Safety Management ...

a Better Way
Copyright SafetyInfo, Inc.

"Finding a better way" is a constant task for safety managers. This guide has been developed to assist you as you incorporate the SafetyInfo On-Line Safety Library material into managing safety at your facility. Topics covered include: Why Safety Should Not Be First Selling Safety What is Safety? Effective Safety Training Training Program Management Your First Challenge. Every facility has different safety needs. Even if two companies produce similar products, the safety needs may be vastly different. This is why "industry specific" canned safety programs are not very effective. OSHA requires employers to use a "hazards" approach in safety management. This means you must address the specific hazards YOUR employees encounter and the environments in which they work. This includes the processes, equipment, physical facilities and geographic location that make your facility different from others in the same industry. As an example, a facility on the Gulf Coast needs a much more developed Hazardous Weather Plan than one that is located in Oregon. Your first challenge is to Identify Specific Hazards your employees face. From this list you can now easily identify exactly what programs you need at your facility Your Second Challenge. Once you have compiled your list of hazards such as respiratory protection, fall prevention, chemical safety, etc. you must create the management framework for your program. Every Program needs to be written out simply and clearly to be effective. It should detail the rules and responsibilities for Management, Supervisors and Employees. It should address what training is required and should list the recordkeeping requirements you need to prove your program us effective. Your Third Challenge. Even the best written program, training program and recordkeeping system can fall short if it not properly incorporated into the fabric of the company. Employees must "buy into" and support the programs for them to work. Supervisors must incorporate specific daily activities regarding safety just as they do for their production effort. You don't want your program to be a "side car" that is easily dropped when production pressures increase. Your Fourth Challenge. Training needs to be done in such a way that it is accepted by the employees as part of their job. The best way to de-motivate an

employee is to subject them to boring, repetitive, non-challenging training delivered by a supervisors who is not a good trainer. In this environment, both the supervisor and employees actions will de-volve into shortcuts and disregard for safety ... even when they know the rules are designed to keep them safe. Your Fifth Challenge. Any system that does not have a continual input of energy will degrade. A Safety Manager must continually, monitor, audit, build relationships with supervisors and employees and look for a way to continually improve safety to meet the needs of the company and motivate employees to be truly concerned for their safety and the safety of others. If all you do is become a "Safety Cop" your programs will never succeed.

Why Safety should not be "First"
If, at any gathering of safety professionals, you ask, how many have used, seen or heard the phrase "Safety First" in their company... most will raise their hands. Then ask if safety really is considered first... the vast majority will drop their hands. Now ask about the use of the phrase "Profits First"... no one raises their hands.... but everyone knows that is a primary business focus and concern. Why, and how does "Profits First" get such understanding and support without fanfare? Simple Answers Everyone knows that profits are what allows a company to grow, pay employees, and reinvest in itself for the future. Profits are a good and necessary component of our national economy. Profits generate taxes for government. Profits are ingrained in all operational aspects of business... and that's where safety should be... not "first" or forgotten.... safety needs to be just another accepted and needed component for successful business operations. Attempting to place safety first in a company philosophy puts safety at odds to the true end goal of business... and that causes organizational stress and failure. Scope of the challenge One of the leading challenges facing safety professionals in many companies is that too many company managers really don't know what safety is, what their role is, how much it encompasses or the inter-relations safety has with production and quality control. In college, Business Management courses barely brush against the topic of safety management. As a result, the people who end up steering a business know very little about safety and resist moving outside their comfort zone of topics they do understand. Successful safety managers sell safety to upper management by using the concept that "safety" protects the business... even managers from the "old school" will understand and embrace "protection of company assets." Goal of Safety The goal of safety is not "Zero Accidents"... that may be a nice result, however, the real goal is to get employees, supervisors and managers to accept and exhibit specific

behaviors... just as they do in controlling production and quality. There are no magic slogans, emphasis programs or Herculean efforts by a safety manager that can achieve this goal. Place the motivation for safety behavior and management where it belongs... in the pocket of every employee, on the clipboard of every supervisor and desk of every manager.... right next to production, quality and profit. Not first, not last, just equal.

Selling Safety
The absence of accidents does not imply the presence of safety. Whoever first said this hit the target. Having "Safety" is not just a mater of having no accidents. It is also not simply a matter of having good comprehensive written programs. The process of safety involves people, every day, every minute. The first lesson of sales is to understand the difference between "Content and Process". Content consists of WHAT you want to achieve, or your goal. Content includes written procedures, action lists, step-by-step procedures, training guides or simply verbal instructions. Content defines the scope and end point of a task or project. Process on the other hand is the group dynamics of HOW a project, procedure or goal is accomplished AND the effect these actions have on individuals and groups for future accomplishment. Process is the single most important factor in affecting success or failure of a task. Understanding and proper use of Process will improve the ability of a group meet goals and exhibit behaviorally specific correct actions such as ALWAYS following Lockout-Tagout procedures every time. Process is that "warm and fuzzy" part of managing people that is often overlooked. Properly used, process can be used to effectively set and enforce standards, convey positive expectations and solve problems. Use every "crisis" as an opportunity to strengthen groups and improve employee performance and involvement. Having safety means that employees:
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Understand and follow procedure Report unsafe conditions Encourage others to work safely Find, solve and fix the problems in their areas of responsibility Suggest improvements in procedures and equipment Don't take shortcuts!

Ok, who's responsible for this mess? Every business has well defined job descriptions for every thing from the company Comptroller to the Custodial Staff. Everybody knows that, if the lowest level employee's job doesn't get done, nobody's happy. So back to the question, who has responsibility for safety? Of course the pat answer is everyone. Nice thought, but let's look at the real picture. The people who have the most influence on safety are the line supervisors and senior employees. These are the people who work with, direct and observe production

employees every minute. They provide the positive or negative pressures that motivate (or de-motivate) workers. If the lowest level supervisors have not bought into the safety programs, and claimed ownership, then not much can or will happen on the safety front. Department Managers and Project Heads have the most control of safety. Generally they have, or will take, authority to change procedures or redirect resources. Sometimes the most casual comment, such as, "Let's skip that this time" can cause considerable damage to the safety culture in a company. Especially if the change is not communicated and explained properly. Of course upper management has the responsibility for safety. These are the DJPs (designated jail persons): the ones that go to jail if criminal negligence is found to contribute to a severe injury or death. Yes, many managers have spent some time in the lockup for ignoring workplace hazards. Beyond that, if upper management wants a high degree of concern for safety, with appropriate actions taken to ensure worker safety, they must
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continually communicate this to all management provide resources and personnel for safety tasks ensure written safety programs meet regulatory requirements and company goals discuss safety at staff meetings use real safety performance as a part of pay and bonus reviews

Yes, everyone is responsible for safety, but everyone has different roles to play to monitor and improve the safety environment. If safety becomes static, it will fade into the background and again become a "bothersome" burden. Understanding your "customers". Yes, safety professional have customers. As a mater of fact there are three groups of customers that you must serve to effectively manage safety programs. They are management, supervisors and employees. Not only does each of these groups has its own concerns and trigger points for buying into safety, they also have their own "operational language" that you must learn to understand and apply during the sales pitch. Management needs cost control and measurable results - they speak the language of accounting and process management Supervisor need control of their work areas, defined responsibilities and management support - the speak the language of production & quality control Employees need fair treatment, tools for the tasks and a team environment - they speak the language of effort and acceptance. Sell a good product. Ninety percent of the "Safety Job" is selling safety. Most managers are not well versed in OSHA safety requirements or even in their own company's safety procedures. Many see safety as simply a list of rules to be followed (unless there is a

production crisis - then it's out the window). When you have the opportunity to present anything to your managers, be it a project, memo for their signature, training plan, or simply a list, take the time to prepare a smooth finished copy - never a rough draft or random notes on a scrap of paper. It is the job of the "Safety Person" to complete the research, design and execution plan for every safety task. To do this effectively, look at other similar company documents to get the "flavor and tempo" of methods that have been successful in the past. This philosophy of presenting a clean document is often referred to as "Completed Staff Work". In sales, presentation is everything. Your boss doesn't want scraps. Sell the Sizzle not the Steak! How do you make people aware of the benefits of your "products & services"? We have seen a great hoopla about behavior based training. Basically, it's a new coat of paint on the old concept of behavior intervention and modification. For as long as the world has existed, human behavior has been a result of a combination of external stimulus as well as internal and associative values. Effective use of these concept can result in improved safety behavior. Start Day One. The first day on the job is the most important. The new employee brings their own values to your company and this is the time that they are most willing to modify their individual value system to fit in, be accepted and be seen as a positive contributor. Make sure all negative stimulus has been removed from your New Hire Orientation Program. Look at what the new employee actually experiences during that first day. Is there a series of long and boring orientation lectures? Who do they meet and what impact does this have? Do they get to see the big picture and a view of how they will be contributing? Are company values, rules and expectations clearly and simply communicated? Are they introduced to other employees who will also communicate positive values or will they, left on their own, meet the bad apples? Control this new experience the first day and the first week to ensure new employees are properly tuned into your performance expectations. Using your Safety Committee Members. Make sure your new employees meet a few Safety Committee Members. Let them know the value of these new people and that they are a part of the plan for training new employees, primarily by being seen as someone they can go to when they have questions. Cultivate and train your Safety Committee to be part of the overall plan for ensuring safe behavior by all employees. All employees should see management fully supporting the committee members on the production floor, not just during committee meetings. Does 100% yield 100%? One of the most effective techniques I have seen used during safety orientation is to tell the new employee that the company is renting their behavior. That is, the company will pay them 100% of the agreed pay and, therefore, the employee has the obligation to adhere to the behaviors required. This includes behavior and attendance at safety meetings and following all safety rules. Believe it or not this turns out to be a novel concept for many new workers. Tell new employees that they will receive 100% of their earned pay. Given that, they will now be more receptive when you tell them that the company should be able to expect 100% compliance with performance

expectations. Tell them that you are "renting" their behavior or paying for their service. This won't work on everyone, however, those who are "convinced" will have an impact on those who hang back. Understanding motivating factors. Communicating positive expectations is only part of the plan. If you expect employees to adopt proper actions and attitudes, the company must overtly and continually make each employee feel accepted, needed and known as an individual who's positive values are appreciated. Get to know the person. Only then can behavior intervention succeed. Sell, sell sell... and reap the rewards of a smooth running safety program.

What is Safety?
If you ask ten people in your company, "What is Safety?" and get ten different answers, you may have identified a basic problem in the management of your safety programs. Ask about your company Quality Control or Production programs and you will most likely get a consensus answer - everyone probably understands and accepts these programs at the same basic level. The same applies to accounting practices - there are well defined and accepted standards and procedures used to measure production activity. The first, most basic step in any process in to get everyone on the same page. Employees must be able to identify and understand the following three facets of your safety program: 1. what is the safety program 2. what are the safety program goals 3. what is expected What is the safety program? Simply put "Safety" is a management tool used to: - identify, eliminate and manage risks - develop safety standards - respond to accidents & injuries - train employees in expected behaviors & standards - monitor compliance, conditions & behaviors - document compliance - set goals for action and improvement

What are safety program goals? As with any goal, there must be a clear purpose. In addition, you must be able to tell where you are, at any one time, in relation to the desired endpoint. To communicate and achieve goals they must be:
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written measurable well defined achievable challenging assigned

Goals must be written - if you don't publish safety goals, you cannot expect others to work towards their achievement. Written goals must include how they are to be measured (including milestones). The must be well defined and simple to understand. Additionally, they should be written in a manner that conveys that they are achievable as well as challenging, so that there is a constant process of improvement. Goals must be measurable- simply recording & tracking accidents & injuries is really just measuring the failures of the safety system. Measurements that are effective include the results of and response to safety program tools such as audits, inspections, formal observation and review of records Goals must be well defined - establishing the "scope" of specific goals is an important factor in allowing management and employees to understand the goal - provide specific endpoints that define the accomplishment of the goal - keep the language of the goal short, simple, and easy to understand. Goals must be achievable- setting a goal of ZERO accidents may sound like an excellent goal and is certainly specific and measurable, however it may not be achievable. When determining the "achievability" of a goal, consider the current conditions and "state" of safety in relation to the goal. Setting goals that are achievable provides a climate of success when goals are met - conversely, if goals are set too high and are not achieved, then frustration, resentment and failure are injected into the company safety culture. Goals must be challenging - setting goals that are easily achieved may take effort out of compliance, but will often cause decay of involvement and monitoring. Every survey ever taken concerning employee job satisfaction lists a "challenging work environment" at or near the top of the list of employee desires. Be careful not to confuse making challenging goals with making the safety process harder. Goals must be assigned - who is involved in meeting safety goals must be defined. Defining what part each person plays - and what their specific activities are must be communicated in the written goal to avoid the "that's not my job" response."

EXAMPLES of a safety goal Equipment Training: Within the next sixty days, train all shipping & receiving employees in the proper use and safe operation of material handling equipment. Training will be:
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in accordance with the written program guidelines conducted both in a classroom setting and at the worksite conducted by the shipping manager and supervisors recorded on the proper safety program forms

Accident Investigations: All accidents and injuries will be investigated by the area supervisor as soon as immediate hazards have been controlled and any medical assistance provided. The initial supervisor findings, observations and immediate corrective actions will be provided to the area manager within two hours of the start of the investigation and in any case not latter than the end of the shift. Management will review and assign permanent corrective actions within 24 hours of the accident. What is expected? One of the significant benefits of having written safety programs is that it acts as a vehicle for establishing the safety roles and standards for management, supervisors and employees. Setting and communicating standards is not an easy task, especially considering that safety standards are a compliance issue dictated by OSHA regulations, many of which border on epic proportions. It is the job of management to distill these government regulations into easily understood and remembered behaviors. Management must also develop specific tools to train employees, monitor activity and document compliance - all this without over-burdening the production, maintenance and quality control efforts. Communicating safety standards starts day one with the new employee by having them participate in a safety orientation class and continues with periodic specific training that applies to their job and assigned tasks. Other tools for communicating standards and expectations are company newsletters, posters, immediate on-the job positive correction of unsafe behaviors, safety information pamphlets and informal safety talks by supervisors. Standards that define the periodic evaluation of employee compliance and program management is essential for gathering information on which to base needed changes in standards and procedures. Audits, inspections and task completion documents - such as training forms - should be simple to follow and to complete. Employee actions that violate established standards or policies must be addressed immediately to determine the reason for deviation. Punitive responses should be reserved only for the most serious infractions. Taking an honest look at most infractions will show

that the real root cause is the failure to either properly train employees, monitor activates or set effective standards. If you want your safety program to be effective, all employees must know the program, goals and their part. And finally, set realistic and effective goals.

Effective Safety Training
Whether you conduct annual refresher safety training on half a dozen or two dozen topics the key is to have effective results. Effective is a word OSHA uses to describe the outcome of your training - they can cite your company for not having effective safety training. Ok, so how do you ensure that your training is effective? The proof must be present on the workstation level - do workers put into practice what they were taught? To get employees to conform to specific safety behaviors, you must have a well though out, well designed and well executed training program. It must be as well engineered as any product or service your company provides. This includes quality control checkpoints to monitor the process. Step 1 - Scope Define the training your employees need. This should be based on the hazards in your specific facility - make a list of all the possible hazards, such as confined spaces, respiratory, slip & trip, electrical, bloodborne pathogens, chemical exposure, etc. Next to each hazard, list what work areas have these hazards. For each work area, list the specific job titles for each potential hazard. We’re not done yet... List all the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used by employees. Next to each specific PPE, list the tasks or job titles that use the PPE. One more list.... Don’t forget the specialized training required for forklifts, boilers, process equipment, chemical mixing, and special hazard operations such as confined space entry. This process should reveal the various safety training topics and who needs the training. Step 2 - Foundation Now that the training topics have been identified, how will you design the training? Some companies rely heavily on safety video tapes, some use formal lectures with training handouts or self-paced computer based training. Still others find that short, small group topic specific "toolbox" or "tailgate" talks work best for them. There are many other different training formats and you will most probably use several types with variations for the topic and the type employees being trained. Before you decide on a training format develop a short outline that defines what information is to be included for each topic. A good general outline will discuss the following:

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Purpose of the specific training & safety program Company Policy Who is responsible for the administration of the program Responsibilities of Management, Supervisors and Employees Hazards and their effects Safe Behaviors Specific Hazard Controls - Engineering, Administrative, Training & Supervision Controls Procedures for reporting uncontrolled hazards Emergency Procedures.

For PPE training, you must include:
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Donning & removal training Limitations of the PPE Selection process

Having this structured information outline provides a quality control check for whatever training format you chose. Step 3 - Structure Who will conduct the training, for who and where. Answering these questions will help clarify how the training must be structured. Consider the training competency of the trainers. Inexperienced trainers will better develop their skills by starting with small groups in less formal settings. Consider the trainer’s understanding of the material. More effective training will result if they have been given time to prepare and become comfortable with the material. Using "Train the Trainer" sessions is an excellent way to develop supervisors into trainers on specific topics - this type training will also improve their supervisory skills. Another consideration is the use of safety committee members during training sessions to help the trainer. Placing safety committee members in front of the groups they represent will strengthen their day to day roll of monitoring safety on the job. Your choices of training structure includes: 1. Formal classroom training 2. Informal small group safety meetings 3. Job site meetings 4. Self-paced computer based training

Step 4 - Tools

Don’t ask someone to do any task, especially training, without the proper tools. You will need to develop a group of tools for each task to cover the various structures in which the training may be conducted. Possible training tools include:
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Video tapes Training Outline Discussion Points Handouts Overhead Transparencies Power Point Presentations Summary questions Attendance sheet Safety/Toolbox/Tailgate talk Whiteboards/Chalkboards & markers Training aids - examples such as tags, signs, PPE, tools, example sheets, etc.

Step 5 - Training Session The goal is effective training. The first milestone for this goal is to make the training interesting and applicable to your employees. Videos that are professionally produced can be helpful as long as the work areas and type of work shown on the video is similar to those of your employees. Use real world examples from your facility - accident reports, photos from your company, video tape tours, do what ever you can to make the application of training meaningful to your workplaces.

The trainer must make the trainees know that he is interested and believes in the program. Additionally, the trainer must convey the importance of the training to each employees own safety.

Keep the training session as short as possible... Don’t drag it out just to fill in the expected time.

Move around during the presentation... Nobody likes to stare at a non-moving object.

Don’t READ a prepared script... Most people can’t pull this off and make it seem natural.

Establish and maintain eye contact with the audience.... Let them know that you, the instructor, are in charge by your body language. Speak loud enough to be heard well by the back row.

Prime the pump... call on people you know will participate.... ask easy questions first.

Use ice breakers for groups that don’t know each other well... 5 minutes well spent to relax the participants.

Make the training session visual, audible and memorable.... summarize key points and expected behaviors.

Step 6 - Close the Loop Quizzes administered at the end of a lecture can be used for some self defense if OSHA says your training was not effective. Your can use quiz results as proof that a worker knew the material immediately after the training. However if OSHA asks one of your workers where the MSDS are kept and they say "I don’t know" or "Huh?", OSHA can make a case that your training was ineffective. Annual or periodic safety program audits should always include interviews or on the floor verbal questions for employees to determine the general level of knowledge for specific programs. Immediate retraining should be a normal management procedure when a supervisor sees an employee doing anything not quite right. These corrections should be done in a positive manner... Don’t draw attention of others to the re-training... don’t embarrass the employee.

Training Program Management
Using this training program development model, employers or supervisors can develop and administer safety and health training programs that address problems specific to their own business, fulfill the learning needs of their own employees, and strengthen the overall safety and health program of the workplace.

Step 1: Determining If Training Is Needed The first step in the training process is a basic one: to determine whether a problem can be solved by training. Whenever employees are not performing their jobs properly, it is often assumed that training will bring them up to standard. However, it is possible that other actions (such as hazard abatement or the implementation of engineering controls) would enable employees to perform their jobs properly. Ideally, safety and health training should be provided before problems or accidents occur. This training would cover both general safety and health rules and work procedures, and would be repeated if an accident or near–miss incident occurred. Problems that can be addressed effectively by training include those that arise from lack of knowledge of a work process, unfamiliarity with equipment, or incorrect execution of a task. Training is less effective (but still can be used) for problems arising from an employee's lack of motivation or lack of attention to the job. Whatever its purpose, training is most effective when designed in relation to the goals of the employer's total safety and health program. Identifying Training Needs If the problem is one that can be solved, in whole or in part, by training, then the next step is to determine what training is needed. For this, it is necessary to identify what the employee is expected to do and in what ways, if any, the employee's performance is deficient. This information can be obtained by conducting a job analysis which pinpoints what an employee needs to know in order to perform a job. When designing a new training program, or preparing to instruct an employee in an unfamiliar procedure or system, a job analysis can be developed by examining engineering data on new equipment or the safety data sheets on unfamiliar substances. The content of the specific Federal or State OSHA standards applicable to a business can also provide direction in developing training content. Another option is to conduct a Job Hazard Analysis. This is a procedure for studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential hazards, and determining the best way to perform the job in order to reduce or eliminate the risks. Information obtained from a Job Hazard Analysis can be used as the content for the training activity. If an employee's learning needs can be met by revising an existing training program rather than developing a new one, or if the employee already has some knowledge of the process or system to be used, appropriate training content can be developed through such means as: 1. Using company accident and injury records to identify how accidents occur and what can be done to prevent them from recurring. 2. Requesting employees to provide, in writing and in their own words, descriptions of their jobs. These should include the tasks performed and the tools, materials and equipment used.

3. Observing employees at the worksite as they perform tasks, asking about the work, and recording their answers. Training and Education. The employees themselves can provide valuable information on the training they need. Safety and health hazards can be identified through the employees' responses to such questions as whether anything about their jobs frightens them, if they have had any near– miss incidents, if they feel they are taking risks, or if they believe that their jobs involve hazardous operations or substances. Once the kind of training that is needed has been determined, it is equally important to determine what kind of training is not needed. Employees should be made aware of all the steps involved in a task or procedure, but training should focus on those steps on which improved performance is needed. This avoids unnecessary training and tailors the training to meet the needs of the employees. Step 2 - Identifying Goals And Objectives Once the employees' training needs have been identified, employers can then prepare objectives for the training. Instructional objectives, if clearly stated, will tell employers what they want their employees to do, to do better, or to stop doing. Learning objectives do not necessarily have to be written, but in order for the training to be as successful as possible, clear and measurable objectives should be thought–out before the training begins. For an objective to be effective it should identify as precisely as possible what the individuals will do to demonstrate that they have learned, or that the objective has been reached. They should also describe the important conditions under which the individual will demonstrate competence and define what constitutes acceptable performance. Using specific, action–oriented language, the instructional objectives should describe the preferred practice or skill and its observable behavior. For example, rather than using the statement: "The employee will understand how to use a respirator" as an instructional objective, it would be better to say: "The employee will be able to describe how a respirator works and when it should be used." Objectives are most effective when worded in sufficient detail that other qualified persons can recognize when the desired behavior is exhibited. Developing Learning Activities Once employers have stated precisely what the objectives for the training program are, then learning activities can be identified and described. Learning activities enable employees to demonstrate that they have acquired the desired skills and knowledge. To ensure that employees transfer the skills or knowledge from the learning activity to the job, the learning situation should simulate the actual job as closely as possible. Thus, employers may want to arrange the objectives and activities in a sequence which corresponds to the order in which the tasks are to be performed on the job, if a specific

process is to be learned. For instance, if an employee must learn the beginning processes of using a machine, the sequence might be: (1) to check that the power source is connected; (2) to ensure that the safety devices are in place and are operative; (3) to know when and how to throw the switch; and so on. A few factors will help to determine the type of learning activity to be incorporated into the training. One aspect is the training resources available to the employer. Can a group training program that uses an outside trainer and film be organized, or should the employer personally train the employees on a one–to–one basis? Another factor is the kind of skills or knowledge to be learned. Is the learning oriented toward physical skills (such as the use of special tools) or toward mental processes and attitudes? Such factors will influence the type of learning activity designed by employers. The training activity can be group–oriented, with lectures, role play, and demonstration; or designed for the individual as with self–paced instruction. The determination of methods and materials for the learning activity can be as varied as the employer's imagination and available resources will allow. The employer may want to use charts, diagrams, manuals, slides, films, viewgraphs (overhead transparencies), videotapes, audiotapes, or simply blackboard and chalk, or any combination of these and other instructional aids. Whatever the method of instruction, the learning activities should be developed in such a way that the employees can clearly demonstrate that they have acquired the desired skills or knowledge. Conducting Training With the completion of the steps outlined above, the employer is ready to begin conducting the training. To the extent possible, the training should be presented so that its organization and meaning are clear to the employees. To do so, employers or supervisors should: (1) provide overviews of the material to be learned; (2) relate, wherever possible, the new information or skills to the employees' goals, interests, or experience; and (3) reinforce what the employees learned by summarizing the program's objectives and the key points of information covered. These steps will assist employers in presenting the training in a clear, unambiguous manner. In addition to organizing the content, employers must also develop the structure and format of the training. The content developed for the program, the nature of the workplace or other training site, and the resources available for training will help employers determine for themselves the frequency of training activities, the length of the sessions, the instructional techniques, and the individuals best qualified to present the information.

In order to be motivated to pay attention and learn the material that the employer or supervisor is presenting, employees must be convinced of the importance and relevance of the material. Among the ways of developing motivation are: (1) explaining the goals and objectives of instruction; (2) relating the training to the interests, skills, and experiences of the employees; (3) outlining the main points to be presented during the training session; and (4) pointing out the benefits of training (e.g., the employee will be better informed, more skilled, and thus more valuable both on the job and on the labor market; or the employee will, if he or she applies the skills and knowledge learned, be able to work at reduced risk). An effective training program allows employees to participate in the training process and to practice their skills or knowledge. This will help to ensure that they are learning the required knowledge or skills and permit correction if necessary. Employees can become involved in the training process by participating in discussions, asking questions, contributing their knowledge and expertise, learning through hands–on experiences, and through role–playing exercises. Step 3 - Evaluation To make sure that the training program is accomplishing its goals, an evaluation of the training can be valuable. Training should have, as one of its critical components, a method of measuring the effectiveness of the training. A plan for evaluating the training sessions, whether written or thought–out by the employer, should be developed when the course objectives and content are developed. It should not be delayed until the training has been completed. Evaluation will help employers or supervisors determine the amount of learning achieved and whether an employee's performance has improved on the job. Among the methods of evaluating training are: (1) Student opinion. Questionnaires or informal discussions with employees can help employers determine the relevance and appropriateness of the training program; (2) Supervisors' observations. Supervisors are in good positions to observe an employee's performance both before and after the training and note improvements or changes; and (3) Workplace improvements. The ultimate success of a training program may be changes throughout the workplace that result in reduced injury or accident rates. However it is conducted, an evaluation of training can give employers the information necessary to decide whether or not the employees achieved the desired results, and whether the training session should be offered again at some future date. Step 4 - Improving the Program If, after evaluation, it is clear that the training did not give the employees the level of knowledge and skill that was expected, then it may be necessary to revise the training program or provide periodic retraining. At this point, asking questions of employees and of those who conducted the training may be of some help. Among the questions that could be asked are:

(1) Were parts of the content already known and, therefore, unnecessary? (2) What material was confusing or distracting? (3) Was anything missing from the program? (4) What did the employees learn, and what did they fail to learn? It may be necessary to repeat steps in the training process, that is, to return to the first steps and retrace one's way through the training process. As the program is evaluated, the employer should ask: (1) If a job analysis was conducted, was it accurate? (2) Was any critical feature of the job overlooked? (3) Were the important gaps in knowledge and skill included? (4) Was material already known by the employees intentionally omitted? (5) Were the instructional objectives presented clearly and concretely? (6) Did the objectives state the level of acceptable performance that was expected of employees? (7) Did the learning activity simulate the actual job? (8) Was the learning activity appropriate for the kinds of knowledge and skills required on the job? (9) When the training was presented, was the organization of the material and its meaning made clear? (10) Were the employees motivated to learn? (11) Were the employees allowed to participate actively in the training process? (12) Was the employer's evaluation of the program thorough? A critical examination of the steps in the training process will help employers to determine where course revision is necessary. Matching Training While all employees are entitled to know as much as possible about the safety and health hazards to which they are exposed, and employers should attempt to provide all relevant information and instruction to all employees, the resources for such an effort frequently are not, or are not believed to be, available. Employers are often faced with the problem of deciding who is in the greatest need of information and instruction. One way to differentiate between employees who have priority needs for training and those who do not is to identify employee populations which are at higher levels of risk. The nature of the work will provide an indication that such groups should receive priority for information on occupational safety and health risks. Identifying Employees At Risk One method of identifying employee populations at high levels of occupational risk (and thus in greater need of safety and health training) is to pinpoint hazardous occupations. Even within industries which are hazardous in general, there are some employees who operate at greater risk than others. In other cases the hazardousness of an occupation is influenced by the conditions under which it is performed, such as noise, heat or cold, or

safety or health hazards in the surrounding area. In these situations, employees should be trained not only on how to perform their job safely but also on how to operate within a hazardous environment. A second method of identifying employee populations at high levels of risk is to examine the incidence of accidents and injuries, both within the company and within the industry. If employees in certain occupational categories are experiencing higher accident and injury rates than other employees, training may be one way to reduce that rate. In addition, thorough accident investigation can identify not only specific employees who could benefit from training but also identify company–wide training needs. Research has identified the following variables as being related to a disproportionate share of injuries and illnesses at the worksite on the part of employees: The age of the employee (younger employees have higher incidence rates). The length of time on the job (new employees have higher incidence rates). The size of the firm (in general terms, medium–size firms have higher incidence rates than smaller or larger firms). The type of work performed (incidence and severity rates vary significantly by SIC Code). The use of hazardous substances (by SIC Code). These variables should be considered when identifying employee groups for training in occupational safety and health. Training Employees At Risk Determining the content of training for employee populations at higher levels of risk is similar to determining what any employee needs to know, but more emphasis is placed on the requirements of the job and the possibility of injury. One useful tool for determining training content from job requirements is the Job Hazard Analysis. This procedure examines each step of a job, identifies existing or potential hazards, and determines the best way to perform the job in order to reduce or eliminate the hazards. Its key elements are: (1) job description, (2) job location, (3) key steps (preferably in the order in which they are performed), (4) tools, machines and materials used, (5) actual and potential safety and health hazards associated with these key job steps, and (6) safe and healthful practices, apparel, and equipment required for each job step.

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