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1917: Born in Birmingham, England. Educated at King Edwards Grammar School & The Birmingham School of Architecture 1938: Associate of the Royal Institute of Architects (ARIBA) 1945: Came to India as the Chief Architect of the Mission to Lepers 1970: Fellow of the Indian Institute of Architects 1981: D.Litt conferred by the Royal University of Netherlands for outstanding work in the Third World 1983: Order of the British Empire, MBE 1987: Received the first Indian National Habitat Award 1988: Received Indian Citizenship 1989: Indian Institute of Architects Outstanding Architect of the Year 1990: Received the Padma Sri 1990: Great Master Architect of the Year 1992: UNO Habitat Award & UN Roll of Honour 1993: International Union of Architects (IUA) Award 1993: Sir Robert Matthew Prize for Improvement of Human Settlements 1994: People of the Year Award 1995: Awarded Doctorate from the University of Central England 1998: Awarded Doctorate from Sri Venkateshwara University 2001: Coinpar MR Kurup Endowment Award 2003: Basheer Puraskaram 2003: D.Litt from the Kerala University 2005: Kerala Government Certificate of Appreciation 2006: L-Ramp Award of Excellence 2006: Nominated from the Pritzker Award (considered the Nobel Prize in Architecture)
In his childhood he would accompany his father every weekend to visit cathedrals and other old buildings and then he would build models and draw pictures of what he had seen. the traditional teachings of the church were starting to seem less appealing to him. The Quakers' interpretation of Jesus' teachings attracted Laurie. didn’t like mathematics much and was interested in design. He was actively involved in his work . It was during this period that he was trained as a nurse. Due to his Quaker beliefs Laurie was against fighting. He was always astounded by the uninteresting rectangular sheds that made up the government schools in Kerala. After his matriculation. In his youth Laurie had participated quite devotedly in all church activities along with his family. Later. He came into contact with some Quakers or members of the Society of Friends who believed in the power of non-violence and to live in respect of every person small or big. rich or poor. 1917 into a very staunch Christian Methodist family. The family was deeply involved in church activities. However now in his teens. Laurie designed several schools during his professional life. he joined the Birmingham’s School of Architecture and became an Associate Member of the Royal Institute of Architects (ARIBA) in 1938.Early Years Laurie Baker was born on March 2. However recognizing the pressing need for medical help he and other Quakers provided medical help through the Friends Ambulance Unit. Hardly had he got the opportunity to start working in England when World War II broke out just a year later in 1939. he would similarly be drawn to the similar beliefs of Mahatma Gandhi who would be a major influence on his work in India. His ideas about schools and education were different Baker always insisted on going to the site himself to understand the conditions and the lie of the land. which went into war zones to pick up the wounded and then treat them. Laurie though. midwife and anesthetist. Laurie’s father Charles was the chief accountant at the Birmingham Gas Corporation and everyone expected Laurie to follow in his father’s footsteps.
and for Laurie. in addition to creating intricate patterns of light and shadow. high quality.even in his later years. with a great portion of his work suited to or built for lower-middle to lower class clients. Nirmithi Kendra (Aakulam). instilling privacy and evoking history with brick jaliwalls. 1974–76): a capricious architectural element found in a junk heap. beautiful homes. a perforated brick screen which invites a natural air flow to cool the buildings' interior. Baker's designs invariably have traditional Indian sloping roofs and terracotta Mangalore tile shingling with gables and vents allowing rising hot air to escape. Dakshina Chitra (Chennai). Attapadi Hill Area Development Society (Attapadi)." A testament to his frugality. "building [became] more fun with the circle. Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History(SACON) (Coimbatore). Baker became well known for designing and building low cost. with one side left open and tilting into the wind. Here are some shots discreetly captured by a client of Baker during one of his site visits when in his 80s! Buildings Centre for Development Studies (Trivandrum). Another significant Baker feature is irregular. Trivandrum. sometimes hitting a stroke of luck as evidenced by the intricately carved entry to the Chitralekha Film Studio (Aakulam. Chitralekha Film Studio (Aakulam). pyramid-like structures on roofs. The Indian Coffee House (Trivandrum). Tourist Centre (Ponmudi). Curved walls enter Baker's architectural vocabulary as a means to enclose more volume at lower material cost than straight walls. Baker was often seen rummaging through salvage heaps looking for suitable building materials. Literacy Village (Lucknow). His buildings tend to emphasize prolific . Mitraniketan (Vellanad) Throughout his practice. . Chengalchoola Slum dwelling units (Trivandrum).at times virtuosic masonry construction. door and window frames.
natural environment control and frugality of design may be seen as sustainable architecture or green building with its emphasis onsustainability. His Quaker-instilled respect for nature lead him to let the idiosyncrasies of a site inform his architectural improvisations. at the Centre for Development Studies (Trivandrum. high quality. Initial drawings have only an idealistic link to the final construction.Baker's works. beautiful homes Suited to or built for lower-middle to lower class clients. with most of the accommodations and design choices being made on-site by the architect himself. rarely is a topography line marred or a tree uprooted. a perforated brick screen which utilises natural air movement to cool the home’s interior and create intricate patterns of light and shadow Baker’s designs invariably have traditional Indian sloping roofs and terracotta Mangalore tile shingling with gables and vents allowing rising hot air to escape. Baker was often seen rummaging through salvage heaps looking for suitable building materials. 1971) Baker created a cooling system by placing a high. Brick jali walls. Baker’s architectural method is of improvisation. blend seamlessly into the natural settings. since working around difficult site conditions is much more cost-effective than clear-cutting. latticed. windowsills that double as bench surfaces. rarely is a topography line marred or a tree uprooted. Architectural style: Designing and building low cost. His responsiveness to never-identical site conditions quite obviously allowed for the variegation that permeates his work. Baker's architectural method is one of improvisation. Irregular. Compartments for milk bottles near the doorstep. with one side left open and tilting into the wind. with most of the accommodations and design choices being made on-site by the architect himself His respect for nature led him to let the idiosyncrasies of a site inform his architectural improvisations. door and window frames. Curved walls to enclose more volume at lower material cost than straight walls. pyramid-like structures on roofs. This saves construction cost as well. such as this house. Various features of his work such as using recycled material. ("I think it's a waste of money to level a well-moulded site") Resistant to "hightechnology" that addresses building environment issues by ignoring natural environment. and a heavy emphasis on taking cues from the natural condition of the site are just some examples. since working around difficult site conditions is much more cost-effective than clear-cutting . in which initial drawings have only an idealistic link to the final construction. brick wall near a pond that uses air pressure differences to draw cool air through the building. This saves construction cost as well.
latticed. brick wall near a pond that uses air pressure differences to draw cool air through the building His responsiveness to never-identical site conditions quite obviously allowed for the variegation that permeates his work. with limited access to water: However Baker’s genius has created a wonderful home for his family Material used from unconventional sources Family eats in kitchen Electricity wiring is not concealed Architectural features: STEPS DIRECTLY CUT IN ROCK ENTRANCE HAS SMALL SITTING AREA FOR GUESTS THE WALL IS DECORATED FROM BROKEN POTTERY. PENS. The Hamlet This is Baker’s home in Trivandrum. This is remarkable and unique house built on a plot of land along the slope of a rocky hill. GLASS A CALLING BELL FOR VISITORS TO ANNOUNCE THEIR PRESENCE USE OF NATURAL LIGHT NEVER CUT TREES INSTEAD ADAPTED HIS DESIGN ACCORDINGLY INNER COURTYARD …CLOSE TO NATURE ARCHES LED INTO A BEAUTIFUL OPEN ROOM COURTYARD HAS MANY GARDENS AND PONDS Pitched roof made of manglore tiles BAKER’S FONDNESS OF ARCHES GABLES FOR PROPER AIR CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION SIMPLE YET BEAUTIFUL WINDOWS GRILL MADE OF BITS AND PIECES CONICAL STRUCTURE USED. Baker created a cooling system by placing a high. COST EFFECTIVE BAKER’S WINDOW Louvered window typical of baker’s type STAINED GLASS EFFECT WATER TANK FOR STORING RAIN HARVESTED WATER Prominent Baker's Buildings in Kerala: .
16. 1971 11. 8. 1974-76. school and hospital complex Nepal Hospital Allahabad Agricultural University Lucknow Psychiatric Centre.1. Poonthura. Trivandrum. Aakulam.Alexander (a retired audit executive). 4. Loyola Chapel and Auditorium. an I. Kowdiar. 1970. Trivandrum. 1989 21. Lucknow Centre for Social Studies. Golf Links. Trivandrum. Children's Village. Sreekaryam. Trivandrum . 5. 1972-73. T. Krishnan's residence. Trivandrum. Trivandrum. 17. 9. 20. Pattom. 12. Kerala House for R. Chitralekha Studio Complex. 1971.1970 10. House for Leela Menon. Trivandrum. Trivandrum. 1980. Gourishapattom. E. 1982. 1969. Jawahar Nagar. Tamilnadu. P. Trivandrum. Trivandrum. Dr. Narayanan. Kowdiar. Trivandrum.Gen. 6. Kulashekaram. Vasant Gawarekar's residence. Quilon.Vaidyanathan. N. House for Abu Abraham (cartoonist & columnist). Mitraniketan. 18. Nirmithi Kendra. 1975. 25. Fishermen's Village. Surat Ahmedbad & Baroda – factories Jyothi Pumps. 23. 3. Aniruddhin's residence. Trivandrum. Manvila. 1973. Aakulam. 1971.S. Vellanad. 13. 7.Pillai's Residence. K. Vikramapuram Hill. Tamil Nadu Mitraniketan. near Nagercoil. Vagamon Horst Kowski orphanages and homes across India (other than Childrens .A. Anayara. Trivandrum. 1989. Tourist Centre. Lt. Ravindranath's residence. House for T. 1974. 14. 22. Kumarapuram. Trivandrum.N. Loyola Graduate and Women's Hostel.Raj's residence. Trivandrum. 1987. Trivandrum. House for Nalini Nayak (a social worker). Namboodripads House. 1973-74. House for Beena Sarasan (an Income Tax officer). Ulloor. Centre for Development Studies. Houses at Archbishop Compound.C. Kumarapuram. 1965. Trivandrum. 24.Panikar's (then Director of CDS) residence. Pattom. Trivandrum. Kumarapuram. 15. 1972. Noor Manzil Literacy Village. 1970. Chapel for Sacred Heart Centre. Trivandrum. 2. House for Dr A. 1989. Trivandrum. 1974-75. Baroda Children’s Village. Sreekaryam.S officer. Kumarapuram. 1982. Trivandrum. Trivandrum. Monroe Island. Golf Links. Ponmudi. 1970 Institutions and Buildings Leprosy homes for Mission to Lepers across India Pithoragarh house. K. Ulloor. 19. Trivandrum. 1971 26. 1965.
Aakulam CSI Church expansion wing Paruthipara Church Salim Ali Centre. 1988. Kottayam Fishermen’s Village. 1972. Kerala. Chennai. 1973 Mr Narayan’s Mango house . 1973. Sreekaryam Loyola Chapel and Auditorium. Kollam Kanyakumari Boat-building Yard Nrityagram. Madras Sewa. Villapilshaala. Trivandrum Nava Yatra.Village Nagercoil) Houses for the Archbishop of Trivandrum Tourist Resort near Muttam Loyola Women’s Hostel. 1996 Building Centre at Anna University. Quilon Navjeevodayam. Vellanad Tourist Centre. Madras Some buildings in Kishkinta. 1980. 1971. Sreekaryam Centre for Development Studies (CDS). 1975. Trivandrum Karimadom Colony. 1989 Major Jacob. 1970. Aakulam Pallikoodam (Corpus Christi). Kulasekharam Leela Menon. Trivandrum Residences Jayan and Asha. 1987. Ulloor St John’s Cathedral. Nandankode Chitralekha Film Studio. 1974. Coimbatore The Hall near Jawahar Nagar AHADS (Attapadi Hill Area Development Society) Latur Eathquake buildings Jilla Panchayat Office. Ponmudi The Indian Coffee House. Thiruvella Nalanda State Institute of Languages. Bangalore Dakshina Chitra. at Monroe Island. Thevally. India Chapel for Sacred Hearts Centre. 1971. Anakatti. Poonthura Mitraniketan. Villapilshaala International Blind Children’s School Chengalchoola Slum Dwelling Units. at Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvalla Nirmithi Kendra. 1973. Kakkanad Neeta’s House HUDCO Suresh IAS Colony Abu Abraham.
beautiful. . 1975. The site provides information about his life. use of locally available materials. Kumarapuram PK Panikar. 1987. Karakullam Vasanth Gawerekar. 1971. factories. KEsavadasapuram Nalini. Kumarapuram T C Alexander. Vattiyurkavu P Sivanandan. computer institutes. Kumarapuram TN Krishnan. He has designed and built a dance village. Baker's body of work is significant both in terms of the volume and sheer diversity as well as in terms of the innovative and practical concepts he introduced. his beliefs. 1984. 976. Gourishapattom Varghese Jacob. 1986. Pottakuzhy Ravindranath. 1975. Jawahar Nagar P Ramachandran. 1973. his work and his architectural principles of cost-effectiveness. Manvila Beena Sarasan. 1970. 1988. Nalanchira Vinay Kumar. film studios. 1972. 1982. Kuravankonam K Peter. tourist resorts. orphanages. high quality buildings which long pre-empted modern concepts such as eco-friendliness and sustainable architecture. avoidance of energy-intensive materials and wastage minimization to create low-cost. 1971. 1989. 1984. respect for nature. Pulliyankotta K J Mathew. chapels and churches. 1989. Vattiyurkavu C T Sukumaran. residences. Kottayam K V George. Vattiyurkavu Uma Devi. Ulloor House Modifications Anna Mathew. schools. 1989. Kumarapuram Vaidyanathan. Kowdiar Valiathan. renowned British-born Indian architect and humanitarian. Kuravankonam Lt Gen Pillai.Vellayani A M Jacob Anirudhin – 1969 first house in Trivandrum to have a preponderance of jalis Nambudiripaad. 1974. Vikramapuram Hill P J Thomas. Vattiyurkavu Sukhman. 1985. 1982. earthquake and tsunami resistant houses. fishermen’s huts. Kunjavuzni o Welcome This is the official website of Laurence Wilfred Baker (Laurie Baker). 1990. Anayar KN Raj. 1972. 1984. 1984. technical institutes.
and then to go on altering or adding or deleting until you think you have put down what they want. But here in Trivandrum the college of architecture is a branch of the engineering college. After a meeting with Gandhiji he was convinced to come to India. The dictionaries say that an architect is one who practises architecture and architecture is the art and science of building! After I qualified as an architect I worked in two or three well known architects' offices but it was deadly dull work. as foolish as buying a camera and film. From a practical point of view also. Our engineering professors came to us from time to time and did what they had to and went away again. Not to be involved in building would be. artist and innovative designer. I have an old brass pair of compasses which belonged to my older brother and it was passed on to me when I first went to school. It is exciting to put on to paper what you think is in their heads. I was relieved when World War II broke out and I was posted. So. So I don't look the part at all! To me probably the most interesting part of designing a building is dealing with the clients— getting to know them. initially as the chief architect of the Mission to Lepers building leper homes throughout India. old drawing board— the same one I had in school. sculptors. Laurie Baker was also an accomplished cartoonist. Looking back I realise that my architectural education was very different from that which is given to the architectural students here. and as far as I know they have no connection with the college of art. stained glass window makers. but not getting the print. ceramics.leprosy homes. slum dwellings improvement. a blind children’s international school and a museum. he has built over 2000 buildings. viewing and clicking the trigger. government buildings. An equally interesting and absorbing part of practising architecture is translating your two-dimension drawings into threedimension buildings. He has been at various times of his life an anesthetist. after a time. which was very foolish because if anyone tells me to quit. We were taught very firmly and consistently that the client should always be our prime consideration and. how they live and work and finding out what sort of a building they dream of. our inspiration. an ornithology centre. indeed. o On Being an Architect Written by Laurie Baker Down to Earth: Baker on what Architecture means to him Most people have very differing ideas about what an architect is. I like to make the most of the colour and texture of materials. Everyone was telling me to quit India. if I move the window or make it bigger. of all places. I suddenly realise that I will get a much better view. 'You will be putting up their building not yours. I stay.' we were often told. My school of architecture was allied to the school of art and shared the same building. In Kerala alone. to China. I have to be on the site to enjoy this transition from drawings to buildings. to me. I have close to my bed a small. potters. To do this I have to work with the masons and other workers to show them how I want them to use materials— not necessarily the same way in each building. We rubbed shoulders with painters. getting a negative done. He has since lived in Pithoragarh in the foothills of the Himalayas building hospitals and schools and in the tribal areas of Vagamon in Kerala before finally settling down in the city of Trivandrum. After a few years there in medical work I tried to return to England via India but I had to wait for a boat for three months. I did pottery. a Literacy Village. to me. And so on. or more breeze. while I clamber about on the scaffolding. stone carving and so on. Not only did we rub shoulders but in the evenings we budding architects had to take art courses. hostels. a missionary and an architect. I broke my tee square quite a long time ago and never bought another. rather than to plaster everything over and then paint on colours. He has also done pioneering work into earthquake and tsunami proof housing. fabric designers. a nurse. I preferred my way and I have never run a proper architect's office. . He served in the Second World War in the Friends Ambulance Unit and lived for four years in isolation in remote China taking care of lepers.
The other buildings may be new. as in parts of Egypt. how to design their timber and wood work to avoid warping. or by being defiant. He has the full score and he knows the musical item being performed. hard. Usually there were o . you even know how you hope to see your clients in their building after it is up and finished. 'You are not just doing a plan or an elevation. They knew that hot air rises and allowed it to travel upwards from the low eaves to the openings at the ends of the high ridge. Their practical knowledge of the properties of these differing building materials was amazing. The upturned. Written by Laurie Baker Distinctive architectural styles were not designed by some famous ancient architect who decreed that a certain style will be used in Japan and a certain other style will be used in Peru and yet another style in Punjab. all on its own in the middle of a park or campus with its own special surroundings. They knew that eye-strain from working out in the sun could be alleviated by rest in an area where glare was eliminated and they used smooth. light-coloured surfaces sparingly and left the natural materials—wood. Village planning and site utilization were equally functional and delightfully simple. with the plumber and sanitary man. and how true it is. But 99 out of every 100 buildings we do will be in a row. is the architect— the conductor. They had teamed that a pitched or a sloping roof lessened the effects of all these hazards. laterite. So we architects have to ask ourselves— is the building we have created going to stick out like a sore thumb? Or will it give joy and pleasure? Will it add to our culture? There's an old saying: manners maketh the man. stone—exposed. or of the total effect the whole completed building will have on its surroundings and on all who pass by. But our artistry is there before all who pass along that road and they have little option but to look at what we have done.' Our professor likened us to the conductor of an orchestra. so they kept these walls as small in area as possible and never left them unprotected. Similarly. They understood and applied principles of insulation. the electrician. for instance. or indifferent. the paving expert. horned roofs of buildings as found in Kerala. Each instrument player only has the music he is to play and the conductor controls his playing. Most famous conductors can even take over almost any instrument and show how they want it to sound at a particular time and place in the performance. that a painter or sculptor will produce his masterpiece and it will be bought by someone and put in a room or a gallery— but only those who desire to will go and see it. A completely different set of styles has evolved in hot. treeless. Another aspect was drummed into us as students: we were told we were the only ones who had a complete overall view and understanding of our building— a unified product. or good. dry. Iran and India. Finally. but overall. Again we were told. They knew the movements of air currents and placed their wall openings almost at ground level. in my day it was rubbed into us that the architect should have and show good manners and his architecture should be similarly good mannered! Very occasionally we are invited to design an isolated monumental building. Our 'backward' ancestors had learned how to live with and cope with the problems of climate. Likewise the engineer may have perfect knowledge of his bit of the design— his specialised knowledge may be essential— but he knows nothing of the client's needs and desires. I think they also make good architecture.involvement in the construction work is a must and far more important than desk work. in almost every district in the world these natural styles have grown to the patterns that could be seen in the first half of this century. twisting and cracking. or commonplace but we have to take our place among them and we must not show bad manners by competing or showing off. plentiful. brick. rain. They knew. They had understood that wall surfaces can absorb and retain just as much heat as a roof surface. desert areas. or a block. China and Japan arc the direct result of the people of those places making use of the most common. useful material: bamboo—to house and protect them from natural enemies such as sun. and' controlling and using to good effect all these. or a nagar. hurricanes and wind. their roofing materials formed hollow cellular protective layers and their storage spaces provided insulation from the midday sun.
and with the (heavy snow in the winter. it was all carried on someone's head. The row followed the contours wherever possible. and as a consequence was sometimes curved. The wood for the roofs was extravagantly lavish in size. or mud and cow-dung. it too was treated with some sort of lime plaster. snow and cold winds from the forest or steep hillside behind. of course. The bonding together of a few stones is much stronger than the heaping together of a lot of stones. The superstructure walls were also built of the same quarried-on-the spot stone. This whole roof construction over the wall construction. was completely adequate to cope with the climatic extremes of heat and dryness in summer. and to get protection from rain. Occasionally a wealthier person would send a few miles for a thinner quality of slate which could be shaped and squared. Doors and windows were often of delightfully shaped and simply carved woodwork using chir-pine or deodar. to catch the sunshine. or occasionally some other local country wood such as tuni. sometimes when anywhere from three to ten or twelve brothers lived in such a row of houses. Sometimes the outside-Was left as it was. or at most a mile or two. of the house being constructed. Their foundation problems were therefore nil. The row of houses was usually sited to overlook the terraced fields below. But this timber was always found within a few hundred yards. for example. These multi-housed rows of dwellings were usually under one big long common roof. Very rarely did the people use earth that could be terraced or cultivated. all these roofing materials were close at hand. or. but they chose their building sites along rocks. Whole tree trunks were used for the ridgepole and purlins and trusses. Again. but this was their form of showing off and was not a necessity and fortunately not often indulged in. o o Laurence Wilfred Baker . ridges or spurs of the mountains where cultivation would be impossible. I never saw any rubble being carried more than a hundred yards and. or lime mortar or plaster. The walls were heaped on the inside with mud. The use of local materials is an example of economy because there are no transport costs. And of course it was all built in mud mortar. the front veranda was common to all. is not necessarily stronger because it is thicker. with the violent rain storms. The foundations were almost invariably built on stone straight off solid rock—a foundation of Mother Earth herself. in other places it was more like thick slate in large sheets or slabs only a few inches thick. and the rock they quarried for building the foundation and basement walls was split or blasted out from the same bed rock on which they would build. A wall. sometimes.rows (terraces) of houses all joined together with common dividing partition walls. These styles show that people have discovered that there is a right way and a wrong way of putting materials together so that they are strong and durable. Sometimes it was big and square and chunky.
Literacy Village (Lucknow). Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History(SACON) (Coimbatore). Chengalchoola Slum dwelling units (Trivandrum). Dakshina Chitra (Chennai).Drawing of Laurie Baker Born March 2. Nirmithi Kendra (Aakulam). Tourist Centre (Ponmudi). 1917 Birmingham. Mitraniketan (Vellanad) Laurie Baker is a world renowned architect for his methods of cost-effective and energy efficient construction. 2007 (aged 90) Thiruvananthapuram. Attapadi Hill Area Development Society (Attapadi). MBE Work Buildings Centre for Development Studies (Trivandrum). Chitralekha Film Studio (Aakulam). Kerala. India Nationality Indian Awards Padma Shri. His building techniques normally use the materials which are found natively around the region where construction is going to take place. England Died April 1. The Indian Coffee House (Trivandrum). .
polishing. Brick nets sealed with pieces of glass can economically provide pleasing. etc.” This simple ideology of Mr. Finishes Finishing takes up a major chunk of the overall building cost. Foundation Lime concrete can effectively substitute the cement concrete in the conventional method of laying foundation where brick and cement mortar are adopted over a bed of cement concrete. Mangalore pattern tiles. concrete and shuttering used otherwise. Use of nets (perforations in a wall) Created for allowing light and ventilation (the most common being a wall with its header blocks removed). Though for maximum economy. The resulting light-weight slab reduces the requirement of steel reinforcement. Economy can be achieved by doing foundations in random stone masonry without mortar. If the answer is “yes” then ask whether the current way of doing it is still the best and most economical. Domes are specifically economical for large spans as this helps in cutting down substantially on the steel. “is it necessary?” if the answer is “no” then you don’t need to do it. which avoid chasing of walls as is normally practiced. These are not only initial expenses.Mr. This may be saved by minimizing applied finishes like plastering. room shape should conform to that of the kime’s. Masonry Domes Can be built on any room. etc. Some elements of Baker’s Construction Technique: Use of Rat-trap Bond for masonry The hollow nature of such walls improves its thermal properties. Baker made him the person who successfully evolved new ways of construction which were costeffective and energy-efficient. painting. Electrical conduits can be accommodated in the hollows. Can be used for load bearing structures up to 2 storeys high. Bricks. diffused light. For soils with normal load bearing capacity. It improves its insulating properties. Proves to be very economical. coconut shells. . foundation masonry can be started directly over a bed of rammed and leveled brick-bats. inverted earthen pots. irrespective of its shape. “filling up” pf unnecessary parts of concrete slab with light weight material. Roofs – Use of filler slabs It implies. Baker says: “Consider each and every component of your building and ask yourself. Modifying the proportions of perforations. can be used as filler materials. according to solar angle can help control the influx of radiations to quite an extent. but also recurring.
stone. have pleasing color and texture and are quite capable of resisting adverse weather. In case brighter surfaces are required. country burnt bricks. . and concrete blocks. viz. etc. a few coast of lime wash can be applied directly on the masonry surface. Therefore. plaster can be completely avoided without affecting the strength of the structure. Most of the building blocks.
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