PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE Drawbacks of RCC: Weakness of Concrete in Tension: Concrete in Tension Zone Cracks To limit crack width

in concrete in Tension in steel and hence stress in steel is kept low. Strain in steel = stress in steel / Es (Es = Young’s modulus of Elasticity in steel)

Magnitude and eccentricity of the Prestressing force are so adjusted so that final stresses are always compressive and no tension develops at any stage. MATERIALS USED IN PSC CONCRETE: Min Grade: Pre Tensioned PSC: M 30 Post Tensioned PSC: M 35 Concrete strength grades Commonly used in PSC: M 35 to M 60 Steel: High strength steel with yield strength of 1200 to 1800 N/mm2 in the shape of (i) wires 4 to 8 mm dia (ii). Strands in the shape of a rope with 8 to 12 wires. (iii). Cables with 8 to 20 strands. METHODS OF PRESTRESSING Pre tensioning: (def :) “A method of Prestressing concrete in which tendons (Prestressing steel wires or rods)are tensioned (stressed) before concreting”. Prestressing steel wires are tensioned before casting concrete in moulds. Post tensioning: (def :) “a method of prestressing concrete in which prestressing steel is tensioned against hardened concrete”. Prestressing steel tensioned against hardened concrete. PRE TENSIONING: Prestressing wires temporarily anchored against strong abutments. Transfer of prestress to concrete is by bond. Transfer of prestress after concrete has set. Axial prestressing generally adopted. Bending of wires difficult and hence generally not adopted. Small sized prestressing wires (4 mm to 8 mm) generally used. Pre tensioning generally used for small pre cast factory produced elements. Applications of Pretensioning: For precast small factory produced building elements like precast beam elements, precast slab or wall elements. Precast Railway sleepers. Precast electric poles. Other similar factory produced precast conc. elements which may also be pretensioned to reduce dead weight.

Long Line Method: “A method used for manufacture of pre tensioned pre -cast identical elements (such as wall panels, slab, panels, Electric poles or railway sleepers), in which a long permanent bed with strong abutments at each end is used for casting a number of elements simultaneously”.

In an RCC Beam – Cracking of concrete in Tension zone may cause corrosion of steel of reinforcement. Cracking in concrete makes concrete in Tension zone ineffective to take stresses. Hence Section in an RCC beam is not fully utilized Hence NOT fully efficient.

Steam Curing: “A process of accelerated curing normally adopted for factory produced pre tensioned pre cast concrete elements by long line method, in which the pre cast elements are cured by passing saturated steam (circulating saturated steam around the pre cast elements). Heat and humidity provided by the saturated steam accelerates curing. 24 hours steam curing is considered adequate for removing pre cast elements from casting beds. Steam curing enables curing beds be used quickly. Post Tensioning (def.): A method of Prestressing concrete in which Prestressing steel is tensioned against hardened concrete. ADVANTAGES OF POST TENSIONING: • As post tensioning is normally adopted for In situ casting, longer spans feasible. • Cables can be bent, hence more efficient. • Less loss of prestress compared to pre tensioning. • Stage prestressing possible. Demerits of Post Tensioning : Post Tensioning needs sheathing, end anchorages, bearing Plates etc. and is therefore costlier and more tedious than Pretensioning. BENDING OF CABLES IN POST-TENSIONED PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS : Cables are bent such that the effective eccentricity at any section is proportional to external moment at that section so that no tension develops at any section.

In a prestressed concrete beam hollow tube is replaced by concrete beam. Steel rod is replaced by steel wires or steel cables. Nuts are replaced by steel wedges and end anchorages. Prestressing “is the Technique of introducing in a concrete member compressive force of permanent nature, so that it causes compressive stresses in that zone of member, where tensile stresses will be caused by external loads. Principle of Prestressing: Principle of applying a compressive force of permanent nature to a prestressed concrete member may be explained by analogy of applying compressive force to a hollow steel tube by end steel plates by tensioning a threaded a steel rod. Eccentric Prestressing force applied eccentrically below the Neutral Axis will induce compressive stresses below. The N.A. and tensile stresses above the N.A. This Technique is called ECCENTRIC Prestressing. Stresses induced by the eccentric prestressing will be of nature opposite to those induced by the external loading. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE - ELABORATE DEF. =“Concrete in which there have been introduced Internal stresses of such magnitude and distribution that the stresses resulting from given external loading are counteracted to a desired degree”. Prestressing ( Eccentric P.S ) will induce compressive stresses in those zones where Tension is induced by External loading and Tensile stresses in those zones where comp. stresses are induced by External loading.

Pretensioned precast slab units

Steps For Post Tensioning : To place prestressing tendons, a duct is formed in the concrete member at the time of casting. The concrete member is cast and allowed to harden to achieve adequate strength. Steel tendons are inserted and placed loose in the ducts at after the conc. member has hardened with end steel plates and end anchorages devices like steel wedges. The tendons are stretched and anchored at each end by means of steel wedges. Tendons are anchored at each end. Prestressing is transferred to concrete through bearing plates placed at each end. Equipments Needed For Post-Tensioning : • Concrete Beam (To Be Post-Tensioned)

pretensioned precast tee beam ( building flement )

High Strength Steel Cables.

• For large span and heavily loaded beams for structures like bridges. Injection Ground Anchors Merits of Pre-Stressed Concrete over RCC: Cracking of concrete in Tension zone may cause corrosion of steel of reinforcement which occurs due to the forces created in the section below the neutral axis in an RCC beam which does not happen in pre-stressed concrete as no tension is created. and similar structures. Large span folded plates and • Large diameter and large sized tanks(fluid container). Grade high strength cement. Similarly as no cracks are developed in concrete so a higher grade of concrete can be used. • For Ground Anchorages. • Electric or hydraulic jacks for tensioning cables. 1.• • Sheathing To House Cables. Transfer girders in buildings. Grouting pump 3. End Anchorages. flyovers. Large span cantilevers. Applications of Post Tensioning 1. Special Reinf. • Containment shells in nuclear reactors. Grouting tank 2. Since no corrosion of steel occurs so we can actually use a higher grade of steel and hence achieve a more effective section. To Prevent Splitting Of Concrete Due To Concrete Due To Heavy Concentrated Stresses. . basement floors and floors of large underground water tanks with high water table. Steel Wedges (To Anchor Cables To Plates) 3. bridges and flyovers. • Industrial structures. Spl. Super plasticisers. • • Ground anchors. • Ground Anchorages The Technique of Post Tensioning is used to provide anchorage and support for deep retaining walls. • Grouting equipment. 2. large sized cooling towers. etc. • • • shells. Applications • Large span and heavily loaded beams in buildings. Steel Bearing Plates With Holes For Cables. Diaphragm walls. II. Grouting material I. Water III.

-Distress to service pipes & Installations. Olive Vew Hospital Sanfernado Shear walls should be continued upto the foundation because shear walls act as vertical cantilevers from the ground and if discontinued on the ground floor it causes distress in the columns at the time of earthquake.A solid wall. Some desirable features for planning and design of shear walls: Location -These act as Functional walls also. Types of Shear Wall construction Shear Walls. A Shear Wall may consist of: . of cross and long walls acting both as load bearing walls and shear walls to resist workloads. loads more efficiently. should be continued upto foundations.frame interaction-‘Shear walls. is resisted by various vertical elements in a bldg. .Symmetric layout about both axes -Shear walls must be placed symmetrically about both axes to avoid torsion. Cross Wall Construction: A no. Example of cross wall construction: 3 – 4 storeyed load bearing brick masonry bldgs. Adopt Avoid To Receive Sufficient Vertical Load To Achieve In Design: Shear wall design is most economical if tension is avoided. to be constructed in India in near future. -feeling of insecurity and danger.15 to 4o storeyes ht. Range limited to 3-4 storeyes due to weakness of masonry in tension. Need of Shear Wall in a building: . Disadvantages: -Walls must be permanent.Cost of a building Increases a lot with increase in the number of storeys. -Do not interfere with Architecture of the building. This Aspect Is Very Imp. Most common form for medium height to high rise buildings. Advantages: -Very stiff system. Continuity: Shear walls. Suitability: -Residential bldgs. -Walls can be made to act both functional walls as well as structural walls.frame interaction’ is a combination for shear walls and frames (cols). Advantages: -Provide flexibility of planning. (columns and walls) in proportion to their stiffness. -More Stiff elements carry resist more horizontal load compared to less stiff elements. of long and cross walls which can be made to act as shear walls. Which have large no. -Large openings cannot be provided. -A perforated wall -A closed loop or a core. -This method is used commonly these days because it helps in resisting loads very efficiently also reducing the cost. Shear walls resist horizontal loads more efficiently than frames and are accordingly provided in buildings beyond 12 – 15 storeys in height. -Ideal for buildings from 15 to 40 storey ht. Basic principle of Shear wall action : -Hor. Shear Walls: A structural wall which has high in plane stiffness by virtue of its form. Hence shear walls resist most of hor. -Eccentrically placed shear walls may induce large stresses due to torsion and may damage the bldg. Some of the locations to place a shear wall in a building: Adopt Avoid Ductile Detailing Shear walls should be detailed for ductility and brittle failure should be avoided. . Also the magnitude of Hor. Examples: -Enclosures around lift wells -Staircase walls -External walls -Some of partition walls can be made to act as shear walls Along Both Axes As horizontal force due to wind or EQ may act from either direction. In Planning The Layout Of Shear Walls In A Bldg. Load in a bldg. Well Distributed Along Both Axes: -Avoid Narrow Core At Centre Of Building. -Distress to partitions. at DLF Gurgaon. shear walls should be provided along both axes to provide resistance along both axes. These should not be discontinued in the lower storeys. has RCC walls acting as shear wall. -Shear walls have very large stiffness compared to stiffness of all cols (50 to 100 times or even more )in a bldg. 29 storeyes HAMILTON COURT Apartment Bldg. Adverse Effects of Large Horizontal Deflections in a Building: -Distress to Glazing. Examples: -Masonry Buildings: Ht. This bldg. -Other such form. when provided. Loads beyond 12 – 15 storeys is large so a structural system more efficient than FRAMES are needed to resist hor. Loads relieving columns to resist primarily vertical loads only.These are named so because they are used to resist horizontal shear forces in a structure. This can be achieved by adding sufficient vertical load on the shear wall. -Feasibility of providing large spans. -Psychological effects. -RCC Solid Wall Construction Very stiff & very efficient. -Distress to cladding.

A 21 storeyed DDA Head quarter office Bldg. Good seismic resistance.T. General Office Complex at Nizam Palace. CONOID : Conoid is the shell surface generated by a moving a straight line with one of its ends on a plane curve and other end on a straight line. SHELLS:Curved surfaces with thickness small compared to other dimensions. It may be +ve. BEAM AND SLAB Merits: • Can be adopted for any shape and size of building • • Usually most economical system. New Delhi.for staircase and lift shafts can be easily formed. also called as flat plates or flat slabs ELLIPTICAL PARABOLOID • Engineer’s India office Bldg. at I.C. -ve or partially –ve or partially +v • • • • 14 storeyed Delhi Administration office Bldg. Industrial Structures Storage Bins . Can conveniently support partition walls and concentrated loads. 1/25-30 and 1/25-30 and 1/30-35 Beam – 1/10-15 and 1/10-8 . at Janpath. APLLICATIONS OF CONOIDS : Industrial buildinds The raised portions of conoids may used as North light glazing • This system is the most common system because of low construction cost and less cost of shuttering. • Videsh Sanchar Bhawan. Baba Kharagh Singh Marg. parabola. New Delhi. Kolkata. Light weight and long span system.CASE1 STUDIES Cylindrical shell roof SINGLY CURVED SHELLS Gauss curvature = 0 Examples:. Bldg. Vikas Minar. New Delhi. Their shape is so curved that these carry primarly direct stresses. at Bhikaji Cama Place. an incline straight line segment orb any such curve. Concealed beams are those in which the beams are broad and thin such that they are accommodated in the slab. less material used and structural stability. hyperbola. S. Bending stresses are eliminated or kept to minimum.O. Spherical shell roof APPLICAIONS OF DOMES : 1. A 20 stpreyed office Bldg. Easy to analyse and design. • • • • Demerits • Larger spans may need deeper beams (eg for span = 12 m d = 1000 mm) Sometimes architectural and aesthetic need may decide floor system other than beam and slab system.T. Sanitary structures 5. ellipse. Indoor Sports Stadia ( Examples are Talkatora Indoor Stadium) 3. A main beam is the primary beam which spans between the 2 columns and a secondary beam is the beam which spans between the main beams. Over Head and Under ground Water Tanks 4. New Delhi. at KOLKATTA. An inverted beam is the one which is not below but is built above the slab. Large openings e g. width – d/2 or 2d/3 Column – 4.Cylindrical shells DOUBLY CURVED SHELLS: Gauss curvature is NOT zero. THICKNESS : Small precast shells : 30 -50 mm Cast in Situ concrete shells: 50 – 150 mm Average : 100 mm CLASSIFICATION OF SHELLS SINGLY CURVED DOUBLY CURVED SHELLS SHELLS OF REVOLUTION SHELL OF RULED SURFACE SHELLS OF TRANSLATION Slab – 1/20-25.1/15 and 6 – 1/15-12 and 8-1/12-10 and more -1/10-8 HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID SHELLS OF REVOLUTION A Shell surface generated by revolving a curve about an axis. used mostly in a sunken slab in toilets and for terrace gardens. Large Halls ( Examples are Parliament Hall) 2. Example : A Dome The curve of revolution may be an arc of a circle. New Dehi.

less economical and difficult to construct FOLDED PLATES are thin slabs folded in elevation to increase their structural efficiency. shears and direct forces all combined More tedious to analyse and design. Vikas Minar. Hence. (STC Buildings) I) PRISMATIC SHAPE Janpath. This structural form offers an efficient. • Concrete VGS are used in Hotels. Columns H) V. The system allows for the greatest height and the most floor area. G) V. bend in their plane. economical in design and cost and comparatively easier to construct A Virendeel girder is a rigid frame with open web Girders. the outer tube usually plays a dominant role because of its much greater structural depth. Prominent feature of the Virendeel Girder is absence of diagonal members and the frame depends upon rigidity of the joints for stability. The increase in stiffness is apparent. LIGHT USES: The structural components are: Virendeel girders are useful for spanning Diaphragm beams large column free areas such as in: Folded slab -Factories.GLAZ (iii) Godowns (iv) Auditoriums ING TES (v) Gymnasiums etc. This arrangement was first used in Chicago’s John Hancock Building in 1969. Simpler to analyze . The idea is to create a tube that will act like a continuous perforated chimney or stack. Auditoriums etc. Structural virendeel • • Bottom chord • Vertical members Span ranges: • RCC – 20 TO 30 M • STEEL – 30 TO 40 M • SPACING – 6 TO 12 M members of a girder are: Top chord shells. New York. say 9m. Hence. However. The inner tube may consist of braced frames. vertical and diagonal members Joints are assumed to be hinged for analysis Direct tension or direct compression forces Forces in members are beams. Slab t. In this system. Aesthetically pleasing and comparable with shells.T TRICAL SHA A) VSHA PE . TUBE IN TUBE STRUCTURES This is a type of framed tube consisting of an outer frame tube together with an elevator and service core. World Trade Centre. As a result. The plates being supported by the diaphragm(or traverse beams) at their ends. T MERITS: (i) Simpler shuttering involving only straight Y planks. The longitudinal bending of plates in their own plane is called plate action. The frames consist of closely spaced columns 2-4m b/w centres joined by deep girders. This structural form was used in sear’s tower in Chicago. their columns are more evenly stressed than in the single tube structure and their contribution to the lateral stiffness is greater. a bottom chord with vertical members between top & bottom chords. the spacing of the columns can be increased and the depth of the girders will be less. But smaller spans or closely spaced columns can be used for the upper stories. resulting P speedy construction. DEMERITS Consume slightly more quantities of concrete and steel and carry slightly more dead weight compared to shells.100-150 and col spacing – 6-10m h/span ratio.Typical shapes: VIRENDEEL GIRDER / PRATT TRUSS Consists of top chord. This transverse action is termed as slab action This transverse moment developed in plates can be determined by a continuous beam analysis assuming the supports at junction of plates. introduction of the internal webs greatly reduces the sheer lag in the flanges.SHAPE WITH -As transfer girders. New Delhi. BEAM ACTION: The components of loads acting tangential to each plate cause bending of plates in their own plane. The common shapes are: (i) V – shape (ii) Trapezoidal (iii) Through (iv) North E) THREE ccPLATE light F) FIVE PLATE NORTH (v) NORTH LIGHT Prismatic etc. bottom chord. A folded plate roof is economical as compared to ordinary beam and slab system for large spans. Hospital A B: : BU T VTT I NORT T CE : D ER H Y THR APPLICATIONS LIGH : FL For roofs of buildings requiring large column free P areas as in: EEIndustrial buildings. which can be considered as imaginary supports for a continuous slab. easily constructed structure appropriate for buildings having 40 to 100 storeys. • Steel Virendeel Girders are more common in large spanned Industrial structures.SHAPE WITH HOR. Architects : Raj Rewal FRAMED TUBE STRUCTURES The framed tube is one of the most significant modern developments in high rise structural form. This type of structures are also called hull (outer tube) and core (inner tube) structures. bottom chord and vertical members (no diagonal members) Joints must be rigid A pratt truss consists of top chord. the structure behaves under lateral loads more like a braced frame reducing bending in the members of the frames. The gravity loading is shared between the tubes and interior columns. EXAMPLES: incINCLINED (i) North light girders for Industrial buildings at GLAZING GLAZING Gurgaon & Noida. Architects : CP. • Virendeel Girders can either be in steel or concrete. New Delhi. SLAB ACTION: The component of loads acting normal to each plate causes transverse bending between junction of plates. BUNDLED TUBE The bundled tube system can be visualized as an assemblage of individual tubes resulting in multiple cell tube. Kukereja (ii) Jawahar Vyapar Bhavan. BRACED TUBE STRUCTURES Further improvements to the tubular system can be made by cross-bracing the frame with x-bracing over many storeys. Factories. The outer and inner tubes act jointly in resisting both gravity and lateral loading in steel framed buildings. and comprising of a top chord.1/8 or 1/5 B) TRAP D) C) EZOI UNSY SYMME DAL MM. However simpler shuttering REQD more than offset cost. warehouses.. As the diagonals of a braced tube are connected to the columns at each intersections. Z YT (i) E halls (ii) Assembly PLA . having rigid joints. • A Virendeel Girder is a Truss with two continuous Horizontal members connected with equally spaced vertical members. they virtually eliminate the affects of shear lag in both the flange and web frames. In slab action. (iv) Design computation E simpler compared to (v) over Lobbies where large column free spaces are reqd on ground floor. the plates bend as and are reinforced as slabs. The lateral resistance of framed tube structures is provided by very stiff moment resisting frames that form a tube around the perimeter of the building. Thereby allowing large size windows than in the conventional framed tube structures. (iii) Simpler diaphragms. (ii) moveable formwork can be used.

In additional angles can be produced economically and can be jointed easily. They do not have span restrictions and as such steel trusses in be used for industrial buildings and other such structures where large areas are required to be covered without obstructions due to columns etc. as ‘ T ‘ beams.Simple and less form work. 8. (iv) Ribs can be Architecturally treated. Advantages of steel roof truss over timber truss are given below: 1. Steel trusses are more fire-resisting than timber trusses. These may need framing. 2.Need more or (les) regular square layout of panels.s. Such systems are easier to analyses and more Weaker under workloads (due to EQ/ wind) Provision commonly adopted.Can reduce storey height to accommodate more Depth of ribs = span/20 to span/25 no. for stairs and lift wells. GRID FLOORS Grid floor systems are: System consists of beams spaced at regular intervals in prependicular directions. There is no danger of the material being eaten away by white and or other insects. of ribs < 12x thickness of slab (This condition is Heavier weight and costlier system compared to beam satisfied in most of practical cases) and slab system (25 to 40 % costlier). More pleasing.10M 3. system. due to form action of ribs. Steel trusses are stronger than timber trusses. the progress of roofing work with steel trusses is fast. The safe working tensile stress of mild steel is about 20 times that of structural timber.Easy and quick construction. around periphery Generally the depth of wide shallow beams is equal to DEMERITS OF FLAT PLATE/ FLAT SLAB RECTANGULARof ribs.  Each RIB (beam) acts as a T-beam.Pleasing clear flat ceiling.heads & drop panels provide resistance against projections.heads Electric lights and filings can be aesthetically Thickness of slab = 125 to 250 mm concealed within ribs. APPLICATIONS : Parking Buildings Libraries etc. 4. (ii) Architecturally. of shear walls needed for m. WAFFLE SLAB FLOOR SYSTEMS Consist of ribs at closer intervals which act as T – beams. Spacing of columns = 4 to 8 m centres Larger span feasible without excessive beam Col. Out of the various shapes of steel sections. (v) This system can be used for longer spans (up to 10m or so) without excessive beam projection.heads) Consist of only slabs & columns beams being committed. panels) and RCC cols with col. buildings above 6 to 8 ADVANTAGES OF WAFFLE SLAB SYSTEMS : stories with these floor systems. . Systems with solid RCC slabs (with or without drop Rib can be architecturally treated. FLATE SLAB MERITS : Architecturally more pleasing Reduced overall depth (D ~ span/ 20 to span/ 25. Central sectt. angles are considered most suitable for steel roof truss. SPAN RANGE 6M. The sections forming a steel truss are easy in transportation. aesthically appealing for larger SYSTEMS: spans. This is on account of the fact that angles can resist both compressive and tensile stresses effectively. (i) Reduced dead wt.span/15) FLATE PLATE/FLATE SLAB SYSTEMS Consist of solid RCC slabs and columns (no beams) FLAT PLATE SYSTEMS : Systems with solid RCC slabs (with or without drop panels) and RCC cols (without col. TRUSSES: A trusses consists of an assembly of rigid but elastic members jointed in the form of triangles to act as a beam. Architectural and Aesthetic reasons. (iii) Electric lights and fittings can be aesthetically concealed within ribs. National museum building. Difficult to analyses for panels with irregular layouts Difficult to provide large openings e. 6. Library at Shastri Bhavan New Delhi. Types of Waffle slabs with wide shallow beams 4. More head room. 7. EXAMPLE: NDMC parking at cannaught place New Delhi. Comparatively light weight system. depth GRID SYSTEMS : Such system are analyzed as two way slabs it spacing Thicker slabs needed to resist punching shear.g.of storeyes. Thus steel trusses work out to be economical. TROUG H SHAPE PE GH SHAP E FLOOR SYSTEMS – COMPARATATIVE COSTS Beam and slab systems : 100 Waffle slab system : 125 Flat slab system : 140 CONCLUSION : Adopt beam and slab floor system unless there is justification for adopting any other system due to functional. (beam t – span /20-25 and col. Steel section forming the truss are light in weight and can be fabricated in any desired pattern to suit the architectural requirement. 5. 2. On account of their easy erection techniques. Hence comparatively light wt.  The beams are monolithic with a topping slab. RIBBED (Waffle ) SLAb System : Consist of RIBS at closer intervals along both axis MERITS which act 1. 3. punching shear. MCD parking in front of LNGP Hospital New Delhi. Janpath New Delhi. especially for bigger spans. The sections can be obtained in any desired form or length to suite the requirements and there is not much wastage of the material in cutting etc.

Expensive system 2. dep. Multiplex halls etc. used to span large spaces upto 30m without any central columns 2. Less depth can take the amount of load DEMERITS OF GRID FLOOR 1.DIFFERENT COMPONENTS:1. 3. Slab (65-100) Ribs(width.150-250.span/20-25.  . Examples are Auditoriums. more than 30m can be spanned APPLICATIONS Grid floors are adopted for large halls where flat RCC roof is desired. pragati maidan) DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRID FLOOR:• Rectangular grid • Square grid • Rectangular dia grid • Circular grid 2.e. Not very large spans i. Conference Halls. Columns 4.(hall of technology. beam MERITS OF GRID FLOOR 1. more aesthetical due to beams at regular intervals.2-3) 3. spac.

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