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# Group members: Chiu Kai Man (DB027082) Sin Chi Ngai (DB027432) Course: ECEB210 Section: 002 Major:

ECE

Lab Report

## Part1: The Measurement of Basic Periodic Signal Spectrum

Object:
1. 2. Study the characteristics of some basic periodic signals in both time and frequency domain. Study the measurement method of signal spectrum.

Introduction:
Use the Oscilloscope to find the Fourier series for different signal. Compare the result with the theoretical Fourier series Coefficients.

Procedures:
1. 2. 3. Use the Signal Generator to generate the signals (sin wave/ square waves). Following the requests which on the pre lab to adjust your signals. Measure the spectral from the Oscilloscope.

Part 1(A):
For 1KHz:

For 5KHz:

Part 1(B):
For 1KHz:

## Fig.3 Square Wave (1 KHz)

DC component Experiment 0 #1 harmonic -21.25dB #2 -23.75dB #3 -32.50dB #4 -25.00dB #5 -25.625dB

For 5KHz:

## Fig.4 Square Wave (5 KHz)

DC component Experiment 0 #1 harmonic -20.00dB #2 -43.75dB #3 -27.50dB #4 -45.00dB #5 -32.50dB

Part 1(C):
For 1.25KHz:

## Fig.5 Square Wave (1.25 KHz, 1/4 T0)

DC component Experiment 0 #1 harmonic -22.50dB #2 -26.25dB #3 -31.25dB #4 -45.00dB #5 -38.125dB

Part 1(D):
For 0.625KHz:

## Fig.6 Square Wave (0.625 KHz, 1/4 T0)

DC component Experiment 0 #1 harmonic -22.50dB #2 -25.00dB #3 -31.25dB #4 -52.50dB #5 -35.00dB

Conclusion:
In the experiment results show that, we can only find one ak of the Sinusoidal signal (1 KHz & 5 KHz) [Fig.1&2]. As we know that, the Fourier series of sinusoidal signal only appear in a1 and a-1 and otherwise is equal to 0. Therefore, the results of sinusoidal signals are matching what we have already done in the pre-lab assignment. For the Square signal [Fig.3&4&5&6], we can notice that the spectrums are quiet

regular. When we sketch a diagram by the records found in the experiment which is shown in the table above, we can find that it is similar to a decreasing sinusoidal which like the pre-lab sketch. But there is a difference from the pre-lab is that from the pre-lab the ak should be 0 when k is even, but from the experiment the ak is not 0 when k is even, some of it is a negative number which is a big difference from the ak when k is odd. After we increase the period of square, we compare with the original square signal. We can easily see that the spectrums decreasing slower. Therefore, we can believe that the change of Fourier series of square signal is an inverse ratio with the period. When we let the period increase to infinite (T1/T0), the Fourier series of square signal will become almost no change.

## Part 2: Measurement of Frequency Response of 1st and 2nd Order Circuits

Objective:
1. 2. Study the characteristics of the 1st and 2nd order circuits in frequency domain. Study the method of the measurement of system frequency response.

Introduction:
Use the Oscilloscope to find out the 1st and 2nd order circuits Frequency Response.

Procedures:
1. 2. 3. Connect the circuits correctly. Use the oscilloscope to record their magnitude and phase. Compare the result with the theoretical result in pre-lab paper.

For Fig.1:
Frequency <50Hz 100Hz 500Hz 1KHz 5KHz >10KHz Magnitude(volt) 3.78 3.29 1.16 0.46 0.03 0.03 Phase(degree) 0 -12 -21 -40 -70 -90

For Fig.2:
Frequency <50Hz Magnitude(volt) 0.13 Phase(degree) 90

## 0.22 1.59 2.69 4.06 4.25

80 70 50 13 0

For Fig.4:
Frequency <100Hz 500Hz 1KHz 5KHz 10KHz 20KHz 30KHz >40KHz Magnitude(volt) -0.13 -0.13 -0.13 -0.75 -1.12 1.13 1.75 2.07 Phase(degree) 0 0 0 16 67 130 160 180