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•Chemistry
Summary notes
Chemistry 5073 / 6092
Summary notes
* denotes important concepts or definitions that you have to know.

Topic Concepts / Explanations / Definitions
Unit 1 : Experimental Chemistry
Experimental Design
Introduction Chemistry is an experimental science. Chemistry is the study of the properties
of matter, including transformations that matter undergoes, also known as
chemical reactions.
Measureme Properties of matter such as volume, temperature, mass, etc. are measured
nts quantities.
The volume of a liquid can be measured using:

Beaker Measuring Cylinder Pipette Burette

Less accurate More accurate

The volume of a gas can be measured using a syringe:
Methods of Depends on the density and solubility in water.
gas Air consists of mainly nitrogen and oxygen gases. If soluble,
collection Denser than air (than N2, O2) – downward delivery e.g. CO2 cannot collect
Less dense than air (than N2, O2) – upward delivery e.g. H2 over water
All gases which are insoluble in water can be collected over water.
Topic Concepts / Explanations / Definitions
Purity of a A pure substance is a single substance not mixed with anything else. It will
substance melt/boil at a constant and fixed temperature.
An impure solid will melt over a range of temperatures, which is lower than
that of the pure solid.

e.g. Naphthalene, the substance used for moth balls, has a sharp m.p. of 79oC
(means as the solid is melting, the temperature is unchanged). Impure
naphthalene will start to melt at 75oC and continue melting until 78.5oC when
all is completely melted.

An impure liquid will boil over a range of temperatures, which is higher than
that of the pure liquid at a given pressure (1 atmosphere or 101.325 kPa).
e.g. Pure water: b.p.- 100 0C , sea water – 103oC at normal pressure.
Refer to the graphs in your textbook.

An impure sample of a substance is really a mixture of two or more substances
that can be separated by different physical methods.
Methods of  Solution: Contains a solvent (usually water, sometimes it is an organic solvent
purification such as chloroform or alcohol) and a solute (NaCl, sugar etc). If water is the
solvent, the solution is called an aqueous solution.

 Saturated solution is a solution which contains the maximum mass of dissolved
solute in a given volume of solvent (usually water) at a given temperature. The
higher the temperature, the more solute can generally be dissolved. Different
solutes have different solubilities in water at a given temperature.

 Evaporation and Crystallisation: Evaporate to obtain a hot and saturated
solution. Cool and crystallize to obtain the crystals of solute. Cannot evaporate to
dryness.
Topic Concepts / Explanations / Definitions

 Filtration: To separate a solid from a mixture of insoluble solid from a liquid,
Example: Sand and seawater: filter to obtain the sand as residue (insoluble part)
and seawater as the filtrate (soluble part).

 Distillation: To separate a solvent from a solution by boiling.
Example: distill seawater to obtain pure water (distillate). Salt from the seawater is
left behind.

 Fractional distillation: To separate a mixture of miscible liquids with different
boiling points. First fraction is the one with the lowest boiling point.
Example: water (b.p. 100oC) and ethanol (b.p. 78oC). Ethanol is the first fraction.
Topic Concepts / Explanations / Definitions
 (Paper) Chromatography: Only a very small sample is required. Different
components in the mixture are soluble in the same solvent to different extent. The
more soluble component will move up the paper faster. Use of locating agent
(such as ninhydrin to detect amino acids used for forensic tests) for colourless
compounds.
distance moved by spot
Determine Rf value =
distance moved by solvent

 Sublimation: Direct transformation from solid to gas. Only for mixtures containing
I2(s), NH4Cl crystals, solid carbon dioxide and naphthalene. Solid carbon dioxide
also sublimes at a low temperature.

 Separating funnel: Only for immiscible liquids, e.g. chloroform and water, oil
and water.
Topic Concepts / Explanations / Definitions
Identificatio An inorganic compound contains a cation (positively charged ion) and an
n of ions anion (negatively charged ion)
and gases To identify a compound, you will have to describe the tests carried out and
the expected observations for both cation and anion.

Tests for Add aqueous NaOH until a change is seen and then excess.
cations Add aqueous NH3 until a change is seen and then excess.
Cation NaOH(aq) NH3(aq)
NH4 + On warming, NH3 gas
the only produced, turned moist red litmus
non-metal blue.
cation *Recall: Alkalis + ammonium salt
 salt + ammonia + water
Ca2+ White ppt, insoluble in excess No ppt
Cu 2+ Blue ppt , soluble in excess
Blue ppt, insoluble to form dark blue solution

Fe2+ Dirty green ppt, insoluble The same as with
Fe3+ Reddish-brown ppt, insoluble NaOH
Zn2+ White ppt, soluble in excess
White ppt, soluble in excess to to form a colourless solution
Pb2+ form a colourless solution White ppt, insoluble in
Al 3+ excess
Tests for Different reagents are used to test for different anions. The reagent given will
anions tell you what anion to look for.
Anion Test Observation Reason
Cl- Add AgNO3 followed White ppt insoluble in the White ppt of AgCl
by dilute HNO3 acid is insoluble in
water.
I - Add Pb(NO3)2 Bright yellow ppt Bright yellow ppt of
PbI2 is insoluble in
water.
Alternative I- Add AgNO3 Yellow ppt Yellow ppt of AgI is
test for formed.
iodide ions
SO42- Add Ba(NO3)2 White ppt insoluble in the White ppt of
followed by dilute acid BaSO4 is insoluble
HNO3 in water.
NO3- Add aqueous NaOH Effervescence seen. NH3 Reduction of
and Al foil/powder gas produced turned nitrate to form
and warm moist red litmus blue ammonia gas.
Topic Concepts / Explanations / Definitions
CO32- Add dilute HNO3 On warming, Acid reacts with
effervescence seen. CO2 carbonate to
gas produced forms white produce carbon
ppt with limewater OR dioxide gas.
Gas turns limewater
milky.
Tests for Gas Source Test and observation
gases H2 Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2 Gas extinguishes a lighted splint
R.A. - 2Na +2H2O → 2NaOH + H2 with a ‘pop’ sound
reducing (R.A.) Metal + acid or alkali metal + water
agent
O2 Catalytic decomposition of hydrogen Gas relights a glowing splint
O.A. – (O.A.) peroxide (O.A. stands for oxidising
oxidizing agent)
agent NH3 NaOH + NH4Cl→ NaCl + H2O + NH3 Gas turned moist red litmus blue
Base + ammonium salt

CO2 CaCO3 + 2HCl →CaCl2 + H2O+ CO2 Gas formed white ppt when
passed through limewater
Cl2 Action of MnO2 (O.A.) on conc. HCl Gas turned damp blue litmus red
(O.A.) then bleached
SO2 Action of acids on sulfites Gas turned filter paper strip
(R.A.) Na2SO3 +2HCl →2NaCl + H2O +SO2 dipped in acidified potassium
Sulphite ion (SO32-) is usually not manganate, KMnO4, from
tested in the new syllabus. purple to colourless

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