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Student: Kieu Thi Thuy Class: Bachelor of English Teacher: Tran Thi Nhi
Answer the following question. Your answer should be 1000 – 1200 words (3-4 pages). What is translation equivalence? Present the main types of equivalence in translation. Give examples in English and Vietnamese.
there are four main types of meaning in words and utterances Propositional meaning: arises from the relation between it and what it refers to or describes in a real world For example: a trouser (quần) is a piece of clothing worn on the lower part of body . Morphemes do not always have such clearly defined boundaries. believe meaning “think that something is true or impossible” and able meaning “able to be” Lexical meaning: According to Cruse. rather than between the languages themselves. Translation equivalence is the relationship between a source text (ST) and a target text (TT) that allows the TT to be considered as a translation of the ST. Equivalence at word level Word is the smallest unit we would expect to possess individual meaning. as distinct from word. it can not contain more than one element of meaning and cannot be further analyzed. For example: unbelievable is written as one word but consists of three morphemes: un meaning “not”. Morpheme is the minimal formal element of meaning. There is no one-to-one relationship between word and meaning.Answer: Equivalence is a relationship between two texts in two languages. For example: A hand has five fingers Tay We need at least 30 hands to finish this process Nhân công There are six main types of equivalence in translation 1. word in SL may be expresses by many elements in TL For example: unqualified (adj) in English is expressed by six words không đáp ứng đủ yêu cầu in Vietnamese Cock (n) in English is expressed by two words: gà trống Morpheme is suggested to describe the minimal formal element of meaning in language.
showing the speaker’s disapproval of someone’s attitude. Presupposed meaning: arises from co-occurrence restrictions on what other words or expressions we expect to see before and after a particular lexical unit. brush your teeth (đánh răng). shampoo your hair (gội đầu). For example: the difference between ugly (xấu xí) and not good-looking (không xinh lắm) does not lie in their propositional meanings but in the expressive meanings. grill meat (nướng thịt) but toast bread (nướng bánh mì) * Some collocation related pitfalls and problems in translation The engrossing effect of source text patterning For example: Don’t pull my leg Literally meaning: đừng kéo chân tôi Idiomatically: đừng chọc quê tôi Misinterpreting the meaning of a source-language collocation Anh ta mang một bộ mặt lạnh như tiền For example: He wears a straight face The tension between accuracy and naturalness . Both two words are inherently expressive. Equivalence above word level đi đội đeo giầy mũ vòng tai Collocation is semantically arbitrary restrictions which do not follow logically from the propositional meaning of words. For example: * wear shoes a hat earings *drink water: uống nước Take medicine: uống thuốc Evoked meaning: arises from dialect and register variation 2.Expressive meaning: relate to the speaker’s feelings or attitudes rather than to what words and utterances refer to. However. the element of disapproval in ugly is stronger than it is in not good-looking. For example: it must be “wash your hands (rửa tay).
man/ men). For example: Nhìn cô hơi mệt đấy You look tired cô nhìn mệt Some major categories is extended to illustrate the kinds of difficulty that translators often encounter because of differences in the grammatical structures of SL and TL: number (student/ students. Grammatical structure also differs from lexical structure in that it is more resistant to change. Grammatical equivalence Grammar: is organized along two main dimensions: morphology and syntax. etc) Culture-specific collocation Tôi muốn một loại đồ uống nhẹ For example: less spread language and big Marked collocations in the source text For example: And then peace broke out. (nước hoa quả. Textual equivalence: thematic and information structures Thematic structure: The interactional organization of sentences is a clause is a clause consist 2 segments: theme (what the clause is about) and rheme (what speaker says about the theme) For example: A grammatical sequence such as: . it is an instance of language in use rather than language as an abstract system of meanings and relations. It is difficult to find a notional category which is regularly and uniformly expressed in all languages. Idioms and fixed expression For example: beat about the bush (vòng vo tam quốc) 3. fox/ foxes.For example: I’m going to have a hard drink. tense and aspect and voice Word order: is extremely important in translation because it plays a major role in maintaining a coherent point of view and in orienting messages at text level. sow/ bow). person. Differences in the grammatical structures of the SL and TL often result in some change in the information content of the message during the process of translation. siro. gender (son/ daughter. Text: is the verbal record of communicative event. 4. cow/ bull.
the information focus falls on something other than the theme. ect in a text. In unmarked information structure. information structure is a feature of the context rather than of the language system as such. For example: What's happening tonight? We're dancing disco in a party new What's happening tonight? We're given What's happening tonight? We’re dancing given dancing disco in a party new disco in a party new Unlike thematic structure. events. grammatical and other relations which provide links between various parts of a text Reference is a device which allows the reader/ hearer to trace participants. That brings to her a good job . anh ta có nhiệm vụ tháp tùng ngài chủ tịch tới thăm bảo tàng) it can be reordered in number of different ways without affecting its propositional content. information structure is not realized by the sequencing of element. It can be: Accompanying the Prsident visiting Museum is his important duty today (Tháp tùng ngài chủ tịch tới thăm bảo tàng là nhiệm vụ quan trọng của anh ta ngày hôm nay) A further area in which the notions of theme have proved very useful relates to marked and unmarked structures For example: I gave him a present Unmarked A present was given to him Like thematic structure. For example: The girl wearing a red hat is my friend.Today. entities. Textual equivalence: cohesion Cohesion is the network of lexical. 5. She just came here yesterday Sussan has passed the exam. One can only decide what part of a message is new and what part is given within a linguistic or situational context. he has an important duty that is accompany the President visiting Museum(Hôm nay.
substitution and ellipsis are grammatical rather than semantic relationships. cohesion is the network of surface relatons which link words and expressions to other words and expressions in a text. For example: These books are mine. Ellipsis involves the omission of an item. The same to me. and coherence is the network of conceptual relations which underlie the surface text. In substitution. Cohesion is a network of relation which organize and create a text. Take any. 1975:50) . In other words. an item is replaced by another item For example: I'd like a cup of tea.(Tất cả sách này là của tôi. This is a case a leaving something unsaid which is nevertheless understood. For example: Do you often use the local swimming pool? Salt harms to my hair --> Implicature: Not often All relevant items falling under the previous headings are avaible to both participants know or assume this to be the case (Grice. Pramatic equivalence. cứ lấy bất kỳ quyển nào) (ellipsis item: book after any in second clause) 6.Unlike reference.the question of how it is that we come to understand more than is actually said. 1983: 95) One of the most important notions which have emerged in text studies in recent years is that of implicature . please ---> "the same" is a substitute for a cup of tea. in ellipsis. an item is replaced by nothing. No text is inherently coherent or incoherent (Charlolles.
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