver
||ŦÞ amended complalnL Lo allege wlllful + wanLon mlsconducL
|||ŦWlllful + wanLon requlres consclous conducLţ consclousness LhaL conducL ls llkely Lo cause ln[uryţ and Lhe
commlsslon of a wrongful acL or omlsslon of a duLy resulLlng ln ln[ury w/reckless lndlfferenceŦ
|vŦÞ could noL prove allegaLlonsţ even lf conLlnuance was granLed Lo gaLher more evldenceŦ u dld noL know
of Lhe defecL ln Lhe Lrack
gŦwho/ey vŦ low/erť ÞaLlenL aL u's hosplLal clalmed LhaL u negllgenLly LreaLed hlm for broken legţ causlng lnfecLlonŦ
lurLher alleged LhaL hosplLal employees negllgenLly falled Lo Lake precauLlons Lo prevenL spread of lnfecLlonţ
resulLlng ln ampuLaLlon below Lhe kneeŦ
|Ŧ u's moLlon for S! denledţ desplLe subsLanLlal evldence ln lLs favorŦ 1here was sufflclenL conLroversy abouL
facLs for case Lo proceedţ even Lhough Þ had 1 affldavlL and u had 14 counLerŴaffldavlLsŦ
||ŦuoubLs abouL S! should be resolved ln favor of plalnLlffsŦ
|||Ŧlalrness + [usLlce conslderaLlons ouwe|gh [udlclal economyŤ sLakes hlgher for Þ

IŦÞkL1kIAL CASL MANAGLMLN1ť LIMI1ING AND SL11LING CASLS (UCÞ ÞŦ 29)
aŦku|e 16ť AuLhorlzes Lhe preLrlal conferenceŦ
|Ŧ(a)ť AL Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe Lrlal [udge
||Ŧ(n)ť ÞarLles submlL preLrlal brlefs
|||Ŧ(d)ť CourL musL enLer preLrlal order Lo preserve work done
bŦÞurpose of prer|a| nonferenneť 1o slmpllfy and shorLen Lrlalţ and posslbly promoLe seLLlemenLŦ Alsoţ Lo
sLreamllne and expedlLe preLrlal llLlgaLlonŦ
|ŦnoL a subsLlLuLe for dlscovery or Lrlal
nŦManager|a| purposes
|ŦGoa|ť Þleadlng glves noLlce Lo Lhe parLles of whaL Lhe case MA? lncludeŤ preLrlal conferences and orders
helps Lo deflne whaL Lhe lssues A8L on Lhe eve of LrlalŦ
1Ŧlalrness and Lrlal efflclency requlre hlgher degree of cerLalnLy as you approach LrlalŦ
||ŦÞreLrlal order seLs boundarles for Lrlal
1ŦSeLs conLrols on exLenL and Llmlng of dlscovery
2ŦWho wlll LesLlfy and whaL LesLlmony wlll be abouL
3ŦWhaL documenLs wlll be offered as evldence
AŦCourL can rule on Lhe admlsslblllLy of evldenceŦ
ŦCourL may refuse Lo admlL evldence or wlLnesses aL Lrlal whlch are excluded from Þ1C
|||Ŧlf you sLray beyond boundarlesţ blas ls ln favor of nC1 granLlng moLlon Lo amend
dŦÞromo|ng se|emen
||ŦSeLLlemenL ls a naLural byproducL of Lhe Þ1Cţ b/c Lhe exchange of conLenLlonsţ admlsslonsţ and evldence
makes Lhe parLles and Lhelr lawyers reassess Lhelr casesŦ
|||ŦSome [udges acLlvely promoLe seLLlemenLţ Lo compensaLe for parLles fear of appearlng weak by lnlLlaLlng
negoLlaLlonsŦ

IIŦLAWţ IAC1ţ AND 1nL 1kIAL ÞkCCLSS (ppŦ 32Ŵ33)
aŦ Seps (1Ŵ13)
bŦ Iunn|on of r|a| |s 2Ŵfo|d
|Ŧ SlfL Lhe Lrue sLory from conLesLed facLual record
||Ŧ ALLach legal slgnlflcance Lo Lhe facLsŦ
nŦ 1he Þrospen of 1r|a|
|Ŧ MosL cases never come Lo Lrlalţ Lhey are seLLledţ volunLarlly wlLhdrawnţ or Lhe merlLs declded before LrlalŦ
||Ŧ Poweverţ Lhe ldea and prospecL of Lrlal sLrong lnfluences Lhe shape of procedure for clvll casesŦ

IIIŦDIkLC1LD VLkDIC1 (ku|e S0(a))
aŦWhen usedť AfLer Lhe nonmovanL has presenLed all of Lhelr evldence Lo supporL Lhelr clalmţ buL before Lhe case ls
senL Lo Lhe [uryŦ
bŦSandardť 1here ls no legally sufflclenL evldence Lo flnd for Lhe nonmovanLŦ lŦeŦ no reasonab|e [ur nou|d f|nd for
he oppos|ng parţ when Lhe evldence ls vlewed ln Lhe llghL mosL favorable Lo LhemŦ
|Ŧ1hls ls a PlCPL8 sLandard Lhan agalnsL Lhe clear welghL of Lhe evldenceŦ
nŦÞurposeť Small measure of [udlclal economy Lo be galned from uŦIŦ
|Ŧlf Lhere ls no genulne lssue of law Lo be deLermlnedţ Lhen don'L need Lo send case Lo [uryŦ
||ŦMore popular wlLh uť all Lhey have Lo do ls show LhaL one aspecL of Þ's case fallsŦ
dŦDrawbansť
|ŦlL ls revlewed Je oovoţ and all reasonable lnferences musL be drawn ln favor of Lhe nonmovanLţ so lL ls
relaLlvely easy Lo overLurnŦ
||Ŧlf dlrecLed verdlcL overLurnedţ a new Lrlal ls requlredŦ
|||Ŧ1hereforeţ [udges ofLen walL for nCIţ whlch can be overLurned and verdlcL relnsLaLedŤ
eŦLovender vŦ kurnť Paney employed as swlLchLender ln lL CenLral rallyardŦ AfLer leLLlng lrlsco Lraln Lhroughţ he was
found a shorL whlle laLer face down near dlLchŦ Pe dled from fracLured skull from blow Lo back of head from smallţ
round ob[ecLŦ Þ sued for wrongful deaLh negllgenceţ clalmlng Paney dled from blow from mall hook on back of LralnŦ
u sald he was murderedŦ 1here was evldence on boLh sldesţ buL [ury found for ÞŦ
|ŦAppeals courL reversed [ury declslon + dlrecLed verdlcL for uŦ
||ŦSCC1uS reversed uI and relnsLaLed Þ's verdlcLŦ
1Ŧ1here was sufflclenL evldence Lo supporL verdlcL agalnsL lrlsco (negllgence) and lL CenLral for
malnLalnlng unsafe work envlronmenL (dark and on uneven ground)
2ŦAfLer [ury reached declslonţ evldence supporLlng u's poslLlon became lrrelevanL on appealŦ
|||ŦLven lf subsLanLlal evldence supporLed uţ appeals courL has no rlghL Lo overrlde [ury declslonŦ
1Ŧ1o do soţ Lhere musL be a nomp|ee absenne of suppor|ng ev|denneŦ
2ŦSubsLanLlal evldence agalnsL verdlcL ls noL sLrong enough sLandard

VŦIUDGMLN1 NCV (ku|e S0(b)) Ŷ aka !udgmenL as a MaLLer of Law (UCÞ ÞŦ S9Ŵ61Ť 66Ŵ72)
aŦWhen usedť AfLer a [ury verdlcLţ Lo render [udgmenL opposed Lo LhaL lndlcaLed by Lhe verdlcLŦ
|ŦºCourL ls consldered Lo have submlLLed Lhe acLlon Lo Lhe [uryţ sub[ecL Lo Lhe courL's laLer decldlng Lhe legal
quesLlons ralsed by Lhe moLlon"
||ŦnCI lmporLanL b/c lL ensures parLles have Lhelr ºday ln courL"ţ buL also ensures case was declded on
Lhe law and rullng was noL blasedŦ
bŦkequ|remenť MusL flrsL flle a moLlon for dlrecLed verdlcL afLer close of evldenceŦ
|Ŧ!nCI ls a legal flcLlon whlch ls consldered a renewal of a moLlon for dlrecLed verdlcLŦ
||Ŧ lf uI ls denled and you lose aL Lrlalţ you can renew Lhe moLlon afLer Lhe verdlcLŦ
nŦSandardť 1here ls no legally sufflclenL evldence Lo flnd for Lhe nonmovanLţ
dŦÞurposeť Conserve courL Ǝ parLy resourcesŦ Cne of few lnsLances ln Clv Þro where delay serves [udlclal economy
|ŦLess vulnerable Lo revlew Lhan S! or uI
||Ŧ8educes necesslLy for neuLral afLer successful appeal
eŦSandard of rev|ewť ue oovo (anew)
|Ŧ!udges ofLen walL for nCIţ whlch ls also revlewed Je oovoţ buL can be overLurned and a verdlcL relnsLaLedŦ

VIŦ MC1ICN ICk NLW 1kIAL (ku|e S9) (UCÞ ÞŦ61Ŵ66)ť Can be granLed for any reason for whlch one has prevlously been
granLedŦ
aŦ!udge's du Lo seL aslde a verdlcL supporLed by subsLanLlal evldence when evolootlve ettots exlsLť
|ŦAgalnsL Lhe clear welghL of Lhe evldenceţ or
||Ŧ8ased upon false evldenceţ or
|||ŦWlll resulL ln a mlscarrlage of [usLlce
bŦ!udge ma seL aslde verdlcL when ptocess ettots exlsLţ lf pre[ud|n|a| (adversely lmpacL subsLanLlve rlghLs)ť
|Ŧ!udlclal errors ln lnsLrucLlng Lhe [ury/admlLLlng or commenLlng on evldence
||ŦMlsconducL by parLlesţ counselţ wlLnessesţ or [urors
1ŦÞer[ury
2ŦCounsel mlsconducL
3ŦlnLlmldaLlon
ŦLxLraneous lnfo or ouLslde lnfluence LalnLed dellberaLlons
nŦn|gh| d|snre|onarŤ easler Lo wln moLlon for new Lrlal Lhan for dlrecLed verdlcLŦ
|Ŧ 1he [udge should scruLlnlze mosL closely Lrlals LhaL areť
1Ŧ Long Ǝ compllcaLed and deal w/uncommon sub[ecL maLLer
||Ŧ 1he [udge should granL mosL deference Lo verdlcLs fromť
1Ŧ 1rlals where Lhe key lssue ls wlLness credlblllLy
2Ŧ 1rlals LhaL are slmple and deal w/famlllar sub[ecL maLLer
dŦSandardť 1he LesL for granLlng a new Lrlal ls less resLrlcLlve Lhan Lhe LesL for uI/nCIŦ
|Ŧno reasonable [ury ƽ clear welghL of Lhe evldenceŦ
||ŦLvldence whlch may be lnsufflclenL Lo supporL a dlrecLed verdlcL MA? be sufflclenL Lo granL a new Lrlal
eŦSandard of rev|ewť Abuse of dlscreLlon
|ŦCranL of new Lrlal ls lnLerlocuLoryţ so noL appealable unLll flnal [udgmenL rendered afLer new Lrlal
||ŦIery dlfflculL Lo overLurnŦ
fŦ4etno vŦ Yeottsť ?eaLLs denled coverage by AeLna from hls lndemnlLy lnsuranceţ b/c llablllLy he was seeklng
coverage for was lncurred durlng alleged performance of lllegal aborLlonŦ Pe soughL declaraLory [udgmenL on hls
rlghL Lo obLaln lnsurance coverageŦ 1rlal courL granLed declaraLory [udgmenL for ?eaLLsţ based only on hls LesLlmonyŦ
|Ŧu's moLlon for nCI denled b/c he dldn'L move for uI aL LrlalŦ
1ŦAlsoţ welghL of Lhe evldence dld noL supporL uI for AeLnaŦ
||Ŧuenlal of new Lrlal upheld Lrlal [udge dld noL abuse hls dlscreLlonŦ

VIIŦ kLLA1ICNSnIÞ ]1 NCV AND NLW 1kIAL
aŦLoslng parLy may requesL new Lrlal or !nCI ln Lhe alLernaLlve
|Ŧ lf Lrlal courL denles !nCI buL granLs new Lrlalţ noL lmmedlaLely appealable
||Ŧ lf Lrlal courLs denles !nCI and new Lrlalţ boLh declslons are appealable
1ŦAppellaLe courL may enLer !nCIţ award new Lrlalţ or remand Lo Lrlal courL for new deLermlnaLlon
|||Ŧlf Lrlal courL granLs !nCIţ lL musL condlLlonally rule on new Lrlal moLlon ln anLlclpaLlon of reversal of !nCI
1ŦAppellaLe courL wlll afflrm or reverse !nCI
2Ŧlf reversedţ Lhey mayť
AŦLnLer [udgmenL on Lhe verdlcLŤ
Ŧ8everse Lhe denlal of Lhe new Lrlal moLlon and order a new LrlalŤ or
CŦ8emand Lo Lhe Lrlal courL for reconslderaLlon of Lhe new Lrlal moLlon

CCN1INUUM CI ÞkL1kIAL AND 1kIAL SCkLLNING MC1ICNS

Mo|on 1o dlsmlss for
fallure Lo sLaLe a
clalm
lor [udgmenL on
Lhe pleadlngs
lor summary
[udgmenL
lor a dlrecLed
verdlcL
lor !udgmenL
nŦCŦIŦ
ku|e 12(b)(6) 12(n) S6 S0(a) S0(b)
Movan D D or Þ D or Þ D or Þ D or Þ
Ianua| kenord ComplalnL Þleadlngs Þleadlngs +
AffldavlLs or
ulscovery
Lvldence lavorlng
Lhe ÞarLy AgalnsL
Whom Lhe
MoLlon ls Made
Lvldence lavorlng
Lhe ÞarLy AgalnsL
Whom Lhe
MoLlon ls Made
Sandard Lven lf facLs Lrueţ
no legal Lheory
can [usLlfy rellef
Same as 12(b)(6) no genulne lssue
of maLerlal facL

Legally
lnsufflclenL
evldence
Legally
lnsufflclenL
evldence

luncLlon of conLlnuumť CeL rld of cases LhaL are noL deservlng of Lrlal

All 3 moLlons essenLlally ask Lhe same quesLlonť uo Lhe esLabllshed facLs supporL a legal rule whlch should be applled Lo
declde all or parL of Lhe case?

*1he flrsL 3 moLlons promoLe [udlclal economyť Lhey reduce Lhe cosL of resolvlng facLual dlspuLes (lŦeŦ facL funcLlon)

*1he prlmary raLlonale for uI and nCIţ lnsLeadţ ls Lo preserve Lhe rlghLs of Lhe parLles under subsLanLlve law (lŦeŦ law
funcLlon Ŷ aLLach Lhe proper legal slgnlflcance Lo seLLled facLs)


kLS IUDICA1A]ÞkLCLUSICN
1he effecL of prlor ad[udlcaLlon on Lhe rlghLs of Lhe parLlesŦ Coverned by common lawţ noL l8CÞŦ

Þurposes of precluslonť
aŦkepose Ŷ 1o free people from Lhe uncerLaln prospecL of llLlgaLlonţ wlLh lLs cosLs Lo emoLlonal peace and Lhe
orderlng of fuLure affalrsŦ
bŦLnnourages [ud|n|a| eff|n|enn Ŷ prevenLs burdenlng Lhe sysLem and encourages Þs Lo uLlllze resources ln Lhe mosL
effecLlve wayŦ LlLlgaLlon bears a burden of [usLlflcaLlonţ slnce lL ls soclally dlsrupLlve and [udlclal resources are scarceŦ

1ŦIN GLNLkAL (ppŦ 88aŴ88nţ 102aŴ102n nourseboo)
aŦ 1wo ways ln whlch lL can be usedť
|ŦLnfornemenť !udgmenL credlLor can brlng a supplemenLal proceedlng Lo recover money from a debLorŦ
uebLor ls barred from anyLhlng he sald or could have sald ln Lhe orlglnal proceedlngŦ
||Ŧkenogn||onť ln a subsequenL caseţ Lhe parLles' legal poslLlons are dlfferenL Lhan Lhey would have been ln
Lhe absence of Lhe prlor ad[udlcaLlonŦ
bŦGoa|ť Þrecluslon proLecLs adversarles from unnecessary expenseţ conserves [udlclal resourcesţ and relnforces
confldence ln Lhe [udlclal sysLem (by mlnlmlzlng Lhe posslblllLy of lnconslsLenL [udgmenL)Ŧ
nŦlteclosloo ls cooslsteot w/Joe ptocessţ b/c precluded parLy has already had a full Ǝ falr opporLunlLy Lo llLlgaLeŦ
dŦ1rend of lncreased precluslon over Llme
|ŦlL has become easler Lo ad[udlcaLe mulLlple clalms and Lhe lnLeresLs of mulLlple parLles ln a slngle lawsulLţ
due Lo Lhe llberal provlslons for clalm and parLy [olnderţ amendmenL of pleadlngsţ and dlscovery)
||Ŧ8roadened precluslon promoLes conservaLlon of lncreaslngly scare [udlclal resourcesŦ
eŦCan be offensive (llLlganL uses precluslon Lo advance a clalm) or defensive (uses precluslon Lo defeaL a clalm)Ŧ
|Ŧlf offenslve succeedsţ Þ sLlll has Lo prove case u may sLlll have oLher defensesţ and Þ musL prove damages
||ŦSLakes hlgher ln defenslveť lf lL's successfulţ Þ losesŦ
fŦ1acLlcal advanLages of precluslon
|Ŧ;ulcker Ǝ cheaper Lo cover ground ln a case by lncorporaLlng developmenLs from earller cases
||Ŧ8eLLer Lo wln by exLendlng prlor [udlclal vlcLory Lhan rlsk posslblllLy of loslng afresh
gŦClalm precluslon applles Lo defaulL [udgmenLsŤ lssue precluslon does noL (lssue musL be lltlqoteJ)
hŦA|was sar w|h n|a|m pren|us|onť lL has sweeplng effecLs on whaL one can do ln a 2
nd
lawsulLŦ
|Ŧ lssue precluslonţ on Lhe oLher handţ presupposes LhaL Lhere ls a 2
nd
sulL Ŷ lŦeŦ clalm precluslon doesn'L apply

2ŦCLAIM ÞkLCLUSICN (tes joJlcotoţ metqetţ ot bot)(UCÞ pŦ S30)
aŦDef|n||onť A meLhod of prevenLlng parLles from presslng a clalm (oŦkŦoŦ coose of octloo) ldenLlcal Lo one
presenLed ln a prlor ad[udlcaLlonŦ lf Lhe prlor case ends wlLh a flnal [udgmenL on Lhe merlLsţ parLles Lo lL are
foreclosed from llLlgaLlng Lhe same clalm ln a subsequenL proceedlngŦ
|ŦA ºclalm" encompasses all alLernaLlve legal Lheorles Ǝ damages generaLed by orlglnal conLroversy
||ŦA parLy may noL llLlgaLe a clalm and Lhenţ lf he wlnsţ revlve Lhe same cause of acLlon wlLh a new Lheory
bŦCnLCkLIS1ť
|Ŧllnal [udgmenL on Lhe merlLs
1ŦMosL sLaLes regard [udgmenL as flnal when appeals exhausLedŤ some fed courLs flnal afLer LrlalŦ
2ŦuefaulL [udgmenLsţ seLLlemenLsţ and summary [udgmenL ƹ flnal
||ŦConflned Lo Lhe same parLles (C8 Lhelr prlvles or asslgns)
1ŦÞr|v|ť Þrecluded parLy's lnLeresLs represenLed ln flrsL sulL
|||ŦSame or suff|n|en| re|aed clalms (8S! Ƈ2(2))
1ŦConslderaLlonsť 1lmeţ spaceţ orlglnţ moLlvaLlonţ convenlenL Lrlal unlL
2ŦNC n|a|m sp|||ng allowed ln 8S!
nŦIudgmen for Þ|a|n|ff Ƈ 18 Ŵ Mergerť When a valld Ǝ flnal personal [udgmenL ls rendered ln favor of Lhe plalnLlffť
|ŦÞ cannoL LhereafLer malnLaln an acLlon on Lhe orlglnal clalm or any parL Lhereofţ alLhough he may be able Lo
malnLaln an acLlon upon Lhe [udgmenLŤ Anu
||Ŧln acLlon upon Lhe [udgmenLţ u cannoL avall hlmself of defenses he mlghL have or dld lnLerpose ln 1sL acLlonŦ
1ŦÞ becomes joJqmeot cteJltotţ u joJqmeot Jebtot
2Ŧlf [udgmenL debLor falls Lo saLlsfy [udgmenLţ credlL may sue agalnŦ Þrocedure ls summary ln naLureť
AŦls Lhe defendanL ln facL Lhe debLor?
ŦPow much can Lhe [udgmenL debLor pay?
CŦAnd how soon?
dŦIudgmen for Defendan Ƈ 19Ŵ arť A valld and flnal personal [udgmenL rendered ln favor of Lhe defendanL bars
anoLher acLlon by Lhe plalnLlff on Lhe same clalmŦ
|ŦLxnep|ons o genera| ru|e of bar (Ƈ20)ť llnal [udgmenL for u does noL bar new acLlon by Þ on same clalm lfť
1ŦÞrlor case dlsmlssed for lack of [urlsdlcLlonţ lmproper venueţ or non[olnder/mls[olnder of parLles
2Ŧulsmlssal wlLhouL pre[udlce
3ŦCase does noL have precluslve effecLţ by rule or sLaLuLe
||Ŧlf Þ brlngs subsequenL clalm relaLed Lo same LransacLlonţ precluslon has effecL of mandaLory clalm [olnder
eŦC|a|mŴSp|||ng Ŷ kesaemens Ƈ2
|ŦWhen clalm ls merged or barredţ Þ cannoL rellLlgaLe any clalms whlch relaLe Lo Lhe same LransacLlon or
serles of LransacLlons from whlch Lhe prevlous clalm aroseŦ
||ŦƇ2Sť new clalm by Þ barred even lf new evldence or legal Lheorles presenLedţ or new damages soughL
1Ŧ1hls ls whaL we meanL by Ƈ24
|||ŦƇ26ť lf parLles agree clalms can be spllLţ or courL allows lLţ Lhen lL's Ck
2ŦWhaL we dldn'L mean ln Ƈ24
fŦkush vŦ Mop/e neiqhts
|ŦÞ broughL acLlon for properLy damage from car accldenL agalnsL clLy and wonŦ
||ŦÞ Lhen broughL a personal ln[ury acLlon relaLed Lo same accldenLţ seeklng addlLlonal damages
|||ŦShe was clalm precluded Ŷ her 2
nd
clalm merged lnLo Lhe 1
sL
Ŧ (Jefeoslve pteclosloo)
gŦlones vŦ Morris P/on 8onk
|ŦMÞ8 sued Lo collecL 2 mlssed car paymenLsţ obLalned [udgmenL agalnsL !onesŦ
||ŦMÞ8 sued agaln for anoLher mlssed paymenLţ buL was clalm precluded
|||ŦShould have sued for all paymenLs ln flrsL caseţ per kŦ Clalm on 3
rd
paymenL merged wlLh clalm on flrsL 2Ŧ
1Ŧu walved rlghL Lo sue for 3
rd
paymenL when he sued for flrsL 2Ŧ
2ŦCould've avolded Lhls ouLcome by reservlng rlghL Lo sue for lndlvldual paymenLs (per Ƈ26(1)(a))
hŦClalm precluslon vsŦ Compulsory counLerclalm (8ule 13)
|Ŧlf counLerclalm should've been broughLţ buL wasn'Lţ Lhen lL ls walvedŦ
||Ŧ1hls ls called pren|us|on b ru|eţ buL has Lhe same effecL as clalm precluslonŦ
|Ŧllnal [udgmenL on counLerclalmţ crossŴclalmţ or 3
rd
ŴparLy clalm has same precluslve effecL as [udgmenL on Þ's clalm
3ŦISSUL ÞkLCLUSICN (collotetol estoppelţ joJlclol estoppel) (UCÞ pŦ S3)
aŦkesaemens Ƈ27ť When an lssue of facL or law ls acLually llLlgaLed and deLermlned by a valld and flnal [udgmenLţ
and Lhe deLermlnaLlon ls essenLlal Lo Lhe [udgmenLţ Lhe deLermlnaLlon ls concluslve ln a subsequenL acLlon beLween
Lhe parLlesţ wheLher on Lhe same or a dlfferenL clalmŦ
|ŦSupplemenLs clalm precluslon by glvlng flnal [udgmenL precluslve effecL ln cases noL sharlng same clalm
bŦCnLCkLIS1ť
|Ŧllnal [udgmenL on Lhe merlLs
||ŦldenLlcal lssue (of law or facL)
|||Ŧlssue acLually ralsed ln flrsL case
|vŦAd[udlcaLlon of Lhe lssueť
1ŦAcLually occurred
AŦno defaulL !Msţ consenL !Msţ !Ms based on sLlpulaLlons of facLs
2ŦWas necessary Lo Lhe [udgmenL
AŦ1esť 1ake Lhe ouLcome of Lhe lssue and fllp lL does Lhe resulL of Lhe prlor case change?
Ŧ1hls reqŦ ensures loser puL ouL besL efforLsţ and wlll have opporLunlLy Lo appeal (usually)Ŧ
vŦWould noL be unfalr Lo apply Lhe docLrlne agalnsL a parLy ln Lhe 2
nd
clalm (see exnep|ons below)
nŦLxnep|ons o |ssue pren|us|on beween SAML par|es Ŵ kesaemens Ƈ28
|ŦÞarLy soughL Lo be precluded could noL have obLalned revlew of Lhe lnlLlal [udgmenLţ as maLLer of law
1Ŧº1he rlghL of appeal ls from a [udgmenLţ noL a flndlngţ whlch ls lnconcluslve" (klos)
||Ŧ2
nd
acLlon was noL sufflclenLly foreseeable
|||ŦÞarLy dld noL have adequaLe lncenLlve Lo llLlgaLe flrsL clalm
1ŦLxŦ damage clalm was smallŦ CourLs wlll seek Lo prevenL Þ from lulllng u lnLo false sense of securlLyŦ
dŦkios vŦ uovisť
|Ŧuavls sued Þopular ury Coodsţ broughL 8los ln as 3
rd
parLy defendanL ln auLo accldenL caseŦ
||Ŧ8los Ǝ Þopular found negllgenLţ buL uavls was [udged conLrlbuLorlly negllgenLţ so 8los won
|||Ŧ8los Lhen sued uavls for personal ln[ury ln a second sulLŦ
|vŦuavls' defenslve lssue precluslon falled b/c 8los' negllgence was noL necessary Lo Lhe prlor [udgmenLŦ uavls'
negllgence was Lhe sole basls for Lhe 1sL [udgmenLţ and 8los had no rlghL Lo appealţ slnce he wonŦ
vŦ8los falled Lo use offenslve lssue precluslonť could have used flndlng of uavls' negllgence from prlor
case so LhaL he dldn'L have Lo prove lL all over agalnŦ
v|Ŧln fed courLţ 8los' negllgence clalm would be compulsory counLerclalmŦ
eŦ|nd|ng Nonpar|es o he Cr|g|na| Iudgmen
|Ŧno ldenLlLy of parLles requlremenL ln lssue precluslon (unllke clalm precluslon)Ŧ
1ŦA sLranger may blnd orlglnal parLlesţ lŦeŦ new plalnLlff blnds defendanL already found negllgenL
2ŦU1 ou nanno b|nd a rue sranger UNLLSS he had a nonro|||ng ro|e |n he pr|or |||ga|on
AŦAllowlng lÞ agalnsL a sLranger vlolaLes due process
3ŦSLrangers can be bound lf Lhey had a conLrolllng roleţ b/c Lhey were a parLy ln all buL nameŦ
AŦ1hey had a full and falr opporLunlLy Lo llLlgaLe Lhelr clalmţ so due process saLlsfledŦ
||ŦLoo a kesaemens Ƈ39 Lo deLermlne lf parLy had conLrolllng roleť ºA petsoo wbo ls oot o potty to oo
octlooţ bot coottols ot sobstootlolly pottlclpotes lo tbe coottol of tbe pteseototloo oo bebolf of o pottyţ ls
boooJ by tbe Jetetmlootloo of lssoes JeclJeJ os tbooqb be wete o pottyŦ" (pŦ 102c)
1ŦMusL have conLrol over legal Lheorles and evldence presenLedţ and opporLunlLy Lo obLaln revlewŦ
AŦWheLher lnvolvemenL equals conLrol ls a quesLlon of facLŦ
ŦMerely conLrlbuLlng fundsţ advlceţ counselţ or appearlng as omlcos ls lnsufflclenLŦ
CŦllnanclal sLake ln ouLcome ls lnsufflclenLţ by lLself
|||ŦMontono vŦ uŦ5Ŧť
1ŦklewlL sued M1 ln sLaLe courLţ alleglng LhaL revenue Lax on publlcţ buL noL prlvaLeţ consLrucLlon
pro[ecLs was unconsLlLuLlonalţ and losLŦ
2ŦuŦSŦ challenged Lax ln fed courL on same groundsŦ led dlsLrlcL courL ruled LhaL uŦSŦ noL bound by M1
rulngţ based on Supremacy ClauseŦ SLaLe of M1 appealedŦ
3ŦCn appealţ SCC1uS sald uŦSŦ was defenslvely lssue precludedţ b/c lL was a prlvy Lo Lhe orlglnal case
AŦ1hey dlrecLed Lhe M1 llLlgaLlonţ pald for lLţ and conLrolled Lhe appealsŦ
|vŦcouefie/d vŦ lide/ity Ǝ cosuo/ty coŦ of NYť
1Ŧ1homas broughL grave desecraLlon case ln sLaLe courL and losL
2ŦCauefleld Lhen moved for Lrlal on same lssue ln fed courLţ u used defenslve lssue precluslon
3Ŧ1he parLles had same aLLorneyţ legal Lheoryţ evldenceţ and same legal LesL usedŦ C also LesLlfled for 1Ŧ
AŦCourL Look precluslon Lo Lhe exLremeŦ C dld noL flnance/conLrol llLlgaLlon of 1's caseŦ So
cannoL blnd hlmm under Ƈ39
Ŧ8uL concerns of [udlclal economy and falrness ouLwelghed denylng Þ day ln courLţ espŦ slnce
had chance Lo [oln prlor sulL
vŦMlscellaneous
1Ŧlor precluslon purposesţ does noL maLLer whlch case ls flled flrsLţ buL whlch case ls den|ded flrsLŦ
2Ŧled case can be precluded by sLaLe case
fŦ1he Den||ne of Muua||
|ŦMuua|| donr|neť lf a parLy was noL exposed Lo Lhe rlsk of belng bound by Lhe orlglnal caseţ Lhen Lhey
were noL be allowed Lo preclude a parLy who could have been bound(motlvoteJ by foltoess)Ŧ
||ŦCffenslve nonŴmuLual lssue precluslonť When Þ seeks Lo foreclose u from llLlgaLlng an lssue Lhe u has
prevlously llLlgaLed unsuccessfully ln an acLlon wlLh anoLher parLyŦ
1ŦCours have broad d|snre|on |n app||ng CŦIŦÞŦ
2Ŧlf lÞ checkllsL saLlsfledţ courLs conslder kesaemens Ƈ29 fanorsť
AŦuld Þ dellberaLely bypass opporLunlLy Lo parLlclpaLe ln orlglnal proceedlng?
|ŦCould he have effecLed [olnder? Wan o preven wa|ŴandŴsee p|a|n|ffs
Ŧuld u have sLrong lncenLlve Lo llLlgaLe prlor sulL?
|ŦWere damages subsLanLlal? Were fuLure sulLs foreseeable?
CŦAre Lhere lnconslsLenL prlor [udgmenLs?
|Ŧlf rullngs evenly spllLţ cannoL use precluslonŤ lf heavlly LllLed ln favor of parLy seeklng
precluslonţ may be allowedŦ
DŦuoes Lhe subsequenL proceedlng afford more advanLageous procedural opporLunlLles?
3ŦPork/oneť Þarklane esLabllshed Lhe use of offenslve lssue precluslon ln federal cases and hence ended
Lhe use of Lhe muLuallLy docLrlne ln federal courLsŦ
AŦCranLed Lrlal courLs broad dlscreLlon ln allowlng ClÞŦ
Ŧ1ofony vŦ N85 lmoqinq 5ystemsť 1ofany flled counLerclalm agalnsL n8S alleglng LhaL he was enLlLled
Lo reLlremenL plan beneflLsŦ Pe Lhen flled a moLlon for parLlal S! based upon a federal dlsLrlcL courL
declslon by coŴworker !ames whlch esLabllshed exlsLence of penslon plalnŦ MoLlon for parLlal S! was
denledţ b/c 1ofany was a walLŴandŴsee plalnLlffŦ
AŦPoweverţ exLended lotklooe Lo ln sLaLe courLţ sub[ecL Lo falrnessť lncenLlve Lo llLlgaLeţ
lnconslsLenL [udgmenLsţ and procedural opporLunlLles crlLerlaŦ
|||Ŧuefenslve nonmuLual lssue precluslonť When u seeks Lo prevenL Þ rellLlgaLlng an lssue whlch was already
deLermlned ln an acLlon wlLh anoLher parLyŦ CourLs wlll conslderť
1ŦLook aL usual checkllsLţ look aL Ƈ29ť see above
2Ŧ8/onderŴ1onqueť llrsL case where muLuallLy prlnclple was abandonedŦ Cnly used ln a few sLaLes nowŦ
AŦnonmuLuallLy prevenLs rellLlgaLlon of lssuesţ save u's Llmeţ promoLes conslsLenL [udgmenLsŦ
3Ŧ8ernhord vŦ 8onk of 4mericoť Þ and oLher beneflclarles ob[ecLed Lo seLLlemenL of decedenL's
accounLŦ ÞrobaLe courL ruled LhaL funds Þ's decedenL aunL Lransferred Lo Cook's bank accounL shorLly
before her deaLh were a glfLŦ
AŦÞ Lhen sued bankţ as execuLor of aunL's wlllţ for allowlng unauLhorlzed wlLhdrawal of funds by
CookŦ She argued LhaL u was noL prlvy Lo prevlous acLlonţ nor was sheţ so no muLuallLyŦ
Ŧ8ank successfully used defenslve nonŴmuLual lÞŦ Cour re[ened muua||ť no compelllng
reason Lo uphold Lhe docLrlneŦ
CŦCourL also sald LhaL Þ was prlvy Lo probaLe caseţ slnce she represenLed Lhe same lnLeresLs ln
Lhe probaLe courL hearlng (noL necessary Lo [udgmenL)Ŧ
gŦ Inerssem Þren|us|on (UCÞ ÞŦ SS8)
|ŦDef|n||onť When courLs conslder Lhe effecLs of [udgmenLs rendered ouLslde Lhelr sysLem
||ŦGenera| ru|eť A [udgmenL musL be glven Lhe same precluslve effecL where presenLed for enforcemenL as lL
would have where renderedŦ
1ŦlnLersLaLe and fedŴfed precluslon based on Iu|| Ia|h Ǝ Cred| C|ause of ConsLlLuLlon
AŦln fed sysLemţ precluslon law of clrculL where [udgmenL presenLed conLrolsŦ
Ŧlor dlverslLy [udgmenLsţ precluslon law of sLaLe where fed courL slLs conLrolsŦ
2ŦSLaLeŴfed and fedŴsLaLe precluslon based on IIƎC Saue (28 uŦSŦCŦ Ƈ1738)Ŧ
3ŦWhen pren|us|on |aws nonf||nţ mus use he |aw of he p|ane where he [udgmen was rendered o
deerm|ne he app||nab|e pren|us|ve effen (musL glve full falLh Ǝ credlL)
ŦCreaLer precluslon
AŦSCC1uS sald fed courL can'L glve greaLer precluslve effecL Lo sLaLe !M Lhan sLaLe would
ŦA few sLaLes have glven greaLer precluslve effecL Lo slsLerŴsLaLe !Ms (excepLlon Lo rule)
CŦlederal courLs are ln Lhe vanguard of Lhe movemenL Lo glve !Ms greaLer precluslve effecLţ so
would be rare for !M Lo have greaLer precluslve effecL ln sLaLe courL Lhan fed courL
|||ŦPorker vŦ noef/er
1ŦÞ wlns [udgmenL for adulLery ln I1 courL
2Ŧ1hen seeks Lo enforce [udgmenL ln n?ţ whlch does noL allow adulLery acLlonŦ
3ŦllƎC requlres n? courL Lo enforce Lhe [udgmenLŦ
|vŦllƎC does noL apply Lo forelgn [udgmenLsŤ buL uŦSŦ more lncllned Lo recognlze Lhem Lhan vlce versaŦ
1Ŧ8ule of comlLyť We wlll recognlze forelgn [udgmenLs as an acL of goodwlllŦ
2Ŧ!udgmenLs from commonŴlaw counLrles mosL llkely Lo be recognlzed
3ŦCounLrles more relucLanL Lo enforce our [udgmenLsţ b/c of procedural dlfferencesť
aŦMore emphasls on llve LesLlmony
bŦMore dlscovery
nŦkeep aLLorney fees where Lhey orlglnaLe
dŦ8roader personal !u

CCMÞLLk LI1IGA1ICN
Arlses when you have more Lhan one clalm broughL by a slngle Þ agalnsL a slngle uŦ 8(a) auLhorlzes Lhese slmple clalmsŦ
!usLlflcaLlonť 1) !udlclal economy Ŷ seLLllng mulLlple lssues ln one lawsulLŦ
2) Avoldlng subsLanLlve pre[udlce Lo an affecLed parLyŦ
Complex llLlgaLlon preferable Lo separaLe casesţ as long as complexlLy does noL reach a Llpplng polnL where Lhe parLles
are obllgaLed Lo do Loo many Lhlngs aL onceŦ
1Ŧ INI1IAL ICINDLk CI CLAIMS AND CLAIMAN1S
aŦku|e 18ť ICINDLk CI CLAIMS (UCÞ ÞŦ 282)Ŷ A parLy asserLlng a clalmţ counLerclalmţ crossclalmţ or 3
rd
parLy clalm
may [oln as many clalms as lL has agalnsL an opposlng parLyţ as lndependenL C8 alLernaLlve clalmsŦ
|ŦUsed whenť ÞarLy has mulLlple clalms agalnsL same opponenL
1ŦnoLe LhaL courL may order separaLe Lrlals of clalms or lssues
||ŦGoa|ť 1o llLlgaLe as many clalms as posslble ln Lhe flrsL sulLţ Lo avold delay and needless repeLlLlonŦ
1Ŧ8ule ls almosL unresLrlcLed
||Ŧ kequ|remensť SaLlsfy personal [urlsdlcLlonţ sub[ecL maLLer [urlsdlcLlonţ and venueŦ
1Ŧl8CÞ cannoL enlarge or dlmlnlsh Lhese Lypes of [urlsdlcLlonŦ
2ŦSM! derlves from ArLlcle lll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ led courLs wlLhouL power unlessť
aŦSource of power can be locaLed ln ArLlcle lll Anu
bŦÞower has been broughL Lo llfe by CongressŦ
3ŦMosL common sLaLuLory sources 1lLle 28 Ƈ 1331 (general) + 1332 (dlverslLy)Ŧ
ŦƇ1332 ulverslLy requlresť
aŦuomlclle lo Jlffeteot stotesŦ A buslness ls consldered a clLlzen of Lhe sLaLe where lL ls
lncorporaLed Anu Lhe sLaLe where lLs prlmary place of buslness ls locaLedŦ
bŦulvetslty most be obsoloteŦ nCnL of plalnLlffs can be from same sLaLe as An? of defendanLsŦ
cŦAmooot ƽ 575k
bŦ norris vŦ 4veryť ÞermlLLed [olnder of clalms lf sufflclenLly relaLedŦ CverLurned commonŴlaw prohlblLlon on [olnderŦ
nŦ kyder vŦ lefferson note/ť CourL denles [olnder of husband's and wlfe's clalmsţ flndlng Lhey were severally wronged
and cannoL [oln Lhelr clalmsŦ ulssenL conslders Lhem more llke parLnershlp who suffered [olnL ln[uryŦ
|||Ŧ!olnL lnLeresL ƹ an lnLeresL shared by 2 or more people whlch ls undlfferenLlaLedŦ
|vŦWould have won under 8ule 20Ŧ
dŦ ku|e 20ť ÞLkMISSIVL ICINDLk CI ÞAk1ILS (UCÞ ÞŦ 287) Ŷ 2Ŵpott testŦ ÞlalnLlffs may be [olned ln one acLlon llť
|Ŧ 1hey asserL a rlghL Lo [olnLţ severalţ or alLernaLlve rellef arlslng ouL of Lhe same LransacLlon or occurrence
1Ŧ Loglcal relaLlonshlp LesL (same as compulsory counLerclalm and crossclalm)Ŧ
2Ŧ llexlble lnLerpreLaLlon faclllLaLes [olnderŦ
||Ŧ Any quesLlon of law or facL common Lo all plalnLlffs wlll arlse ln Lhe acLlonŦ
1Ŧ Lasler Lo saLlsfyţ only need one common quesLlon
eŦ uefendanLsť 8ule 20 applles Lo us as wellţ lncludlng Lhose who are clalmed agalnsL alLernaLlvelyŦ 1esL ls sameŦ
gŦ used whenť MulLlple Þs or us wlsh Lo ad[udlcaLe a common lssue for purposes of convenlence Ǝ economy
hŦ Coal of 8ule 20ť !udlclal economy (Lrlal convenlenceţ expedlLe seLLlemenL of dlspuLesţ prevenL mulLlple sulLs)
|Ŧ AVCIDANCL CI ICINDLk Ŵ20(b)ť Þermlsslve [olnder only operaLes aL Lhe pleadlng levelŦ ÞarLles may seek a
separaLe Lrlal lf Lhey don'L wanL Lo be [olned w/ anoLher parLy Lo avold embarrassmenLţ delayţ expenseţ or oLher
pre[udlceŦ
|ŦLxampleť lf you wanL Lo dlsassoclaLe yourself from parLy w/bad publlc repuLaLlonţ lŦeŦ 8Þ afLer splllŦ
||Ŧ1he courL wlll also granL separaLe Lrlals lf [olnder would desLroy sub[ecL maLLer [urlsdlcLlon or pose venue
problemsŦ
[Ŧ ku|e 18 vŦ ku|e 20ť !olnder of parLles bears a greaLer burden of [usLlflcaLlon Lhan [olnder of clalmsţ b/c Lhe
addlLlonal parLy brlngs wlLh Lhem a whole bundle of par preroga|vesŦ 1hey canť
|ŦSeL Lhe boundarles of relevancy Lhrough pleadlngs
||Ŧuevelop facLs by dlscovery
|||Ŧllle Lhelr own moLlons
|vŦCall Lhelr own wlLnesses Ǝ lnLroduce Lhelr own evldence
vŦ8equesL Lhelr own [ury lnsLrucLlons
v|ŦAppeal adverse [udgmenLs
Ŧ ku|e 21ť MISICINDLk of parLles ls noL grounds for dlsmlssalŦ 1he courL may add or drop a parLy on lLs ownţ or
sever any clalm agalnsL a parLyŦ
|Ŧ ku|e 2(a)ť lf acLlons before Lhe courL lnvolve a common quesLlon of law or facLţ Lhe courL may [oln for
hearlng or Lrlal any or all maLLers aL lssue ln Lhe acLlonsţ or consolldaLe Lhe acLlonsŦ
||Ŧ ku|e 2(b)ť lor convenlenceţ Lo avold pre[udlceţ or Lo expedlLe and economlzeţ Lhe courL may order a
separaLe Lrlal of one or more separaLe lssuesţ clalmsţ crossclalmsţ counLerclalmsţ or 3
rd
parLy clalmsŦ
2Ŧ ADDING 1C 1nL CkIGINAL ÞAk1ILS Ŷ CCMÞULSCk¥ ICINDLkţ IMÞLLADLkţ AND IN1LkVLN1ICN
aŦku|e 19(a)ť kLÇUIkLD ICINDLk CI ÞAk1ILS (UCÞ ÞŦ 290)
|ŦGoa|ť Avold pre[udlce Lo a parLy or absenLeeť proLecL subsLanLlve rlghLs
1ŦWanL Lo avold rlsk of Lhe JoobleŴbloJ (as wlLh lmpleader)
2ŦSecondary goalť [udlclal economy Ŷ reduclng delayţ needless repeLlLlonţ and expense
||Ŧ1hreeŴsLep processť
1ŦAbsenLee requlred Lo [oln? (19(a))
2Ŧleaslble Lo do [oln Lhem? (personal !uţ SM!ţ venue)
3ŦShould case go one lf noL feaslble? (19(b))
|||Ŧku|e 19ť #A person who ls sub[ecL Lo servlce of process and whose [olnder wlll noL deprlve Lhe courL of
sub[ecL maLLer [urlsdlcLlon musL be [olned as a parLy lfť"
|vŦ19(a) CnLCkLIS1
1ŦCompleLe rellef cannoL be granLed ln LhaL person's absence Ck
AŦWould courL be obllged Lo granL lncompleLe rellef w/o Lhe parLy?
ŦWould Lhe person's absence make furLher lawsulLs llkely?
2ŦÞerson clalms an lnLeresL ln Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe acLlon such LhaL dlsposlng of Lhe acLlon w/o hlm wlllť
AŦlmpalr hls ablllLy Lo proLecL hls lnLeresL C8
ŦLeave an exlsLlng parLy sub[ecL rlsk of mulLlple or lnconslsLenL llablllLy (sttooqest cose)
|Ŧkopopottţ ltovlJeotť bank/lnsurance coŦ mlghL have Lo pay same funds Lo 2 parLles
||Ŧu also wlshes Lo cosL of 2 LrlalsŦ Þ wlll counLer LhaL he should be able Lo plck hls usŦ
vŦ19(b)ť When [olnder noL feaslbleţ courL wlll declde wheLher case may proceed by looklng aLť
1ŦLqu| and good nonsn|enne esŦ foctors o nons|derť
AŦLxLenL Lo whlch [udgmenL rendered ln Lhelr absence mlghL pre[udlce Lhem or exlsLlng parLles
|Ŧu´s lotetest lo ovolJloq moltlple soltsţ locooslsteot tellefţ ot sole tespooslblllty)
ŦLxLenL Lo whlch pre[udlce could be lessened/avolded by shaplng Lhe rellef
CŦWheLher [udgmenL rendered ln person's absence would be adequaLe
|Ŧlobllc ooJ coott´s lotetest lo complete ooJ efflcleot settlemeot of coottovetsles
DŦWheLher Þ would have an adequaLe remedy lf Lhe acLlon were dlsmlssed for non[olnder
|Ŧotom cooslJetotloos
2ŦueLermlnaLlons are caseŴspeclflcţ no hard and fasL rulesŦ
v|ŦProvident 1rodesmens vŦ Pottersonť ÞlalnLlff's esLaLes seek declaraLory [udgmenL abouL wheLher Clancl had
uuLcher's permlsslon Lo drlve when accldenL occurredŦ uuLcher seeks Lo [olnţ buL can'L b/c lL wlll desLroy
dlverslLy !uŦ CourL decldes Lo proceed wlLhouL hlmŦ
1ŦuefendanL (Lumbermen's) lnLeresLť uon'L wanL exposure Lo mulLlple llablllLyť
AŦPave Lo pay clalms agalnsL Cloncl b/c lL's found LhaL he had permlsslon
Ŧ1hen plalnLlffs sue uuLcher for Lhe remalnderŦ
CŦuuLcher would seek coverage from LumbermensŦ
DŦlf 2
nd
rullng says Clancl dldn'L have permlsslonţ Lhen Lumbermens wlll have Lo pay Lwlce
|ŦCnce for Clanclţ once for uuLcherŦ
LŦU1 plalnLlffs llmlLed damage clalm Lo$100kţ whlch ellmlnaLed Lhls posslblllLyŦ
2ŦCuLslder's lnLeresLť uuLcher seeks Lo proLecL hls lnsurance funds from belng depleLedŦ
AŦPe wlll noL be bound by rullngţ buL does noL wanL Lo rellLlgaLe Lhe permlsslon lssueŦ
3ŦLfflclenL seLLlemenLť Already spenL a loL of Llme and money aL LrlalŦ
ŦÞ's remedyť ÞlalnLlff's lnLeresL ln preservlng [udgmenL ouLwelghs oLher facLorsŦ
AŦMay noL have adequaLe remedy lf uuLcher [olnedţ slnce subsLlLuLe forum noL avallableŦ
v||ŦÞrovldenL AlLernaLlve Pypoť
1Ŧ12(b)(7)ť fallure Lo [oln a parLy under 8ule 19 (musL be lncluded ln answer)
2Ŧlf ÞrovldenL broughL 12(b)(7) before Lrlal and Þ's dldn'L conflne Lhelr clalms Lo $100kţ case would have
been dlsmlssed wlLhouL pre[udlceŦ
3ŦÞlalnLlff could sLlll brlng clalm ln an alLernaLlve forum whlch could accommodaLe all parLlesŦ
v|||Ŧkopoport vŦ 8onco Mexiconoť Þ broughL sulL for reLurn of fundsţ buL 4 parLles had rlval clalms Lo fundsŦ
CourL granLed 12(b)(7) b/c could noL [oln oLher parLlesţ who were ln MexlcoŦ
1Ŧ8apoporL has access Lo alLernaLlve forum ln Mexlco
2ŦCLher clalmanLs would be pre[udlced by rullng ln Lhelr absence
3Ŧ!udgmenL rendered would noL be adequaLe w/o access Lo wlLnesses and documenLs ln Mexlco
bŦku|e 1ť IMÞLLADLk (UCÞ ÞŦ 296)
|ŦÞurpose
1ŦAllows defendanL Lo brlng ln a 3
rd
parLy who ls or may be llable for all or parL of Lhe clalm agalnsL lLŦ
AŦu Lhen becomes LhlrdŴparLy plalnLlffŦ
ŦÞ moy or moy not amend complalnL Lo lnclude 3Þuţ per 14(a)Ŧ
|ŦLven lf all lÞ crlLerla saLlsfledţ Þ may sLlll rellLlgaLeŤ 14(a) Lrumps common law lÞ
||Ŧ CnLCkLIS1
1Ŧ osofflcleot LhaL lmpleader clalm merely arose ouL of same LransacLlon as orlglnal clalmŦ
lmpleader musL be der|va|ve or conLlngenLť 3
rd
ŴparLy Þ seeks relmbursemenL lf Lhey have Lo pay ÞŦ
AŦ Der|va|veť l am llableţ buL you are responslble for my llablllLy
Ŧ No Der|va|veť l am noL llableŦ ?ou are llable lnsLeadŦ
2Ŧ 3
rd
parLy complalnL musL be broughL wlLhln 14 days of answerŤ else courL musL granL leave
|||Ŧ 1ypes of derlvaLlve llablllLy
1ŦoJemolflcotloo Ŷ one parLy seeks Lo hold anoLher parLy legally llable for damages
2Ŧ5obtoqotloo Ŷ Lhe successlon of one person Lo Lhe rlghLs of anoLher (lŦeŦ lnsured subrogaLes hls rlghL
Lo sue negllgenL 3
rd
parLy afLer lnsurance coŦ pald hls clalm)
3Ŧcoottlbotloo Ŷ 2 or more LorLfeasors are [olnLly or severally llable for Lhe same ln[ury
Ŧwottooty Ŷ reLallers mlghL lmplead manufacLurers
|vŦ Goa|ť ÞrevenL lnconslsLenL rullngs LhaL may resulL from lnablllLy Lo lÞ sLrangerŦ Avold doubleŴblnd
1Ŧ MC8L lMÞC81An1 Lhan [udlclal economy concerns
CŦlmpleader doesn'L always resulL ln economyţ slnce 3
rd
parLy u has parLy prerogaLlvesŦ
2ŦAvolds pre[udlce by prevenLlng rlsk of doub|eŴb|ndť u ls llable Lo Þţ buL 3
rd
parLy ls noL lmpleadedţ so
noL lssue precludedŦ lf u Lhen sues 3
rd
parLy ln second sulLţ and Lhey wlnţ u ls ln Lhe doubleŴblndť Pe ls
llable Lo Þţ buL can'L be lndemnlfledŦ
vŦ Sandardť n|gh| d|snre|onar Ŵ CourLs balance [udlclal economy vsŦ complexlLy concernsŦ
1Ŧ CourLs unllkely Lo permlL lmpleader when u llkely Lo wlnţ b/c lL sub[ecLs Lhe u Lo unnecessary expense
2Ŧ Also unllkely Lo granL lf lL wlll cause undue delay Lo Lhe uŦ
3Ŧ lf lmpleadlng shallowŴpockeL parLy mlghL resulL ln smaller verdlcL for Þ
Ŧ lf Lhere ls a lack of slmllarlLy b/ lssues and evldence presenLedŦ
v|Ŧ Sandard of rev|ewť MoLlon Lo lnLervene ls lnLerlocuLory orderť denlal/granLlng generally noL appealable
v||Ŧ Mo|on o sr|eť 3Þu or oLher parLy may move Lo sLrlke u's lmpleader ln 2 waysť
1Ŧ Argue LhaL lL's beyond scope of 8ule 14
2Ŧ Argue LhaL courL should use lLs dlscreLlon Lo refuse lmpleaderţ even lf rule saLlsfledŦ
v|||Ŧ leub vŦ 8/6 loodsť Þ sued 8/C for servlng Lhem bad hamŦ 8/C lmpleaded SwlfLţ Lhe provlder of Lhe hamţ
Lo lndemnlfy Lhemselves agalnsL any [udgmenL for ÞŦ
1ŦnoL necessary for [udgmenL Lo be enLered before lmpleadlng 3
rd
parLyŦ
2Ŧlmpleader does nC1 allow u Lo redlrecL Þ's complalnLŦ Þ conLrols lLŦ
AŦ8/C would flrsL have Lo pay damages Lo !eub ţ Lhen be relmbursed by SwlfLŦ
3Ŧ Cnce 8/C lmpleaded SwlfLţ !eub coolJ bove amended complalnL Lo asserL clalm agalnsL SwlfLŦ
AŦ8eLLer Lo brlng separaLe sulLť lncreases chance of wlnnlngţ and prevenLs use of uŦlŦÞŦ
nŦku|e 2(a)(2)ť IN1LkVLN1ICN ¥ kIGn1 (UCÞ ÞŦ 303) ŶMeans for ouLslders Lo make Lhemselves parLles (dlfferenL
from oLher [olnder devlces ln Lhls regard)Ŧ Mandaorţ noL dlscreLlonary
|ŦCnLCkLIS1
1Ŧ1lmely moLlon (may even be afLer Lrlal)
AŦWlll courL Ǝ parLles suffer from delay?
|ŦMay sLraln resources of parLles or compllcaLe proceedlngs
ŦWas delay reasonable?
|Ŧuld represenLaLlon prevlously seem adequaLeţ as ln 5mock?
2ŦlnLeresL relaLlng Lo Lhe properLy or LransacLlon
3ŦlnLeresL wlll be pracLlcally lmpalred by Lhe proceedlng
AŦlmpalrmenL serlous enough Lo enLlLle hlm Lo lnfluence ouLcome ln ways only llLlganL can?
|Ŧneed noL be capable of blndlng hlmŦ
||ŦSomeLlmes stote Jeclsls ls enough (espŦ ln cases of 1
sL
lmpresslon Ŷ no blndlng auLhorlLy)
|||Ŧ8epuLaLlonal harm
ŦLxlsLlng parLles do noL adequaLely represenL lnLeresL
AŦlnLeresLs do noL have Lo be adverseţ [usL dlsslmllar
|ŦWas appllcanL's sLake greaLer Lhan LhaL of exlsLlng parLy allgned w/hlm?
||Ŧls exlsLlng parLy ln colluslon wlLh an opposlng parLy? lncompeLenL? hosLlle?
Ŧ8urden ls on Lhose opposlng lnLervenLlon Lo show adequaLe represenLaLlonŦ
SŦMusL flle a propose pleadlng along wlLh moLlon Lo lnLervene
||ŦGoa|ť ÞroLecLs subsLanLlve rlghLsŦ uon'L wanL Lo lmpalr parLy's ablllLy Lo proLecL lnLeresL
|||ŦSandard of kev|ew
1ŦMosL f courLs regard lssues of pracLlcal lmpalrmenL and represenLaLlon as revlewable
AŦooketţ howeverţ sLaLed LhaL denlals of lnLervenLlon were revlewed for abuse of dlscreLlon
2Ŧuenlals based on unLlmellness wlll be revlewed only for abuse of dlscreLlon
|vŦGenera|
1ŦlnLervener Lakes case as he flnds lLŤ LaLer he lnLervenesţ fewer opporLunlLles Lo lnfluence ouLcomeŦ
vŦ5muck vŦ nobsonť 1rlal courL sLrlkes down school board's planţ orders uC schools Lo desegregaLeŦ 8oard
does noL appealţ parenLs and 2 board members doŦ 8oard members can'L lnLervene Ŷ one reslgned so had no
appealable lnLeresLţ Lhe oLher can'L appeal as an lndlvldualŦ 8uL parenLs CAnŦ
1Ŧloteots´ lotetest ls lmpolteJť lf lnLervene nowţ can prevenL desegregaLlon from Laklng placeŦ
AŦlf Lhey can'Lţ wlll have helghLened burden of proofť desegregaLlon plan ls unconsLlLuLlonalŦ
2Ŧotetest oot oJepootely tepteseoteJť 1here was fallure of represenLaLlon Ŷ school board dldn'L appealŦ
AŦ Lven lf Lhey hadţ Lhey represenLs all kldsţ whereas parenLs' lnLeresLs narrowerŦ
3Ŧ1lmelyť uldn'L know school board wasn'L golng Lo appeal unLll afLer declslon was flnalŦ
AŦnoL asklng for more dlscoveryţ addlLlonal evldenceţ or crossŴexamlnaLlonţ so noL pre[dulclal
ŦSlnce lnLervenLlon ls laLeţ [udge can lmpose condlLlonsť º1ake Lhe case as lL ls"Ŧ
v|ŦClLy of 8osLonť Shreve's sulL agalnsL landlord reslsLlng renL conLrol
1ŦlnLeresL of all 8osLon resldenLs were more dlffuse Lhan LhaL of hls lndlgenL cllenLs
dŦku|e 2(b)ť ÞLkMISSIVL IN1LkVLN1ICN (UCÞ ÞŦ 30S)Ŷ CourL welghs [udlclal economy vsŦ excesslve complexlLyŦ
|ŦUsed whenť Advances Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe appllcanL and Lhe courL ln more cosLŴefflclenL llLlgaLlonŦ
||Ŧn|gh| d|snre|onar Ŷ even lf requlremenLs meLţ courL may refuseŦ
1ŦlnsulaLed from revlew by Lrlal courL's dlscreLlonŦ
|||ŦCnLCkLIS1
1Ŧ1lmely moLlon
2ŦClalm or defense LhaL shares common quesLlon of law or facL
3Ŧno undue pre[udlce or delay Lo exlsLlng parLles (dlscreLlonary)
AŦuoes lL serve [udlclal economy?
|Ŧuo savlngs of parLy Ǝ [udlclal resources from avoldlng exLra lawsulL ouLwelgh cosLs from
added presence of Lhe lnLervener?
ŦWlll lL lnLerfere w/rlghLs or delay Lhe orlglnal parLles?
|ŦlnLervenLlon forces exlsLlng parLy Lo rellnqulsh parLlal managemenL of case
||ŦlnLervener may compllcaLe exlsLlng parLles' preparaLlon and llLlgaLlon vla parLy prerogs
|||ŦCompllcaLlons from lnLervenLlon may sLraln resources of orlglnal parLles so LhaL Lhelr
conLlnued ablllLy Lo parLlclpaLe ls [eopardlzedţ forum becomes less accesslbleŦ
|vŦCase could become Loo burdensome
vŦlnLervener mlghL block seLLlemenL
|vŦGoa|ť 1o promoLe [udlclal economyŦ
vŦ5to//worthť Þermlsslve lnLervenLlon aL [udge's dlscreLlonŦ lnLervenLlon can be laLeţ lf no pre[udlce resulLsŦ
v|Ŧnookerť !udge lrlendly seeks Lo ellmlnaLe dlsLlncLlon b/L lnLervenLlon by rlghL and permlsslve lnLervenLlonŦ
1ŦnoL falLhful Lo LexL of Lhe ruleť lotetveotloo by tlqbt ls oot JlsctetloootyŦ
3ŦCCUN1LkCLAIMS AND CkCSSCLAIMS
aŦDef|n||ons
|ŦCounLerclalmť When a parLy clalms agalnsL one who prevlously clalmed agalnsL hlmŦ
||ŦCrossclalmť When a parLy clalms agalnsL a coŴparLy (raLher Lhan an opposlng parLy)Ŧ
bŦCounern|a|ms Ŷ genera|ť
|ŦScope for counLerclalms ls unllmlLed (llke 8ule 18 Ŷ clalm [olnder)
||Ŧno guaranLee LhaL counLerclalm wlll be ad[udlcaLed aL same Llmeţ or aL all (musL meeL venueţ SM!)
nŦku|e 13(a)ť CCMÞULSCk¥ CCUN1LkCLAIM (UCÞ ÞŦ 283)Ŷ A pleadlng MuS1 sLaLe as a counLerclalm any clalm
LhaLţ aL Lhe Llme of servlceţ Lhe pleader has agalnsL Lhe opposlng parLy lf Lhe clalmť
|ŦArlses ouL of Lhe LransacLlon or occurrence LhaL ls Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe clalm
1Ŧoqlcol telotloosblp LesL
||Ŧuoes noL requlre addlng anoLher parLy over whom Lhe courL does noL have !u
dŦCompulsory counLerclalm ls funcLlon equlvalenL of clalm precluslonť ?Cu WlLL LCSL l1 ll ?Cu uCn'1 MAkL l1Ŧ
eŦku|e 13(b)ť ÞLkMISSIVL CCUN1LkCLAIM (UCÞ ÞŦ 283)Ŷ AnyLhlng LhaL doesn'L fall under 13(a)
|ŦConfers advanLage ln realm of precluslon law
||ŦMay plead lLţ or reserve lL for fuLure llLglaLlon
fŦku|e 13(g)ť CkCSSCLAIM AGAINS1 A CCÞAk1¥ (UCÞ ÞŦ 286) Ŷ A pleadlng MA? sLaLe as a crossclalm lf Lhe clalmť
|ŦArlses ouL of Lhe LransacLlon/occurrence C8 properLy LhaL ls Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe clalm
1Ŧoqlcol telotloosblp LesLŦ LsLabllsh llnk b/L your clalm and clalm LhaL ls already securely ln Lhe caseŦ
||ŦMA? lnclude a clalm LhaL coparLy ls llable for parL of clalm agalnsL clalmanL
1Ŧln Lhls senseţ provldes [olnder mechanlsm for derlvaLlve clalms (lmpleader ls equlvalenL for ouLslders)
2ŦCrossclalms are never compulsoryţ llke permlsslve counLerclalms
gŦ-ote LhaL a response Lo a crossclalm ls a compulsory counLerclalmŦ
ŦIN1LkÞLLADLk Ŷ ku|e 22 and 1||e 28 Ƈ133Sť A mechanlsm Lo brlng all defendanLs ln a case lnLo Lhe same acLlonŦ
Pelps Þ Lo clear Lhe alr ln one proceedlngŦ
aŦUsed whenť uefendanL seeks Lo [oln ln a slngle sulL Lwo or more persons asserLlng muLually excluslve clalms Lo
money or properLyŦ
bŦGoa|ť 1o prevenL mulLlple llablllLyţ lnconslsLenL [udgmenLsţ or vexaLlous mulLlple lawsulLs
nŦ2 sages (afLer sLakeholder deposlLs properLy/money w/courL LhaL ls sub[ecL of clalms)
|ŦCourL deLermlnes wheLher lnLerpleader ls approprlaLe on Lhe facLs of Lhe case
1ŦulslotetesteJ sLakeholder only parLlclpaLes ln SLage 1
||Ŧ1he courL ad[udlcaLes Lhe adverse clalms and dlsLrlbuLes Lhe sLake
1ŦotetesteJ sLakeholder parLlclpaLes ln SLage 2 alsoţ compeLlng w/ rlval clalmanLs for fund
dŦCnLCkLIS1
|ŦulverslLy requlremenLť llnd 2 clalmanLs wlLh clalms agalnsL Lhe u who are from dlfferenL [urlsdlcLlons
||ŦClalms musL relaLe Lo same properLy
|||ŦÞroperLy musL be worLh more Lhan $300
eŦCourL can do remarkable Lhlngs
|ŦnaLlonwlde servlce of process
||ŦLn[oln people from sulng Lhe defendanL
fŦ5tote lorm vŦ 1oshireť ulsLrlcL courL goL carrled awayţ sald everyone lnvolved ln accldenL can be lnLerpleadedŦ
|ŦSupreme CLŦ sald only Lhose wlLh clalms agalnsL SLaLe larm can be lnLerpleadedŦ
||ŦClalms agalnsL Creyhound and lndlvldual drlvers musL be broughL separaLelyŦ
SŦCLASS AC1ICNS Ŷ ku|e 23ť A deslgnaLed parLy llLlgaLes noL only for hlmself buL also as a represenLaLlve of a groupŦ
aŦGenera|
|ŦlaclllLaLe ad[udlcaLlon of addlLlonal clalms wlLhouL enlarglng number of acLlve parLlesŦ
1Ŧno llmlL on number of parLlesţ unllke 8ule 20 (permlsslve [olnder)
||Ŧ8lnds all class membersţ even Lhose who are noL parLy Lo Lhe sulL
|||ŦClass members are passlve unless Lhey exclude Lhemselves or sLep forward
bŦGoa| of ku|e 23ť 1o promoLe [udlclal economyŦ
|Ŧ8uL lL has acLually had Lhe opposlte effecLť lL makes lawsulLs posslble LhaL would noL oLherwlse be posslble
(pr|vae aornesŴgenera|)Ŧ
||ŦlŦeŦ Llsenť clalm was noL leglLlmaLe by lLselfŦ
nŦCnLCkLIS1 (23(a)) Ŷ musL meeL all 6 of Lheseŧ
|ŦNumeros| Ŵ 1he class ls so numerous LhaL [olnder of all members ls lmpracLlcal (undeflned llmlL)
||ŦCommona|| Ŵ 1here are quesLlons of law or facL common Lo Lhe class
|||Ŧ1p|na|| Ŵ Clalms or defenses of represenLaLlve parLles are Lyplcal of Lhe class
|vŦAdequan of kepresena|on Ŵ 8epresenLaLlve parLles wlll falrly and adequaLely proLecL class lnLeresLsŦ
ALLorney ls ºquallfledţ experlencedţ able Lo conducL proposed llLlgaLlon"Ŧ
vŦ&&C|ass mus a|so be suff|n|en| def|n|e
1ŦÞarLles musL know whaL ls belng llLlgaLed Ŷ courL needs Lo know consequences of [udgmenL and u
needs noLlce
2Ŧlf class deflnlLlon ls vagueţ oLher parLles wlll Lry Lo collaLerally aLLack and reŴllLlgaLe
v|Ŧ8epresenLaLlve musL be a member of Lhe classŦ
dŦŦŦŦAND musL meeL one of Lhe followlngŧŦ 23(b)
|ŦÞrosecuLlng separaLe acLlons would adversely lmpacL opponenLs or absenL members (rare)
||Ŧln[uncLlve or declaraLory rellef ls approprlaLe for Lhe class (rare) C8
|||Ŧ;uesLlons of law or facL common Lo class members predomlnaLe over any quesLlons affecLlng lndlvldual
members Anu class acLlon ls mosL falr + efflclenL meLhod of ad[udlcaLlonŦ lacLorsť
1ŦClass members' lnLeresL ln lndlvldually conLrolllng prosecuLlon/defense of separaLe acLlons
2ŦLxLenL of exlsLlng llLlgaLlon lnvolvlng class members
3ŦueslrablllLy of Lhe forum
ŦLlkely dlfflculLles ln managlng a class acLlon
|vŦ(b)(|||) ls mosL commonŦ
1ŦNo usefu| for |arge damagesţ b/c plalnLlffs wlll wanL Lo llLlgaLe separaLelyŦ
2Ŧusually appllcable where lndlvldual damage clalms noL large enough Lo warranL lndlvldual sulLs
dŦCo||aera| aanť An argumenL LhaL a [udgmenL LhaL has become flnal ls noL enforceable agalnsL youŦ
Can make on Lwo groundsť
1ŦLack of personal [urlsdlcLlon (ooesbetty)
2ŦLack of adequaLe noLlce (,ollooe)
eŦAdequae kepresena|on
|Ŧnonsberry vŦ Leeť Lee broughL class acLlon Lo enforce raclally resLrlcLlve covenanL on behalf of landowners ln
cerLaln areaŦ Pansberryţ who boughL land from a slgner of Lhe covenanLţ broughL sulL Lo challenge enforcemenLţ
slnce Lhe requlslLe 93Ʒ dldn'L slgnŦ
1ŦÞ's due process vlolaLedť cannoL deny someone properLy w/o chance Lo adequaLely proLecL Lhelr
lnLeresLs
2ŦS|nne h|s |neress were no adequae| represened |n he f|rs su|ţ he nanno be boundŦ 1he
orlglnal parLles dld noL adequaLely proLecL Pansberry's lnLeresLsŦ
3Ŧ2 nomponens o adequae represena|onť
AŦMusL represenL oLhers' lnLeresLs Lo Lhe same exLenL he represenLs hls own
ŦMusL have Lhe same ob[ecLlve of Lhe class members he seeks Lo represenL
|Ŧwrenť lnmaLes peLlLloned for ln[uncLlon Lo prevenL desegregaLlon of prlsons under 23(b)(2)Ŧ 1hey were lssue
precluded by a prlor class acLlon sulL broughL by lnmaLes seeklng 1C desegregaLe prlsonsŦ
fŦAdequan of No|ne
|ŦMu//one vŦ centro/ nonover 8onk Ǝ 1rust
1Ŧ"A fundamenLal requlremenL of due process ln any proceedlng whlch ls Lo be accorded flnallLy ls
noLlce reasonably calculaLed under Lhe clrcumsLances Lo apprlse lnLeresLed parLles of Lhe pendency of
Lhe acLlon and afford Lhem an opporLunlLy Lo presenL Lhelr ob[ecLlonsŦ"
2Ŧº1he noLlce musL reasonably convey Lhe requlred lnformaLlon and afford a reasonable Llme for Lhose
lnLeresLed Lo make Lhelr appearanceŦ"
||ŦLeve|s of no|ne requ|remenť
1Ŧnames Ǝ addresses unknowableť ÞubllcaLlonŦ
2Ŧnames Ǝ addresses unknown buL knowable aL greaL expenseť ÞubllcaLlon
3Ŧnames Ǝ addresses knownť Servlce by mall (Lo all)
|||ŦNo|neť ?ou musL glve Lhe besL posslble noLlce you can under Lhe clrcumsLancesŦ Adequacy of
represenLaLlon ls nLIL8 an excuse for falllng Lo glve Lhe besL posslble noLlce LhaL ls feaslbleŦ
gŦku|e 23 No|ne kequ|remens
|Ŧ£isenť Llsen sued oddŴloL brokers for overcharglng commlsslonsŦ Pls lndlvldual damages were smallţ buL
agreed Lo serve as class represenLaLlveŦ SaLlsfled prerequlslLes of 23(a) and 23(b)(3)Ŧ CourL addresses
23(c)(2) noLlce requlremenLsŦ
||ŦSCC1uS sald mus g|ve |nd|v|dua| no|ne |f a|| n|ass members nan be |den|f|ed w]reasonab|e efforţ
oLherwlse due process ls vlolaLedŦ
1ŦuefendanL provlded a llsL of names/addresses Lo Þ Lo make noLlce more expenslveŦ
2ŦMusL geL prellmlnary ln[uncLlon on merlLs of clalm before orderlng u Lo pay noLlce cosLsŦ
hŦI|u|d kenoverť
|Ŧlf unclalmed funds from class acLlon seLLlemenL remalnţ dlsLrlbuLe Lhem for common beneflL of Lhe class
1ŦlŦeŦ overcharglng cabblesť courL made Lhem glve free Lax rldes unLll Lhe depleLed remalnder of
damage fundŦ
2ŦlŦeŦ Þs harmed by cerLaln medlclneŦ unclalmed funds allocaLed for research purposesŦ
||ŦSome !us allowţ some don'LŦ








Chen||s
1) 8ead Lhe quesLlon Lwlce
2) WrlLe down Lhe parLlesţ clalmsţ and [urlsdlcLlonal rules
3) CuLllne your answer
aŦ Answer ln Lhe order he asks you Lo
bŦ no lnLro/conclusory paragraph needed
nŦ SLrucLure Lhe argumenL loglcally
dŦ ldenLlfy lssues LhaL don'L merlL dlscusslonţ lssues whlch can be handled qulcklyţ and lssues merlLlng
lengLhler dlscusslon
) SLaLe clearly your concluslon
S) Lxplaln why your concluslon ls correcL
aŦ 8ase your explanaLlon ln Lhe rule
lŦ Walk Lhrough Lhe rule sLepŴbyŴsLep
bŦ Weave facLs lnLo explanaLlonţ don'L [usL sLaLe Lhe lawŦ
nŦ keep lL slmpleţ don'L spend much Llme on Lhlngs we dldn'L Lalk abouL ln class






















;uallLles of Lxams
1) Conclusoryť handllng someLhlng ln a conclusory wayŦ ?ou need Lo develop your argumenLŦ
2) !udgmenL unpersuaslveť uon'L agree wlLh concluslon
3) 8alanceť MlghL agree w/concluslonţ buL analysls ls oneŴslded
aŦ See maLLers whlch can be handled qulcklyţ and ones whlch merlL lengLhler dlscusslon
4) noť CoL lL wrong
3) ConfllcLť Sald lL one wayţ laLer on sald lL anoLher
6) Crgť CrganlzaLlonŦ lalled Lo follow lnsLrucLlonsŦ
aŦ ?ou need Lo Lake Lhe Llme Lo organlze
7) locusť Pard Lo see whaL's golng on ln your answer
8) ueLachedť Lapsed lnLo black leLLer answer w/o regard Lo facLs
9) 8esLaLemenLť !usL resLaLlng Lhe llne
8e opporLunlsLlcţ buL Lake Lhe Llme Lo Lhlnk abouL your answerŦ We're belng LesLed on whaL we knowţ buL also on our
[udgmenL of whaL noL Lo Lalk abouLŦ



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