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NIFT

Overview of Global Fashion Industry


The History of Fashion
Abhishek Sinha 9/8/2011

The First Clothes and Fabrics Thousands of years ago, people learned to make clothing from natural resources as protection from weather. Animal skins and hair, plants, grasses, and tree bark were some of the materials used. Because ancient people left visual records, people today know what early clothes were like. Drawings in caves and ancient Egyptian tombs provide records. Surviving sculptures of the Greeks and Romans also show clothing styles of the times. The earliest clothing was very simple in construction and design. Looking for food and shelter left little time to decorate clothes. In northern Europe, where cold weather stretches from early fall to late spring, cave dwellers dressed in animal skins. For comfort these may have been worn hair side in. See Fig. 5-1. In Africa, the South Pacific, and parts of Asia, people needed protection from the sun and rain. They laced grasses together to form woven fabric, probably used at first for mats and baskets rather than clothing. Parts of plants, such as the bark of trees, were soaked and treated until soft enough for cloth. Fragments of textiles dating back to about 7500 B.C. have been unearthed in southern Turkey. As early as 5000 B.C., people in Egypt made linen cloth from flax plants that grew along the Nile River. A few thousand years later, inhabitants of present-day India and Pakistan, and possibly the Americas, produced fabric made of cotton. At about the same time in China, silkworms were raised for their silken cocoons. The Evolution of Fashion Many years ago, fashion changed very slowly. People often wore the same clothing style for life. A particular style could continue past a lifetime. An outfit for special occasions was often handed down from one generation to another. Until the fourteenth century, European clothes were loose-fitting and draped. People from different cultures wore similar clothes. Around 1350, people started wearing more fitted styles. From then on, regional differences in garments began to develop in Europe. Eventually, European settlers in America influenced the clothing styles worn in the United States and Canada. The Progression of Fashion During the reign of Louis XIV in the seventeenth century, France became the worlds fashion leader. The Royal court at Versailles set the style. Lace became an important decoration on mens garments. 50,000 BCE The first prehistoric human, Cro-Magnon man, learned to survive in cold climates by fashioning clothing out of animal skins, tree bark, and foliage. Paleolithic cave
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paintings such as those found in Lascaux, France, indicate that early man had learned how to fashion body coverings and headgear. 26,00020,000 BCE A male skeleton, discovered in Northern Russia wearing highly decorated beaded garments, suggests people of this era had a preoccupation with fashionable clothing and the skills to create bone tools used to sew ornaments and skins. 350027 BCE Mesopotamia, the birthplace of Western civilization, influenced dress as evidenced in found objects such as statues, wall carvings, wall paintings, and jewelry. Discoveries from ancient civilizations suggest that the Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Sumerian (3500612 BCE), and Persian (550330 BCE) peoples had a mastery in the weaving of linen and wool and used clothing to express status. During the same period, the ancient Egyptians (32001070 BCE) used linen, and later cotton from India, to create garments that were pleated and woven into stripes and plaids. Queens, pharaohs, religious leaders, soldiers, and laborers adhered to specific dress codes with regard to the wearing of sandals, wigs, jewelry, cosmetics, headgear, and certain types of clothing designs. The Cretans and Mycenaean (28001100 BCE) are most known for their mastery at dyeing fabrics and skill in creating fitted garments that will eventually become precursors to the cut-and-sew tradition as we know it today. The early Greeks (1200146 BCE), on the other hand, perfected the art of draping fabric, that is, letting the body create the threedimensional form of the garment. 27 BCE1204 CE During the first two centuries of the Roman Empire, peace prevailed and trade flourished. Emperor Constantine (305 337 CE) ended the persecution of Christians and created two capitals for the Roman Empire: Rome was based in the west and the Greek city of Byzantium, renamed Constantinople, was in the east. The Byzantine Empire (330 1204 CE), with its proximity to the rich textiles of Asia via the Silk Route and links to Western Europe, prospered for the next twelve centuries and became a major cultural inspiration for the emergence of the Italian Renaissance. 1300s1600s As the feudal system (in the eleventh and twelfth centuries) gave rise to status dressing in Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire continued to influence fashionable dress, spreading to Western European nobility, especially during the Middle Ages. As technological advances in weaving and textile processing took place and as guilds formed to preserve quality standards, the first evidence of fashion as a business emerged. Most historians agree that the origin of fashion trends started in the Middle Ages, a time when social and economic changes created a demand for fashionable goods. 1600s European countries including England, France, and Italy took turns dominating the fashion scene; however, after Christopher Columbus landed in America in 1492, Spanish fashion prevailed. When the Puritans arrived in America from England in 1620, they opted for less ornate styles than those of their European contemporaries. Even though keeping current with European trends was slower due to distance, British and French fashion still
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prospered among the more affluent families. As the number of cotton producing colonies increased in the New World, textile production made fabric more affordable. Trade between countries flourished, creating a demand for fashionable clothing. The fashion plate (a drawing of the latest fashions) and the use of life-size wax dolls and miniature dolls dressed in new styles were instrumental in circulating and promoting fashion concepts in the courts throughout Europe and to the masses. The first French fashion magazine, Mercure Galant, published in 1672, helped promote French fashion throughout Europe and the New World. 1700s The eighteenth century, known as the time of the Enlightenment, experienced tremendous growth in the applied arts both in Europe and in the United States, especially in the last quarter. Many discoveries made in the areas of science, archaeology, and medicine paved the way for the industrial and commercial revolution. Due to patronage of kings and nobles, the applied arts flourished. With the invention of the flying shuttle for textile handlooms and the steam engine, and their application to numerous power machines, productivity increased. 1800s The eighteenth century saw the beginnings of the modern fashion industry in Europe and America. Fashion magazines appeared and the first fashion plates were produced. For the first time, designs could be published and copied widely. Fashions began to change quickly, led by Paris and London. Designs were dictated not by practical needs but by trends in art, culture, and politics, by new discoveries, technological innovations, and scientific advances. Some European fashions were, in fact, so impractical they rendered their wearers almost incapable of everyday activity. In England, during the reign of King George IV (18201830), the impeccably dressed George Bryan (Beau) Brummell helped to establish England as the center for mens fashion. Publications and newspapers that communicated the latest in contemporary fashion included La Belle Assemblee and Godeys Ladys Book in the United States and Ackermans Repository of the Arts in England.

The Victorian Age (1837 1901) The British queen, Victoria, has given her name to the era between 1837 and 1901, the years of her reign, the longest of any British ruler. The Victorian era was a period of world
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as well as British history, for the queen ruled at a time when Britain had a vast global empire, including a quarter of the planets population. It was a time of massive social change. Railroads were built across America and Europe, where many new industries developed. Britain led the way in manufacturing, earning the nickname the workshop of the world. The growth of British industries drew vast numbers of people from the countryside to rapidly growing towns and cities. Between 1837 and 1901, the population doubled, from 18.5 to 37 million. By 1901, three quarters of British people lived in towns and cities. Clothing was transformed by factory production, and by new inventions such as the sewing machine. Cheap clothes could now be mass produced. The period saw the birth of a true fashion industry, with the first department stores, fashion magazines, and mail-order catalogs, allowing people living in Melbourne and San Francisco to follow the latest European styles. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the clothes of men and women were simple and comfortable. Women wore light, white dresses, with waists that fell just below the bust. This allowed them to dress without corsets, which had been worn by women since the fifteenth century. Men wore knee breeches or close-fitting trousers, white shirts, waistcoats, and a coat with a cutaway front and two tails behind. This was originally an eighteenth-century riding outfit, designed to free the legs on horseback. The ideal woman of the 1840s was supposed to be quiet, modest, and shy. Modesty was reflected in clothing styles. Dresses worn in the daytime, which had previously revealed a womans shoulders, now covered her whole body, from the neck to the feet. Shoulders were only revealed by evening dresses worn at balls and dinner parties. In the early 1850s, skirts grew wider with every year. The effect as achieved by wearing up to twelve layers of petticoats, including ones stiffened and padded with horsehair. Such clothes, both heavy and hot, were the most uncomfortable worn by women throughout the nineteenth century. People began to look for alternatives.

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In 1823, when this picture of a London ball was made, women still wore loose, comfortable dresses.

The

1920s & 1930s


The

Although the 1920s and 1930s are often lumped together as the period between the wars, the two decades were quite different in character and styles of dress varied greatly. The 1920s were the Jazz Age, a period of escapism after the horrors of World War I. The younger generation, especially, turned their backs on the formality and dark, buttoned-up clothing of the previous century. The new decade wasnt called the Roaring Twenties for nothing. It was characterized by a relaxation of moral attitudes. The desire to shock, especially among young women, took the form of ultra-short clothing, bare legs, short hair, and obvious makeup. Clothes reflected the new mood of liberation in looser, lighter garments and with a simpler shape. Most dresses were tube-shaped and cut on the straight grain of the fabric, so they hung loosely and didnt cling or follow the contours of the body. The typical 1920s silhouette was straight, boyish, flat-chested, and drop-waisted. Its a great look but hard to live up to for anyone over the age of 25 and weighing more than 110 pounds, so costuming can be tricky.
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In 1929, the Wall Street stock market crash brought the age of reckless partying to an abrupt end. The 1930s began with a widespread economic depression and unemployment and ended with the world at war again. It was a sober period, albeit with welcome touches of glamour for some. THE FLAPPER The first image that comes to mind when you think of the 1920s has to be the flapper girls. The term didnt just refer to their fashionable clothes; it described their unconventional attitudes and behavior. Flappers drank and smoked cigarettes in public, wore makeup, drove automobiles, and listened to jazz. The typical flapper look consisted of a sleeveless, loose-cut dress with a drop waist, reaching to mid-calf. Necklines could be V- or U-shaped or cut straight across the shoulders. Dresses were made from light, floaty fabrics such as chiffon, silk, or the new rayon and often had silk fringes that swung around as the wearer danced. MEN OF THE MOMENT Traditionally, men are slower to change their styles than women. In the 1920s, some older men were still wearing their turn-of-the-century thigh length swallowtail morning coats, winged collars, and pants without cuffs, especially for formal occasions. Among younger men, though, a more relaxed style was taking over, especially in America. Just like their female counterparts, men wanted to feel less buttoned up. Business suits with short jackets, both single- and double-breasted, replaced the longer frock coats. Made out of wool, serge, or occasionally tweeds, they were more loosely cut, with broader shoulders and wider armholes, and usually worn with a vest of the same fabric. THE GANGSTER LOOK Prohibition lasted from 1920 to 1933 and was intended to curb the immoral behavior generated by the easy availability of alcohol. Instead, it created a ready market in illegal booze and fueled the rise of bootleggers, drinking dens called speakeasies, and a whole generation of rival mobsters vying for control of this lucrative trade. This was especially true in Chicago and New York. Al Capone was just one of the gangsters whose exploits filled the tabloid press, although the movie world wouldnt actually catch up with all this until the 1930s.

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THE BOHEMIAN LOOK Even before the war, bohemian types had popularized casual clothing shirts with soft collars, softer and less structured tweed jackets, and so on. In the 1920s, this became more widespread among writers and artists, such as the Greenwich Village set in New York City or the Bloomsbury set in the United Kingdom. For day wear, women took their inspiration from art deco mingled with a kind of peasant chic, wearing strong colors such as purple, red, or peacock blue and plenty of embroidery. They liked to claim they picked up clothing at flea markets, but some of it, at least, was purchased as designer fashion. A bohemian man might be wearing corduroy pantsconsidered artsy but strangean opennecked shirt, and sandals, with or without socks.
Actress Louise Brooks in one of her trademark silk-and-velvet ensembles. Perhaps shes seeking further art deco design ideas from the theater magazine shes reading.

WOMENS ACCESSORIES The signature hat for the period was undoubtedly the cloche, a small, close-fitting helmet that covered the newly shorn hair and framed the face. The early styles had a small, upward-curved brim, but by 1928, the brim had disappeared completely. Cloches came in felt, velvet, or varnished sisal straw. For upmarket evening ear, couture milliners turned out orientally inspired turbans and toques to match their dresses. HAIR AND MAKEUP

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The defining detail of the 1920s was short hair. Depending on how daring you were, there were three styles. The bob, as popularized by actress Louise Brooks, was cut straight all around, somewhere between the jaw and the bottom of the ears, and worn with bangs, also cut straight across. A more forgiving style was the shingle, introduced in 1923, which was slightly waved and tapered into a V shape at the nape of the neck. By the end of the decade, the severe Eton crop had arrived, resulting in hair shorter than ever and slicked down. Take a look at performer Josephine Baker for this style. By 1929, the majority of women in America and Europe had short hair. For costuming, as with all hair-related questions, a rented wig is preferable to an impulsive decision.

The

1930s

The 1930s look is slim and streamlined. Its also more adult than the 1920s look. Grown-ups had finally taken fashion back from the flappers. The natural shapes of waist and bust were allowed to reappear, but they were treated more casually: the tightly laced hourglass figure was definitely a thing of the past. NEW FABRICS The financial restrictions of the early 1930s inspired designers to investigate unlikely materials. Coco Chanels 1931 collection, for example, featured outfits ingeniously manufactured from cotton, muslin, and net. Evening wear in artificial fabrics such as rayon increased in popularity. Many of these fabrics are still around today and are of superior quality, so its easy to experiment if youre planning to make your own gown. Patterns are available online and from most commercial suppliers. Remember, though, that bias cutting is difficult to achieve, even for a skilled seamstress.

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A 1931 bias-cut gown in peach-colored satin by star designer Mainbocher. The bias cutting is echoed in the diagonal panels of the skirt and the wrap-over bodice. STUNNING SCHIAPARELLI Italian Elsa Schiaparelli was a maverick fashion designer greatly influenced by the surrealist art movement. Her breakthrough design was a black sweater with a white bow knitted into it, but she later designed hats that looked like lamb chops, gloves that ended in fingernails, and dresses that appeared to be torn or had strange things sewn onto them lobsters were a favorite. But she also designed ordinary, elegant clothes and was a master of color. Style guru Wallis Simpson owned eighteen of her outfits. Schiaparelli clothes work best on women like herself: petite, dark, and not conventionally attractive. Its a look that demands confidence but will turn heads. TYING THE KNOT (Wedding Dresses) That day, many couples choose a 1930s-themed wedding because the outfits are so elegant. Whether for a church or a civil marriage ceremony, wedding gowns tended to be floor length, often extending into a train, and bias-cut to be figure-skimming, like evening gowns. Cream or white satin was overwhelmingly the favorite fabric, sometimes embroidered with flowers or trimmed with net but often left quite plain. Bear in mind, though, that unless you have a very slim figure, plain white satin is a very revealing fabric. A short bolero is an extra touch, perhaps with pearls or a metallic embroidery feature on the shoulder. In the 1930s, most brides would have worn a net veil. Gloves were optional: the only guide is, the shorter the sleeve, the longer the glove. Wedding shoes were metallic silver or gold, with a medium heelno stilettos. THE SILVER SCREEN This was the golden age of cinema, and movies are a great source of inspiration for the costumer. Modern movies, such as Gosford Park (2001) and Atonement (2007), keep revisiting the 1930s simply because the clothes were so elegant, while movies made at the
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time were watched as much for their fashion style as for the story. Many of them were fantasy adventures and historical romances, designed to keep the audiences mind off the Depressionthere were monster movies such as Frankenstein and Dracula (both 1931), screwball comedies such as Bringing Up Baby (1938), and zany musical comedies such as The Gay Divorcee (1934). Joan Crawford in the famous Letty Lynton dress. Although not conventionally beautiful, Crawford used her clothes to great effect and always appeared glamorous.

SHOES Womens shoes were much more interesting than they had been in the 1920s. There was a choice of flats, for both day and evening, sandals, wedges, or slingbacks. Heels were higher and more slender to suit the elongated line of the dress, although the stiletto was still a long way in the future. Plain leather pumps with a moderate heel would be perfect for most outfits, while lace-ups and buckle shoes were all worn for every day. Older women might go for a rounded toe with a wide, thick heel. There was also a brief fashion for two-tone spectator shoes. By the end of the decade, however, everyday shoes had become a little clumpy and unattractive. JEWELRY The costume jewelry of the 1930s was some of the most elegant yet designed. In keeping with the more serious style of clothing, there was a return to more traditional pieces.
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Materials included everything from gold, silver, and the newly fashionable white metal platinumto plastic, chrome, and Bakelite. In the early years, pieces followed the geometric lines of art deco, the most typical being diamant clip earrings in a sunburst shape and a straight, narrow pin with diamant trim. American designers such as Tiffany established their iconic status with these styles. Red, black, white, and silver were keynote colors. Later in the decade, however, jewelry lost its hard edges and became more curvy and feminine. Flower sprays with semiprecious stones such as rubies and emeralds were popular, as were paste, turquoise, and marcasite. WATCHES Wristwatches were very fashionable and were worn as much for their decorative effect as their practical purpose. For a woman in evening dress, a narrow bracelet-style watch with a square or oblong face in platinum set with tiny diamonds and rubies looked fabulous and twinkled in the light. For men, wristwatches had now replaced pocket watches for general wear. HAIR Not everybody went peroxide blonde, but it was a very popular look among women between the ages of 20 and 30 who based their style on the movies. Hair was generally short and set in permanent waves or tight, glossy pin curls, which meant regular visits to the hairdresser. A Garbostyle shoulder-length waved bob was less trouble and was considered very sexy, especially when it fell over one eye and lent an air of mystery. Longer hair was worn in a pleat or chignon for evening glamour. The straight-cut bob, symbol of 1920s rebellion, was now very unfashionable.

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MAKEUP Lipstick, applied generously to make the mouth appear full and rounded, came in raspberry and orange tones in the early 1930s, shading to brighter red by the end of the decade. Nail polish came in every shade of red and, by the end of the decade, also in more daring shades to match a dressgreen, pearl gray, or metallic. However, nail polish took longer to catch on than other cosmetics, so if youre representing a particular look, check the dates carefully. Note, though, that at this time, nail polish was applied only to the center part of the nail, leaving the cuticle and tip unpainted.

The

1940s

Fashion wasnt exactly grabbing the headlines in the newspapers of 1940. As the decade began, the silhouette for both men and women was largely unchanged from the previous couple of years. The female shape consisted of wide, padded shoulders; a narrow natural waistline; thin hips; and a skirt that fell to just below the knee. For men also, the line fell in an inverted triangle from square shoulders down to the waist and hips. Heavy shoes provided a counterbalance in both cases. War Work As the factories moved into munitions and other war production, consumer goods became scarce, and rationing was the only fair way of distributing limited supplies to everyone. Some raw materials were completely unavailable and sacrifices had to be made, while general shortages led to some ingenious solutions. The US L-85 order was geared to save 15 percent of domestic fabric production by banning such items as full skirts and knife pleats. Cuffs, double yokes, patch pockets, and attached hoods were all banned as part of a general no fabric on fabric rule. Order M-217 conserved leather and limited shoes to six colors, while laces and some kinds of embroidery were restricted by order L-116.
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The need to save 10 percent of the fabric in womens bathing suits led to the happy invention of the two-piece suit. As the Wall Street Journal reported: The saving has been effectedin the region of the midriff. The two-piece bathing suit now is tied in with the war as closely as the zipperless dress and the pleatless skirt. Accessories were still essential for women. Hats remained popular, with styles varying from those tipped over the forehead to those planted firmly on the back of the head. During the war, however, hats were increasingly replaced by fabric head scarves and turbans, especially for women involved in war work in factories. It could be said that hats were one of the casualties of war. For a time, there was also a vogue for snoods, a kind of pouch made of fabric or of knitted or crocheted yarn that held fashionable long hair in place at the nape of the neck. In Britain, clothes rationing started in earnest in June 1941. At first, adults received sixty-six coupons a year, but this was quickly reduced to forty-eight and then, by 1945, to thirty-six. Extra coupons were available on the black marketthe illegal trade in goods that were in short supply and it was possible to buy some non-regulated fabric and garments. Supplies became increasingly limited, and prices were high, not only because of the scarcity, but also because a purchase tax was applied to such non-coupon items. Because of clothing restrictions, many women had to abandon their dreams of a romantic wedding dress. Most couples, like this stylish pair married in 1940, managed a new suit and dress that could be worn again for Sunday best, and smartened up the overall effect with a flower corsage and a fashionable hat. Baring the Midriff The US government should be thanked for the introduction of the two-piece bathing suit. In 1943, it ordered that the fabric used in womens swimwear was to be reduced by one-tenth as part of its policy to reduce textile waste. The little skirt panel of the one-piece was the first victim of the cuts, and then the one-piece itself was attacked. The two-piece, and the midriff, were born.

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All the news thats fit to print. The ultrabrief bikini swimsuit makes its entrance in summer 1946, complete with newsprint motifs. Enter Monsieur Dior To many in France and abroad, the fact that the fashion houses continued to operate during the war smacked of collaboration with the Nazis. Matters were made worse when, after liberation, pictures of the Paris collections were seen abroad. Garment after garment seemed to ignore the restrictions and regulations that had bound designers in Britain and the United States. And when Christian Dior unveiled his Corolla (flower-like)

collection in 1947quickly named the New Lookpostwar murmurs about past collaboration erupted into roars of disapproval. Government officials in London and Washington took one look at the amount of fabric used in the Dior dresses and warned that the newly revived postwar economies could be fatally damaged if such extravagance were copied. Dior, however, had timed it perfectly. Women on both sides of the Atlantic were eager for change. They had had enough of square shoulders, short skirts, and dark colors. It all looked so military, so functional so dull. They fell for Diors curvaceous line, which accentuated the bust, the waist, the hips, and the ankles, and the sheer extravagance of yards and yards of fabric.

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Hair The military braid hairstyle, approved for women in wartime. The curls were intended to retain some measure of femininity in what was essentially a rather severe style. Women were urged to have their hair cut short in the new vingle (a close-cropped haircut), the victory roll, or the liberty cut, which needed to be cut only once every three months. This served more than one purpose: hairpins were unavailable, hats needed coupons, and women in wartime factories were being badly injured as a result of getting their hair caught in machinery. The immensely popular peekaboo hairstyle worn by American movie star Veronica Lake, with its cascade of hair over one eye, was now considered hazardous. When appealed to, Veronica Lake patriotically, and very publicly, changed to a short style in the hope that her fans would copy her.

Veronica Lake, before and after. The Changing Silhouette


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By 1946, the silhouette began to show definite changes. Shoulders may still have been padded, but some were sloping or dropped, and soon natural, unpadded shoulders became very popular. Opinions were now divided on whether women would opt for a new, radically different style of full and longer skirts or, with their newfound freedom working outside the home, continue to find wartime functional garments more suited to their lifestyle. In a 1947 article, McCalls stated: The short skirt is out of the running. Even before governmental restrictions were taken off skirts, smart girls were letting hems down. The best-looking clothes seen walking around New York at the moment are about fifteen inches from the sidewalks. Fourteen inches if the wearer is short. No two ways about it, hips are very much in style. The new clothes emphasize round hips by big pockets, gathers, and drapery. Waistlines are small, and shoulders are rounded. Zoot-suiters There is still some dispute about exactly where the zoot suit fashion began. The name may have been coined by American bandleader and clothier Harold Fox in 1942, but whatever its origin, the style was favored by both black and Hispanic teenagers in New Yorks Harlem and on the West Coast. It consisted of a kneelength draped jacket with six inch shoulder pads, an eye-catching tie (bow or knotted), a long dangling key chain, and very highwaisted trousers, fully and deeply pleated at the waist and generous in the leg but sharply tapered at the cuff. The look was completed with a long, greased hairstyle, combed back off the face, a broad brimmed hat, and pointed-toe shoes. T-shirts
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The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor had the immediate result of putting eleven million Americans into uniform and into regulation underwear. The following year, the US Navy sent out its official specifications for an undershirt calling it a T-type shirtwith a round neck and short sleeves set in at right angles to the front and back panels, made in knitted cotton. At first, they were plain white but were later often printed with the name of the military base or division. The prewar fashion for sleeveless undershirts had gone into decline after Clark Gable appeared without one in the film It Happened One Night (1934). Suddenly, it was unmanly to wear that kind of undershirt. The T-shirt, however, saw so much battle action that no one could think the same about this garment. By the time a T-shirted Marlon Brando was acclaimed for his sensual, unfeeling, mean, vindictive performance in A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), the T-shirts success was sealed. The T-shirt, another military garment that quickly gained a place in the wardrobes of returning GIs, was given a huge boost at the turn of the decade when worn by Marlon Brando. Impact of Hollywood The Hollywood studio costume designer had to wrestle with a set of problems different from those facing the haute couture houses. Designs had to pass a censorship board called the Hays Office, set up to guard against provocative costumes, as well as enforce conformity to the governments austerity program, and determine whether to conceal or emphasize the physical attributes of the individual star. Filmmaker Howard Hughes is credited with having designed the wired brassiere worn by Jane Russell in
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The Outlaw (1943) in order to get the contour and exaggerated uplift he required.

Sex symbol Jane Russell set the screen smoldering in The Outlaw. To make the most of her curvaceous figure, most of her screen outfits were made of tight-fitting jersey or other softly clinging fabrics.

Chronology of Fashion Schiaparelli takes her collection to the United States, the last French collection to be shown abroad for five years. Norell and McCardell steal the (fashion) show in New York. The British government bans the sale of silk stockings. Clothes rationing is introduced in Great Britain. The U.S. government imposes clothing restrictions under the L-85 order. In London, the ISLFD produces the first Utility fashions, which go into production in 1943. The British media campaign Make Do and Mend starts. Claire McCardells denim Popover dress proves very popular. Foreign journalists react badly to Paris fashion shows. British and American governments ban wide-scale media coverage of the Paris designs. Schiaparelli returns to Paris. Balmain reopens his salon. Balenciaga drops the hemline to fifteen inches off the ground, anticipating Diors New Look. The bikini swimsuit is shown in Paris. Britain Can Make It exhibition is shown in London. Molyneux reopens his salon in Paris. The House of Dior opens with the New Look, which is very well received. Growth of mass-production garment manufacturing occurs, with styles based on Diors designs. A new dance beatRhythm and Bluesis emerging. In Britain, clothes rationing largely disappears.

Famous Designers of the 1940s Adrian (Gilbert Adrian) (190359) At first known for his theater and film costumes, dressing such stars as Joan Crawford, Greta Garbo, and Katharine Hepburn, Adrian moved into the haute couture world by opening a salon in 1941 in Beverly Hills. His work favored heavily padded shoulders, a clear waistline, and clever diagonal closings.

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Amies, Hardy (19092003) British born, Amies was known for his tailored suits and lavish ball gowns, designed for ladies of the British aristocracy and royal family. While serving in British Army Intelligence during the war, he contributed designs to the ISLFD. Balenciaga, Cristobal (18951972) By the early 1930s, Balenciaga was Spains leading fashion designer but he moved to Paris in 1936, returning to his homeland during World War II. With his dramatic designs in strong, rich colors, he is held by many fashion commentators to be the great innovator of the postwar period. Balmain, Pierre (191482) French born, Balmain worked with Molyneux and Lelong before opening his own salon in 1945. With a reputation for elegant tailoring, he quickly realized the sales potential of boutique accessories and the ready-to-wear market. Carnegie, Hattie (18891956) While employed as a shop assistant at Macys in New York, Carnegie designed hats. She opened her millinery shop in 1909, followed six years later by a dressmaking salon. Although she herself closely followed Paris fashions, she was responsible for discovering and nurturing the talent of James Galanos, Norman Norell, and Claire McCardell. Dior, Christian (190557) This French designer first worked with Piguet and Lelong. He had instant success with his first one-man collection, the Corolla Line (renamed the New Look), in 1947. He continued to exert great influence on the haute couture world until his death in 1957, by which time his salon had expanded into a multi-million-dollar fashion business. Hartnell, (Sir) Norman (190179) Hartnell, a British designer, showed his first collection in Paris in 1927. He was appointed dressmaker to the British royal family in 1938, designing both the wedding dress and coronation robes for Princess Elizabeth. He helped found the ISLFD, and a number of his designs were manufactured under the Utility label. Although well known for his embroidered evening gowns and tailored suits, he also designed the officers dress uniform of the Womens Royal Army Corps and that of the British Red Cross. Incorporated Society of London Fashion Designers (ISLFD) The ISLFD was founded in 1942 to promote British fashion abroad and assist the coordination between government, manufacturers, and fashion houses, particularly during the war years. Besides Captain Molyneux, its chairman for many years, other members included Amies, Hartnell, and Digby Morton. Very influential in the 1940s, James, Charles (190678) James first entered the fashion world as a milliner, working under the name of Boucheron, in Chicago. After moving to New York and then London, he settled in Paris until the outbreak of war in 1939, when he returned to New York. He put
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great emphasis on the cut and seaming of garments, often working in heavy silks. He retired in 1958 to continue his work as an artist and sculptor. Lelong, Lucien (18891958) One of the first French designers to work in the readytowear sector, Lelong became president of the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture in 1937, a post he was to hold for ten years until ill health forced him to retire and close his salon. It was his skillful negotiations with the Berlin High Command that ensured the survival of the Parisian fashion houses. His own salon, which reopened in 1941, was staffed with Dior and Balmain, among others. McCardell, Claire (190558) This American designer favored a functional look in practical fabrics. She is considered to have been one of the United States most influential designers for the modern career woman. Molyneux, Captain Edward (18911974) After gaining experience in a British fashion house and seeing active service in World War I, Molyneux opened his salon in Paris in 1919. His fluid elegant designs were worn by Princess Marina, Gertrude Lawrence, and Merle Oberon, among others. Escaping to England at the outbreak of war, he joined the ISLFD, becoming its president, and was a committed advocate of training and education for fashion students. His Paris salon reopened in 1946, but his ill health forced its closure in 1949. Norell, Norman (190072) American born, Norell became well known for his Hollywood and Broadway costume designs from the twenties, and his sequinsheath evening dresses remained a firm favorite in American society circles for many years. He was the founder and president of the Council of Fashion Designers of America. Schiaparelli, Elsa (18901973) Born in Italy, Schiaparelli lived in the United States until 1918, when she moved to Paris and started designing knitwear. By 1930, she was employing 2,000 people in twenty-six workrooms. Her approach to fabrics and accessories was unconventional and innovative. A lecture tour of the United States took her away from Paris before its occupation, but she returned in 1945 to reopen her salon, retiring in 1954. The

1950s & 1960s


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Introduction
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In the 1950s and 1960s, fashion magazines were widely available, movies had a mainstream following, and an increasing number of homes were acquiring television sets. More people than ever before could see how the rich and famous dressed. At the same time, cheap, mass-produced clothes began to fill the stores. For the first time, ordinary people could follow fashion and easily align themselves with specific social groups and movements through their choice of clothes. EMERGING FROM THE WAR YEARS During World War II, day-to-day survival was a struggle, and clothing was one of many things in short supply. Fabric and clothing were rationed, and people had to mend and reuse old clothes. Even after the war, clothes rationing continued. But in the 1950s, the fashion scene burst into life, fizzing with color, sensational shapes, and new fibers. It sparked two of the most exciting and fastmoving decades in fashion history, reflecting rapid social change.

In 1953, the American fashion model Suzy Parker was photographed wearing a full skirt and quilted satin jacket. These revolutionary new styles of the post-war years made extravagant use of fabric. FABRIC REVOLUTION Clothes made from new artificial fabrics such as nylon, Courtelle, polyester, and acrylic became popular in the 1950s and 1960s. Easy to care for, they could be washed in the newly popular electric washing machines and could withstand harsh treatment in spin dryers. Many of them did not even need ironing. Women who couldnt afford to buy a lot of clothes could make their own (theyd had plenty of practice during the war years). Sewing machines and knitting machines quickly became popular. All a woman needed to keep up with the latest trends was some fabric, a paper pattern, and a sewing machine.

A SCULPTURAL STYLE During the 1950s and 1960s, womens fashions were transformed from sharp, geometric shapes in artificial fabrics to free-flowing lines in natural fibers. And
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although most people did not slavishly follow fashion, the new designs filtered down, in a diluted form, to the ordinary woman on the street. In the early 1950s, fashion gave a womans body a sculptural look with extreme geometric lines, contrasting colors, and striking asymmetry. It was realized in one of two wayseither with wide, triangular jackets, tent coats, and dresses or in a constricted shape, which squeezed the body into the narrowest silhouette possible. CRIMPLENE Invented in the early 1950s, Crimplene quickly became popular as a wonder fabric. It was a heavy, easy-care fabric that held its shape well and did not wrinkle. It was named after the Crimple Valley near Harrogate in northern England, where the manufacturer ICI had its factory. Crimplene was hugely popular during the 1950s and 1960s but fell out of favor in the 1970s when people returned to natural fibers.

Christina Hendricks wears a simple shift dress in the TV series Mad Men set in 1960s Manhattan.

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S W E AT E R G I R L S Until the 1950s, people between the ages of 15 and 20 had simply been regarded as young adults. But the 1950s saw the coining of a new termteenager. For the first time, young people wanted, and got, their own fashions. New trends started in the street and worked their way into the pages of fashion magazines. Many girls wore slim, tapered pants, often with a high waist, and paired these with a figure-hugging sweater. Some styles of pants stopped above the ankles; capri pants were cut off at mid-calf. Pants were frequently made in artificial fibers. Sweaters could be close-fitting and short, extending just to the waist. They were sometimes worn with a matching cardigan in a twinset. Or they were oversized in chunky knits, often with dropped armholes, which created bat-wing sleeves. This sloppy Joe sweater hid the shape of the upper body, while the legs were defined in narrow, tapered pants. The sweater may have had a roll neck, but if it had a V-neck, this was often filled in with a scarf, rows of pearls, or beads. Marilyn Monroe shows off her curves in a popular informal combination of sweater and tight pants.

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THE A - LINE DRESS The A-line took the United States by storm when it was adopted by President John F. Kennedys wife, Jackie, in the early 1960s. From narrow shoulders, it marked the waist only slightlyif at alland widened considerably over the hips and thighs, making the shape of the letter A. Jackie Kennedy paired a neat, A-line dress with a pillbox hat, gloves, heels, and makeup. To be perfect, everything had to matchdress, jacket, shoes, hat, and gloves. Fabrics had to be stiff enough to keep the shape of the A rather than just drape over the body. Linen was popular, as were some of the stiffer artificial fabrics, including Crimplene. Sometimes a matching A-line coat was worn over the dress, with a small collar or no collar at all and close-fitting sleeves. A more extreme shape, the trapeze dress, was even more triangular. It did not mark the waist at all, but flared outward from the shoulders.

The

1960s

In the 1960s, the influence of fashion designers declined. They were replaced by cultural events, such as the Beatles, Woodstock, and rock concerts. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy became an important fashion leader for women, popularizing the Chanel suit and pillbox hat. Many young men started wearing colorful fabrics and jewelry. Soon men of all ages wore multicolored, striped or checked shirts with their business suits. Jacket lapels widened and pants were flared or bell-bottomed. Men grew long sideburns, mustaches, or beards to go with longer hair lengths.

FALLING WAISTLINES AND RISING HEMLINES


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During the early 1960s, dresses grew slowly shorter and more rectangular. Some had a dropped waist and a skirt gathered or pleated onto the hips; others were shifts or tunics with little shape at all. Suits, too, were quite rectangular, with a straight skirt and a boxy jacket with three-quarter length sleeves and either no collar or a flat, Peter Pan collar. THE MINI When Paris fashion designer Yves St. Laurent first showed catwalk models wearing skirts above the knee in the late 1950s, there was an outcry from the shocked public. But the die had been cast, and skirts continued to rise. By the mid- 1960s, the miniskirt had become the style of the moment. As a dress, it was often a simple, rectangular tunic or pinafore dress, worn over a shirt or close-fitting sweater by day or on its own in the evening. As a skirt, it was again simple and straight and was matched with a shirt or sweater. Raquel Welch poses in a minidress. Its simple styling and plain color are typical of the time. PSYCHEDELIA In the second half of the 1960s, geometric designs gave way to kaleidoscopic patterns in gaudy fluorescent or acid colors. The new chaotic and asymmetrical patterns of psychedelic colors formed a style known as pyschedelia. The designs drew inspiration from the highly glamorized drug culture. The mindaltering drugs marijuana and LSD grew in popularity during the 1960s and were commonly depicted in popular culture. The colors and patterns of psychedelia were intended to simulate the use of psychotropic drugs. Bold, imaginative, swirling patterns merged into one another. Fluorescent purple was very much associated with this style, and it was used with other bright primary and secondary colors to dazzling effect. Fabrics were often luminous, sometimes with a shiny surface, such as satin; they also tended to be soft and fluid, marking a move away from the hard surfaces and sharp lines of the space-age look.

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THE HIPPIE LOOK


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The summer of love in 1967 was the height of the hippie movement in fashion, music, and lifestyle. Men and women wore their hair long and their clothes loose, ethnic, deliberately unstyled and antifashion. In a rebellion against the consumerism of the 1950s and 1960s, young people shunned anything produced or promoted by big business corporations and adopted a natural look.

Actor Kate Winslet wears the hippie look in the film Hideous Kinky (1998), set in Morocco in the 1960s. The London Look In the 1960s, London became the center of the fashion world. The term Swinging London was coined to describe the dynamic changes of the time and the city that appeared to be at the heart of this revolution. The fashion designer, Mary Quant, and the model Twiggy, with her tiny frame, mod-cropped hair and miniskirts, came to symbolize the youth movement that was associated with Swinging London. The British Union Jack flag became a fashion feature on coats, dresses, hats and bags. Ball Dresses And Promdresses The 1950s produced some of the most elegant and sumptuous ball gowns and prom dresses. Strapless gowns with a boned, fitted bodice topped clouds of taffeta, organza, and tulle in fantasy dresses inspired by Hollywood movies. Today, they could be put together using a basque and lengths of net or tulle. Long sheath dresses often had an outsize bow or draped fabric that fell from the shoulder or went across the body. These might be in clingy fabrics or narrow pleats that emphasized the shape of the body or tailored in less flimsy fabrics but cut carefully to give a sculptural shape. An alternative to these curve-hugging styles was the pumpkin dress, a balloon of taffeta that gave no hint of a womans shape at all.

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During the 1960s, evening dresses and prom dresses began to lose their full skirts and eventually became quite straight and shift-like. Sheath dresses remained popular, often with a slit up the back. Floor-length tunics or shifts often had darts to give them shape but did not always mark the waist as had been universal in the 1950s. Square or scoop necks and sleeveless styles were common, but strapless dresses became a thing of the past.

In the 1950s, women wore formal evening dresses with strapless, boned bodices and full skirts. Red lipstick and the lavish use of eyebrow pencil completed the look. Nightclubs and Discos During the mid-1960s, outlandish, space-age-style clothes were sometimes worn to evening events, including dances and parties, but were too impractical to wear during the workday. The new discos and nightclubs gave young people somewhere to wear their more bizarre fashions. Clothes made of PVC, metal, plastic, and other experimental materials came into their own in the fashionable nightclubs of London, New York, and other large cities. White and silver were the predominant colors. Sequins, metal, and all things shiny were popular. Flat shoes or boots made dancing easy.

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Underneath In the 1950s, women held in their figures with corsets and girdles. The roll on was a stretch girdle that extended from the waist to partway down the thighs. To keep control of areas higher up, a firm long-line bra held the bust in place and flattened any excess bulges between the bust and waist. Bras tended to have a conical, pointed shape. During the 1960s, new fabrics and the less structured shape of clothes saw a move toward more flexible and comfortable underwear. Women still wore girdles, but the required body shape was flatter and more boyish. Men wore a simple tank top undershirt and baggy shorts or Yfront underpants. Shoes Shoes are a very important part of a look, particularly for women. Womens shoes changed a lot between 1950 and 1969. During the 1950s, womens shoes had a narrow heel and pointed toe. Slingbacks were popular. Heels were tapered and moderately high. Flat or lowheeled shoes, worn with slacks or for dancing, could be solid shoes or pointed slingbacks with a tiny heel. The 1960s brought more variety to womens shoes. Heels became lower or disappeared altogether. Toes were still pointed at the start of the decade, but later a square or rounded toe became popular. The big innovation was boots for women. There was a craze for white leather knee-length or mid-calf boots. Eventually, boots made from shiny plastic even reached the thigh, ending just below the miniskirt. Fake snakeskin in black and white was used for shoes and boots for a while. Boots could also be in colored suede or leather.
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Hats and Headgear Women wore hats throughout the 1950s, often even indoors. Styles ranged from widebrimmed cartwheel hats to flowerpot hats and cloches. Some had veils and called for even more pronounced makeup than usual so that the eyes and lips would remain prominent. In the early 1960s, pillbox hats were popular. Later, berets, knitted or crocheted skullcaps, bubble-shaped toques, and caps were worn with tunics, shorts, and pants. When the romantic style took over, large floppy straw, raffia, or crocheted hats became fashionable. Head scarves were popular in the 1950s and remained popular at least with older women in the 1960s. The scarf was folded into a triangle and knotted under the chin. Alternatively, a thin rectangular scarf could be wrapped around the head and neck. Hippies sometimes wore a long scarf tied around the head like a headband or a triangular scarf tied over the hair with the knot at the back of the neck. Men wore hats most of the time during the 1950s, often a fedora, although caps were popular leisure wear. Younger men began to go bareheaded in the 1960s. Baseball caps began to be worn as fashion items in the United States.

First Lady, Jackie Kennedy, was a 1960s style icon. Here she wears a formal suit with matching pillbox hat, and gloves. Glasses and Sunglasses Sunglasses became popular during the 1950s. At the same time, prescription glasses began to be designed rather than purely functional. The characteristic shape for womens glasses in the 1950s had a heavy top frame, swept up at the outside corners. During the 1960s, sunglasses with large frames in white or bright plastic and very dark lenses were in vogue. Later in the decade, hippie glasses had small, circular lenses with wire frames, a style popularized by John Lennon of the Beatles. Makeup
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In the 1950s and 1960s, fashionable women had very distinctive styles of makeup. In the 1950s, the eyes and lips featured prominently. Eyes were lined with black and flicked up at the corner. Brows were prominent, drawn over with eyebrow pencil. Eyelashes were accentuated, either with masses of mascara or with nylon false eyelashes. The skin was an even, pale tone. There was not yet any makeup formulated especially for black skin. Women wore makeup whenever they went out of the house, though for many women the styles were not as exaggerated as those just described. They would wear rouge on their cheeks and lipstick on their mouths. Eye shadow in shades of blue and green was popular. Above: The look in 1960s makeup: pale skin, pale lips, and prominent eyes and brows. Womens Hairstyles In the 1950s, women kept their hair neat and often hidden under a hat when out and about. Long hair was pinned up in a chignon. Young, fashionable women might cut their hair short in the pixie cut popularized by Audrey Hepburn. From the mid-1950s, a trend for high ponytails emerged among teenagers. In the 1960s, young women began to wear their hair loose. It was often cut to shoulder length, maybe held back with a head band, and frequently given volume by back-combing. A more spectacular style, which required hair to be at least shoulder length, was the beehivea massive, cottoncandy- like construction of backcombed hair.

The

1970s
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It was writer Tom Wolfe who dubbed the seventies the Me Decade. The problem was, lots of Mes were fighting for a piece of the action. Politically extremist and fundamentalist groups committed acts of terrorism. In terms of dress, fashion magazines declared, Anything goes. No rules applied any more. The Womens Movement By the late sixties, minority groupsblacks or gay people and womenwere becoming more visible and audible in the political arena. The publication of feminist texts gathered momentum during the seventies. They often discussed the position of women in society, focusing on the roles of mother, wife, and lover. Germaine Greers The Female Eunuch, published in 1971, challenged traditional perceptions of femininity. Magazines of the period did not just treat women as fashion consumers but took into account new values and lifestyles, including careers. The Japanese publication An, launched in March 1970, covered Western fashion and included features on food, travel, and American ideals of womens independence. The British and US editions of Cosmopolitan offered frank advice on sex, how to take the initiative in meeting men, as well as information on makeup, and the body. Cosmopolitan was a breath of fresh air for many young women, tackling all the difficult subjects they felt they couldnt raise with their mothers. Craft Revival

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The seventies saw a revitalized interest in crafts like jewelry, ceramics, knitting, embroidery, and screen printing on textiles. National and federal councils were set up to promote the crafts, especially the one-of-a-kind items designed and made by art school graduates. New magazines and craft galleries promoted the fine-art approach to the fiber arts. They offered an alternative to massproduced goods, yet at the same time, many craftspeople hoped that their designs would be put into mass production, thus closing the gap between design and industry.

It was often hard to tell the difference between boys and girls in the skinhead world: many of the clothes were interchangeable. Fashion Rules Okay? Although it was generally agreed that design added spice to life, real haute couture was increasingly being dismissed as anachronistica degenerate institution propped up by a sycophantic press, declared fashion writer Kennedy Fraser in 1975. To survive, established fashion houses like Christian Dior and Yves Saint Laurent were designing more and more ready-to-wear collections and catering to the more casual and practical moods of the moment. Vogue announced: There are no rules in the fashion game now. In the early 1970s, the magazine featured a vegetable gardener wearing a beret, a scarf, wrinkled woolly tights, and a loose knitted mohair coat and commented, The clothes arent smart, but theyre much in fashion.

Get Stoned A sixties leftover, long hair for men still represented a counterculture image. While the Establishment might no longer have been shocked by the disheveled hippie style, with its
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suggestion of poverty and irresponsibility, it didnt quite trust longhairs either. Treat this man with respect, he may have just sold a million records, read the framed poster of a downbeat hippie, hanging in the lobby of the Continental Hyatt House hotel on Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles. It was a body-conscious society. The Rolling Stones zipper-flyed Sticky Fingers album cover of 1971, designed by Andy Warhol, teased the groups fans about that. And if sex, drink, and drugs were on everybodys mind, they were the making and breaking of Jim Morrison, lead singer of The Doors, who died of an alcohol and drug overdose in 1971. Radical Denim While denim was a kind of uniform, it could also be manipulated or embellished to make a highly individual statement. Levis jackets were customized with embroidered stars and stripes and super-studded names and messages. One jacket even had an ashtray built into the sleeve! Traditional blue denim, dyed in indigo, was guaranteed to fade. Fading signified wear and tear and, by implication, hard work. New clothes made from old denim passed as fashion and sold in boutiques at high prices. They included skirts and flared pants made from jeans by opening up part of the original seam and inserting a triangular gusset.

Adv erti se ment for Levis, the essentials of culture. Tradition for Sale Fashions from the 1970s were based on the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. Hollywood produced period films conjuring up past styles that people rushed to emulate, particularly The Godfather and The Great Gatsby. Under the direction of Diana Vreeland, a former editor of
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Vogue, the Costume Institute at New Yorks Metropolitan Museum of Art staged major exhibitions of costume history, beginning with a retrospective of the Spanish couturier Cristbal Balenciaga. Exotica The traditional clothing of other cultures was another source of inspiration. Paris designer Hanae Mori, who opened a New York salon in the early 1970s, based many of her designs on the simple shapes and bold decoration of kimono, and costumes for traditional Japanese Noh theater. Yves Saint Laurent designed a series of Russian jackets fastened with frogging (loops). The hippies had led a trail not only to India and the East but also to North Africa, and the djellabah, a Moroccan-type hooded cloak, was the basis for some new coat shapes, while dramatic Eastern clothes and textile hangings inspired the caftan.

Glitter was great, whether it was on the body or on the face. Here sequins have been sewn onto skinhugging tops of transparent net, but those not quite brave enough to bare all stuck sequined patches on the face and applied glitter eye makeup. Like Hell!

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Possibly the most lasting image of the seventies has been punk. In 197677, punk got so much media attention that it has overshadowed the original American rock stage acts from which many elements of its style came. In early 1975, John Lydon (aka Johnny Rotten) adopted the short, spiky haircut that typifies punkhe had seen it in a photo of New York art band singer Richard Hell, who had invented the style in 1974. The New York Dolls and the Ramones, wearing jeans deliberately torn just below the knee, were very influential, as were Television, who wore their hair short in direct contrast to the hippies. John Lydon (aka Johnny Rotten of the Sex Pistols) in a Ben Sherman shirt, stenciled with lettering like an escaped convicts. The chains and studs applied to the deliberately ripped and torn, safety-pinned jacket, Maltese cross, and swastika were key elements in the punk look. Body Stockings The summer of 1970 was coined by the newspapers the nudest ever. But the tiny bikinis and swimsuits of that year were nothing compared with the exaggeratedly high legs of 1976 or minimal swimsuits like the String, the Savage, and the Thong, promoted by Los Angeles-based Rudi Gernreich, who was designing Lycra body wear for the French firm Lily. The impression that the body had been spray-painted was created by the new range of leotards, worn for working out in the gym, for playing ball on the beach, or for disco dancing. One of the most innovative and successful manufacturers of leotards was Danskin, which marketed a collection of coordinating body wear, leotards with contrasting tights and wraparound skirts.
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Saturday Night Fever The 1977 film Saturday Night Fever brought John Travolta into the limelight and put disco on the map. Travolta played dance-loving Brooklyn hardware store assistant Tony Manero in a story based on Another Saturday Night, an article written by rock and pop chronicler Nik Cohn for New York Magazine. In his story, 2001 Odyssey is the only disco in all Bay Ridge [Brooklyn] that truly counted. To qualify to dance there, an aspirant need only be Italian, between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one, with a minimum stock of six floral shirts, four pairs of tight trousers, two pairs of Gucci-style loafers, two pairs of platforms, either a pendant or a ring, and one item in gold.

The roller-skating and skateboarding crazes sparked new fashion trends. Clothing that started off in the gym, then moved into the disco, was now brought right onto the streets of San Francisco. Designer Labels Early in the decade, Pierre Cardin, in whom so much faith had rested during the 1960s, was already being criticized for over-selling the franchise of his name. Other designers lost prestige by attaching their names to anything from suitcases to sheets. Halston was one of Americas first celebrity designers. Having outfitted Jackie Kennedy with her famous pill-box hats and clothed celebrities like Lauren Bacall, Liza Minnelli, and Bianca Jagger, in 1973, he signed a deal with Norton Simon, Inc., which purchased the right to use Halstons name on any product. This led to the launch of Max Factors Halston scent.
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In order to justify costing double or triple the price of regular jeans, designer jeans stood out from the rest of the crowd by the subtlest and least practical of details. Back pockets were omitted and quadruple seams introduced. But the greatest distinction was the designers name fixed to a visible label. Calvin Klein and Pierre Cardin joined the designer jeans rat race, and Italian manufacturers were quick to produce cheaper versions, aimed at a younger market. Chronology of Fashion Launch of W, a new paper for "the beautiful people. Corduroy jeans and skin-tight, ribbed sweaters: leather beaded chokers and bracelets: striped sweatbands for sporty types, bandannas and Indian block-prints for hippies. Hot pants galore, in satin and velvet, sometimes worn with maxi length coats: cartridge belts for would-be cowboys and heavy-metal musicians. Widely flared bell bottom pants: 1920s and 1940s revival clothes at Biba in London: handpainted leather bags, silk shirts, appliqu: pants tucked into knee-length boots: colorful cropped sleeveless pullovers. Glam shiny suits and make-up for men on stage: embroidered kaftans, Indian shirts and gauze smocks: simply cut dresses in new synthetic jersey: boom in T-shirts printed with political and advertising slogans. American Lauren Hutton becomes highest paid model in history. "Granny" clothes and collarless "grandfather" shirts: suede "creeper" shoes with thick soles as part of the rock n roll revival. Designer knitwear boosts interest in hand-knitting and picture sweaters. Cheap and radical chic: second-hand baseball jackets: army fatigues in khaki camouflage: Fiorucci fun clothing: clingy dresses flaring just below the knee: fake furs gain popularity in face of antifur lobbying. Giorgio Armani sets up on his own as design consultant. Punk anarchy: safety pins, ripped and torn second-hand clothes, plastic, leather. Diane Keaton wears Ralph Lauren trouser suits for Woody Allen movie Annie Hall. More than 30 brands of designer label jeans are on the market. "New Romantic" fantasy dressing takes hold. Designers of the 1970s

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Armani, Giorgio (b. 1935) Italian designer. Worked for menswear manufacturer Nino Cerruti in 1960s. Set up own consultancy in 1975, working for several companies, including Emanuel Ungaro, before establishing Armani fashion label. Ashley, Laura (1925-85) British designer and manufacturer. Company, based in Wales, produced Victorian and Edwardianstyle dresses of printed cottons with a country look. During 1970s, shops opened worldwide. Beene, Geoffrey (1927-2004) American designer. Trained in United States and Paris. Began ready-to-wear in 1963; less expensive line called "Beene Bag." Biba Mail order business set up in 1963 by Barbara Hulanicki, which soon developed into Londons Biba boutique. In 1973 took over Art Deco department store in London. Known for nostalgic, moody clothes. Klein, Calvin (b. 1942) American designer. After working for New York manufacturers of coats and suits, set up his own sportswear business in 1968. During the 1970s, clothes became increasingly sophisticated; sleek lines and soft and crisp fabrics of silk, linen and fine suede. Lagerfeld, Karl (b. 1938) German born, but career based in Paris. Designed freelance for Krizia, Charles Jourdan and Fendi. Throughout the 1970s, particularly associated with Chlo ready-to-wear collections. Lauren, Ralph (b. 1939) American designer. Worked for Brooks Brothers, then Beau Brummel neckwear. In 1968, launched Polo line of menswear, and from 1971 produced womenswear collections, including designer jeans and in 1978 the "Prairie" look. Miyake, Issey (b. 1935) Japanese designer. Studied fashion in Paris; worked for Guy Laroche, Hubert de Givenchy and Geoffrey Beene. Held first fashion show in New York, 1971; the next in Paris, 1973. Mori, Hanae (b. 1926) Japanese designer. Opened New York salon in early 1970s, and in 1977 showed first couture collection in Paris. Design ideas influenced by traditional Japanese kimono and obi (sash). Muir, Jean (1928-1995) British designer. Trademark classic clothes made of heavyweight rayon jerseys and punched and stitched suede. Porter, Thea (1927-2000) British designer. In the 1960s sold antique Near Eastern textiles from London shop and began designing "ethnic" clothes from exotic fabrics for evening wear. Opened a New York store in1968, and one in Paris in early 1970s. Price, Antony (b. 1945) British designer. Designs for Bryan Ferry and Roxy Music brought success by mid-1970s, and in 1979 launched his own label.
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Rykiel, Sonia (b. 1930) French designer. Known in the 1970s mostly for knitwear in subtle colors of beige, gray and slate blue. Saint Laurent, Yves (b. 1936) French designer. Former chief designer at Dior, established his own house in 1962. In 1970s designed impeccably cut suits: some inspired by exotic Eastern and Russian sources, some more sober for the new executive woman. Smith, Willi (1948-1991) American designer of ethnic-influenced sportswear inspired by trips to India. Set up Willi Wear casual sportswear in 1976. Von Furstenberg, Diane (b. 1946) Belgian born. Apprenticed in 1968 to Italian textile manufacturer Angelo Ferretti and opened her own business in New York in 1972. Known for plain, simply cut or wrap printed silk jersey dresses.

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It had to happen. After the swinging sixties and the excesses of 1970s punk rock, there had to be a backlash. It came in the 1980s, with the art of being serious, grown-up, and hardworking carried to the extreme. But the decade didnt start quite like that. The punk revolution was still in the air, although by 1980, the general trend was to tone down and tame the original punk style. The mood was whimsical and soft, with velvet knickers and short cheerleader skirts. In Britain, romance was in the air with the engagement of Prince Charles and Lady Di in February 1981. Their marriage the following July, televised worldwide, fulfilled all expectations. The brides fairy-tale dress was copied over and over again for less exalted weddings and helped to set the trend for fullblown romantic evening wear. Would the eighties be yet another decade of escapist fantasies?

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Designer Shopping Calvin Klein, Giorgio Armani, and Ralph Lauren targeted their clothes and accessories at this new emerging group and became three of the most successful fashion emperors of the decade. They spearheaded a total look style of shopping, providing their busy customers with everything they needed, from underwear to overcoats, under one designer label. By the end of the decade, designer-manufacturer Donna Karan was being called the queen of 7th Avenue for her toned down, working womens high-style, yet comfortable clothing and accessories. Many large department stores were rearranged to cater to this new way of merchandizing. Inside the stores, you no longer looked for the skirt or dress section but went straight to the designer boutique of your choice to add another item to your well-coordinated wardrobe. This at least was the ideal, but many a shopper must have cursed as she made her way from designer boutique to designer boutique in search of a simple item of clothing. Designer accessories, like Gucci handbags and Rolex watches, became another important status symbol for the designer shopper. Many large department stores were rearranged to cater to this new way of merchandizing. Inside the stores, you no longer looked for the skirt or dress section but went straight to the designer boutique of your choice to add another item to your well-coordinated wardrobe. New Women Just as men were using old female tricks to perk up their appearance, so women were at the old game of stealing from the male wardrobe and adapting mens clothing to their needs. This was by no means surprising, as more and more women became accepted in high-status jobs. Although the average female earned less than her male counterpart, the female executive was very much a part of the eighties. Her office outfit borrowed from traditional menswear, with various styles of skirt and jacket becoming standard. Shoulder pads added width to the female form and lent an air of authority. Perhaps even more than
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men, women in successful careers had to look good as well as be good at their jobs and exude an aura of success. Young professional women demanded smart, sophisticated clothing that reminded everyone they were a force to be reckoned with. East Meets West The most original ideas of the eighties came from Japanese designers, who showed another way of mixing up the sexes and challenged all the accepted ideas of femininity. The new dressing pioneered by Rei Kawakubo of Commedes Garons and Yohji Yamamoto totally disguised the shape of the body beneath layers of clothing that were often geometric and asymmetric in shape. These clothes rejected traditional Western notions of womens clothesthey were neither obviously feminine nor conventionally decorative. Their unglamorous, functional nature appeared radical to Western eyes, although many of the designs were firmly rooted in Japanese tradition and could almost be seen as a homage to the countrys past and a challenge to the increased Western influence there. Men and women were dressed in carefully constructed shapes, echoing kimonos or the simpler shapes of karate jackets. Into the Nineties The last years of the eighties saw a relaxation in all areas of fashion. The real peaks of yuppiness had passed, and a sense of nostalgia for the recent past was setting in. In music, the House scene emerged in Chicagodance music that harked back to seventies disco for inspiration and was in sharp contrast to the politically conscious and rhythmically complex rap and hip-hop movements. House soon went worldwide, changing along the way. In Britain, it evolved into the much touted Acid House crazefamous for yellow
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smiley-face badges and notoriously linked with the new synthetic drug Ecstasy. It looked as if a purely fun-loving mood was going to take over. Live Aid July 7, 1985: probably the most star-studded assembly of rock musicians ever played in satellite-linked concerts broadcast on television around the world to aid the millions suffering from famine in Ethiopia and other sub-Saharan African nations. The man behind it was the unkempt but passionately articulate Irish rock star Bob Geldof. His efforts sparked a tide of similar events throughout the rest of the decade.

After the success of Live Aid, fashion jumped on the bandwagon in 1986. Here Grace Jones, Marie Helvin, and Jerry Hall get ready for Fashion Aid. Class Comes Out The royal romance and the generally softer mood of fashion brought into prominence the style of an unlikely set of people. Known as preppies in the United States and Sloane Rangers in Britain, their image was of established and successful families. The clothes they wore were usually timeless classics like kilts and cashmere twin sets, tweed jackets and trousers usually associated with country pursuits. Robust country wear, like that provided by L. L. Bean, was what you wore for leisure. Even if you had to stay in the city for the weekend, you could still dress as if you were about to go off riding, fishing, or hunting. Tradition was fashionable, with much use of tweed, plaids, and intricate hand knits. Soft mixtures of greens and purples echoed country landscapes and brought a
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breath of fresh air into the town. The look was too static and staid to remain high fashion for long, however, and a sharper, more aggressive silhouette soon emerged. Power Dressing: The City Slicker and the New Woman Enter the Yuppies An important new market for designer clothes was tapped in the 1980s: men and women in their twenties and early thirties in high-paying jobs. Hard work was fashionable and a large salary something to be shown off in expensive cars and designer clothes. European companies were increasingly abandoning their more traditional approach to recruitment and adopting the American practice of rewarding young talent fast with good jobs and good salaries. The term yuppiestanding for young urban professional was coined to describe the phenomenon. While few would admit to being one, the yuppie market became an important target for advertisers selling everything from cars to instant coffee by portraying a wealthy, successful, hardworking but young lifestyle.

The real-life look of classic Armani, generously cut and draped. Designer Lifestyle Calvin Klein and Ralph Lauren in New York, and Giorgio Armani in Milan, worked this yuppie market to the hilt. They realized the importance of creating and controlling the right image for their clothes through their own advertising, rather than leaving it to fashion editors to bring the clothes to the buyers notice. They could provide a total look, not to be mixed with anyone elses designs. They also lived the lifestyle they designed for, being as much astute and successful businessmen as creative designers. The importance of hitting the right image was shown by the success of German designer Hugo Boss, whose sales soared by 21 percent when his suits were worn by television actors starring in Miami Vice and LA Law. Suddenly Boss was selling not just a beautifully tailored suit but an exciting and successful image. Victorias Secret soon cornered the market in comfortable but sexy lingerie for the upand-coming executive.

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The original material girl. The many incarnations of Madonnas stage persona took some of the street fashions of the early eighties to the limit. Second Skin: Design in New Fabrics Workout! In the 1980s, you had to be fit. Not just thin but fit. Whether you were Madonna or the president, some form of exercise was obligatoryand exercise that hurt and worked those muscles. Aerobic and dance studios, gyms and weight machines sprang up like mushrooms. Exercise books, cassettes, and videotapes sold by the thousands for those too shy to work out in public. Muscles had to be toned, fat burned off, and the body firmed up like an Olympic athletes. And if you dropped out of your class, at least you could live your fantasies at the movies, with films like Dirty Dancing becoming big box office hits.

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In Love with Lycra Once you had the shape, you needed the right clothes to show it off. Suddenly, even brief running shorts looked old hat and baggy. Figure hugging Lycra looked good and was also better aerodynamically. Florence Griffith-Joyner, better known as Flo-Jo, stunned the world not just with her record-breaking running but with her skintight, brightly colored, one-legged outfits. Lycra shorts became high fashion. So did bicycling, as long as you were a city messenger weaving your way in and out of heavy traffic on an unwieldy mountain bike. After Lycra, it was a simple step to move on to rubber. Latex, a form of rubber that lets air through, was used first for water sports and swimwear and then for clinging tops, skirts, and shorts. You had to be brave to wear it and to have worked hard at all those classes.

Designers of the 1990s Alaa, Azzedine (dates unknown) French designer, born in Tunisia. Worked for Dior, Mugler, and others before forming his own label in 1982. Famed for his figurehugging dresses in leather, cashmere, and stretch fabrics. Aquagirl Swiss-based label formed by Argentinian-Australian designer Willy de la Vega in 1986, originally specializing in Lycra and Latex designs for sports- and beach-wear. Armani, Giorgio (b. 1935) Italian designer. Formed his own label in 1975. Famous for his suits and jackets, especially the wideshouldered look for executive women. Benetton North Italian family firm established in the early sixties by Lucian Benetton. Benetton remained popular throughout the eighties for their colorful casual wear and knitwear separates. Burberry Company founded by Thomas Burberry (1835-1926) in Dorking, England, manufacturing gabardine rain- and sportswear. Company continues to flourish and set standards in this field. Boss, Hugo (d.1948) German menswear designer. Achieved prominence when his suits were worn by characters in Dallas and LA Law.
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Emanuel, David and Elizabeth (both b. 1953) British designers, born in Glamorgan, Wales. They shot to prominence as designers of Lady Diana Spencers dress for the 1981 royal wedding. Galliano, John (b. 1960) British designer. Broke through to instant fame with his "Les Incroyables" collection of 1984. Innovative and even quirky, Galliano is very popular with the younger buyer. Gaultier, Jean Paul (b. 1952) French designer. Started his own company in 1977. Now one of the most influential of the French ready-to-wear designers, his work continued to surprise and provoke throughout the eighties. Karan, Donna (b. 1948) American designer. Worked for Anne Klein until forming her own label in 1984. Renowned for wearable sportswear and stylish clothes for the mature woman. Kenzo (b. 1940) Japanese designer. Worked under his own Jap label in Paris from 1970. A successful blender of Eastern and Western styles, Kenzo paved the way for the wider popularity of Japanese designers in the seventies and eighties. Klein, Calvin (b. 1942) American designer. Started his own business in 1968, initially specializing in suits and coats. His smooth, understated look was a key influence in the eighties, especially in the USA. Lagerfeld, Karl (b. 1938) German designer, based in Paris. Worked for Chloe, Krizia, and Chanel before launching his own collection in 1984. His imaginative and witty designs remained a major fashion force throughout the 1980s. Lauren, Ralph (b. 1939) American designer. Worked for several menswear clients before launching his own womens label in 1972. Launched his influential "Prairie look in 1978, featuring denim skirts worn over layered white petticoats. In the eighties, upheld the tradition of quality fabrics for menswear and womenswear and became a cult designer for the yuppie buyer. Miyake, Issey (b. 1935) Japanese designer, born in Hiroshima. Worked in Paris from 1965 and with Geoffrey Beene in New York from 1969 before forming his own label in 1971. Extremely influential in the 1980s with his bold cutting and draping, and innovative use of textures and sculptural shapes. Westwood, Vivienne (b. 1941) British designer. Closely associated with the rise of the punk movement in the 1970s. In 1980 launched her "Pirate" look, which became linked with the contemporary "New Romantic" movement in pop. Continued to produce original and even anarchic collections throughout the eighties, including the "Witches" of 1983 and the "Mini-Crinolines" of 1985.

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The 1990s
As the end of the twentieth century finally came in sight, the world experienced a crisis of turmoil and rapid change. Seemingly impossible things happened. The unshakable Soviet Union fell apart, creating great political upheaval, long-established leaders were overthrown, old borders disappeared, and new alliances were forged. The sense of change in the world order was reflected in a restless and unsettled social scene in which people moved around more, changed jobs more frequently, and divorced more easily. And, as ever, fashion proved a mirror to the world. The Way We Wore The 1990s have been called the decade of anti-fashion, the decade when street fashion finally won out over haute couture, and the decade that saw the death of the designer. In a way, these descriptions were all correct, but the 1990s could just as easily be called the decade of fashions, plural. The term anything goes had never been more correct. The End of Couture? Recession hit the major European fashion houses hard. With less money to spend, people rejected short-lived designer fashions in favor of more economical ready-to-wear lines. This was especially true in America, which had traditionally accounted for 40 percent of the couture business. Paris felt the shock waves: in 1992, veteran designer Yves Saint Laurent declared in Le Figaro that haute couture would not survive the decade. The major houses realized that in order to survive, they had to diversify and attract a younger clientele. They fought back by absorbing the street fashion of youth culture and feeding it back to the streetswith a high price tag. Just like the punk movement of the seventies, radical styles may have originated on the streets but were swiftly taken over and managed by the professionals. This saved the major design housesand changed the face of fashion completely. The Dot-Com Bubble Around 1997, a huge number of new Internet-based businesses sprang up around the world. Known as dot-coms because of their Web addresses, they were mostly founded by young entrepreneurs and dealt in everything from last-minute travel reservations to pet insurance, trying to make the most of the new marketing medium. Color After the garish, look-at-me hues of the eighties, color seemed to drain out of designer clothing in the first half of the nineties. A purely practical reason was that the increasingly popular capsule wardrobe of the working woman had to contain separate elements that combined easily, which meant unusual colors were out. In any case, fabric was becoming
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more important than color, and the new, softer tailoring looked better in flat shades. There was black, more black, and a continual search for the new black, which regularly turned out to be shades of gray or brown. Giorgio Armani and Donna Karan set the tone, working in a palette of neutrals: olive, khaki, taupes, and ecru, occasionally venturing into rust or dusty pink. Mix and Match As the decade went on, however, wearing a total look from one designer was out: the idea was now to put together an original outfit by mixing and matching from several sources. Women shoppers first created mix-and match wardrobes from a single label and then, as the decade went on, confidently began matching items from different outlets. It was also chic to team one major fashion item with chain store accessories and flea market finds. It took effort, but the effect was all your own. This meant a big shift in the fashion industry. Design houses could no longer dictate, and fashion magazines found themselves hurrying to keep up with street fashion rather than previewing it. Flaunting It But not every woman wanted to be a romantic peasant. This was still the era of the body beautiful, and many were intent on showing off as much of it as possible, especially when it was tanned and taut. Modesty was hardly in their fashion dictionary. British designer Alexander Alexander McQueens mold-breaking bumster pants won him a Dress of the Year award in 1996 and started the trend for daringly low-cut pants and skirts.
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McQueen obliged with his bumster pants, cut so low on the hips as to reveal a bare midriff, underwear, and a lot more. Evening wear was sleek and slinky, with necklines slashed to the waist. It was often hard to see what kept these dresses on the body at all. Cher, famed for her stunning stage outfits, made a red-carpet splash with her Bob Mackie headdress outfit. The Cult Celebrity of

Around the world, the publics obsession with the lives of celebrities knew no bounds. Pop stars, heiresses, sports personalities and their wives, Princess Dianawe just couldnt get enough of them. Reality TV, in the shape of Big Brother and The Real World and confessional chat shows hosted by Jerry Springer and Oprah Winfrey, fulfilled Andy Warhols prediction of fifteen minutes of fame for the most ordinary people. MTV and a host of magazines like Hello! and OK showed us the inside of celebrities homes, the state of their marriages, and, of course, what they wore, all in minute detail. The effect of all of this on the fashion scene was incalculable.

Liz Hurley and what became known as That Dress. The barely-there Versace creationwhich she maintained was a loan because she couldnt afford to buy one was a marvel of engineering. It certainly helped her career, winning her a contract with top cosmetic house Este Lauder.

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Girl Power The enormous success of artists like Madonna and newly created all-girl bands like the Spice Girls had everybody talking about girl power. Confident and assertive young women were staying single, taking their careers into their own hands, and, most important, dressing to please themselves, not men. If they wanted to wear revealing outfits, that was their business. It all sounded great, but some expressed doubts as to whether young women were really more liberated or just pawns of the fashion-and-celebrity machine.

More underwear-as-outerwear for material girls, in this leather-look outfit by Thierry Mugler. It shows the edginess of nineties fashion.

Fashion in Cyberspace Computer technology revolutionized the fashion world. Most designers use computers at some stage in the design process, and laser printing on fabrics is widely used. But it was the Internet, born in 1992, that really changed the way we communicate, spend our money, and do business. By 1994, 3 million people were online: by 1998, this figure had increased to 100 million and was rising fast. Designs could now be sent from one country to another in seconds, which meant that chain-store versions of designer garments could be on sale within days of their appearance on the runway. In most cases this was legitimate, but infringement of design copyright by unscrupulous operators became a growing problem. Many of the major fashion shows could be watched on the Internet, and virtual fashion magazines were among the first in the field. The Internet has also transformed the retail industry. Millions now shop online from all over the world, cutting out the chain stores altogether. And companies no longer need to gamble on which lines will prove to be best sellers. Benetton is just one company that no longer holds large quantities of stock but instead only makes as it sells, monitoring sales to ensure availability. Showing Your True Colors The ultimate fashion accessories in the nineties were body piercings and tattoos. Once the province of the punks, these fashions spread like wildfire. Studs and metal rings appeared in eyebrows, noses, lips, navels, and other, more intimate areas. Tattoos on women were
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popular, usually on shoulders and thighs, where they could be revealed discreetly. Those not brave enough to face the needle could have a temporary transfer tattoo or, following the Indian bridal tradition, a design worked in henna.

Expect the Unexpected Karl Lagerfeld at Chanel summed up the philosophy of reinvention and unexpected combinations, especially when he updated one of fashions timeless classics. He remade the Chanel jacket in glittery stretch tweed and teamed it with a frayed denim skirt, feather boa, and baseball cap. Other surprise offerings from the ever-inventive Lagerfeld included biker leathers over silk, fur overlaid with velvet, and embroidered leather.

Karl Lagerfeld updates the almost-sacred Chanel suit for yet another generation.

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Accessories Say It All As fashion became increasingly an eclectic mix of separate items, each individual element achieved an importance all its own. Shoes, purse, and scarves were no longer just color coordinated backup to the main outfit: they were equally important component parts. In the second half of the nineties this gave rise to the must-have item, picked out almost at random by fashion magazines and promoted to the point of hysteria. There was panic buying, stores sold out in hours, and desperate shoppers joined waiting lists in the hope of obtaining the dream item. Those in the know ordered in advance as soon as the rumor of a new purse or shoe style began to circulate. The packaging is almost as elegant as the shoes themselves! Jimmy Choos strict distribution system means that the collection is available only through upscale department stores and specialty boutiques in prime locations in New York, Beverly Hills, Las Vegas and London. A 1940s boudoir setting, with intimate style, velvets, and soft pastel decor, is the brands trademark style. The MTV Generation The music scene, as always, was a major factor in street fashion. MTV, a cable TV network devoted to music videos and other material aimed at adolescents and young adults, was instrumental in spreading fashion news around the world. Shopping online and a rash of new style magazines like Dazed & Confused, I.D., Wallpaper, and Sleaze, alongside the longrunning Face, made it easy to keep up. Hip-hop and Gangsta Rap In the early nineties, pop rappers popularized the wearing of bright, neoncolored clothing and baseball caps. From the mid-decade, though, the more aggressive gangsta rap become the prevalent style, its overtones of crime and violence showing in fashion elements borrowed from street gangs and even prison inmates. Generally, boys favored baggy jeans slung low around the waist, oversized sweatshirts with logos, undershirts under hooded sweaters (hoodies), boots or funky sneakers, and a bandanna tied around the head, sometimes with a baseball cap on top.

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Fashion Technology Rainwear from the Kitchen New fabrics were flooding onto the market. In 1991, DuPont found a new use for the Teflon protective finish previously used on pots and pans. Teflons excellent water and stain repelling qualities made it perfect for use on outdoor wear. But there was much more to come. Marvelous Microfibers Whereas the wonder fabrics of the previous decade, like Lycra, had concentrated on cling and fit, research now had more to do with improving drape and flow. Man-made microfibers are ultrafinetwice as fine as silk, three times finer than cotton, and six times finer than wool. Their high thread density means they have a greater number of air chambers and tiny pores, allowing the skin to breathe and the body to regulate temperature more easily. Tencel One of the most important developments in this area was Tencel, a fiber made from the natural cellulose found in wood pulp. Similar to rayon in feel, it is soft, breathable, lightweight, quick drying, and comfortable. Its also shrink-resistant, durable, and easy to care for and, because of the fibers high absorbency, can be dyed easily. The Fur Debate At the beginning of the decade, the anti-fur lobby seemed to be gaining ground. Organizations like Lynx and PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) campaigned against the use of fur, supported by celebrities from the film and fashion world, including Sir Paul McCartney and his designer daughter Stella, Charlize Theron, and Ellen DeGeneres.
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Make It Cheap, Sell It Dear As the clothing market became more competitive, companies switched their manufacturing to the developing world, where workers were paid very low wages to produce garments that then sold at top prices. There was an outcry about exploitation. After an international campaign of media criticism and consumer pressure, in 1995 Gap was the first major North American retailer to accept independent monitoring of the working conditions in a contract factory producing its garments. Many followed suit, but the doubts remained.

Chronology of Fashion R. Ozbek shows all-white collection. Philip Treacey opens own millinery business. Halston dies. Anna Sui has first fashion show. Madonna popularizes Dolce & Gabbanas rhinestone bodice. Valentino exhibition in Milan. Tencel first made. Prada launches Miu Miu diffusion line. Ann Demeulemeester opens own Paris showroom. Dolce & Gabbanas Parfum launched and wins Accademia del Profumo award. Alexander McQueen opens own fashion business in London. Vivienne Westwoods platform shoes trip up Naomi Campbell. Patrick Cox designs Wannabe loafers. Issey Miyake launches Pleats Please ready-to-wear. Tom Ford appointed design director at Gucci. Tommy Hilfiger launches range of tailored menswear. Elizabeth Hurley causes a sensation in Versaces safety-pin dress. John Galliano takes over the House of Dior. Alexander McQueen replaces him at Givenchy. Hubert de Givenchy retires. Narciso Rodriguez designs dress for Carolyn Bessettes wedding to John F. Kennedy, Jr. Hilfiger launches Tommy perfume. Marc Jacobs appointed designer at Louis Vuitton. Gianni Versace shot dead: sister Donatella takes over. Christies New York holds sale of Princess Dianas dresses. Isaac Mizrahi closes his studio. Launch of Prada Sport. Sydney Fashion Week added to fashion calendar. Issey Miyake announces retirement, appointing Naoki Takizawa his successor.

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The 2000s
The 2000s are often described as a "mash-up" decade, where trends saw the fusion of previous styles, global and ethnic clothing, as well as the fashions of numerous subcultures, such as hipsters. For the most part, the decade did not have one particular style but recycled styles from the 1930s-1980s, which was common in 1990s fashion. Many 1990s styles continued into the 2000s, but became more polished. The minimalist aesthetic of 1990s fashion continued in the first years of the decade, but fashion moved away from minimalism from 2003 onwards. Early 2000s (2000 2002) The early 2000s consisted of a collaboration of clothes from the last 40 years up until the new millennium. Most of it also retained much from the late 90's.

Heavy metal fashion was worn by a notable subculture of teenagers until 2003 due to the popularity of nu metal bands, and remains common among the youth in the US, parts of Europe (especially Greece, Scandinavia and Germany) and Latin America.

Pop punk fashion characterized by wearing baggy jeans, wristbands, spikey hair, patrol caps or trucker hats, Aviator sunglasses, and full-zip hoodies (which are now urban and preppy in the late 2000s) was very popular in the early 2000s. This was due to the success of bands such as Blink-182, Lit, and Sum 41. Hip-hop fashions (especially hoodies and sweatpants) influenced many subcultures including chav, juggalo and gangsta. Within Hip Hop clothing, Denim-jean jackets with matching jeans were popular, along with track suits (primarily made of fleece that matched top and bottom usually worn with a headband for guys). Bandanas with rhinestones were popular from late 2000 to early 2002 and Phat farm shoes and apparel were extremely popular during this time. Daisy Dukes, Uggs and cowboy boots have been worn by girls throughout the decade.

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Cowboy Boots

The "Tough Guys Wear Pink" craze hits young members of the hipster and prep subculture. Within the mainstream, wristbands compromised of three colours were in usu.(Red,Blue and White or the Rasta coloured - Red,Green and Yellow) (2003) Trucker hats and vintage t-shirts from American Eagle and its many counterparts were high in popularity (2003). Mid 2000s (2003 2006) Men and Women began to wear skinny-fit low rise jeans that became even more popular later in the decade as jeans' waistlines were cut as low as possible. Hip- hugging, denim mini-skirts were also worn.

Designer glasses (often with thick rims), sunglasses such as Ray Ban Wayfarers, aviators, and rim-fewer glasses became widely available and extremely popular as geek chic went mainstream. This trend started about 2004 and has continued into the late 2000s for both males and females. In Hip Hop, the throwback jersey and baggy pants (popular in the 90's to 2003) was replaced with the more "Grown Man" Look which was highly popularized and brought in by controversial rapper, Kanye West. Polo tops, and stripped dress shirts were the norm amongst young males, especially pink polo tops popularized by rapper Cam'ron. Nike Air Force 1 shoes and Converse Chuck Taylor All-Star were popular footwear. Dickie pants amongst hip hop fashion became popular in 2005. Handkerchiefs or bandanas (of various styles and colours) worn around the neck usually forming a V-type shape became popular in mid-2006 and into 2007. Japanese kimonos and lacquer jewelry came in during 2006, inspired by the film release of Memoirs of a Geisha (film). Military attire became popular among indie fans. Men originally wore surplus dress jackets which were later produced by companies for the civilian market[11] while women wore versions with more feminine lace or beading on it. Camouflage
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patterns, bandanas or shemaghs are frequently worn as scarves by young people in winter. Boho-chic: 60s/70s patterns with ethnic jewelry (popular again in Summer 2008).

Late 2000s (2007 2009) 2007 saw a return of leggings for women. These were worn with long, fitted tunic tops, or baby-doll dresses and shirts with empire waists. As in the 1980s, they were sometimes paired with mini skirts. Purple and mustard yellow were the fashionable colours. In 2007, ballerina flats returned, and the toes of shoes were rounded, replacing the pointed-toed shoe popular in the middle of the decade. Boots came in a variety of sizes, with the heels high and geometric in shape. The late 2000s saw a return to the grunge look of the early-to mid 90's in mens fashion: flannel shirts worn with bright colored shirts underneath, T-shirts worn with long sleeved thermal shirts, vans, beanie hats, work boots and ripped loosefitting stonewashed jeans. Flannel and lumberjack tops worn with skinny-jeans In late 2008 the denim waistcoat became a popular feminine fashion accessory. 2007-2008 saw a strong increase in the basic elements of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Many store owners began to influence the green movement, as well as did the celebrities. Light pinks mixed with duller colors such as grey, and mauve is popular in the winter and fall seasons. In spring and summer lines some designers featured light weave cloths with beading, along with cork wedge shoes which were usually used as well. In late 2008, more 1940s, 1950s, 1980s, and 1990s style fashions are starting to come in. Argyle patterns became popular in 2007 and 2008. Deck shoes, specifically the Sperry Top-Sider brand, become popular with teenagers and college students in the spring of 2007 and have remained popular into 2009.

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For a quick period of time during the spring of 2008 Gladiator inspired sandals, and long dresses that flowed free from a small cut for the breast area became very popular, suggesting a roman/Greek inspired look which was also an on and off trend for the 60s. Many light floral patterns were used for young girls.

Hair and Makeup Style of the 2000s Natalie portman Women's hair is long and straight. Later in the decade retro hairstyles like the bob cut (like that worn by pop singer Rihanna) and beehive (a trademark of pop singer Amy Winehouse) came back into fashion. In the late 2000s the crop (previously only seen on punks and lesbians) and pixie cut became acceptable after celebrities like Agyness Deyn, Stine Bramsen, Victoria Beckham and Rihanna had their hair cut short. Perms come back for women in 2009. Late 2008 in the U.S. saw the return of thicker long hair seen in the early to mid90's. This will continue on with higher intensity in 2009. Many women wear hair down to the upper shoulders with curls. Mens hairstyles are influenced by the 1940s, 1950s, 1980s, and 1990s: the pompadour (worn by Mexicans and ItalianAmericans then popularized by celebrities like Christian Bale) flat top haircut (often worn to show support for the military) and the buzzcut, a haircut associated with 90s grunge. In Europe spiked hair, sometimes bleached blond, is often seen on metrosexual men.[29] Since the early 2000s styles like the French Crop and crew cut have been popular with chavs and the fauxhawk made a comeback in Britain and the US thanks to David Beckham. Longer styles are coming into acceptance for younger males, whether loose or in a ponytail. The latter is preferred in the workplace as hair below the eyes may be unacceptable for some employers.

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From late 2005 and on a popular haircut for teenage boys was the Wings. It can range from very long to a Beatles Haircut. The haircut is typically wavy and, if straight, the length comes to halfway down the ears. Instead of lying on the wearer's ears, the hair flips up and comes straight out like an airplane wing, hence the name. This hairstyle is also known as "flippies" and was popularized by skateboarders. In early 2009, a shorter 1950s inspired hairstyle and longer styles inspired by British rock bands came into play. Another popular style consists of a long fringe similar to the type seen on emo kids, but in natural colors. Kourtney, Khloe and Kim Kardashian stripped down for a new ad campaign to promote their clothing line, Kardashian Kollection for Sears.

The racy shots, which were taken by famed photographer Annie Leibovitz, feature the siblings in an array of skimpy undergarments.

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The History of Indian Fashion


The total range of costumes in India is considerably expanded between the 8th and the 12th centuries. Interesting and useful accounts of geographers and chroniclers, especially those of Arab and Chinese origin throw light on the Indian costumes in vogue at different times in history. In their accounts, Masudi, Idrisi and Ibn Hawqal speak of Indian cotton with a sense of wonder and awe. With the arrival of the Mughals in the 16th century, new garments like qaba, jama, piraban, lilucba, liba, kasaba, and the like began to be used. These kinds of costumes are also found illustrated in the historical works like the Babar nama, the Tawatlkb-i-kbandan-i-Taimuriya and the Tarikb-i-fi. Abu'l Fazl provides probably the best documentation that we have of the costumes of India from any single source prior to the 19th century. He mentions that Akbar had replaced the names of several garments with new and pleasing terms. Muslin from undivided India was an important commodity of export and a high fashion fabric in Europe and other parts of the world. Indian costumes like the silk saris, brightly mirrored cholis, colorful lehangas and the traditional salwar-kameez have fascinated many a travelers over the centuries. Although sari is only one of the many traditional garments worn by women, yet it has become the national dress of Indian women. The tightly fitted, short blouse worn under a sari is a choli, which evolved as a form of clothing in 10th century AD. Though the majority of Indian women wear traditional costumes, the men in India can be found in more conventional western clothing. Shirts and trousers are worn by men from all the regions of India. However, men in villages wear traditional attires like kurtas, lungis, dhotis and pyjamas. Indian dressing styles are marked by many variations, both religious and regional and one is likely to witness a plethora of colors, textures and styles in garments worn by the Indians. Apart from this, the rich tradition of Indian embroidery has long been made use of by fashion designers from other countries. India prides in works like Zardozi, Dabka, brocades, Pashmina, Jamawar and bandhni. It seems paradoxical that fashion is considered a young concept in India since the first fashion show was held only in 1958. Jeannie Naoroji wins the credit for initiating the first wave of fashion shows in India and for giving a degree of professionalism to such shows.

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Since then, there has been growing consciousness among the Indian men and women towards the fashion, styles and designs of the dresses they wear. Several institutes like National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Indian Institute of Fashion Technology (IIFT) and other fashion academies have been established where the students are taught to translate their creativity into dresses and fabric designs. The media has also played an important role in the fashion boom. Good coverage is provided to the fashion world and several magazines are specifically devoted only to the fashion scene. The proliferation of fashion-based programmes on the satellite television channels has increased the consciousness of the average Indian masses about the changing trends in the global fashion. The Present In the past one decade the Indian fashion industry has moved from the embryonic stage to a blossoming take-off. Fashion designers have contributed substantially to the spread of fashion as a driving force, both among Indian consumers and select segments of Western markets. India can now boast of dozens of leading fashion designers, who can match any European fashion designer in their concepts, styles and designs. Ritu Beri, Rohit Bal, Ritu Kumar, Abraham and Thakore, Deepika Govind, Gitanjali Kashyap, Indira Broker, J.J.Valaya, Lina Tipnis, Manoviraj Khosla, Pavan Aswani, Payal Jain, Ravi Bajaj, Rina Dhaka, Sharon Leong and Chandrajit Adhikari, Shaina NC, Sonali and Himanshu, Wendell Rodricks, Anna Singh, Ashish Soni, Jatin Kochar, Madhu Jain, Manish Malhotra, Ravi Bajaj, Salim Asgarally and Tarun Tahlliani top the growing list of reputed fashion designers in India. Fashion and dress-designing goes in tandem with professional ramp modeling. In India ramp modeling has come of age with a rapidly growing genre of professional ramp models, both male and female, making a mark in domestic as well as international arenas. Madhu Sapre, Helen Brodie, Bipasha Basu, Nayanika Chatterjee, Nina Manuel, Annie Thomas, Anupama Verma, Liza Ray, Malaika Arora, Maria Goretti, Meher Jesia, Namrata Barua, Sheetal Mallar, Sherie Meher Homji, Sonali Rosario and Ujwala Rawat are among the leading female models of India while Milind Soman, Andrew Piers, Arjun Rampal, Atul Wokulu, Himanshu Malik, Marc Robinson, Rahul Dev and Rohit Ticu are among the leading male models. Now more and more leading fashion designers like Ritu Beri, Rina Dhaka and others are concentrating on Indian wear and trying to revive India's glorious fabric and design traditions. As the best of designs, motifs, themes and skilled craftsmen are available in
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India and Indian fabrics and styles are best suited for the country, such efforts seem quite logical. As a result we find more and more men and women adopting the swadeshi clothes and designs. The Sherwanis, Jodhpuris, Nehru jackets, shawls and Kurta-pyjamas have all sprung back as the "latest designer-wear" among men. Similar revival is evident in womens costumes. Several Indian designers are also launching ranges that are easy on the pocket of ordinary masses. The Indian designers are also found to take up social themes like the cause of environment in their designer wear. Today the fashion designers from India have created a lasting impression on the world market and boast of clients in the Middle East, UK and USA. Ravi Bajaj has designed various fashion lines for export houses targeting the US and European markets. Ritu Beri has an outlet at the prestigious Regent Street in London and in New Jersey in U.S.A. Indian designers like Gitanjali Kashyap, Rohit Bal and others frequently participate in fashion shows abroad. Interestingly an Indian shawl and a salwar-kameez ensemble, created by leading Mumbai couturiers Abu Jani and Sandeep Khosla, fomed part of the exotic wardrobe of French actress Sophie Marceau in the latest James Bond adventure. For those who have not known this, after China, India has maintained the position of being the second largest job-worker for international brands. It is the largest exporter of garments. But, the scene is different today; as the nation has a closet of fashion designers who are also creating trends across the globes, instead of letting India simply follow world trends. While the western fashion of jeans and skirts seem to dominate the scene, yet the traditional salwar kameez, chudidar kameez and sari, continue to be a primary theme in India's fashion. In fact, Indian fashion designers have created a new category of clothing, which is showcased as the indo-western line or collection of clothing. In this collection the designer blends the dominant trend of the western world into the Indian dress. Fashion Industry Trends Fashion has been in existence and eminence for over 5000 years. And yet, it changes perhaps everyday. Transformation of fashion trends as a function of social status is an area of much interest and consequence. The distribution of demand for fashion clothing
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accessories across different levels of society aids the allocation of resources and positions of fashion in the market accordingly. Eco Boom taps Pret a Couture: The current spurt of economic growth in India has no doubt affected the fashion scene. The rise of the awareness and purchasing power of the middleclass has resulted due to the boom in the service industry. This can be co-related to the current revolution in retail. Consumers today have money to spend and to spend it wisely. The chasm between designer and high street is fast disappearing. Thus expectations for quality are on rise. Demand is now for fashion that returns value for money and yet is novel. This need is being fulfilled by the rapid expansion in organized retail segment. Thus a strong pulse to acknowledge is Couture meets Prt drive fuelled by the increasing demand for designer fashion at reasonable costs. Retailers are now experimenting with Prt a couture. Global village to international brands: The "global" scenario in the economic perspective has altered fashion. International fashion brands like MANGO, GUESS etc entering the Indian market and selling at premium prices comparable to those in the west. Hence this is giving a competitive push to the local brands to improvise on product, pricing, packaging etc. This Global exchange is one of the many driving forces that accentuate the growth of brand awareness in India. Fair trade beyond FMCG sector: The importance of ethical practices in the industry is stretching from sourcing to pricing. India as a supplier, manufacturer, and converter to innumerous international fashion brands finds it inevitable to acquire FLO certification. The restricted international trade in this industry till before 2005 was unorganized and practices went unnoticed. Now as it grows beyond bounds, it is taking on a organized and most cases even a corporate structure which prioritizes not only quality but also just and ethical trade practices. Eco/Fashion Equation: In the functional context, we can highlight the role and relevance of ecological and regulation inputs. Many Eco conscious countries have introduced legal regulations and prohibitions to safeguard larger interests of the globe. These regulations are directly/ indirectly forcing the manufacturing houses, export houses, textile mills etc to adopt and adapt to the new policies. This awareness has spilt steadily into the creative initiatives even in Indian retail industry. Out of ecological necessity & desire for novelty, creative leaders are exploring future possibilities of more natural fibers like bamboo, soy, corn, milk, paper, pineapple etc. to complement if not replace currently used natural fibers
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in the coming years, on the fashion scene. A novel research project is looking at ways to recycle plastic bottles for use in the fashion industry in a bid to halt the landfill crisis. In retail, Bamboo, a label of garments made of bamboo fibre showcased in Pantaloons this season. Plurality v/s Diversification in Fashion: Plurality in dressing to conform to different activities and environments is rapidly emerging. Fashion is working now more as a function of creating multi-functional clothing. This multi-functionality of people and their wardrobe stems mainly from the increasing Urbanization and evolving work standards and patterns. As opposed to this, the occasion and hence the objective for dressing is another parameter to measure change in the fashion industry. However this speaks more of the patterns of a fashion consumer. The need for a multi sectional wardrobe with clothing made to fit the varied social, work and other activities that exist at present is evident. In the same breath we can include the increasing gym culture. Specialized Gym wear/Sportswear has taken their racks in fashion stores. Sportswear brands like Nike, Reebok are diversifying in a big way into highly specialized engineered sportswear or rather gym wear. Food trends and changing anatomy of fashion: Fast food culture, overeating, eating at odd hours has led to a change in the physical attributes of people in general. Fashion has also managed to target the so called obese/ overweight strata where the demand is remarkable. Thus, plus Size Fashion hence has gained importance. The market for such brands is growing by the day. All, Revolution, Lakshita are some pioneers in this segment who realized well in time, the scope of such products. Technology and creativity: Technology is a major factor in giving sudden twists to fashion trends. For example, Nano Technology has taken "functional clothing" to a whole new level. Research talks about fashion clothing developed using fabrics treated with nano particles to prevent colds and flu and never needs washing. Another nano-fabric destroys harmful gases and protects the wearer from smog and air pollution. The demands for fabrics have increased sharply. Conventional textiles are not able to meet the production cost. With better customization of characteristics into the fabric and appropriateness to certain end uses being advantages, non-wovens have emerged rapidly as the fabrics of the future. Psyche in fashion: In the Indian context, the Indian culture has been subject to influences from earliest history - Roman, Greek, Jewish, Christian, Arab,
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Mughal, French & British. Today, the culture of India is unique and uniquely modifying. The western influences on top of 3000 years of culture have given birth to this uniqueness. The need for adventure gets a face in fashion with body art like tattoos of Indian gods and goddesses, body piercing and nail art. Also clothing with prints of manuscripts, shlokas and deities are in plenty. Sparkling future ahead The fashion cycle definitely keeps progressing with the time as new fabrics, trends, designs and cultures mix and match their way to create something unique. According to Assocham, the domestic fashion business is expected to become a Rs.750 crore industry by 2012 from the current level of Rs.270 crore, given the increased demand for designer clothes and huge investments being planned by companies. It was projected that the domestic fashion industry would grow to a level of Rs.500 crore in the next five years but the growth of the sector would be much more, it said in a paper on 'Indian Fashion Industry'. The sector accounts for a meager 0.2 per cent of the global designer wear market, which is worth Rs.162, 900 crore and is growing at 9.5 per cent annually. The paper further asserted that the Indian apparel market, worth Rs.111, 000 crore in March 2007, would touch Rs.1, 30, 000 crore next year, which opens the Pandora of opportunities for the fashion community. The efforts have been put in by the government and renowned institutes to establish more fashion institutes across the country with R&D facilities in each state so that regional expertise is blended with international designs. According to the industry experts, there is a dire need to groom designers by sponsoring exchange programmes, providing business incubation to upcoming designers and rewarding efforts through appropriate design awards. India fashion week What has further boosted Indias place on the map of international fashion? In the recent years the largest domestic cosmetic company of the country introduced the Lakme India Fashion Week, which is hosted under its own banner. This particular event is a platform for buyers and sellers from across the world. It is not only a platform for the established designers; but also a first time ramp for launching new designers. These designers are selected by a panel set up by the company. Apart from showcasing the latest fashion trends, the company uses this as a stage to promote its products. In order to keep the consumers interest in the range of cosmetics, with each Lakme India fashion week the company launches a theme on the basis of which designers have to create their respective lines. The India fashion week is conducted twice a year, wherein there are two sets of collections - the summer collection and the winter collection.

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The designers are given freedom to use fabrics of their choice, however the color scheming has to be based on the theme set by the company. The cosmetic company also introduces into the market a range that is contributed by reputed designers, who have participated in the week. In the initial two runs of the fashion week there were a lot of glitches. Creases were apparent in organization and showcasing. A section of the press went on a rampage bringing out the various nuances. However, by the third event the company had ironed out all the creases, and today, it is a major event where the whos who of the celebrity section of society definitely visits a few ramp walks to see what dominates the scene. In fact, in the last two to three events film stars have walked the ramp for certain designers, endorsing their label. This increases the marked value of the labels. From the international trade perspective, vendors from around the world visit the India fashion week in order to purchase the latest fabrics, as well as establish contracts with some of the designers in order to have them showcased in their own city. The event is the only one in India, though from time-to-time designers host fashion shows to showcase their latest line of clothes.

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References: Calasibetta, Charlotte. Essential Terms of Fashion: A Collection of Definitions (Fairchild, 1985) Calasibetta, Charlotte. Fairchilds Dictionary of Fashion, (Fairchild, 2nd ed,1988) Cumming, Valerie. Understanding Fashion History (Chrysalis, 2004) Ewing, Elizabeth. History of Twentieth Century Fashion, revised by Alice Mackrell (Batsford, 4th ed, 2001) Laver, James. Costume and Fashion (Thames & Hudson, 1995) OHara Callan, Georgina. Dictionary of Fashion and Fashion Designers (Thames & Hudson, 1998) OHara Callan, Georgina. The Encyclopedia of Fashion and Fashion Designers (Thames & Hudson, 1996) Peacock, John. Mens Fashion: The Complete Sourcebook (Emerald, 1997) Peacock, John. Fashion Accessories: The Complete 20th Century Sourcebook (Thames & Hudson, 2000) Steele, Valerie. Fifty Years of Fashion: New Look to Now (Yale, 2000) Stegemeyer, Anne. Who's Who in Fashion, (Fairchild, 4th ed, 2003) Watson, Linda. Twentieth-century Fashion (Firefly, 2004) History of Fashion 19001910. From American www.vintageblues.com/history_main.htm [accessed September 2011]. History of Fashion 19101920. From American www.vintageblues.com/history1.htm [accessed September 2011]. History of Fashion 19201930. From American www.vintageblues.com/history2.htm [accessed September 2011]. History of Fashion 19301940. From American www.vintageblues.com/history3.htm [accessed September 2011]. History of Fashion 19401950. From American www.vintageblues.com/history4.htm [accessed September 2011]. History of Fashion 19501960. From American www.vintageblues.com/history5.htm [accessed September 2011]. History of Fashion 19601970. From American www.vintageblues.com/history6a.htm [accessed September 2011].
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Vintage Vintage Vintage Vintage Vintage Vintage Vintage

Blues. Blues. Blues. Blues. Blues. Blues. Blues.

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