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Part One The following is a list of Irregular Verbs in English: Verb arise babysit be beat become bend begin

bet bind bite bleed blow break breed bring broadcast build buy catch choose come cost cut deal Past Simple Past Participle arose babysat was / were beat became bent began bet bound bit bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built bought caught chose came cost cut dealt arisen babysat been beaten become bent begun bet bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built bought caught chosen come cost cut dealt

dig do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang* have hear hide hit hold hurt

dug did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt

dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen gotten given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt

keep know lay lead leave lend let lie ** light lose make mean meet pay put quit read *** ride ring rise run say see sell send set shake

kept knew laid led left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put quit read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set shook

kept known lain led left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put quit read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set shaken

shine shoot show shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak spend spin spread stand steal stick sting strike swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think

shone shot showed shut sang sank sat slept slid spoke spent spun spread stood stole stuck stung struck swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought

shone shot shown shut sung sunk sat slept slid spoken spent spun spread stood stolen stuck stung struck sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought

throw wake wear win withdraw write

threw woke wore won withdrew wrote

thrown understood woken worn won withdrawn written


learned OR learnt

learned OR learnt

understand understood

smell smelled OR smelt smelled OR smelt The second form (burnt, dreamt etc.) is more common in British English. PART THREE Verbs that have the same form in Present, Past and Past Participle form: Verb Past Simple Past Participle bet cut hit hurt let bet broadcast cut hit hurt let

* HANG - Hang has two different meanings. The first is "to attach (or hang) something in a high position" (e.g. on the wall or on a hook). In this case we use the above verbs Hang-Hung-Hung. BUT when Hang means "to kill someone by putting a rope around someone's neck and leaving them in a high position without any support", we use different verbs: Hang-Hanged-hanged. This verb is typical of public executions in the past. (e.g. They hanged him in the main square.)

bet cut hit hurt let

broadcast broadcast

put put put ** LIE - Lie has two meanings. When it means "to put your body in quit quit quit a horizontal position" (normally on a bed) it uses the Lie-Lay-Lain verbs. read read read BUT it is regular Lie-Lied-Lied when it has the other meaning of "not set set set to say the truth". shut shut shut *** READ - Even though they are written the same, the spread spread spread pronunciation is different in the Past Tense and Past Participle All of the verbs above are written and pronounced the same in the form. three forms EXCEPT for Read which is written the same but pronounced differently. PART TWO The following verbs can be regular or irregular: THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE A / AN We use A/AN with: Verb Past Simple Past Participle 1. Singular nouns and the first time we refer to a person, animal or burn burned OR burnt burned OR burnt thing. a child dream dreamed OR dreamt dreamed OR dreamt an elephant

a television 2. We don't use A/AN with possessive pronouns, demonstratives or cardinal numbers. My shirt is dirty. This car is expensive. One person is in the reception. 3. We use ONE (or more) instead of A/AN when the number is important. There is only one exit from the airport.

No Article We use no article with: 1. When we refer to general ideas, plurals or uncountable nouns we do not use THE. Religion is an important issue. (NOT The religion is an important issue) Mexican food is spicy. (NOT The Mexican food is spicy). 2. Names of people, books and plays (unless it is part of the title). I have read Romeo and Juliet. 3. Towns, cities, states and countries. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE Cape Town We use THE with: Montana 1. A singular or plural noun when it is clear/obvious which person or Vietnam thing we are talking about. (Exceptions The USA, The UK, The Netherlands, The Czech There is a lamp in my bedroom. (we mention the lamp for Republic, The Philippines). 4. Lakes, single islands, continents or mountains. the first time) The lamp is next to the desk. Lake Victoria 2. Anything which we identify immediately. Jamaica We watched the new Brad Pitt movie last night. Asia 3. Musical instruments (the violin, the guitar, the drums, the flute, Mt Fuji 5. Planets the piccolo). She plays the piano. Mars 4. Something that is unique or there is only one. Jupiter the sun Saturn 6. Sports or games the moon the internet. soccer 5. Names of rivers, seas, oceans, mountain ranges and deserts tennis (always in capitals). skiing The Mississippi River monopoly 7. Meals The Black Sea The Andes breakfast The Sahara Desert lunch 6. Directions (cardinal points). dinner the west supper the south-east THE SEVEN BASIC PRONOUNS the north-west.

The seven basic pronouns have one form when they are used as subjects and another form when they are used as objects. Subjects are what the sentence is about. Objects are what is affected by the action of the subject. I like whisky. (I is the subject). I read books. (Books is the object as it is receiving the action). PRONOUNS Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun I You He She It We You (plural) They Me You Him Her It Us You Them

You speak very quickly. We watch them on TV.

Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun

THE OBJECT PRONOUN - IT Be careful when using 'it' as an object pronoun because it is only in the correct context that it has meaning. It needs to have already been mentioned or obvious to the listener what you are referring to. Compare; You are sitting on it! (The listener probably doesn't know what the speaker refers to). The letter is on the sofa. You are sitting on it! (It is obvious in the second sentence that the reference is to the letter) 5W1H We can think about the W-ever words semantically as the 'W' word + the quantifier 'any'. The trick to understanding these terms is to realise that they apply to any single one of the referents, and at the same time refer to all of the referents. Whatever - Any thing (This could also be every thing) Whenever - Any time (This could also be 'every time') Wherever - Any 'where' (Anywhere or everywhere). Whoever - Anyone (Any person or every person, or sometimes used to refer to a person unknown to the speaker) Whichever - Any 'which' (Choice between a group or set). However - Any 'way' (In any manner or way, regardless of how). Basically each one means: "It does not matter what / when / where etc." OR "An unknown thing / time / place etc." 1- EXAMPLES OF WHATEVER Whatever you do, pay attention to the road when you are driving. (You can do anything as long as you pay attention to the road)

Object pronouns are used instead of nouns, usually because we already know what the object is. It makes the sentence easier to read and understand and avoids repetition. We normally use object pronouns after a verb or a preposition. Examples I like horses. Horses don't like me. We talk to our neighbour. She talks to us. Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun

They listen to the teacher. Subject Pronoun Listen to me carefully. Object Pronoun

They say you can buy whatever you desire in Harrods, as long as you have the money. (You can buy anything in Harrods, if you have enough money) The student was so intelligent that whatever we taught, she understood. (She understood everything that she was taught)

With a good education in English, wherever you go, you will have a good time. (If you are taught well, you will have a good time anywhere) Wherever we put the TV in the room, the reception is bad. (Anywhere we put the TV the reception is bad)

You can put the present that she gave you wherever you want, just don't let her know if you put it in the trash. The criminal said he would do whatever he could in order to get out (You can put that present anywhere) of jail. 4- EXAMPLES OF WHOEVER (He would do everything or anything he could to get out of jail) Whoever broke the vase, can you please replace it? 2- EXAMPLES OF WHENEVER (Any specific person who broke the vase, please replace it) Whenever the neighbours flush the toilet, water comes through our Whoever goes to the shop, please don't steal anything. ceiling. (Every time they flush the toilet it happens) (Any one or more of the people who will go to the shop, don't steal anything) Whenever she calls, the landlord is busy. Whoever it was that knocked on the door last night must have been (Every time she calls the landlord, he/she is busy) Call me whenever you need something. drunk, because they dropped twenty dollars as they ran away. (Call me any time you need something) (The unknown person who knocked on the door dropped twenty dollars) Whenever he comes home, he acts like a hungry dog. Whoever you just spoke to, she must have some special powers, (Ever time he comes home, she is like that) because you look like you fell in love. Whenever I go to sleep early, I have extraordinary dreams. (The unknown person who you spoke with must have some special (Every time I go to sleep early, I have these dreams) powers) 3- EXAMPLES OF WHEREEVER Wherever you go in the world, remember where you came from and where you are going. (Anywhere you go in the world, remember those things) 5- EXAMPLES OF WHICHEVER You can drive whichever of the cars you want. (You can choose to drive any of the cars) Whichever dress I wear tonight, I'm worried that my butt will look fat. What do you think?

(Person is worried that the person's butt looks fat in any of the selected dresses) Whichever road you take to Rome, you will need to drive carefully. (There are a number of roads to take, and it is necessary to drive carefully on any one that you take) Whichever pizza you ordered for her, it must have had some very delicious ingredients. (The pizza that was ordered from those available had some special ingredients) 6- EXAMPLES OF HOWEVER You can dress however you like for the party, it's not formal. (You can dress the way that you want for the party) However much she eats, she never puts on weight. (It doesn't matter how much she eats, she never gets fat) You can do it however you like, I don't really care as long as it gets done. (you can do it any way that you want) However rich they may be, it still isn't enough for them. (It doesn't matter how rich they may be)