MYCENAEAN AND CYPRIOT LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS: An Investigation by Neutron Activation Analysis Author(s): Jonathan

E. Tomlinson, Jeremy B. Rutter, Sandra M. A. Hoffmann Source: Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Vol. 79, No. 2 (April-June 2010), pp. 191-231 Published by: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40835485 . Accessed: 15/09/2011 14:31
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79 (2010) Pages IÇI-2JI

HESPERIA

MYCENAEAN AND CYPRIOT LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS
An Investigation Activation
ABSTRACT
The results a small-scale of of activation of program neutron analysis 69 ceramic from Minoan harbor the townofKommosarepresented fragments andcritically evaluated. Prior analysis, vessels to in the represented thesample werethought be imports to from outsideof Crete,manufactured on either or cultural The chemical Cyprus in theMycenaean sphere. analyses support theidentifications thevesselsas imports of from regions question the in in 80% ofthecases.Theyfurther that vastmajority these the of roughly suggest ceramic wereproduced a comparatively number producin small of imports tioncenters.

by Neutron

Analysis

INTRODUCTION
The Minoan harbor townknownbythemodernname of Kommosis locatedon Crete's south-central of and coast, to thenorth theHellenistic just Romanharbor Mátala.1The sitewas excavated a totalof 15 seasons, of for from 1976 to 1985 and againfrom 1991 to 1995,byan international team directed J.W. Shaw oftheUniversity Torontoundertheauspicesof of by theAmericanSchool of Classical Studiesat Athens.The results these of excavations have been publishedoverthe past two decades in a seriesof five volumes(one in twoparts, a totalofsixseparate for books),and a final
1. The authors wouldliketo thank theeditor Hesperia wellas Priscilla of as Keswani thetwoanonymous and Hesreviewers numerous for peria helpful the suggestions, including recommendation add illustrative to material. For active the encouragement throughout extended publication process, especially for latest the versions thesiteplans of (Figs.1,2) andthefinancial support to publish secondofthesein color, the we gratefully our acknowledge debtto and Joseph Maria Shaw,codirectors oftheKommosExcavations coand editors theassociated of publications. Forsuggesting collaboration the that has resulted thisarticle, owe a in we to specialnoteofthanks Elizabeth French. successfully For and locating available relevant the Kommos making data analytical in Manchester long after analyses the wererun, are we to The drawvery grateful John Prag. wereinitially ings prepared Julia by Pfaff havebeenreformatted and for thispublication Tina Ross.The by were photographs taken Taylor by Dabney. The contributions theauthors of areas follows: opening the sections, and were writdiscussion, conclusions tenbyJeremy the on Rutter, section chemical SandraHoffmann, analysis by and thesections statistical on analysis and results Jonathan Tomlinson. by

© The American School of Classical Studies at Athens

[Ç2

J. E. TOMLINSON,

J. B. RUTTER,

AND

S. M.

A. HOFFMANN

0

5

10

15

20

25 m 2010

Josephw.shaw giuliana bianco

Figure1. Site plan of Kommos.
G. Bianco.Courtesy W. Shaw J.

LATE

BRONZE

AGE CERAMIC

IMPORTS

TO KOMMOS

193

Figure2. Periodplan ofthe SouthernArea at Kommos,identified in Figure1 as theGreek Sanctuary. W. G. Bianco. J. Courtesy Shaw

are I-V. 2. Kommos In preparation and Shawand Shaw, forthcoming, Rutter, forthcoming.

inpreparation.2 purpose the of present in The volume two is parts currently of article to report theresults a provenience ofLate Bronze is on study Neutron activation to to thought represent imports thesite. Ageceramics in this to (NAA) wasundertaken order assess possibility. analysis inthree from distinct Excavationsthesite at were concentrated sectors, Area(Fig.1, andSouthern to the Central north south, Hilltop, Hillside, In two inwhich Southern islabeled Area "Greek the Sanctuary")-thefirst and from FinalNeolithic Bronze the sectors remains the dated exclusively Area between 3500 Ageeras, approximately and1200b.c.In theSouthern after apparent an remains were theprehistoric overlaid, occupa(Fig.2) that a tional hiatus roughlycentury, anextra-urban of sanctuary wasin by the continuous from very oftheBronze use end Age (ca. 1100b.c.)until at times. The period mostabundantly RomanImperial represented the to orLateMinoan(LM) era, which siteis theLate Bronze Age (LBA),

2006b. A.c. during LBA areextremely in to arguably beinglimited Troy the in northeast Tiryns thesouthwest. Hala Sultan Ras Shamra itsport Minetel-Beida coastal and at in Tell Cyprus. 3. 138-141. body with of outside Crete of shows that Kommos regions theMediterranean wasa uniquely well-connected It trading emporium. and butin thecase ofthelatter. B. 866-871. this brief interval twotothree of when During relatively generations. the the of contacts Kommos werealready Although external impressive to era.E.whenit probably served the as principal ofentry goods for the controlled port entering polity from either Phaistos Protopalatial or AyiaTriada(from the (in times) LM near endofLM IB). attested thepresence imported by with both and the At ceramics. theSouthern a series LM monumental structures below N andP) lietothesouth a major of (BuildingT Buildings east-west onthenorth ofwhich a particularly side is road. regions within beyond Aegean. RUTTER. 149-183.Rutter lastoftheseoffers mostup-to-date the of andwide-ranging overview theevidence. 106. Egypt. M. well-appointed domestic a shrine its (HouseX) that building incorporated during later of phases use.194 J.c. least westoriginating ern islands andMelos. 1400 through 1150 b. Syria. IMPORTEDPOTTERYAT LATEBRONZEAGE KOMMOS the During four-century oftheLateBronze span Age. early IIIC phases. III.pp. possibly portions central been Thisextraordinary ofevidence maritime for contacts recognized. Kition.c.TOMLINSON. perhaps AbuHawamatthenorth oftheCarmel end and Ridge alsoTroy Tiryns and within Aegean. J. The northern harbor Knossos of at Poroswas Katsamba almost certainly as wellconnected Kommos. esp. Sardinia. AND S.5thesitereached the developed IA phaseuntil in itsacmeas an entrepôt LM II-LM IIIA2 Early. vessels from Greek the at two mainland. prior theendoftheNeopalatial ca. ca. Fora convenient chart out laying at developments thesiteofKommos within broader the context events of theMesaraplainofsouththroughout ernCreteduring BronzeAge. Kommos as served theprincipal southern oftheKnossian port administration.Cline 1994. the siteofKnossos hometo theonly was known functioning palacecenter on Crete..OtherAegeansites withcomexternal contacts parably widespread the rare. especially and include Tekkeon thesouthcoastof Enkomi. 1450 b. HOFFMANN a substantial number residential of in buildings theHilltopand Central Hillside sectors In Area of belong. 4. The principal of publications ceramic to imports Late Minoan Kommos havebeenWatrous 1985.3 thetime ofwriting. roleno doubtaccounts thefactthattheonly This for New ceramic containers known the from Aegean come Egyptian Kingdom from Kommos were and recovered strata from datable between 1500/1475 and1375/1350 b. inIsrael.table5:1. Knappand Cherry 1999. . 1450-1375b. also Aegean (Kythera southwestern various localesalongtheSyroAnatolia.The pp. interaction. Palestinian and of Anatolia have coast. 1994. Cyprus. most as but ofthissitehasunfortunately lost been to archaeological due exploration to the modern of at development theharbor Herakleion. Kommos pp. 5.p.c.4wasoneofa small number sites of the Mediterranean functioned that as throughout eastern nodes intercultural of aneraofincreasingly intense major exchange during cultural between 1450and1200b. are they evident the onlyfrom LH IIIA through LH ca.Kommos enjoyed an exceptional of as of range contacts.c.see the Shaw2006.Thesesites ca.possibly NaxosandThera).

were institutedthe ofceramic analysis provenience programs as from was at identified originating The first these aimed theimports of to to or the cultural either Mycenaean Cyprus the sphere thenorth from offine of were east. Hoffmann relosubsequently catedto a newplaceofemployment. and C10366 [Fig. Bythis ings by it time. Day et al. See Tables1 and2 andAppendixTable A. III. housestheManchester archaeometry archive. C7238.Only 10 ofthe69 piecesreported here on haveyetto be published (C9126 [Figs. as coarse fabrics in of sels (identifiedEgyptian.4. partbecauseof of extensive renovations theUniversity at ofManchester whichnow Museum.4] inTable2). Shawet al. by for hadbeenspecifically a small selection these of targeted only imports to 1995. 12]. C7237 [Fig. had becometoo lateto include results themostrecent the in of volume theKommos publication series go to press to {Kommos so V). 2001.4. methods analysis willbe published of and chemical separately. C9612 [Figs. Jones 7. The sampling conducted was on and 1. 12].byHoffmann in Rutter thepresence E. C9013 [Figs. Forthefull of publication thekiln and an overview itsproduction of see range.9 (storage facility) (Figs. C10209 [Fig. and allbutthethree Protopalatial pieces(C7237.andTomlinson ableto carry a statistical out evaluation andprovide initial an draft thefindof to Rutter April2004. thatfurther on progress thepublication oftheNAA datawas againstalled a for while. by already at of prevented program Manchester ingtheclosing thearchaeometry for assessment thesignificancethese of of analyses a number anyfurther in as has one ofyears. August 1996.Tables1. method on vesA second that focused bulk activation transport program analysis. 8].8 to ceramic In August of 1996a series 21 suspected Mycenaean imports at were 48 Kommos a further suspected and imports sampled the Cypriot inPitsidia excavation's 3-5.11 and selections twoBoththeMycenaean theCypriot represented thirds lessof theimports or identified eachof thesetwocultural from 6. Politaki of as a representativetheGreek of Archaeoas under the logicalService. Up analyses prior petrological from Kommos concentrated was work most theanalytical on ceramics of The of of on thecharacterizationproducts thelocal ceramic industry.C9382 [Figs.5. forthcoming)..forthcoming. and Kilikoglou. produced a variety medium as andMinoan)madeuse ofbothpetrological wellas Syro-Palestinian.1996. 6] inTable 1.and 1998.C9567 [Figs. 11. Kommos Watrous.10 Unfortunatethedelay publication been. C7238 [Fig.LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 195 from Kommos identified of ceramics Despitethewealth imported in of already Watrous his 1992 publication the site'sLBA pottery. 12]. also Rutter 2006b. N. Day 2001. with broad to ofthefull of range ceramic imports LBA Kommos. Area intheSouthern and ofa LM IA kiln itsassociated dump discovery of a the providedcopious quantity material during 1993and1994seasons for more Two of localindustry several for study this the years. 11].3. positive hasbeenthefull oftheoverwhelming majority presentation consequence in a overview ofthesampled along pieces prior publications. andthedatabecameinaccessible a for in number years. prescribed YnnO/IYNT/044/526/17317. 2007.5.butmore in recently Belfiore al.2). . apothiki of were thereafter UniversityMantothe The samples transported shortly in to for activation chester neutron analysis Hoffmann order determine by thesamples had of theprovenience the69 vessels Although represented. permit datedApril1. Because these groups material comprised two largely neutron to them the chosen investigate wasinstrumental wares. however.4]. includa series unforeseen of events beenanalyzed early 1997. Day.7 additional in mid-1990s. 8]. 9. in C7239) willbe included therelevant section thefinal of volume theKomof mosseries (Rutter. 10]. Keeper Archaeology.6 to that andtrace-element time.C7239 [Fig. John W. 10. datawerefinally December was 2003. Thanksto theefforts Hoffof mannandManchester Museum's then of A. Some aspects theoutput the of of kilnat Kommos be maynowusefully withthosefrom somewhat a compared later larger at nearby but kiln Ayia Triadapublished initially Levi and by Laviosa(1979). the locatedin Prag. et 8. See also Buxedai Garrigos.

. Ä3 lfiSSBi )I C1771 ¿ ' ' ' ' i ' ìócm C2140 of 3.Iff?. Pfaff by analysis NAA. Scale J.C3346 C2949 C7643 C6709 ^^^^H WBÊP4 / ^ I C9126 Í ' C2424 . Figure Fifteen the21 suspected for sampled chemical Mycenaean imports 1:3.

Deep pl. pl.no.45.no.no. pl.fig. 41 Central Crete(?) Possibly an as yet III. 574. 69.MI/MG/1. Argolid Rutter [LH IIIA2] 2006a. 579.1739.p.78/24.no.1621. 3:86 pl. 51. Argolid pl. Rut.1117.no. Kylix 256-257) pl. III. 155. 155.789. 3:55 Crete Pyxis p. [LH IIIA2/B] Kommos p. III.no. 24/30.338.18 III.no.1881.no.no.no. 44. jar Argolid only [LH IIA] pl. 495.p.no.1133.X5:5/S2 Argolid only (FS 94) [LH IIIA2] Rutter association noted with [LM II] 2006a.1737.1264. pl. 501.no. 155.no. Associated Rutter. III. Argolid pl. pl. Argolid only 3:37 [LH I] pl. Crete(?) Possibly an as yet fig.1927. 69.51 Kommos p. Single group ofeight ware fine from samples all at Pseira.1928. Argolid Rutter [LH IIIB] 2006a. SUSPECTED MYCENAEAN IMPORTS SAMPLED BY NAA IN 1996 Kommos Inv. Associated Kommos p. III. Angular forthcoming. Associated 2006a. Argolid only [LH IIB] pl. Argolid only Vapheio (FS 224) cup Rutter 2006a. forthcoming.50. 44.no.no. pl. 144.no.no.pl. probably imported that site Stemmed (FS 305) Kommos p.3:90 Piriform (FS 37/45) Kommos p. 456.50 pls. mainland Greek center 167/171/173/180/182) [LH IIIB] III.no. 155. krater Rutter 1999. C1473 C1771 C2058 C2140 C2424 C2949 C3346 C3896 [Date] Shape Publications Suggested Provenience Comments C3897 C4271 C4693 C5425 C5819 C6709 C6912 C6919 C7116 C7636 C7643 C7876 C9126 from unidentified Kommos p. Associated Goblet 254) (FS 69. fig. Argolid 24. (FS III.1628. p.fig. 3:43 [LHI] p. 155. 580. Unprovenienced Rutter 2006a. 574. Rutter association noted with diffuse 2006a. 74. pl. 51. 155. Amphoroid p. pl.37e/16.44b/19. jar pl. 576.no. 467.3:90 alabastron no. from unidentified Kommos p. 424-425.LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS K)J TABLE 1. pl.Argolid bowl III.78/23. 155. probably central Cretan origin Piriform (FS 20)(?) Rutter Associated 2006a. Rutter 2006a. 51 Bowl(FS 284 or305) III. 47. Kommos p. 101. pl. only. 45. 101. Argolid group from northwest Péloponnèse Kommoslll. Rutter no. ter [LH IIIB] 2006a.51 bowl(FS 284) Kommos p. pl.79/1. pl. 93. Argolid central Cretan [LH IIIA2/B] groups Kommos p. mainland Greek center Kommos p. 3:53 p. III.n.1671.MI/MG/3. 3:48 Unprovenienced Bridge-spouted jug p. 51 Associated andalsowith some III. 3:86 p. 41 jar 173/180/182) IIIB] [LH Kommos p. III.pls. 46.no. Closest association with is Kommos p. 155.29 Central III. Argolid Stirrup (FS 167/171/Kommos p.no.no.48/4.1017.no.X5:6/12 | | | Stirrup (FS 182) jar [LH IIIB] Stirrup (FS 183) jar [LH IIIB] Goblet 255) (FS [LH IIIAl] bowl Stemmed (FS 305) [LH IIIB] jar Stirrup (FS 174) [LH IIIC Early] jar Stirrup (FS 171) [LH IIIA2] .pl.1926. 3:86 p.46. Single oftransport (FS 103) [LH ILA] group stirrup from jars themselves of Mycenae. 107.52b/5. Vapheio (FS 224) cup pp.no. Stirrup (FS jar pl. Unprovenienced of vaseas (FS 54) [LH IIIA2/B] nonjoining fragmentsame |no.No. 156. Argolid p.

Figure Thirteen the31 susimCypriot pattern-painted pected andWhitePainted (WhiteSHp ports for Wheelmade) sampled chemical 1:3. analysis by . Scale J. Pfaff NAA.C10034 ^i^ pHiirr^ I W C6743 1 'T¥ ' '' 'v' m^^^mb^ -^ r * <*> ° ' y C10111 C4127 C5645 v C9612 C335 C10366 O 5 10cm C10209 of 4.

C9382 1 L 7/ ^ '^l^l m C10463 ■™«^^N^ k v y 11 C8154 ' ^H I ' X C2753 C4577 0 5 locm ■ .C9013. Figure Nineofthe17 suspected coated (Base Ring. C7407. for by analysis sampled chemical NAA.Pfaff C9013 ° 5 1Ucm . C8154. C10463. C2753. andplain(Monochrome Painted) PlainWhite)imports chrome. C7639 V 0 5 10cm C3171 ' 5.J. Scale 1:3: C9382. Scale 1:6: C3171. C4577. C7639. solidly Cypriot MonoRedLustrous Wheelmade.

No. pl. Episkopiarea III. C335 C340 C344 C665 Shape. ofjusttwoexamples WhiteSlipIIA at Kommos[alsoC344] Associated only Associated only Kition area Limassolarea Limassolarea C4734 Chania/western Kommos pp.p. 158. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA1] Bowl. WhiteSlipII Kommos p.no. pl. fig.no.no. 52 [mislabeled "19541 Kommos p. 1939. WhiteSlip IIA [LM III] Milkbowl. III. 3:53 pl. WhiteSlipII Kommos p. 52 [LM IIIA2] PlainWhite Pithos.no. Rutter no.no. WhiteSlip II [LM IIIA] Milkbowl. Rutter pp.no. pl. 159.no.no. 168. Recognized thetimeofsampling a Gray hence thanBase Ringjuglet. Limassolarea Associated III. 52.MI/Cy/9. Kommos p.Base RingI(?) Kommos p. 50 Kommos p.no. 156. 1941. 51 Kommos p. fig. III. 52 Milkbowl. Limassolarea Associated III. pl. Lustrous Kommos p. 157.no.no. 1932. 159. III. 1698.985. 1946. 1933.no. III. pl. 158. 51. III. 1935.no. 157. 547. WhiteSlipIIA [LM IIIB] PlainWhite Pithos. 52 Limassolarea Limassolarea Associated only C3249 C3681 C3729 C3947 C4127 Milkbowl. 52 Kommos p. 53. pl. Limassolarea WhiteSlipII Kommos pp. 935. III. 60/32. 495. III. 70. warerather 2006b. Crete p. Spindle Unprovenienced Wheelmade 70. 2006a. fig. [LM IIIB] Milkbowl.no. 808. 1938. 51 C4143 C4249 C4432 C4577 Kommos p.52.pl. 51 Kommos p. 158. WhiteSlipII [LM III] Milkbowl. Limassolarea III.no. III. 70.pl. [LM IIIA2] Milkbowl. 1940. pl. fig. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA] Publications Kommos p.no. [LM IIIA2] pl. 159. 70. 873. 51 Kommos p. pl. [LM IIIB] pls. 76. 157. 158. 52 Milkbowl. 51. Limassolarea III. III.pl. 54 Red bottle. pls. 157.Monochrome [LM IIIA2 Early] Fine Gray Cretan Juglet.no. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA2-B] Milkbowl. 1931.52 Suggested Provenience Limassolarea Limassolarea Episkopiarea Limassolarea of Associated one ofjusttwoexamples only. 158. WhiteSlipII Limassolarea [LM IIIA2] Shallow bowl. only [LM IIIA] pl. III. 2006a. fig. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA] Milkbowl. 51. 1944. 678 .40/35. 52 Milkbowl. 54 Kommos p. 846. 159. 159.no.no. 156-157. III. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA1] Milkbowl. pl. [LM IIIA1] pls. 1340. Limassolarea III.278. pl. Rutter no. 52 Milkbowl. 1930. 158.no. Kommos p.TABLE 2. 2006a. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA1] Milkbowl. pl. [LM IIIB] pl. pl. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA2 Early] Kommos p.no.no. pl. 1937. III. Kommos p. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA2-B] Milkbowl. III. 53 Milkbowl. 157. 158.51. III.p. Wheelmade Limassolarea Limassolarea Limassolarea Limassolarea Limassolarea Associated only Kommos p.48/3.460-461.3:89 as at Crete Central Kommos p. 803.52. WhiteSlip II Kommos p. Ware[Date]* Milkbowl. SUSPECTED CYPRIOT IMPORTS SAMPLED BY NAA IN 1996 Kommos Inv. no. Rutter 2006a.no. 1099.570 III. 158. III. 159. 51 Kommos p. pl. 3:73 pl. Rutter thanCypriot Minoanrather probably p.no. pl. only [LM IIIA] pl. WhiteSlipII Kommos p. III.578. 157-158. III. WhiteSlipII Kommos p. 157. 157. 1947. WhiteSlip IIA at Kommos[alsoC4127] Comments C993 C1052 C1262 C1981 C1982 C2046 C2141 C2753 C3156 C3171 C3218 Milkbowl. no. 1936.no. 3:45 Milkbowl. pl. 52 of one Associated only. III.

X15:Misc. forthcoming. .MI/Cy/8. no.53.pp.MI/Cy/2./l Rutter 2006a. 528. pl.no. 578. [LM IIIB] Painted Monochrome Jug. WhiteSlip II [LM IIIA] WhitePainted Tankard. III.no.p.p. [LM IIIA2] Milkbowl. 655. 158. Burnished pls. no. 524. 3:57 pl. 578. forthcoming.Base RingII [LMIIIA2] WhiteSlipII Milkbowl. Painted Monochrome [MM IIB] Carinated cup. 159.partofpossible pairof Together Episkopiarea P in cup. Wheelmade I [LM IIIB] WhitePainted Tankard. 60/31.282Ba.partofpossible Together pairofjug in P plusdrinking bothfound Building cup. 284. no. Ware[Date]* WhiteSlipII Milkbowl. no.52g/2. X3:7/9 Rutter 2006b. jug plusdrinking bothfound Building Enkomi Episkopiarea with Associated only. 7) (Watrous off-island as identified a possible Associated Chania/west only. III.so theconnection to unlikely be significant is diffuse and Association witha very group is withEnkomiis notat all close. WhiteSlip II [LM IIIA2] Milkbowl.MI/Cy/6. no. I Wheelmade [LM IB Late] Carinated Base RingII cup.group Van Forthecontext.p. 3:89 pl. [LM IIIA2] Carinated cup. 51.p. forthcoming. WhiteSlipII [LM IIIA2] Publications Kommos p.Continued Kommos Inv.282Ba.3:89 Rutter 2006a. 504.56b/5. 3:89 pl. 1942.282Ba. X4:2/17 Rutter 2006b. 157. 657. no. Rutter 2006a.no. Van Forthecontext. no.p. 657. 284. forthcoming. Rutter Reddish-Brown 2006b. [MM IIB] CoarseMonochrome Jug.p.no. Rutter 2006b. 3:61 pl. 3:59 pl. together C12031 (not part pairofjug plusdrinksampled). no. Kommos p. no. No.p. C4773 C5122 C5596 C5645 Shape. [LM IIIA1] p.X10:2/l the sometimeafter sampling Unprovenienced Recognized of of1996 as a misfired example a relatively western from classofjugs imported common Anatolia(Rutter 2006b) Associated Kitionarea only Limassolarea C5731 Kommos p. 847. de Moortel2006. Rutter. Limassolarea III.no. WhiteSlip II [LM IIIA] Milkbowl.pp.so theconnection to unlikely be significant withC8 154.p./l Rutter. no. no. forthcoming. 3:73 pl.no. Jug. C7239 from off-island as import Unprovenienced Identified a possible AA context a Protopalatial Building predating 1985. 807 III. 1934.TABLE 2. 1943.56e/10. no.pl. de Moortel 2006. forthcoming.X16:Misc. 158. coarse unpainted [LM IIIA2 Early] Base RingII Juglet.pp. WhiteSlip II Late [Historic] Milkbowl. Anatolian western III. context a from Protopalatial Crete predating import AA Building Episkopiarea Associated only C7407 C7639 C8154 C9013 C9382 in following sampling 1996 as an Unprovenienced Recognized of Canaanite fabric jar quite example a standard at common Kommos withC10463. de Moortel2006.group Rutter 2006a. 157. [LM IIIA] Milkbowl. [LM IIIA2] PlainWhite Pithos.p. III. 578.p.3:89 Rutter 2006b. 52 Kommos p. forthcoming. pl.p.p. 52 Suggested Provenience Limassolarea Limassolarea Limassolarea Associated only Comments Kommos p. no. 659 PlainWhite Pithos. 7) (Watrous from off-island Identified a possible as Chania/west import AA context a Protopalatial Crete Building predating 1985.group C5770 C6743 C7237 C7238 Van Forthecontext.p. 655. Rutter 2006a. 284. Painted [MM IIB] Coarse Closed shape. X6:6/4 Rutter. ofpossible in bothfound House X ingcup C9567 C9612 C9990 Limassolarea Limassolarea Limassolarea of Uniqueexample WhiteSlip II Late at Kommos C10034 C10111 C10209 Limassolarea Limassolarea Enkomi is diffuse and Association witha very group is withEnkomiis notat all close.p.pl. III. 814.MI/Cy/7.no. 157. 578. X3:4/6 Rutter 2006a. pl. Rutter 2006a. 547. 1945. [LM IIIA] WhiteSlip II Milkbowl. Rutter 2006a. pl. WhiteSlip II [LM IIIA] Milkbowl. 53 Kommos p. 164. no. [LM IIIA2] Kommos p. C10366 Enkomi C10463 Episkopiarea *The date is to of assignedaccording theMinoan context discovery. [LM IIIA1] WhiteSlip II Milkbowl. no. 56.Base RingII [LM IIIA2 Early] Canaanite medium jar.

thatwere sentto southern Crete from to comparethe typesof ceramics of cultural withthosethatweresent various regions theMycenaean sphere in wouldnothave oftheeastern Mediterranean a waythat to other regions and analyzed. that analysisare rather products.A fewadditional recognized piecesweresubsequently as identified either to for similar reasons havebeenerroneously Mycenaean (Table 2: C5731. Figs.Gunneweg al. 712. J.2002b. C7238. Cypriot and LindaHulin. thenumbers imports of increased thanks to from substantially.table3:104.15 is nowpossible. Zuckerman al.12 unfortunate the One consequence thisriseinthe number recognized of twocategories whatarenow of has imports beenthat ifsampled all. and et Kazel). p. Rutter 2006b.VassosKarageorghis. 656. 215. 13.14 other has A comparatively recent morefavorable and development been the directed at ofprograms provenience of proliferation analysis specificallyMyin of cenaean ceramic from increasingly range sites theeastan wide imports ernAegean. Hertel. Israel. 656.Mommsen Badreet al. LM IA 1996.The first a series Red Slip orProtoBase Ringjugs from is of FinaltoLM IB Early and includes PlainWhiteshapes contexts. A. Mommsen al. and 1992 (Tell elAmarna). accuracy sectionofthispaper. . pieces selected of both and broadly representative. fragments see Fig.2O2 J.p. Mommsen examination A morecomprehensive from ofimported pottery Mycenaean numerous in Israelis currently sites effort under wayas a collaborative David BenSharonZuckerman. C7639 [Fig. 14. 5]) (Table 1: C7643. alongwiththeir on considered A smallnumber thepiecessampledin 1996 werealready of as identified imports or technological to be uncertainly stylistic grounds had from production the zonestowhichthey beenattributed. 1992.n. 654. 2005 (Tell 2007 (Cyprus). thevisits to thePitsidiaapothiki scholars having greater familiarity paid by in of with wares question. especially Cyprus. AND S. by and Shlomo. in at greater length theconcluding 12. B. M. 655.p. and Egypt. Rutter 2006b. Rutter 2006b. RUTTER. Mountj andMommsen Niemeier 2006 (Troy). in the thatelapsedbetween sampling 1996 and Duringtheeight years in of identified on thecompletion analyses 2004. in of the accuracy the Mycenaeanidentifications 1996 is shownto have in identifications the been in the70%-85% rangeand thatoftheCypriot ofroughly (55 of69) is discussed 80% The overall 83%-88% range. p. 12. Marketou al. TOMLINSON. thevesThe ofproduction.below). selsimported Kommosfrom to their respective regions of the provenience was to determine whether analyses principal purpose in of anynoteworthy spatialor temporal patterns the importation either or vesselsfromthese two distinct cultural tablewares transport spheres couldbe detected.table3:105. E. selected beenpossible whenthesamples wereinitially as A further of thisNAA projectmaybe characterized a check aim to and theirassignment of of on thereliability theidentification imports ofproduction outsideofCrete. It therefore. 2002c (Miletosand Ephesos). 2009.Yellin et Maeir1992 (TellDan).13 thesecond thanpithoifrom LM IB through LM IIIB contexts. 3. Hans Penelope et see Mommsen.Karanet tzaliand Ponting 2000. notably juglet C4734 and Protopalatial C7237. Mountjoy. Mommsen.The suspected Mycenaean regions specific that Cypriot imports weresampledarelistedinTable 1 and thesuspected the after NAA analysis. Syria. and 15. at the timeof sampling. and C7239 (Table 2. 2002a. HOFFMANN wereconsidered but the spheres. in assignments imports Table 2. Of to withrespect the assistance particular material wereCelia Bergoffen. typologically chronologically.p. 6) or Cypriot in The results the present of sobering.Cyprus. Mountoy joy2001. and Sjöberg 2006 (Rhodes).in at considered wereinadequately Cypriot imports sampled. stylistic grounds. Mountjoy 2001 (Qantir-Piramesse). Sturt Manning.

chromium iron (Cr). butoneofthe69 samples were from sherds thesite. at of five pottery samples including multiple analyses All sherds. element The concentrations determined theshort from irradiation aluminum were calcium (Al). theAscotreactor's is only third flux a ofthat theUniversities of Research Reactor Risley.The rawdataareincluded an in archive all NAA datagenerated of by theUniversity Manchester the of on website theArchaeometry of LaboraMissouri Research tory. material in TableB. was and per 20 minutes thesamples later werecounted gamma spectrometers on ray for5 minutes. (Fe). (Hf (Th).LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 203 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS TableA liststheresults neutron of activation of Appendix analysis 69 found Kommos. After data Altogether elements comparing anaon boththeRisley Ascotreactors. for the tion. These elemental concentrations beenomitted. and it that however.cesium (Cs). the 23 weremeasured. The other sherds their 68 had removed a diamondsurface using drill the was an head. at which beenusedfor analysis the had the of Warrington.andthen coreofthesample crushed tipped using andmortar. samples The were irraput in diated twice theImperial at flux Collegereactor Ascotat a neutron of ~1 x IO12 cm'2 Podmore standard wasusedtodetermine n s"1.europium ytterbium (Eu). tothree were for Two weeks after irradiacounted twohours. samarium (Sm). andTa obtained Ascotwere at unreliable. concentration for Lu.An The was for at agate pestle amount 200 was accurately weighed (approximately mg)ofthepowder intoa plastic tubethat then was heat-sealed. University Reactor. five seven approximately days thesamples counted 30 minutes. procedures were to the of 69 (MAHALA) program used compare chemical profiles the sherds the123chemical with reference inthe groups Manchester-Berkeley 16. potassium (K). .lutetium tantalum hafnium ). precise of The duration thefirst irradiation 90 seconds sample. were they Comparing gamma peakareas ofthePodmore with standards theceramic concentrasample peakareas.anddysprosium The second (Dy).which drilled a diamondwas was with drill tipped on site.cobalt (Co). was found lyzed data Yb. lanthanum cerium (La). irradiation lasted seven and to later hours. http missouri. (Ta).edu/datasets/uman/index. scandium (Sc). vanadium manganese (V). html.16 STATISTICAL EVALUATION Sinceall ofthesherds are to to analyzed presumed be imports Kommos. no statistical were carried tolookfor out chemical within analyses groups thedataset. rubidium (Rb). archive freely The is available for download from ¡//archaeometry. (Mn). (Ca). tions wereobtained thefollowing for elements: sodium (Na). (Yb). have from therefore. andthorium Since (Lu). titanium (Ti). at clipped The exception C3947. powder dried 24 hours 150°C. the oftheanalytical results Appendix in TableA andshould be presentation usedwith caution statistical in great analyses. itwasnotpossible comparative presented Appendix to measure uranium because peakareawastoosmall. theMahalanobis in theMANHATTAN Rather. red the clay concentrations. (Ce).

If. withthegroupif a group. prep.in contrast.. Korakou. Tomlinson 1993. linson. A.Attica: 1995b. (by groupsare predefined cluster in thiscase) in terms themeanand standard of deviation each of analysis element. CHEMICAL Region Attica Boiotia REFERENCE GROUPS Groups 1 3 36 Sites/Areas Represented Perati Thebes Eutresis. in theManhattandistance the center thatgroupis defined unitsof to of standard deviation of each oftheelements concerned.Levant: 2004. Episkopi Hala Sultan Kalavasos Tekke. Cyprus: and Hoffmann Robinson 1997. (a) The procedure thatwas used forestablishing chemicalgroupsin the thepresent was a was First.E. (other): French 1997.e. Maa Palaiokastro. (i.thegroupbecamemorediffuse andwas returned was in fact considered member a ofthat thesample group in of to it. Phaistos. Palaikastro. Gla.French Tomlinson Tomet Hoffmann al. (other) Menelaion.If the removal a particular samplefrom in ofthatgroup a groupled to an overall increase thestandard deviations then whenthesamplewas removed). and groupwereused in each statistical evaluation. depend21 varies common ingon thedataset.17 commonto bothsample Data forall elements database. grouping identified cluster Its groupmembership thenrefined considering was by analysis.TOMLINSON. forthcoming. Abu Hawam 21 31 Levant 20 11 listedinTable 3. Boiotia: Tomlinson 1998. RUTTER.forthcoming. by the standard deviations the group'selementsas each sample in turn of the of was removed from group. HOFFMANN TABLE 3. in of 18.Jones Tomlinson 2009. Kallithea. Olympia-Kolosakos. Mycenae. Argolid-Corinthia Asine. Tomlinson 1995a. sampleis deemedto "fit" a against provenience Tomlinson 17. Tanagra. Kition. PylaVerghi Tell Lachish.French 1992. Tiryns. of has Since experience shownthatthe samplemembers a chemical have a totaldistanceto the groupcenterless than the reference group number elements of used in the comparison (i. Kommos. Peristeria. Achaia.thegroupbecametighter upon removal the of the sample).Knossos. AyiosDimitrios. Platanos-Renia Palaiokastro.Tomlinson et in Robinson.... Hoffmann. Crete Chania. Enkomi. an averageof up to 1 g thatwhen comparing thenit follows samplesof unknown per element).Tomlinson and et al 2008. MaroniTsarroukas. Zygouries ChoraAno Englianos. 1996. J.The number elements from to 23. Arpera. chemical study as follows. M.204 J. B. Argolid-Corinthia: and 1999. removal the sampleresulted an overalldethe deviations creasein standard (i. Pseira Cyprus Akhera.thenthe samplewas indeed excludedfrom groupin question. Phaneromeni. AND S. Nichoria.e.e.. Bryan al. each samplecomparedagainsta particular For reference group.18 For theMANHATTAN program. and Crete: Tomlinson 1991. Péloponnèse and Robinson. Péloponnèse AyiosStephanos.2000. . Tsoungiza.Berbati.

of of The results a comparison a samplewitha groupare displayed d not by the MANHATTAN program onlyas the individual valuesfor of an but d each element. a in i. For the diffuse groupslistedin the secondsection.theaverage standard deviation fallsbetween7. likely deviation a percentage themean (sometimes as of thesize ofthestandard mustalso be considered when referred as the coefficient variation) to of the fitsand associations indicatedby the d values. particular maythusassociate sample withseveral different chemical groups whileseparable.while the concentrations one or two (5%) samples group we Fromanother thatelement. a normal distribution. associate(rather the two of the elemental valueslie a longwayfrom groupmean. chemistry.whereas their mean.e. with willassociatemuchmorereadily normal. also in 68% d at theindividual values. samplethatseemsto considerthe individual thanfit)with a groupmaydo so because. groups.and another have a value suchas 13/2. be a shouldactually considered groupmember.it may all other valuesarevery close to respective for and thatthesample be thatthesetwovaluesarespurious somereason. 1 in for each element 16 ofthe24 samples(68%) wouldfallwithin g ofthe of mean value.forexample. thenormal For groupslistedin thefirst ofthetable.19 While the averaged valuesare a very usefulindicator.Mathematically.. of of and lie one deviation themeanvalue. might close to theedge of of thegroupmight have a value of24/0. whosechemistry quitesimilar is sample to thegroup's Of a chemistry. groupexa diffuse group(because the standard withsuchgroups are volumeofhyperspace). 5% lie beyondtwostandard Therefore. mustalso one A values foreach element. wouldfalloutside a for 2 perspective. associations tendsovera larger thanwith"normal" to be lessmeaningful (less diffuse) Thus.1% to 29. havesimilar which.This term usedto indicate is a an sample occupying areaofhyperspace closeto thegroup question. theirstandard larger ity. course. the elemental valuesto be morethan2 o from mean.The latter givenin the distribution the individual of thatx elemental values are within1 a of the group form indicating x/yy mean andy lie beyond2 a of the mean.Appendix evaluating of Table B liststhe chemicalprofiles the 19 groupswithwhich at least section one Kommossamplefits.9%. an averagegroupmember whilea groupmember close to thecenter havean x/y valueof 16/2. values from 18.In thiscase.8% percentage the and 13. a groupcomprising the which24 elements havebeenmeasured. range 19. A sampleis deemedto "associate" witha groupifitsd is greater than1 a butless than1. it is important look notonlyat theaverage values. also as theaverage valuealongside indication the is elemental values. concentrations for 24 samples.Thus. only thedatapoints within standard for deviations.5 a.LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 205 the in itsaveragedistance(d) from groupcenter questionis less than1 o.9%. thegroupmight are morediffuse thanthemajorSome ofthereference groups notably somewhat than deviations generally are thatis. would 1 within a to also expect each ofthe24 samples haveconcentrations falling and foronlyone or two of its of the groupmean for16 of its elements. Since anyindividual sample are the deviations larger. . but to d Thus.

25) Lachish (1.79) HawamI (0.04) ThebesB (1. J.25) MycLF1 (1.83) 18 Cyprus (1.5 (d) The chemical are of and down intothecategories normal groups broken diffuse the on basisofhowtightly samples in the thegroup quesforming tion clustered are within group Appendix that TableB).24) Kommos (1.0 (with TABLE 4.45) 7 MycWH2 (1.The degree to (see which eachsample related a particular isdescribed is to to group according twodifferent thresholds correspondence.20) Lachish (1.29) 1 1 Pseira (1. HOFFMANN RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS Tables and5 list eachKommos 4 for for the groups which sample chemical itsaverage in is distance from group the center question lessthan o.13) 2 Péloponnèse(1.21) C3346 C3896 Chania4 (0.36) 1 Mycenae (1.26) 2 Asine1 (1.43) Lachish (1.32) ChaniaM4(1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUSPECTED MYCENAEAN SAMPLES AND CHEMICAL REFERENCE GROUPS: MANHATTAN DISTANCES Normal Groups Sample C1473 Fits(d<1. 1.95) C2058a C2058b C2140 2 Cyprus (0.22) 2 Péloponnèse(1. AND S. (with d valueofless of a fitting than a) andassociating a d value between and1. TOMLINSON.0a) B MycSJ (0.5c) C1771 2 Cyprus (0.16) 3 Zygouries(1.07) 2 Mycenae (1.48) MycLF1 (1.19) 5 Péloponnèse(1. 1.27) 2 Fits(d<1.0 of 1.98) 15 Cyprus (1.54) 2 Cyprus (0. A.34) 4 Menelaion (1.45) Lachish (1.94) MycLF1 (0.23) Pseira (1.49) 3 Péloponnèse(1. M .0a) Chania4(072) Associates (d<1.00) 15 Cyprus (1.10) 4 Menelaion (1.5a) Kommos (1.65) 15 Cyprus (0.25) .46) C2424 C2949 Lachish (0.83) Asine1 (0.01) MycWH2 (1.24) M3 Knossos (1.43) Menelaion (1.20) Menelaion4(1.28) MycWH1 (1.21) Berbati (1.20) Gla (1.86) 15 Cyprus (1.96) MycLF3 (1.40) 2 Cyprus (1.29) Diffuse Groups Associates (d<1. RUTTER.16) 2 Zygouries(1. B.38) 1 Kommos (1.2O6 J. E.18) Asinel (1.26) 1 Tiryns (1.86) 15 Cyprus (1.09) B MycSJ (0.48) Lachish (1.67) MycLF1 (0.39) 5 Tsoungiza (1.75) B MycSJ (0.01) B MycSJ (1.17) HawamG (1.5 o).23) 1 M4 Chania (1.58) HawamG (0.

MycSJ= Mycenae stirrup jars.85) Péloponnèse3 (1.26) Menelaion 4 (1. .49) Fits (d<1.46) Menelaion 4 (1.29) Cyprus15 (1.97) MycSJB (1.17) Menelaion 4 (1.25) Péloponnèse2 (1.46) Cyprus2 (1.41) 2 Zygouries (1. MycWH = MycenaeWest House.15) MycLF 1 (1.13) Péloponnèse4 (1.28) Lachish (1.19) C5819 C6709 Lachish (0.07) Péloponnèse2 (1.78) Associates(d<1.10) Menelaion 4 (1.14) Hawam (1.40) Cyprus2 (0.32) Menelaion4(1.33) C7636 C7643 C7876 MycSJB (1.46) Cyprus2 (1.5 o) MycLF 2 (1.39) ChaniaM4(1.27) Berbati1 (1.40) MycLF 1 (1.02) Lachish (1.44) Lachish (1.05) Chania M4 (1.45) Cyprus2 (1.24) MycLF 1 (1.36) Pseira 1 (1.28) Zygouries1 (1.16) Cyprus15 (1.21) Lachish (1.41) MycLF 1 (1.73) C4693 MycLF 1 (0.0 g) Lachish (0.00) Gla (1.02) MycWH 2 (1.Continued Normal Groups Sample C3897 Fits (d<1.14) Menelaion 4 (1.43) MycSJB (1.21) Péloponnèse2 (1.13) Cyprus2 (1.39) Pseira 1 (1.18) Cyprus2 (1.LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 2O7 TABLE 4.72) Cyprus2 (0.33) Gla (1.41) MycWH 4 (1.34) Lachish (1.33) C4271 Cyprus2 (0.39) Péloponnèse2 (1.02) Péloponnèse2 (1.38) Pseira2 (1.48) Cyprus2 (1.0 g) DiffuseGroups Associates(d<1.19) Kommos 1 (1.30) MycLF 1 (1.09) Cyprus15 (1.18) MycWH 1 (1.32) Hawam G (1.32) C9126 ~ Abbreviations: MycLF = Mycenae fabric samples.87) C5425 MycSJB (1.38) C6912 C6919 C7116 MycSJA2 (1.16) Cyprus2 (1.43) Pseira 1 (1.24) Menelaion 7 (1.16) MycLF 1 (1.5 a) MycSJB (1.29) Menelaion 4 (1.

3). C2949.3) andC3897. Eightsamples actually with of (C4693.however. provenience mostlikely is Argolid. C7643. of Argolid.3. to Related groups chemistry typical the displaying Argolid. C6912. LH IIB jar alaC5819 (Fig. A. C6919.3).The other with associate Argolid groups merely (C3346. Piriform C5425 jar withsome also showsassociations butitsassociacentral Cretan groups. LH IIIA2 angular goblet bastron and 3. d C1771. C4693. 6). SuspectedMycenaean C6912. d C7636. arerewhile other the three latedto Argolid andthree Crete. C6709. C7116. C4271.andstirrup C1771 jars (Fig. C2058. and LH IIIB deepbowlC6709 jar bowls C2140andC7876(Fig. withclosest from 1. LH IIIA2/B jar kylix bowlC4271 and*piriform C5425. E. thisgroup of to is chemistry quitesimilar that the 1997). C3897. C3346. C7636. C7636.97). 6). AND S. Figure C9126.3).4). C5819.2O8 J. C7876. C4693. provenience groups Argolid C2949. J. .28).20 fit 20.02 to 1. RUTTER. LH IIIAl goblet C2058. are from in Argolid elsewhere.stemmed (Fig. B. HOFFMANN Figure6. scale. see 3. are with tions Argolid groups closer. associaGobletC2058 has itsclosest from the of tionwitha group sherds s As northwest Péloponnèse. imports C7116. C2140. LH I Vapheio or whether findspotsthe cups C3346 andC6912 andLH IIA piriform C7116 (Figs. M. For Photo Dabney T. C5425. stirrup C2949(Figs. withclosest from sevensamples 0. TOMLINSON. (see Argolid Tomlinson associaalso shows and as thissample its tions with Argolid groups. Mycenaean Samples 15 Of the21 pieces that to analyzed were thought be Mycenaean. to pieces groups areunprovenienced (Tables1.54 to 0.

33) witha diffuse at of group transport stirrup found jars but central) Mycenae of(mostlikely Cretan 1995a). C5645. bridgeThe C6919 displays jug onlya sinspouted (d= gle association 1. Cypriot 4.23). C6743. C3218. krater C9126 (chariot) spouted C6919 andLH IIIA2/Bamphoroid jug C2424 (Fig. 6). 2. ofwhich illustrated (seeFigs. C4127.22 3.3.The LM II pyxis ofpossible Cretan being origin. here 11 are bowls. Figure Photo Dabney T. see milkbowl C9990. Bothstirrup fit jars witha group at oftransport stirrup found Chajars Cretan niabutofcentral provenience. C9612. Figure C10111. 7.23). 6) is identified C1473 and C3896.LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 2OO. Amphoroid no associations whatsoever. the (d Crete Boiotia(d= 1.The SlipII milk White Slip II Late Figure7. andtheLH IIIC Early stirrup jar (Figs. four unprovenienced to (Tables 5). White Slip II and Figure8. 8).indicating ambiguity the least. from Limassol areall26White the area to Related thegroups Cyprus.and central at (d= 1. (see origin Tomlinson Stirrup C2424 showsassociations jar withgroups from Argolid = 1. see 4. krater C9126 shows 22.3). jars as C7643 (Figs. For T. Forscale. Photo Dabney 21. very .21 Thethree are unprovenienced samples LH IIA bridgeUnprovenienced. Cypriot groups. scale.4. Cypriot White Slip HA (C4127) milkbowls C10034 (2 fragments). Related central to CretearetheLH IIIB stirrup Central Crete.20). C9567. Cypriot Samples to to 40 that Ofthe pieces 48 thought be Cypriot. arerelated analyzed were and are four Crete. The pyxis associates 1.40) only (d= of fine witha group eight warevessels from Pseira.

14) lib Cyprus (1.36) CypHMB(1.29) HawamB (1.85) lib Cyprus (0.86) CypHMB(0.49) 10 Cyprus (1.02) HawamB (1.77) 9 Cyprus (0.23) CypHMB(1.26) 10 Cyprus (1.98) lib Cyprus (0.50) CypHMB(1.76) .0a) Associates (d<1.72) HawamB (0.44) A2 MycSJ (1.66) HawamB (0.39) Fits(d<1.86) Ha Cyprus (0.19) CypHMB(1.46) CypHMB(1.TABLE 5.37) CypHMB(1.80) lib Cyprus (0.25) HawamB (1.13) HawamB (1. _.67) lib Cyprus (0.19) CypHMB(1.21) HawamB (1.28) ChaniaM3(1.5c) CypHMB(1.74) HawamB (0.05) lib Cyprus (1.75) HawamB (0.25) HawamB (1.10) CypHMB(1.87) | .47) HawamB (1.80) lib Cyprus (0.98) lib Cyprus (0.76) Diffuse Groups Associates (d<1.36) lib Cyprus (1.03) CypHMB(1.89) 10 Cyprus (0.17) HawamB (1.14) A2 MycSJ (1.50) HawamB (1.07) CypHMB(1.24) lib Cyprus (1.39) CypHMB(1.87) 5 Cyprus (0.09) 7 Cyprus (1.21) HawamB (0.32) CypHMB(1.86) HawamB (0.61) 3 Cyprus (0.25) HawamB (1.23) CypHMB(1.84) lib Cyprus (0.0o) lib Cyprus (0.84) lib Cyprus (0.5a) Fits(d<1.56) 10 Cyprus (0.12) 9 Cyprus (1.48) 14 Cyprus (1.39) lie Cyprus (1.23) CypHMB(1.37) CypHMB(1.89) HawamB (0.23) A2 MycSJ (1.01) 7 Cyprus (1.70) lib Cyprus (0.83) 10 Cyprus (0. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUSPECTED CYPRIOT SAMPLES AND CHEMICAL REFERENCE GROUPS: MANHATTAN DISTANCES Normal Groups Sample C335 C340 C344 C665a C665b C993 C1052 C1262 C1981 C1982 C2046 C2141 C2753 C3156 C3171a C3171b C3171C C3171d C3171e C3218 C3249 C3681 C3729 C3947 C4127 C4143 C4249 C4432 | | I HawamB (0.84) HawamB (0. 3 Cyprus (1.72) 10 Cyprus (0.

99) 15 Cyprus (0.91) Kommos (1.90) lib Cyprus (1.04) B MycSJ (1.31) 2 ChaniaM4 (1.97) HawamB (0.18) Kommos (1.26) C7639 C8154 C9013a C9013b A2 MycSJ (0.26) C9013c C9013d 15 Cyprus (0.18) 10 Péloponnèse (1.15) Lachish (1.99) HawamB (0.0o) A2 MycSJ (0.85) B MycSJ (1.35) HawamJ(1.20) 5 Tsoungiza (1.49) ChaniaM4 (1.17) A2 MycSJ (0.47) lib Cyprus (1.32) 5 Cyprus (1.87) lib Cyprus (1.39) Phaistos (1.43) 4 Cyprus (1.17) Phaistos (1.80) ¡ B MycSJ (0.23) ChaniaMl (1.39) C9382 A2 MycSJ (1.82) 4 Cyprus (1.5a) Chania4 (0.36) 5 Péloponnèse(1.17) Cyprus A2 MycSJ (0.TABLE S.32) Pseira (1.38) 2 Kommos (1.5g) ChaniaMl (1.18) 2 Pseira (1.33) 1 Pseira (1.88) CypHMB(0.18) Continuedon nextpage .Continued Normal Groups Sample C4577 C4734 Fits(1.75) 4 Cyprus (1.61) lib Cyprus (0.00) 2 ChaniaM4 (1.94) B MycSJ (0.09) 1 Kommos (1.05) 1 Pseira (1.12) 1 Menelaion (1.14) A2 MycSJ (1.42) 3 (1.43) 2 Cyprus (1.21) 13 Cyprus (1.31) B MycSJ (1.06) C4773 C5122 C5596 C5645 C5731 C5770a C5770b C5770c C6743 C7237 C7238 C7239 C7407 lib Cyprus (0.40) 3 3 Kommos (1.13) Kommos (1.06) 15 Cyprus (1.18) ChaniaM2 (1.13) 3 Cyprus (1.10) ChaniaBl (1.18) 5 Cyprus (1.26) HawamB (0.98) B MycSJ (0.02) Kommos (1.16) B MycSJ (1.19) KnossosM2(1.39) 5 Cyprus (0.05) HawamB (1.13) 15 Cyprus (1.12) KnossosMl(1.70) Diffuse Groups Associates (d<1.32) Associates (d<1.92) 15 Cyprus (0.41) 5 3 Cyprus (0.75) 15 Cyprus (1.75) ChaniaBl (1.82) B MycSJ (0.44) 1 ChaniaM4 (1.45) A KnossosMl(1.74) 15 Cyprus (0.75) B MycSJ (0.23) ChaniaM2 (1.68) Menelaion (1.12) CypHMB(1.49) Fits(d<1.30) 1 Thebes (1.97) HawamB (0.

showassociations this have These samples. The group diffuse. C993. AND S.whichcomefrom same horizon thePlainWhite as destruction with also pithos.90).see Figs. 11).C1982.27) MycSJ 15 Cyprus (1. C10034. though apparently withone of 27. group. M.35) lib Cyprus (1. and is 25.4.C5596.68) = Handmade Abbreviations: Burnished. sample Note thatthetwoWhitePainted I Wheelmade tankards (C10209 and the C10366). 8). HOFFMANN TABLE 5.47) ChaniaM4 (1.44 which.4).98) Groups Diffuse Associates (d<1.48.13) MycSJ 1 Menelaion (1.26) CypHMB(1.15) B MycSJ (1. .4. associate C7407 and C9382. are of but 5. associations arenotclose(d = 1.0a) Associates (d<1. arenotespecially as be should regarded so thesamples associated. Fourofthesamples. notdeemedsignificant. arerelated mixed in from sites theLimassol find groups are 24 The region.88) HawamB (0.5o) Fits(d<1.43 and 1. apparentlyCypriot provenience.three bowlC1052.White (Figs.d = 1.44) A2 (1. andthePlainWhite WhiteSlipII Late milk C3171 (Fig.C4432. fit samples wellwithit. many withthem. stirrup jars. C3729. MycSJ Mycenae CypHMB= Cypriot are samples C335 (Fig.C5645.85) CypHMB(0.C5122. Slip andC3249 andthePlainWhitepithos ware to C3171.44) 3 Cyprus (0.4). C3218.25 (C4143. A. C9013 is Plain from Enkomi another White Related a group to pithos.0.97) HawamB (0.212 J. C340. provenience remains Cypriot. 8).C2141.85) lib Cyprus (0. C9612. Slip C10209andC10366(Fig. bowl 1997). Unknown. theaforementioned witha C10209 and C10366 associate As Enkomi.The WhiteSlip IIA milk carinated andtwoofthethree cups. particular 4. 9).44) and arenotdeemedsignificant. B. merely three whiletheother withthegroup.All (see of but are ofthese groups diffuse. 7).20) CypHMB(1.5c) lib Cyprus (1. bothgroups from group the arediffuse.43) B (1.98. thefits close(d = 0. All sixsamples related a at found ofBase Ringpottery group to find sites thought origibut various et natein theEpiskopiarea(Bryan al.5.1.4). C4127 associates WhiteSlipgroups.and C10111 (forthelastsix.BaseRing Bucchero juglet and C10463 [Figs.75). C9567.02) CypHMB(1. 1997). Their is group. RUTTER.41) 15 Cyprus (1.43. 10]).C4773.84) Ila Cyprus (0. 8) andthetwo 4. fit thesamples closely to are 24.C3947.27 madeI tankards White 23.48) | Fits(d<1. The group diffuse. remaining samples to of related groups WhiteSlippottery find but various from Cypriot sites mostclosely chemical profiles display Limasin mirrored theaforementioned et solgroups Bryan al.90) HawamB (0. witha diffuse d = 1.67) HawamB (0.C3156.C2046. bowlC9990 (Figs. merely but is 26. thus unknown.C6743.C1262. E.C3249. the fits wellwithit (d = 0.C3218(Figs. TOMLINSON.and cups RingII carinated (C7407. C1981.C3681. however.5. II milk bowlsC2141. J. from Kition two are bowlC344. however.C665 (Fig.0c) HawamB (0.C4249.5).Continued Normal Groups Sample C9567 C9612 C9990 C10034 C10111 C10209 C10366 C10463 ChaniaM4 (1.24 Related a group to White IIA milk Slip PlainWhitepithoi C5770).26 Painted WheelWhite IIA milk bowl C4127(Figs.C9382.23 pithos areaareBase RingI shallow from Episkopi the Related a group to Base II C8154 (Figs.94) lib Cyprus (0.

).75) witha group (d at transport stirrup found Chania jars butofcentral Cretan provenience and (Tomlinson 1991.left).LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 213 C8154. Dabney kraterC9013. fits = 0. Dabney Plain White Figure11.09 to 1.28 juglet 28.10 to 1. C7407. Cypriot ribbedBase Ring II juglet cally Figure10 (above. prep. PhotoT. central Crete theFineGray is Wheelmade C4734. Cypriot Crete.23). also showsassociations(d from 1.right). (nearest from of C4734. Forscale. T.33) withother central Cretan groups. Forscale. Figure see 5.Tomlinson Robin It inson.see Figure Photo 5. Related western to Crete Monochrome C4577andtwo are bowl C7238 andC7239 (Fig. .The last. The first three are examples associated withgroups from Chania d 1. 5. Forscale. Cypriot Base Ring II carinated cups C 10463. Dabney vertiFigure9 (above.12). Related to peculiar Protopalatial specimens. C9382.see Figure PhotoT.

A. (see origin Tomlinson and This is a diffuse however. Amongthe20 sherds to considered be stylistically Kommos the (thatis. 5).6]) Mycenaean imports.notcounting Mycenaean Minoanfragment C7643). AND S. showno associations from results their 30. 12). RUTTER. singles unprovenienced C9126). C7238 [Fig.29 DISCUSSION thatsevenvery on The determination thebasis oftheNAA results quesone identified (C7643 [Figs.21)witha group transport stirrup but at jarsfound Mycenae ofwestern Cretan 1995a). failure a smallernumberof Cypriotimports as otherpieces to qualify unambiguously non-Cretan imports stirrup Cretan to jars C1473 and C3896. they lasttwosamples (C7639 andC7237) whatsoever. Dabney The samplesare Red Lustrous unprovenienced Unprovenienced. shownbyNAA to be related a central center(Tables 1. no listed fewer recently to orpiecesunattributed specific proa from sample duction locales. E. and anotherunusualProtopalatial piece. popuor lation 151 Mycenaean of sherds.3. compositional It is thusquite possiblethatthe threefragments citedindeed come just thathave simplynot centers from Mycenaeanand Cypriotproduction thusdo not constitute partof the by yetbeen identified NAA workand database. western Wheelmadespindle jug Canaanitejar C7639 (Fig. pattern compositional Cypriot all ofvirtually Mycenaeanceramic a Of course. and thananyknownMycenaeanproduction rather thananyknown to Cretanrather related a western bowl C4577. 5). imports: Scale 1:3. The first vessels (C2753 and (d= C5731) showassociations 1. C5731. The fore. C7237 (Fig. certain groups percentage that to haveproven have composition patterns sampledforNAA testing identified with any previously do not correspond group. 12]. whiletwosmallandfine compositions stirrup withsimilar jars . is closely paralleled Tell Kazel (Badreet al. C7237. remain unprovenienced. 5]). likewise however. tested.came as a surprise.30 Manchester-Berkeley two 29. M. 12]. four Anatolian C5731. 15% ofthesherds They roughly or to this consider figure be more less of normal analytical for programs at it thiskind. 5). J. (Tables2. 4). C7239. not is theassociation certainly signifivesselandprobably the cantfor former Therefor notsignificant thelatter. PhotoT.withthe to beingcloser 10% figure equivalent and at Qantir(Mountjoy Mommsen from 2001). HOFFMANN Figure 12. than22 singles.214 J. probably three pieces(15%) arehereconsidered (C2424. were. of The was unremarkable.C6919.50 and of 1. TOMLINSON.in fact. In publishing and (2006) Mountjoy Mommsen Troy. supposedly tionably and sixCypriot (C4734. C7237 [Fig. B. Medium coarseto coarse (MM IIB) fragments Protopalatial identified Cypriot as originally C7238.C7239 to C7639 [Fig. group.unlikely be Mycenaean or [Fig. bottleC2753 (Fig. 2005). 12].

Unfortunately.299-302. no systematic ofithasever study have A of amount whatmayactually been beenundertaken. C6912.494-495. C7876.c. case the B In she a Linear texts. than Kommos. might one sugthesetwofine gestthat jars stirrup in fact a Greekprorepresentmainland duction center previously not isolated in theManchester-Berkeley bank data of61 reference derived from groups that (Table3). century presence Mycenaeans Chaniaintheearlier the world have come from within Mycenaean where may they although and the Messenia. fact. substantial ifin sherd is to found form. see also the discussion following Hallager2005 and 2005 in D'Agata.. theseeming subjected chemical Cretan harbor of to thissouth-central thepatterns ceramic importation town time.47/21. C3896. Mountjoy 2005.. bothareofLH IIA date. single the attested ofa PalaceStyle example manufacture pithoid ofMycenaean jar from Kommoshad notbeenidentified as suchby1996 and so was notsampled for (Rutter 2006a. Foran overview LH IIIAlof IIIB imports. 467. in to and thematerial changes analysis.pp. 3:53. Rutter 2006b.p. 3:48). makes compelling for tablets bearing 13th of at actual b.34 Mycenaean imports 10% ofthe (C1473. theLH IIIA2/B jar chariot krater C9126 (Figs. Argolid. Mycenaeanmanufacture C2058. by coarse transport stirrup Rather jars. should begin noting by little has earlier thanLM/ comparatively attention beenpaidto periods LH IIIAl ortoindividual Minoansites other than and Knossos.no. Hallager1993.3.is unclear.33 contribution for long andisthus longer ago identifiedKommos notinitsquantity. 6).andthe pls. sameis true thesingle for identified of example a Mycenaean semiglobular 2006a.pp. through in LH haveMycenaean ranging datefrom I Onlyat Kommos pots to of Withtheexcepthrough thevery beginning LH IIIC beenfound. thanconsidering these twopieces last as necessarily Minoanproducts the on basisofthisevidence. 6). C3896) imports oronly inasmuch possibly Mycenaean as they categorized unproveniare as enced(C2424.pp. cup (Rutter pl. notes LM IIIB1 temporal inthese a to She spike imports Chaniaand features make that their initial on other mainland Greek comments several fixed atthis western Cretan coastal center contemporaneously: appearance andbothstirrup and ofMycenaean central hearths. tionoftheLH IIIC Earlystirrup C2424 (Fig. C6919). 34. C6709. 3).Moody. ifhe also overlooked even a fewpiecesthat in of were. . Mountjoy andWilliams 2005. turn. see Table 1). mainland correctly identifying imports is consequently unblemished the by NAA results. None ofthese wereidentified Mycenaean Watas by rous{Kommos whoserecord for III). C7116. analysis no.2005.44b/20. jars figurines types.31 s 2005presentation more ofthe Birgitta Hallager detailed ceramic toChania shown far has that more 200LH III Mycenaean imports there thanat anyother Minoan Mycenaean havebeenrecognized pots site. .LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 215 To puttheNAA findings to ceramic concerning Mycenaean imports in Kommos a somewhat broader one that context. Mountjoy see 2003. at lies Mycenaean pottery imported of has at constitutes a mere 10%-15% what beenrecovered Chania which be at an small ofwhatmight identified andperhaps equally proportion thepercentage of in butrather thetemporal Knossos. 33. and theLH ILA bridgeamphoroid vessels for sampled spouted C6919 (Figs. another totalcorpus Mycenaean of piecesbeing havebeenidentified fitting as a tested) otherwise composition pattern represented medium exclusively large. likely havebeendiscarded there. 32. range represented.pp.32 possibilities from Knossosmayconceivably The imported Mycenaean pottery in but havebeencomparable quantity.3:91:f). nowevenLaconiaall seemdistinct Boiotia. Chania.3. all oftheMycenaean jug NAA arelikely be Argive oftheLH I to products.g. Hallager1993. (e.for see someLH II A imports. region 31. especially The ofthe no available study. 105-107.666-672. Fourpiecesthat wereconsidered in whensampled 1996 have Mycenaean beenshown NAA to be unlikely by non-Minoan (C1473.

1992 LH Amarna: IIIA2)..2002b.35Ordinarily. Qantirin Egypt.virtually all thaneithermonochrome rather paintedor plain (and thusplausibly were less common than the small.The factthatall the and perhapsalso feasting playeda prominent T in contexts Building took from ceramic imports Neopalatial Mycenaean that vessels thatis. Badreet al. Mountjoy 2006). C6919). at leastone ofitsfunctions have as may at been to accommodate periodiclargesocial gatherings whichdrinking role. A. TOMLINSON. shapesand smallstirrup byfar mostcommonclosedform jars of the 6: C2949.3:C5819).g. theirformchangedto two-handled and goblets(see.Tell Dan in Israel. Syro-Palestinian Egyptian seeJung 2006. quantities such recovered at vesselswere minuscule comparedto the numbers imported all of thempattern-decorated Chania. oil contained. is unlikely be coincidental.g. During the subsequent the era. MountHertel.Figs. 3. thatanyMycenaeans the NAA to determine provenience Analytical programs employing from othersitesin theeastern ofMycenaeanpottery Aegean and eastern in of matesuchsites wereMycenaean terms their whether Mediterranean.duringthe LM IIIA2 and LM IIIB periods. Rhodes: et ketou al.24.. 2002c). For interesting comparative Syria). 173-174. LH 2005 (Tell Kazel.Becauseofsevere chemiin difficultiesdistinguishing of between products the Argive cally of and MYBE group Trojanproducts it theA-TROY group. Anatoliancoast). It occurred Troy early and LH IIA (Mountjoy Mommsen 2006) andat Miletosat leastas early as LH IIB (Niemeier 2002a. This structure and served thetownsciviccenter. J. C1771). locally as at as 35. Finally.2002c (MileLH tos. 1992 (Tell Dan. open shapes. ..nn. 6: C4693). 25. for of thesignificance theMYBE group with anditsconnection specifically see at thepotters' quarter Berbati. Israel:LH IIIA2 Late). stemmed C2140).Pylonaand Ialysoson Rhodes. B.Troy). Mycenaean Monopalatial in timefound housesoutside ceramic to the imports Kommoswerefor first of the civiccenter. Mountjoy (Tellel2001 (Qantir.comprising LM II and IIIAl periods. M. Miletoson thesouthwest rialculture (e. for decorated Thus. C2424. as was producedat some eastern of highquality already Aegean centers ofMycenaeanceramic as LH II.ofdrinking of orone-handled theform either cups.Mycenaean at rangeas thatattested imports belongedto muchthe same functional bowls(Fig. werein all likelihood to C3346. Chania. 2006 (Ialysos. 3. sites. HOFFMANN in at and IIA periodsidentified LM I contexts Kommoscome exclusively T from monumental the appearsto have Building (Fig. Mar(Pylona. 6: C6912.e. e. At Kommos.withkylikes (Figs. et LH I-IIIB). farthelargest body by early erbati(MYBE) compositional the Mycenae-B exhibits pattern imports At of characteristic theArgolid-Corinthia. RUTTER.36 several however. and deep bowls (Fig.attractively utilized as tablewares). leaston thebasis oftheceramic is imports.have providedsome extremely these analyseshave shownthatdecoratedMycenaeanpottery example. AND S. Foran joy andMommsen directed of overview NAA programs from of at corpora Mycenaean pottery and sites. Karantzali Ponting Rhodes:LH IIIA-C). 3. 2000 and 36.g.Syria: IIIA2 Late-IIIB Final). Turkey: IIB-IIIC). is as yetnot the with to possible identify certainty chemof source thelargest geographic of icalgrouping Mycenaean pieces thusfar from tested Troy(Mommsen. jars stirrup imported theperfumed they at there no reasonto imagine.or Tell Kazel in data.2l6 J.g. 153.p.however. Mommsen al. pp. Niemeier 2002a.Aegean but not Mycenaean(e.or altogether nonAegean (e. E. at wereeverresident Kommos. 2).. jugs used on theseoccasions(see. andMommsen Egypt: et LH IIIA2-B). Gunneweg al. and 2001.2002b.Fig.g. 3: C6709) beingthe mostcommonopen the (Figs. Moreover. 3: C7876.

From19th (latest Dynasty in b. three theTIRQ^group to at (attributed workshops orin the vicinities Tiryns Asine.MYBE constituents recovered from congroup texts Qantir). of more dated of extreme thepicture themuch as.. C3896)pieces presumably representing production potentially source reveals unusually an concentrated on located theGreek mainland. thelasttwogroups also considered are to be Cypriot.sixto theICYP group. large production sos in theeastern Troodos is uncertain. single region production not is thesituation Kommos similar although quiteas at this to.3. one(C9990) to to and C4127) being of theWS II Late subgroup 4. Withtheexception thetwo (Figs. all WS II milk bowls to were virtually ofthe imported Kommos produced from found several kilometers inland from south-central of the coast clays 37.for Sanidha et the seeTodd and Pilides site. Egyptian production makeup theJPALgroup 12 samples identified representing as Canaanite production. by bowl two are (C344.g.closer of and to theArgive coastthantheworkshops the constituting MYBE group). narrowly importation in LH IIIA2 Latevessels found tomb atTellDan. Pylona.andtheonly Miletos. at and although century allofthe13th-century strata) Qantir Egypt. imports of MYBE compositional outside the ofthefew imports falling Mycenaean krater as chariot unusual itis theonly C9126 (Figs. all from of at and identified Kommos one ofjusttwoknown fragment C2424 (Fig.3). identification75%-85%oftheMyceAgainst with from Kommos Argive. and another to eight theKQAN group.3: C2424. a comefrom found Kommos at of varied imports repertoire Mycenaean In in located thenortheastern of Péloponnèse.c. (one C344. is related products the to from WS IIA fragments ofwhich. although they also at west-northwest ofKalavacenter identified Sanidha. other all butpossibly words. thetwosmallstirrup C1473 and to five C6919. toproducers in located Egypt. the has site where Mycenaean pottery analyzed beenattributed exclusively is levels 14thto theMYBE group TellDan.is a while second theLH IIIC Early Crete. production 2001. 8). respect.37 Argive production 9% beenattributedCypriot to 25% roughly have workshops. justthree as naeanimports (Fig. 387 from of to Withregard theimports effectively Cyprus. the40 pieces no lessthanthree-quarters confirmed NAA as Cypriot (30 products.LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 2VJ of constitutes a substantial Mycenaean pottery percentage the produced tested Kazel).38 probably the of thisbackdrop.Tell Troy. 6) is highly group. at for ofsupply theMycenaean Furthermore. camefrom 46% ofthe138 piecessampled centers. 9% to Canaanite and workshops. ofthese samples) WhiteSlip(WS) II milk attributabletheWS IIA subgroup. 7. . Ialysos. areattributed to theHCYP group(nowsuggested and Sjöberg[2007] to byMommsen at represent potters working thesite ofSinda). stirrup jar not from siteofKommos the thelatest known Mycenaean import only with very andrather a few In from ofCrete. areassigned 53 to theMYBEQ^group(thatis. see Bryan al. fragments. 1997.39 is clearis that What foothills. ofthese associated groups whether may be connected the with theLimassol area. 38. andtypologically mostoftheimpressively long-lived special exceptions.C9126) jars (including other locales. pieces (e. 39. recovered thesite. in Nine samples the and four theMQAN in LQAN group are to group considered likely represent while centers. at to eight theclosely related (madeup of MYKRQ^group with MYBE-like composisamples tionsexcept divergent for potassium andrubidium concentrations evidently causedbyunusual circumtaphonomic and to stances). Of the138 samples citedin thepreceding 21 note. Forearlier NAA work Cypon riotBronzeAge wares theManby chester Archaeometry Laboratory. are with from of all neighborhood Episkopi). Of 138 samples.

norwereanyofthe White shapesother LM IA Final and Red Slip and ProtoBase Ringjugs from muchearlier LM IB Earlycontexts. withinHouse X at Kommos is uncertain. Bryan al. TOMLINSON. Pilides2000. see 43. 5.46 as an exampleof Base Ringwas confirmed a central bowl (C4577) is insteada Monochrome identified a Cypriot as first piece as possiblewesternCretan product. p. AND S. C5770).43Appearing Kommosat the same timeas the first at WS II milkbowls.c. 41. 46.2l8 J. see Vaughan centers. Most ofthese vesselsfoundat Kommoswererecovered fromcontexts close verylarge to the harborarea wheretheywould have been off-loaded rather than In their from houseslocatedon the slopesabove theharbor. 654. althoughtheywere probably no producedat one and the same place on Cyprus. 40. 10]) maybeasanalysis to from sites further alongthesouth west coastin the signed ceramic groups Base Ringwareoccurs Kommosin theform carinated at of Episkopiarea. east and one yetfurther in northeast the neighborhood Enkomi (Figs. jugs shape thantheWS II imports. Rutter 2006b. HOFFMANN this However numerous production the centers weresupplying that Cyprus. distribution thesiteresembles on thoseofother largeimported transport different from thatof the vesselssuchas Canaanitejars and is noticeably tablewares.656-657. Pulak this thefinds 1998. A. a possible and thus a wider tankard.41 andjuglets.. it makesits initialappearance in but repertoire LM IIIA2 Earlycontexts. pp. moreorlesscontemporaneously theWS II with milk bowls.44 b. Fine GrayWheelmadejuglet(C4734) initially A Cretanproduct. Rutter 2006b.p.45 the simplereasonthatnone of thepieces in for as withconfidence Cypriot. the fourPlain White pithoisampledfromKommos seem to have been locationsalong the southcoast. 678-680.thesepithoimaywell havebeen thelargetransport vesselsin whichsmaller tablewares wereshippedabroad. although a to Kommosfrom non-Cretan thepiecewas certainly producimported as mistaken A tioncenter. J. C10463 [Figs. 5: C3171). wareand its subvarieties Kommosmayhave been.pp. Plain thanpithoi weresampledin 1996. C10209) recovered from (Fig. are two of the threeProtopalatial 40. and smaller.e. 1997.there no examples ofeither ProtoWS orWS I). representing cups.42 judgefrom comparatively To the contextual availdata scanty able forthisclassof Cypriot it is possiblethatthecarinated imports. and all came from contexts datingbetween LM IIIA1 and LM IIIB. of 44. twofurther at Kition(C4143. RUTTER.Unfortunately. 45.Forthespeet of cializedmanufacture Base Ring number production of wareat a limited 1991. cups andjugs wereregularly together Kommosin pairedsets. thisrespect. Rutter 2006b. used at In marked contrast thetwopreceding to of categories Cypriot imports. B. questionhad bythattimebeen identified The singleexampleof a Red LustrousWheelmade spindlebottle as from Kommos(Fig.theyseem to Cypriot in to havebeen clustered within fairly a smallareaoftheisland. ForCypriot pithoi. 42.all ofthem areclassifiable WS II ofone kindor another as are (i. oftheWS imports Kommosweremilkbowls. of 11: C9013). Forexamples theFine Gray of and classat Kommos their Wheelmade at manufactureone or more probable see siteson Crete. above.as was evidently Cypriot thecase on thelate-14th-century wreckat Uluburun. Fora convenient summary see from wreck. 5: C2753) cannotbe confirmed Cypriot.5. 9.one in the producedat severaldifferent Limassolarea(Fig. E. 657.2009. morereadily portable The provenience twoWhite Painted of WheelmadeI jugs ortankards LM IB Late and IIIB contexts 4: C10366. C9382. decorated.table3:104. Keswani 1989. .40 The muchsmaller number Cypriot of Base Ringvesselssampledfor (C1052. C8154. muchthe the samewayas theMycenaeanimports Kommosderived to from largely All to Argolid. M. C7407. See n.

imported Cyprus..3%and imports some that 63. . see mostrecently Stockhammer 2007. by tobe notobviously Cypriot. the of at coastal Indeed. and pp. jars the somewhat quantitiesimported of as Despite larger Cypriot opposed toMycenaean vessels from far largest the numbers Cypriot of Kommos. pp. The pattern later of ceramic observed the Cypriot importation during LM IIIA andLM IIIB periods that tablewares manufactured at suggests centers Cyprus White milk on Base bowls. jug to the C5731.g. incorrectly in identified 1996as possible Anatolian Cypriot imports western (e.. Rutter 2006b. Slip and I Wheelmade tankards) bowls.. transport chiefly pithoi. in ofthe four last Comparison rows information of inTable6 makes what differencesbetween clear the are thedate. northern Egypt strongly that was a for ensuggests Kommos simply convenient stopover Cypriot inlong-distance with inthecentral trepreneurs engaged exchanges regions most Sardinia.For thelikelihood Cypriot of residents atTiryns very in LH early IIIC. were toCrete from discrete coastal inPlainWhite shipped emporia pithoi at those The of tablewares produced ornear emporia. berofMycenaean Cypriot and vessels in 1996constitutes less recognized than two-thirdsthepieces of nowviewed genuine as (58. specialized production (e. ofthepieces were respectively). quantities Cypriot to were somewhat than imbeing imported Kommos greater those being from Mycenaean the and casessuch mainland.C7239). above. nor Cypriot to relatively numerous andattractively small any equivalent the decorated Mycenaean stirrup ofLH IIIA2-IIIB date. 658. 156-157. Had thesamples group accurately beenselecteddecade a more would have beenchosen. also Maran2004. oneLM IA Early) than identifiable mainland asa Greek anything Kommos not has furnished mainland Greek functional product. jugs. n. Lastly. notably CONCLUSIONS The program chemical of in initiated 1996on21 pottery analyses samples from Kommos on as Mycenaean and regarded stylistic grounds imports 48 samples considered to be Cypriot has confirmed that likely imports between and18 ofthefirst 15 and 40 group between and42 ofthesecond were identified theoutset at (Table6). distributionCypriot significant pithoi furtherthe to west Sardinia.47 Mediterranean. in and emporia Sicily. 323-325. inboth ported importation tohave flourished approximatelysame over the time appears span. there no is any reason believe Cypriots ever to that were resident Kommos at in actually numbers. Stockhammer 2007. onceidentified Cypriot as pieces (Fig.Canaanite C7639 [Fig.5]) orthat jar proved be Cretan (e.andWhitePainted Ringcups. imports to Kommos were that in those were that sampled 1996versus recognized 47.g.12: C7238.for Cypriot Levantinecontacts with see Tiryns. by ceramics havebeenrecovered far to so from Minoansite.LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 210. juglet would have not beenincluded theselection. 6]) C4734. 3. andshaperanges theMycenaean Cypriot of and ware. Furthermore.g.p. pieces onceconsidered butsubsequently identifiedwestern as Anatolian Cypriot (CS731) and Syro-Palestinian 5: C7639) wereconfirmed NAA (Fig. for see Cypriot pithoi. although twoCypriot vessels camefrom earlier contexts (one pouring Neopalatial MM III. FineGray Wheelmade theLM II pyxis C7643 [Figs. any equivalentto thelarge from vessels.2%. 43. since numthe later.

jar. Monochrome. E. Base RingII. jar stirrup (Rutter 1table3:109) | kind beof for of the Until process securing permits work this by2006. jug. piriform amphoroid alabastron. cup.table3:104) milk bowl. HOFFMANN TABLE 6. LH I-LH IIIC Early(Table 1) PlainWhite. 667. hosting analyses Greece grown is for moment such the of theproblem scheduling optimal sampling likely tocontinue. Wheelmade. Base RingII. WhiteSlipIIA.13. (LH I-IIA. pithoid piriform alabastron.goblet. cup. C3896) 48 40-42 76 4 (C4577.Red Lustrous Wheelmade. deepbowl. cup. chronological ofthe eastern imports Mycenaean range and for is to Kommos unusually broad. C7239) 1 (C4577) Cypriot Imports in of sampled 1996 Shaperange items as identified of Shaperange imports of2006 C7639 = 2-4 (C5731 = western Anatolian. WhiteSlipII Late (Table2) LH I-LH IIIC Early(Rutter 2006b.220 J. AND S.14. J. WhiteSlipII Late (Rutter 2006b. MYCENAEAN AND CYPRIOT IMPORTS FROM KOMMOS: NAA SAMPLES TAKEN IN 1996 AND ADDITIONAL FINDS AS OF 2006 Mycenaean Imports in Suspected imports sampled 1996 as Sampled piecesconfirmed correctly attributed imports NAA by in Totalidentified imports 2006 (Rutter 2006b) to Itemssampled likely be Minoan in Itemsidentified imports 2006 as to as perhaps be disqualified suchby NAA results or to Itemssampled likely certain be from elsewhere imports or Date (Mycenaean) warerange in of sampled 1996 (Cypriot) items or Date (Mycenaean) warerange as ofimports identified of (Cypriot) 2006 21 15-18 36 3 (C1473. Monochrome. eachofwhich shapes IIIA1. semiglobular Vapheio Open: tankard milk bottle. C4734. basin. 654-655. expanding especially the at sitesthroughout ceramic of dataon Mycenaean imports corpus The Mediterranean. extending at leastthree perhaps of from centuries LH I to thebeginning LH IIIC. Closed: jar. spindle pithos. WhiteSlip IIA. RUTTER. TOMLINSON.carinated jug. (Table 1) krater. bowl. bowl. analyses presented haveinteresting the within rapidly contextualized when nonetheless. spindle deep Closed: jar. M . See also nn.p. Red Slip.juglet. stirrup krater. 668. kylix. C7643) 2 (C1473. unprovenienced) Base RingI(?).and34. jar jug.ProtoBase Ring. here The chemical implications. A. Wheelmade WhiteSlipII.48 and scientists of andthenumber archaeological more streamlined comes has in such facilities research appreciably. .carinated jug. LH IIBstages may range above. This as as many four distinct into be subdivided three 48. stemmed 3:104-105) 2006b.pp. Wheelmade WhiteSlipII. B. krater. bowl. bowl. Vapheio Open: tankard (Table2) bottle. cup. amphoroid 2006b.stemmed pithos. kylix. WhitePainted I.goblet. and C7237 = C2753 Syro-Palestinian.tables (Rutter bowl.table3:110) p. cup. C3896.WhitePainted IV. 654. C7238. bowl. Base RingI(?).p.juglet. Red Lustrous PlainWhite. WhitePainted I. distinctive in andLH IIIA2-LH IIIC Early).

C3171). 1300 b. in for ofimported mosis unique theAegean thesheer quantities Cypriot and WhiteSlipII and Base RingII tablewares recovered.LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMIC IMPORTS TO KOMMOS 221 were in utilized particular contexts Neopalatial at (LM I). .inmuch same pottery from Uluburun the wreck ca.wasbeing of Komtransported. andFinalPalatial Late palatial Early Postpalatial was imported to (LM IIIA2-B) Kommos. 11: the fashion theCypriot as recovered C9013. thechemical indicate eachofthese that classes fine of wareappears have to analyses in within beenproduced a discrete region Cyprus. Monospatial or or (LM II-IIIA1).c. brought to thesitein largePlainWhitepithoi various of (see types Figs.5. Postpalatial Cypriot pottery Kommos theLM III period seems haveconsisted and to mainly during almost of bowlsand Base RingII cupsand entirely WhiteSlipII milk Suchsmallto medium-sized tablewares probably were juglets.

9%. 1997) CyprusIla: Limassolarea (Bryanet al. C5770. forthcoming) MycLFl: Argolid forthcoming) MycLF3: Argolid(Tomlinson.1% to 29. unpublished) 2: Cyprus Argolid(Tomlinson. 1997) Cyprus9: Limassolarea (Bryanet al. 1997) Cypruslib: Limassolarea (Bryanet al. C665.9%. C9013). Table B liststhe chemicalprofiles the 19 reference of groupswith whichat least one Kommos samplefits. Crete(Tomlinson1995a) A2: Chania/West MycSJ Crete(Tomlinson1995a). C3171. 1997) and Robinson1993) Hawam B: Limassolarea (Hoffmann and Hawam G: Argolid(Hoffmann Robinson1993) and Hawam I: Argolid(Hoffmann Robinson1993) Lachish:Argolid(Tomlinson 2004) (Tomlinson. 1997) Cyprus15: Enkomiarea (Bryanet al. forthcoming) Chania 4: central Crete(Tomlinson1991) CypHMB: Limassolarea (Tomlinson. Lu. The elemental data are quoted to threesignificant presented in and expressed partsper million(ppm) exceptwherenotedas a figures percentage. These averages are calculated the basis of the elements on includedin Table B and exclude thefigures Yb.APPENDIX NAA DATA FROM KOMMOS AND SELECTED CHEMICAL REFERENCE CROUPS The chemical of Kommos. notedin the textabove. for The suggested in of proveniences the 19 groupspresented Table B areas follows: Asine 1: Argolid(Tomlinson.alongwith compositions the69 samplesfrom of sherds (C2058. 1997) Cyprus5: Kitionarea (Bryanet al.The diffuse listed age standard groups in the secondparthavevaluesfrom18. forthcoming) Cyprus3: Episkopiarea (Bryanet al.8% and 13. 1997) Cyprus10: Limassolarea (Bryanet al. andTa. MycSJB: central .the As normal listedin thefirst ofthetablehavean average groups part percentdeviation between 7. are analyses five multiple in Table A.

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