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Layla and Majnun
A scene from Nizami's adaptation of the story. Layla and Majnun meet for the last time before their deaths. Both have fainted and Majnun's elderly messenger attempts to revive Layla while wild animals protect the pair from unwelcome intruders. Late 16th century illustration.
Layla and Majnun, also known as The Madman and Layla – in Arabic ي لى مج نون Layla) or يس ي لى ق ( لMajnun and
( ولQays and Layla), in Persian: ( مج نون و ل ی لیLeyli o Majnun), Leyli və ( مج نو لlailā majanū) in Urdu and Hindi – is a
Məcnun in Azeri, Leyla ile Mecnun in Turkish, ي ال
classical Arab story, popularized by Persian poet Nizami Ganjavi's masterpiece, Layli o Majnun. It is based on the real story of a young man called Majnun In (todays Iraq) during the Umayyad era in the 7th century when Arabs defeated Persia and Ctesiphon was destroyed and Persians built Iraq. In one version, he spent his youth together with Layla, tending their flocks. In another version, upon seeing Layla he fell passionately in love with her. In both versions, however, he went mad when her father prevented him from marrying her; for that reason he came to be called Majnun (Arabic: )مج نونmeaning "madman."
1 Story 2 History and influence o 2.1 Persian Adaptation and Persian literature o 2.2 Azeri Adapation and Azerbaijani literature 3 Other Influences 4 Popular culture 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 External links
Majnun, was a Bedouin poet. He fell in love with Layla bint Mahdi ibn Sa’d (better known as Layla Al-Aamiriya) from the same tribe. He soon began composing poems about his love for her, mentioning her name often. When he asked for her hand in marriage, her father refused as this would mean a scandal for Layla according to local traditions. Soon after, Layla married another man. When Qays heard of her marriage, he fled the tribe camp and began wandering the surrounding desert. His family eventually gave up hope for his return and left food for him in the wilderness. He could sometimes be seen reciting poetry to himself or writing in the sand with a stick. Layla moved to present-day Iraq with her husband, where she became ill and eventually died. Qays was later found dead in the wilderness in 688 AD. near an unknown woman’s grave. He had carved three verses of poetry on a rock near the grave, which are the last three verses attributed to him. Many other minor incidents happened between his madness and his death. Most of his recorded poetry was composed before his descent into madness. Among the poems attributed to Qays ibn al-Mulawwah, regarding Layla:
I pass by these walls, the walls of Layla And I kiss this wall and that wall It’s not Love of the houses that has taken my heart But of the One who dwells in those houses ”
It is a tragic story of undying love much like the later Romeo and Juliet.[dead link] This type of love is known in Persian culture as "Virgin Love", because the lovers never married or made love. Other famous Virgin Love stories are the stories of "Qays and Lubna", "Kuthair and Azza", "Marwa and Al Majnoun Al Faransi" and "Antara and Abla". The literary motif itself is common throughout the world, notably in the Muslim literature of South Asia, such as Urdu ghazals.
History and influence
Persian Adaptation and Persian literature
Majnun in the wilderness From Persian folklore in todays Iran by Persian. The story of Leylie o Majnoon was known in Persian at least from the time of Rudaki and Baba Taher who mentions the lovers. Although the story was somewhat popular in Persian literature in the 12th century, it was the Persian masterpiece of Nizami Ganjavi that popularized it dramatically in Persian literature. Nizami collected both secular and mystical sources about Majnun and portrayed
a vivid picture of the famous lovers . Subsequently, many other Persian poets imitated him and wrote their own versions of the romance. By collecting information from both secular and mystical sources about Majnun, Nizami portrayed such a vivid picture of this legendary lover that all subsequent poets were inspired by him, many of them imitated him and wrote their own versions of the romance. Nizami uses various characteristics deriving from 'Udhrite love poetry and weaves them into his own Persian culture. He Persianised the poem by adding techniques borrowed from the Persian epic tradition, such as "the portrayal of characters, the relationship between characters, description of time and setting, etc.". In his adaptation, the young lovers become acquainted at school and fell desperately in love. However, they could not see each other due to a family feud, and Layla's family arranged for her to marry another man . According to Dr. Rudolf Gelpke: Many later poets have imitated Nizami's work, even if they could not equal and certainly not surpass it; Persians, Turks, Indians, to name only the most important ones. The Persian scholar Hekmat has listed not less than forty Persians and thirteen Turkish versions of Layli and Majnun.. According to Vahid Dastgerdi, If one would search all existing libraries, one would probably find more than 1000 versions of Layli and Majnun. In his statistical survey of famous Persian romances, Ḥasan Ḏulfaqāri enumerates 59 ‘imitations’ (naẓira s) of Leyli o Majnun as the most popular romance in the Iranian world, followed by 51 versions of Ḵosrow o Širin, 22 variants of Yusof o Zuleikha and 16 versions of Vāmeq oʿAḏrāʾ..
Azeri Adapation and Azerbaijani literature
Azerbaijani folk art based on the Layla and Majnun novel by Nizami Ganjavi. The Story of Layla and Majnun passed into Azerbaijani literature. The Azerbaijani language adaptation of the story, Dâstân-ı Leylî vü Mecnûn (" ;مج نون و ل ی لى دا س تانThe
Epic of Layla and Majnun") was written in the 16th century by Fuzûlî and Hagiri Tabrizi. Fuzûlî's version was borrowed by the renownedAzerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov, who used the material to create what became the Middle East's first opera. It premiered in Baku on 25 January 1908. The story had previously been brought to the stage in the late 19th century, when Ahmed Shawqi wrote a poetic play about the tragedy, now considered one of the best in modern Arab poetry. Majnun lines from the play are sometimes confused with his actual poems. A scene of the poem is depicted on the reverse of the Azerbaijani 100 and 50 manat commemorative coins minted in 1996 for the 500th anniversary of Fuzûlî's life and activities.
The enduring popularity of the legend has influenced Middle Eastern literature, especially Sufi writers, in whose literature the name Layla refers to their concept of the Beloved. The original story is featured in Bahá'u'lláh's mystical writings, the Seven Valleys. Etymologically, Layla is related to the Hebrew andPersian words for "night," and is thought to mean "one who works by night." This is an apparent allusion to the fact that the romance of the star-crossed lovers was hidden and kept secret. In the Persian languages, the word Majnun means "crazy." In addition to this creative use of language, the tale has also made at least one linguistic contribution, inspiring a Turkish colloquialism: to "feel like Mecnun" is to feel completely possessed, as might be expected of a person who is literally madly in love. This epic poem was translated into English by Isaac D'Israeli in the early 19th century allowing a wider audience to appreciate it. Layla has also been mentioned in many works by the notorious Aleister Crowley in many of his religious texts, perhaps most notably, in The Book of Lies. In India it is believed that Layla and Majnun found refuge in a village in Rajasthan before they died. The 'graves' of Layla and Majnun are believed to be located in the Bijnore village near Anupgarh in theSriganganagar district. According to rural legend there, Layla and Majnun escaped to these parts and died there. Hundreds of newlyweds and lovers from India and Pakistan, despite there being no facilities for an overnight stay, attend the two day fair in June.
Another variation on the tale tells of Layla and Majnun meeting in school. Majnun fell in love with Layla and was captivated by her. The school master would beat Majnun for paying attention to Layla instead of his school work. However, upon some sort of magic, whenever Majnun was beaten, Layla would bleed for his wounds. Word reached their households and their families feuded. Separated at childhood, Layla and Majnun met again in their youth. Layla's brother, Tabrez, would not let Layla shame the family name by marrying Majnun. Tabrez and Majnun quarreled; stricken with madness over Layla, Majnun murdered Tabrez. Word reached the village and Majnun was arrested. He was sentenced to be stoned to death by the villagers. Layla could not bear it and agreed to marry another man if Majnun would be kept safe from harm in exile. Layla got married but her heart longed for Majnun. Hearing this, Layla's husband rode with his men to the desert towards Majnun. He challenged Majnun to the death. It is said that the instant Layla's husband's sword pierced Majnun's heart, Layla collapsed in her home. Layla and Majnun were said to be buried next to each other as her husband and their fathers prayed to their afterlife. Myth has it, Layla and Majnun met again in heaven, where they loved forever.
The name "Layla" served as Clapton's inspiration for the title of Derek and the Dominos' famous album Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs and its title track. The song "I Am Yours" is a direct quote from a passage in Layla and Majnun.
The tale of Layla and Majnun has been the subject of various films produced by the Indian film industry beginning in the 1920s. A list may be found here:http://beta.thehindu.com/arts/cinema/article419176.ece. One, Laila Majnun, was produced in 1976. In 2007, the story was enacted as both a framing story and as a dance-within-a-movie in the film Aaja Nachle. There is a reference to the story in the song 'Laila' from the film Qurbani. Also, in pre-partition India, the first Pashto-language film was an adaptation of this story.
The term Layla-Majnun is often used for lovers, also Majnun is commonly used to address a person madly in love.
Orhan Pamuk makes frequent reference to Leyla and Majnun in his novel, The Museum of Innocence.
One of the panels in the Alisher Navoi metro station in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and Nizami Gəncəvi metro station in Baku (Azerbaijan) represents the epic on blue green tiles.
In the book A Thousand Splendid Suns by Afghan author Khaled Hosseini, Rasheed often refers to Laila and Tariq as Layla and Majnun.
On Gaia Online, a recent monthly collectible released an item under the names Majnun and Layla loosely based on the story.(see also: http://www.gaiaonline.com/ orhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaia_Online)
Layla and Majnun — poem of Alisher Navoi. Layla and Majnun — poem of Jami. Layla and Majnun — poem of Nizami Ganjavi. Layla and Majnun — poem of Fuzûlî. Layla and Majnun — poem of Hagiri Tabrizi. Layla and Majnun — drama in verse of Mirza Hadi Ruswa. Layla and Majnun — novel of Necati. Layla and Majnun — the first Muslim and the Azerbaijani opera of Uzeyir Hajibeyov. «Layla and Majnun» — symphonic poem of Gara Garayev (1947) Symphony № 24 ("Majnun"), Op. 273 (1973), for tenor solo, violin, choir and chamber orchestra - Alan Hovhaness.
Layla and Majnun — ballet, staged by K. Goleizovsky (1964) © on music SA Balasanyan.
«The Song of Majnun» — opera of Bright Sheng (1992) Laila Majnu — Indian Hindi silent film in 1922. Laila Majnu — Indian Hindi silent film in 1927. Laila Majnu — Indian Hindi film in 1931. Laila Majnu — Indian Hindi film in 1931. Layla and Majnun — Iranian film in 1936. Laila Majnu — Indian Telugu film in 1949. Layla and Majnun — Tajik Soviet film-ballet of 1960. Layla and Majnun — Soviet Azerbaijani film of 1961. Laila Majnu — Indian Malayalam film in 1962. Laila Majnu — Indian Hindi film in 1976.
Layla and Majnun — Azerbaijani film-opera of 1996. Aaja Nachle— a 2007 Indian film has a 15 minute musical play on life of Layla and Majnun.
Laila and Majnu
Laila and Majnu is an eternal love story that has a tragic end. These two young lovers sacrificed their love for each other, as they couldn't be together. Such selfless was their love that they did not hesitate for even a minute when it came to laying down their lives for each other. The love story of Laila and Majnu is a very famous one and is no less than a legend. The love affair of Laila & Majnu is known to be so tragic and moving, which made them a household name. Even today, people know them as Laila Majnu; the "and" in between is missing. Love Story of Laila & Majnu Laila was a beautiful girl born in a rich family. Being no less than a princess, she was expected to marry a wealthy boy and live in grandeur and splendor. But as they say, love thinks from the heart and she fell in love with Majnu, a poor lad. Their passionate love for each other knew no bounds and no logic. As fate would have it, the two lovers were banished from seeing each other. Laila's parents married her off to a wealthy boy and she lived in a big mansion. She couldn't bear the separation and committed suicide. Majnu became a madman and ultimately died on Laila's grave. The star-crossed lovers immortalized their feeling of love for each other by giving away their lives in the name of love. Their agony is felt by many in their hearts even today, when the heart-rending saga of Laila and Majnu is narrated to them. The story of Laila-Majnu has several variations. In India, it is believed that Laila and Majnu breathed their last in a village in Rajasthan, where they took refuge. Their graves are believed to be located in Bijnore village, near Anupgarh in the Sriganganagar district. A rural legend in the area holds that Laila and Majnu originally belonged to Sindh, from where they escaped to these parts of India and finally, died in the Indian territory. Another variation of the romantic tale of Laila and Majnu pictures both the lovers meeting in school for the first time. Majnu is captivated by Laila’s beauty and falls in love in her. He is beaten by the schoolteacher for being more attentive to Laila than studies. As their families learn about this, the lovers are separated. However, they meet when they grow young. Laila’s brother Tabrez warns her against marrying Majnu. Mad about Laila, Majnu murders Tabrez, and is arrested. Laila is married off to some other man, who challenges Majnu to death as he gets to know Laila’s
inclination towards Majnu. While Majnu is killed by Laila’s Husband, she kills herself on learning of Majnu’s death.
Painting depicting Anarkali.
Anarkali (Urdu: ( ان ارک لیShahmukhi); Anārkalī ) (pomegranate blossom) was a legendary slave girl from Lahore, Punjab (in present day Pakistan). During the Mughal period, she was supposedly ordered to be buried alive between two walls by Mughal emperor Akbar for having an illicit relationship with the Prince Nuruddin Saleem later to become Emperor Jahangir. Due to the lack of evidence and sources, the story of Anarkali is widely accepted to be either false or heavily embellished. Nevertheless, her story is cherished by many and has been adapted into literature, art and cinema.
1 The Story of Anarkali 2 Anarkali's tomb 3 Scepticism 4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 External links
The Story of Anarkali
The Great Mughal emperor Akbar and his wife, Mariam-uz-Zamani, had a son named Prince Saleem (later Emperor Jahangir). He was a spoiled and rude boy and because of this, Akbar the Great sent his son away to the army for fourteen years to learn the discipline required to rule the empire. Finally, Akbar allowed this son to return to the main palace in Lahore. Since this day was one of great celebration, the harem of Akbar decided to hold a great Mujra (dance performance) by a beautiful girl named Nadeera, daughter of Noor Khan Argun. Since she was an exceptional beauty, "like a blossoming flower", Akbar named her as Anarkali (blossoming pomegranate). During her first and famous Mujra in Lahore Prince Saleem fell in love with her and it later became apparent that she was also in love with him. Later, they both began to see each other although the matter was kept quiet. Later, however, Prince Saleem informed his father, Akbar, of his intention to marry Anarkali and make her the Empress. The problem was that Anarkali, despite her fame in Lahore, was a dancer and a maid and not of noble blood. So Akbar (who was sensitive about his own mother, Hamida Banu Begum, being a commoner) forbade Saleem from seeing Anarkali again. Prince Saleem and Akbar had an argument that later became very serious after Akbar ordered the arrest of Anarkali and placed her in one of the jail dungeons in Lahore. After many attempts, Saleem and one of his friends helped Anarkali escape and hid her near the outskirts of Lahore. Then, the furious Prince Saleem organized an army (from those loyal to him during his fourteen years there) and began an attack on the city; Akbar, being the emperor, had a much larger army and quickly defeated Prince Saleem's force. Akbar gave his son two choices: either to surrender Anarkali to them or to face the death penalty. Prince Saleem, out of his true love for Anarkali, chose the death penalty. Anarkali, however, unable to allow Prince Saleem to die, came out of hiding and approached the Mughal emperor, Akbar. She asked him if she could be the one to give up her life in order to save Prince Saleem, and after Akbar agreed, she asked for just one wish, which was to spend just one pleasant night with Prince Saleem. After her night with Saleem, Anarkali drugged Saleem with a pomegranate blossom. After a very tearful goodbye to the unconscious Saleem, she left the royal palace with guards. She
was taken to the area near present-day Anarkali Bazaar in Lahore, where a large ditch was made for her. She was strapped to a board of wood and lowered in it by soldiers belonging to Akbar. They closed the top of the large ditch with a brick wall and buried her alive. A second version of the story says that the Emperor Akbar helped Anarkali escape from the ditch through a series of underground tunnels with her mother only with the promise of Anarkali to leave the Mughal empire and never return. Thus it is not known whether Anarkali survived or not. Another quite popular version states that she was immured alive in a wall.
The white mausoleum in Lahore held the body of Anarkali
A tomb, thought[who?] to be that of Anarkali, is situated on the premises of the Punjab Civil Secretariat in Lahore, Pakistan and now houses the Punjab Records Office. Previously, it had been transformed into a Christian church by the British. A bazaar located nearby on The Mall Road is named Anarkali bazaar after Anarkali. It is one of the oldest surviving markets in Pakistan, dating back at least 200 years. The mausoleum is an octagonal building covered with a dome. At each corner of the building is an octagonal turret surmounted with a kiosk. In olden times,[clarification needed] this building was surrounded by a garden that had at its entrance a double-storeyed gateway but no trace of the garden survives. The building houses a monolithic[vague] sarcophagus. On the sarcophagus are inscribed 99 names of Allah and the Persian couplet:
را خوی ش ک ردگ ار گ وی م ش کر ق یامت ت ا ی نم ب از من گ ر آہ را خوی ش ی ار روئ ب
tā qiyāmat shukr gūyam kardigāre khīsh rā āh! gar man bāz bīnam rūī yār-e khīsh rā I would give thanks unto my God unto the day of resurrection Ah! could I behold the face of my beloved once more On the northern side of the sarcophagus are inscribed the words ""اک بر س ل یم مج نون (majnūn Saleem Akbar, the one profoundly enamored by Saleem, son of Akbar). The sarcophagus also bears two dates, given in both letters and in numerals: 1008 Hijri (AD 1599-1600) on the eastern side of the sarcophagus and 1024 Hijri (AD 1615-16) on the western side. Scholar Ahsan Quraishi mentions one more inscription in the tomb, that is said[who?] to have been destroyed by General Ventura, the French mercenary fighting for the Sikhs, who used the monument as his residence. The contents of this extinct Persian inscription can be translated as follows: "The innocent who is murdered mercilessly and who dies after enduring much pain, is a martyr. God considers him/her a martyr". Although the name of Anarkali is not mentioned in any of these inscriptions but on the basis of the contents of these inscriptions, a group of scholars construe that the person buried in the memorial is no other than Anarkali. Of the two dates, the first is believed to be that of the execution of Anarkali and the second one as the date of the erection of the tomb. But this supposition cannot be correct because Akbar was not at Lahore in 1008 hijri. He had already left it for Agra in 1007 (hijri ) (in November 1598). So the story about Anarkali being buried alive by the orders of Akbar cannot be correct.
Painting of Anarkali by Abdur Rahman Chughtai.
There are conflicts among the scholars on the authenticity of Anarkali's incident. There are many opposing and confusing views such as mentioned below :The earliest writers to report the love affair of Salim were two British travellers — William Finch and Edward Terry. William Finch reached Lahore in February 1611 (only eleven years after the supposed death of Anarkali), to sell the indigo he had purchased at Bayana on behalf of the East India Company. His account, written in early seventeenth century English, gives the following information: In the suburbs of the town, a fair monument for Prince Daniyal and his mother, one of the Akbar’s wives, with whom it is said Prince Salim had a liaison. Upon the notice of the affair, King Akbar caused the lady to be enclosed within a wall of his palace, where she died. The King Jahangir, in token of his love, ordered a magnificent tomb of stone to be built in the midst of a walled four-square garden provided with a gate. The body of the tomb, the emperor willed to be wrought in work of gold.... Edward Terry who visited a few years after William Finch writes that Akbar had threatened to disinherit Jahangir, for his liaison with Anarkali, the emperor’s most beloved wife. But on his death-bed, Akbar repealed it. Basing his analysis on the above two Britishers’ accounts, Abraham Eraly, the author of The Last Spring: The Lives and Times of the Great Mughals, suspects that there "seems to have been an oedipal conflict between Akbar and Salim." He also considers it probable that the legendary Anarkali was nobody other than the mother of Prince Daniyal. Eraly supports his hypothesis by quoting an incident recorded by Abul Fazl, the courthistorian of Akbar. According to the historian, Salim was beaten up one evening by guards of
the royal harem of Akbar. The story is that a mad man had wandered into Akbar’s harem because of the carelessness of the guards. Abul Fazl writes that Salim caught the man but was himself mistaken for the intruder. The emperor arrived upon the scene and was about to strike with his sword when he recognised Salim. Most probably, the intruder was no other than Prince Salim and the story of the mad man was concocted to put a veil on the indecency of the Prince. But the accounts of the British travellers and consequently the presumption of Eraly is falsified when one comes to know that the mother of prince Daniyal had died in 1596 which does not match the dates inscribed on the sarcophagus. Another scholar, Muhammad Baqir, the author of Lahore Past and Present opines that Anarkali was originally the name of the garden in which the tomb was situated, but with the passage of time, the tomb itself came to be named as that of Anarkali’s. This garden is mentioned by Dara Shikoh, the grandson of Jahangir, in his work Sakinat al-Auliya, as one of the places where the Saint Hazrat Mian Mir used to sit. Dara also mentions the existence of a tomb in the garden but he does not give it any name. Muhammad Baqir believes that the so-called tomb of Anarkali actually belongs to the lady named or entitled Sahib-i Jamal, another wife of Salim and the mother of the Prince’s second son Sultan Parvez, and a daughter of the noble Zain Khan Koka. This conclusion is also partially faulty. The mother of Sultan Parviz was not a daughter of Zain Khan Koka but the daughter of Khawaja Hasan, the paternal uncle of Zain Khan. Of course, subsequently, the daughter of Zain Khan was also married to Salim, on June 18, 1596. It is recorded in Akbar Nama that Jahangir "became violently enamoured of the daughter of Zain Khan Koka. H.M. (Akbar) was displeased at the impropriety, but he saw that his heart was immoderately affected, he, of necessity, gave his consent." The translator of Akbar Nama, H. Beveridge, opines that Akbar objected to the marriage, because the Prince was already married "to Zain Khan’s niece" (actually the daughter of paternal uncle of Zain Khan, and hence his sister). Akbar objected to marriages between near relations. But we do not know the date of death of the either of these two wives of Jahangir. Noted art-historian R. Nath argues that there is no wife of Jahangir on record bearing the name or title of Anarkali to whom the emperor could have built a tomb and dedicated a couplet with a suffix Majnun. He considers it "absolutely improbable that the grand Mughal emperor would address his married wife as yar designate himself as majnun and aspire to
see her face once again. Had he not seen her enough? Obviously she was not his married wife but only his beloved, to whom he would take the liberty to be romantic and a little poetic too, and it appears to be a case of an unsuccessful romance of a disappointed lover.... The prince could not save her, though it is on record that he was so unhappy with his father in this year 1599 that he defied his orders and revolted. It may be recalled that Mehrunissa (later Nurjahan Begum) was also married to Sher Afgan the same year and the young Prince was so dejected and disturbed on the failure of his two romances and annihilation of his tender feelings of love that he went as far as to defy Akbar." To be simple there are many views over the death of Anarkali, but the most prominent are: 1. Anarkali or "Sharrafunnisa" though cremeted behind the wall by the order of Akbar, was released by Akbar on request of Anarkali's mother 'Jillo Bai' as Emperor Akbar promised Anarkali's mother one wish in her life. Thereby Anarkali escaped through a secret root through the outskirts of Delhi and then went to Lahore and lived there till death. There exists a tomb of Anarkali in Lahore. It was in Lahore that Prince Salim set eyes upon Anarkali ('Pomegranate Blossom', she was Akbar's favourite dancing girl). Akbar, legend has it, was furious and had the lady entombed outside the fort. Whether this story is fact or fiction, a modest tomb stands in Lahore believed to have been built by the lovesick prince (in 1615). The gravestone in the Tomb for Anarkali bears the tragic inscription, Could I behold the face of my beloved once more, I would thank God until the day of resurrection. The tomb was converted into a church during British occupation and now the building serves as an archive (with a collection of old prints) within the compound of the Government Record Office. On the lower Mall Road, inside the grounds of Punjab Secretrariat lies the tomb of Anarkali. The tomb is acessableto the public. Anarkali(Pomegranate Blossom) was a legendry favourite in the harem of Emperor Akbar. Apparently she had an affair eith Akbar's son, Prince Salim. One day Akbar saw her return Salim's smile , and as punishment she was buried alive in 1599. When Salim became Emperor Jahangir, he built her a magnificiant tomb. The tomb ,built in 1615 is a forerunner of the famous Taj Mahal : it is octangle, with a huge dome in the centre surrounded by eight octangle cupolas supported by columns. 2.The second view is that Anarkali after the death of Akbar was recalled by Salim(Jehangir) and they married and was given a new Identity of Nur Jehan.
Nur Jehan was the daughter of a Persian immigrant, Mirza Ghiyas Baig of Tehran. Before becoming the beloved wife of the Mughal emperor Jehangir, she was the widow of a Mughal officer, Sher Afghan Quli Khan. Mehr-un-Nisa, entitled Nur Jehan, was born when her parents were migrating to the Sub-continent in the 16th century. She received her early education in Quran and the Persian language and had a special flare for poetry. Her father came to the Sub-continent during the time of the Mughal emperor, Akbar, and entered into his service. He rose rapidly by sheer merit. In 1607, Nur Jehan was brought to the court as royal ward. She was beautiful and highly intelligent and attracted Jehangir's attention.
A good deal of fiction has gathered round this remarkable woman, obscuring her personality and role in the social and political life of this period. It is wrongly and widely believed that Jehangir murdered Sher Afghan, Nur Jehan's first husband, because he wanted to marry Nur Jehan. In actuality, he died in a skirmish in 1607. The conqueror of the world, Jehangir fell in love with Nur Jehan and married her in 1611. He gave her the title of Nur Mehal, "Light of the Palace" and later Nur Jehan, "Light of the World". After marriage, Nur Jehan won Jehangir's complete confidence. She carefully attended to the affairs of the state. Her father and brother became ministers and together they dominated the courts. A number of historians believe that Nur Jehan became the real power behind the throne and practically the sovereign of the Mughal Empire. For many years she wielded the imperial powers. She even gave audiences at her palace and her name was placed on the coinage. Nur Jehan influenced a large number of brilliant soldiers, scholars and poets from Iran, who subsequently played an important role in the administration and in the development of the cultural life of Mughal Empire.
The decision to marry her daughter from her first husband, to Shah Jehan's younger brother Shahryar, and her consequent support to his candidature to the throne caused Shah Jehan's rebellion. Emperor Jehangir was captured by rebels in 1626 while he was on his way to Kashmir. Nur Jehan intervened to get her husband released. Jehangir was rescued but died on October 28, 1627. Nur Jehan had a magnificent tomb erected over the grave of her husband. She retired from the world and lived a quiet and lonely life for 16 years after the death of Jehangir. She died in 1643, and is buried besides Jehangir at Shahdra, Lahore. There is no Authentic proof of what happened but whatever happened it gave the world a beautiful moment of history to cherish in the name of love and eternity of love. No matter how Anarkali died she is still alive in heart of everyone who are bound in love and her story will remain in the history as testimony of love.
Noor Jehan in the film Anarkali(1958)
Anarkali has been the subject of a number of Indian and Pakistani films. The earliest is Loves of a Moghul Prince released in 1928. Bina Rai portrayed Anarkali in Anarkali, a 1953 Indian film. In Pakistan, another Anarkali film was released in 1958 withNoor Jehan in
the lead role. Later on in 1960, K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam was released in India with actress Madhubala in the role of Anarkali. Originally, only parts of the film were in colour. Mughal-e-Azam was re-released in 2004 as a completely colour film. Iman Ali also portrayed Anarkali in Shoaib Mansoor's short music video series on the theme Ishq (love) in 2003.
1. ^ "Loves of a Moghul Prince" imdb 2. ^ "Anarkali (1958)" imdb
Anarkali can refer to
Anarkali, a legendary slave girl from the Mughal period Anarkali's tomb, a tomb in Lahore, thought to be that of Anarkali
Anarkali Bazaar, a market located near Anarkali's tomb on Mall Road in Lahore Anarkali (1953 film), a 1953 Hindi film starring Pradeep Kumar, Bina Rai, and Noor Jehan Anarkali (1955 film), a 1955 Telugu film starring Akkineni Nageswara Rao and Anjali Devi Anarkali (1966 film), a 1966 Malayalam film starring Prem Nazir, K. R. Vijaya, and Sathyan
Salim and Anarkali
The love story of Salim and Anarkali is a story that every lover knows. It is one of the most tragic love stories known to people. The Mughal prince Salim falling for a courtesan Anarkali is the kind of stuff that legends are made of. The relationship of Salim and Anarkali outraged the Mughal emperor Akbar to the extent that both father and son decided to go on war. However, as all great love stories are associated with a disastrous ending, the love affair of Salim and Anarkali did blossom, only to meet a tragic fate. It has been rightly said that only those love stories are remembered which end in a catastrophe, and such has been the fortune of Salim and Anarkali. Love Story Of Salim & Anarkali The son of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, Salim, fell in love with an ordinary, but beautiful courtesan Anarkali. Anarkali was known for her dancing skills, as much as for her beauty. Salim was mesmerized by her beauty and fell in love as soon as he saw her. But, the emperor could not digest the fact that his son was in love with an ordinary courtesan. He started pressurizing Anarkali and devised all sorts of tactics to make her fall in the eyes of the young, love-smitten prince. When Salim came to know of this, he declared a war against his own father. But the mighty emperor's
gigantic army proved too much for the young prince to handle. He was defeated and sentenced to death. This was when Anarkali intervened and renounced her love to save her beloved from the jaws of death. She was entombed alive in a brick wall, right in front of her lover's eyes. Some people, however, say that she did not die. The tomb was constructed on the opening of a secret tunnel unknown to Salim. It is said she escaped through that tunnel and fled the place, never to return again. Thus, ended the tragic love story of Salim and Anarkali. However, Salim lived on to become Emperor Jahangir, who loved Anarkali throughout his life and remembered only her when he was dying. A tomb that is believed to be of Anarkali, is located in the premises of Punjab Civil Secretariat in Lahore and now houses the Punjab Records Office. The tomb was previously transformed to a church by an invading British officer. There is also a market located at a near by road, The Mall road, which is famously known as the Anarkali Bazaar. It is believed to the one of the oldest markets in Pakistan. While no one knows whether Anarkali actually existed or not, her legend is still alive in millions of hearts across Indian and Pakistan.
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