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MISSION: objectives?

What

are

the can

Advertising be spent?

MONEY: How much (Advertising budget)

MESSAGE: What message should be sent? MEDIA: What media should be used? MEASUREMENT: How should the results be evaluated? After the Target Market, market positioning and marketing mix decisions have been taken the First step n developing an Advertising Program is 1. MISSION OR SETTING ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES THE

Advertising Objectives can be classified as to whether their aim is: To inform: This aim of Advertising is generally true during the pioneering stage of a product category, where the objective is building a primary demand. This may include:

Telling the market about a new product Suggesting new uses for a product Informing the market of a price change Informing how the product works

Describing available services Correcting false impressions Reducing buyers fears Building a company image

To persuade: Most advertisements are made with the aim of persuasion. Such advertisements aim at building selective brand. To remind: Such advertisements are highly effective in the maturity stage of the product. The aim is to keep the consumer thinking about the product. 2. MONEY This M deals with deciding on the Advertising Budget The advertising budget can be allocated based on:

Departments or product groups The calendar Media used Specific geographic market areas

There are five specific factors to be considered when setting the Advertising budget.

Stage in PLC: New products typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial. Established brands are usually supported with lower advertising budgets as a ratio to sales. Market Share and Consumer base: high-market-share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain their share. To build share by increasing market size requires larger advertising expenditures. Additionally, on a costper-impressions basis, it is less expensive to reach consumers of a widely used brand them to reach consumers of low-share brands. Competition and clutter: In a market with a large number of competitors and high advertising spending, a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard above the noise in the market. Even simple

clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brand creates the need for heavier advertising. Advertising frequency: the number of repetitions needed to put across the brands message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. Product substitutability: brands in the commodity class (example cigarettes, beer, soft drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a different image. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features.

3. MESSAGE GENERATION Message generation can be done in the following ways: Inductive: By talking to consumers, dealers, experts and competitors. Consumers are the major source of good ideas. Their feeling about the product, its strengths, and weaknesses gives enough information that could aid the Message generation process.

Deductive: John C. Meloney proposed a framework for generating Advertising Messages. According to him, a buyer expects four types of rewards from a product: Rational Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction. Buyers might visualize these rewards from: Results-of-use Experience Product-in-use Experience Incidental-to-use Experience The Matrix formed by the intersection of these four types of rewards and the three types of experiences is given below. Potential Type of Reward (Sample Messages) Ration Sensory Social Ego

Satisfactio n Result- 1. Gets 2. 3. When 4. For the of-Use Clothe Settles you care skin you Experien s Stomach enough deserve to ce Cleane upset to serve have r complet the best ely Product- 5. The 6. Real 7. A 8. The in-Use flour gusto in deodora store for Experien that a great nt to young ce needs light guarante executive no beer e social sifting acceptan ce Incident 9. The 10. The 11. The 12. Stereo al-toplastic portable furniture for the man Use pack televisio that with Experien keeps n identifie discriminat ce the that s the ing taste cigaret s lighter home of te fresh in modern weight, people easier to lift

al

Message evaluation and selection The advertiser needs to evaluate the alternative messages. A good ad normally focuses on one core selling proposition. Messages can be rated on desirability, exclusiveness and believability. The message must first say something desirable or interesting about the product. The message must also say something exclusive or distinct that does not apply to every brand in the product category. Above all, the message must be believable or provable. Message execution. The messages impact depends not only upon what is said but also on how it is said. Some ads aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. While executing a message the style, tone, words, and format for executing the message should be kept in mind.

4. MEDIA The next M to be considered while making an Advertisement Program is the Media through which to communicate the Message generated during the previous stage. The steps to be considered are:

5. MEASUREMENT Evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program is very important as it helps prevent further wastage of money and helps make corrections that are important for further advertisement campaigns. Researching the effectiveness of the advertisement is the most used method of evaluating the

effectiveness of the Advertisement Program. Research can be in the form of:


Communication-Effect Research Sales-Effect Research

There are two ways of measuring advertising effectives. They are: Pre-testing It is the assessment of an advertisement for its effectiveness before it is actually used. It is done through

Concept testing how well the concept of the advertisement is. This is be done by taking expert opinion on the concept of the ad. Test commercials test trial of the advertisement to the sample of people Finished testing

Post-testing

It is the assessment of an advertisements effectiveness after it has been used. It is done in two ways

Unaided recall a research technique that asks how much of an ad a person remembers during a specific period of time Aided recall a research technique that uses clues to prompt answers from people about ads they might have seen