# Mapua Institute of Technology

School of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering

ECE123 - A11

Prototype for Communications 3
Yagi - Uda Antenna

Ayson, Darence Go, Jonathan Kevin Serdon, Mark Zaidy M.

Engr. Jose B. Cardenas ‘
Instructor

I. Letter of Transmittal
December 7, 2011 School of EE-ECE-Cpe Mapua Institute of Technology Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila Dear Engr. Jose B. Cardenas, In compliance with the fulfillment of the requirements on the subject “Communications 3 Lecture”, we will be submitting the prototype, “3 Element Yagi Array”, in accordance with your instructions. This documentation includes information with regards to the prototype’s operation and principles. It also includes the project circuit diagram that has been used. We present and hand over my prototype to you and may you accept it. Thank you!

Sincerely yours,

Ayson, Darence Go, Jonathan Kevin Serdon, Mark Zaidy

II. Acknowledgement:
First of all, we would like to thank God for giving the skills to accomplish the task given to us. We would like to thank our professor, Engr. Jose B. Cardenas, in giving us this opportunity to make an antenna. We would also like to thank Werner Enterprises for providing us the supplies needed as well as giving wonderful tips in making the said antenna. We would like to thank our parents for giving us financial provisions and parental permissions to accomplish our project.

III. Theories and Principles Involved
In order to understand the operation of a Yagi-Uda, a simple antenna consisting of a reflector, driven element and a single director as discussed in the previous section will be studied. The driven element is typically a λ/2 dipole and is the only member of the structure that is excited. With all the other elements being parasitic, the antenna can be thought. The reflector being longer than λ/2 has an inductive reactance which means the current phase lags that of the voltage. The directors on the other hand, being shorter than λ/2 has a capacitive reactance with the voltage phase lagging that of the current. With the voltage across the driven element being in phase with the induced voltages across the parasitic

elements, the current in the reflector lags the current in the driven element which in turn lags the current in the director. The antenna can therefore be thought of as a phased array, a group of antennas in which the

relative phases of the respective signals feeding the antennas are varied in such a way that the effective radiation pattern of the array is reinforced in a desired direction and suppressed in undesired directions, with each of the elements being excited by a current with a progressive phase shift, starting from the reflector. By tuning the lengths of the reflector and directors and the distance between the elements, the antenna beam is directed towards one angle increasing the gain.

IV. Designed Considerations and Limitations
Design Consideration: The antenna project is designed to cover and radiate signals over 174 Mhz – 554 Mhz. With this frequency range, it is supposedly to provide us with clear reception for the channels of GMA7 and Channel 27. This makes the reception of channels covered by the frequency range or bandwidth clear. In designing the project, the group considered the center frequency which is calculated by means of the square root of the product of the frequency boundaries. Then, the group also considered the lengths of the dipole, director, and reflector, as well as the length of the boom itself. The proper spacing is also a factor in which the group considered it to be

approximately equal to a factor of 0.2. The length of the coaxial cable is considered since it is an antenna that is usually placed out-door, the group provided longer cable at approximately 3.00m.

Limitations: The project is only limited to a 3 element antenna namely: director, dipole, and reflector. This is the simplest form of antenna since it only consists of the 3 main elements with fixed computed length that is based on the bandwidth given. The antenna can’t focus all the channels with good reception at specific direction. It can focus one channel after rotating the antenna toward the main transmitting antenna of the said channel.

V. Design Calculations and Diagrams
3 element yagi array (174 - 554 Mhz)

= 554MHz = 174MHz

n = 3; 3 element

Center Frequency ( √ √

)

Wavelength (λ) λ= λ= λ= 0.96625m Length of the Driven Element

Length of the Reflector ( )( )

Length of the Director ( )( )

Spacing of Reflector and the Driven Element ( )( )

Spacing of Director and the Driven Element ( )( )

VI. Tabulated List of materials (include prices)
Materials Alloy element Aluminum Boom BALUN(Balance-unbalance) Boom Cap Element Cap Coaxial Cable Dipole Connector Electrical Tape Quantity 3m 1m 1 pc 2 pcs 6 pcs 3m 3 pc 1 pc Total: Cost

00.00 Php

VII. Group at work (photos)