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**Low-Frequency Response of a Sphere
**

Embedded in Water

Juan Pablo Fern´ andez Benjamin E. Barrowes

Alex Bijamov Tomasz Grzegorczyk Kevin O’Neill

Irma Shamatava Fridon Shubiditze

88 Franklin St # 301, Lynn, MA 01902-4171, USA

Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, ERDC-CRREL, Hanover, NH 03755, USA

Delpsi, LLC, Newton, MA 02458, USA

ACES XXVII, 31 March 2011

Sphere Response in Water 1/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

The problem

Uniform excitation

Dipole excitation

Vacuum sheath

Conclusion

Sphere Response in Water 2/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Unexploded ordnance

Some 10

6

acres of

underwater land in the U.S.

are contaminated with

unexploded ordnance (UXO)

and landmines

Detection and disposal of

submerged military munitions

is more expensive and diﬃcult

than on land

Some 10

6

acres of

underwater land in the U.S.

are contaminated with

unexploded ordnance (UXO)

and landmines

Detection and disposal of

submerged military munitions

is more expensive and diﬃcult

than on land

Sphere Response in Water 3/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Introduction

◮

EMI sensing (f ∼ 10 Hz →100 kHz) is potentially useful for

UXO remediation

◮

Several EMI sensors and algorithms have been developed

and tested in land-based surveys

◮

Nontrivial phenomena arise when adapting these devices and

procedures to conductive environments

◮

Both primary (exciting) and secondary (response) ﬁelds are

attenuated and distorted to a degree that depends on

distance and frequency

◮

The electric ﬁeld is comparable to the magnetic ﬁeld;

wave behavior happens even at low frequencies

◮

We study and implement numerically the analytic solution to

the problem of a sphere embedded in a conducting medium

Sphere Response in Water 4/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Uniform excitation, conducting medium

Time dependence ∝ e

j ωt

⇒k

2

med

= −j ωµ

med

σ

med

, H

pr

= H

0

ˆz

A

pr

=

1

2

µH

0

a

kr

ka

sin θ

ˆ

φ

A

in

=

1

2

µH

0

a

_

1 +

β

2πa

3

_

ι

1

(k

′

r )

ι

1

(k

′

a)

sin θ

ˆ

φ

A

sc

=

1

2

µH

0

a

β

2πa

3

κ

1

(kr )

κ

1

(ka)

sin θ

ˆ

φ

=

µ

4πr

3

e

−k(r−a)

1 + kr

1 + ka

(βH

0

×r)

β

2πa

3

≡

(2µ

′

+µ) (k

′

a coth k

′

a −1) −µ(k

′

a)

2

_

µ

′

_

1 +

(ka)

2

ka + 1

_

−µ

_

(k

′

a coth k

′

a −1) +µ(k

′

a)

2

ι

ν

(

z

)

,

κ

ν

(

z

)

:

M

o

d

i

ﬁ

e

d

s

p

h

e

r

i

c

a

l

B

e

s

s

e

l

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

s

Sphere Response in Water 5/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Transect above a nonmagnetic sphere

0

2

4

6

8 0

0.2

0.4

−2

0

2

4

6

8

x 10

−3

x (m)

log f

R

e

H

z s

c

(

A

/

m

)

0 2 4 6 8

0

0.2

0.4

−6

−4

−2

0

2

4

x 10

−3

log f

R

e

H

z s

c

(

A

/

m

)

x (m)

Inphase

µ

′

= µ

0

σ

′

= 10

7

S/m

Seawater: σ = 4 S/m

a = 5 cm

Depth = 15 cm

Quadrature

“Sombrero” proﬁle

Behavior in a

nonconducting medium

Damped oscillation from

e

−k(r−a)

1 + kr

1 + ka

I

m

R

e

Sphere Response in Water 6/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Exponential decay and oscillation

Nonmagnetic

µ

′

= µ

0

σ

′

= 10

7

S/m Inphase

10

0

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

−2

0

2

H

s

c

z

(

n

o

r

m

.

)

10

0

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

−2

0

2

Frequency (Hz)

H

z s

c

(

n

o

r

m

.

)

Noncond.

x = 0.00 m

x = 0.25 m

x = 0.50 m

Quadrature

Ferromagnetic

µ

′

= 150µ

0

σ

′

= 10

6

S/m Inphase

10

0

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

−2

0

2

H

s

c

z

(

n

o

r

m

.

)

10

0

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

−2

0

2

Frequency (Hz)

H

z s

c

(

n

o

r

m

.

)

Noncond.

x = 0.00 m

x = 0.25 m

x = 0.50 m

Quadrature Seawater:

σ = 4 S/m

The relative eﬀect increases with the horizontal oﬀset

1

5

c

m

25 cm 25 cm

a = 5 cm

Sphere Response in Water 7/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Re B

r

Im B

r

Re H

θ

Im H

θ

Boundary

conditions

ˆr · [B

pr

+B

sc

−B

in

] = 0

ˆr × [H

pr

+H

sc

−H

in

] = 0

µ

′

= µ

0

, σ

′

= 10

7

S/m

Seawater: σ = 4 S/m

f = 0.01 Hz (rather small)

Sphere Response in Water 8/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Dipole excitation

The secondary ﬁeld is decomposed into

one due to a radial dipole and one due

to a transverse dipole

H

sc

=

_

_

H

v

r

(ω) + H

u

r

(ω)

_

ˆ r +

_

H

v

θ

(ω) + H

u

θ

(ω)

_

ˆ

θ +

_

H

v

φ

(ω) + H

u

φ

(ω)

_

ˆ

φ

_

r

+

_

_

H

v

r

(ω) + H

u

r

(ω)

_

ˆ r +

_

H

v

θ

(ω) + H

u

θ

(ω)

_

ˆ

θ +

_

H

v

φ

(ω) + H

u

φ

(ω)

_

ˆ

φ

_

θ

The secondary ﬁeld is decomposed into

one due to a radial dipole and one due

to a transverse dipole

C =

k

1

k

2

K =

µ

2

µ

1

N =

σ

2

σ

1

b =

r

a

d =

r

0

a

z = k

2

a

Each of those in turn is decomposed

into magnetic and electric modes

Sphere Response in Water 9/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

The gory details

S

p

h

e

r

i

c

a

l

B

e

s

s

e

l

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

s

j

n

(z) =

r

π

2z

J

n+1/2

(z)

ψ

n

(z) = z j

n

(z)

h

(2)

n

(z) =

r

π

2z

H

(2)

n+1/2

(z)

ζ

(2)

n

(z) = z h

(2)

n

(z)

h

v

nrr

(ω) = −(2n + 1) j Cz h

(2)

n

(Cdz)

`

N

v

n

/D

v

n

´

h

(2)

n

(Cbz)

h

v

nθr

(ω) =

2n + 1

n

j Cz h

(2)

n

(Cdz)

`

N

v

n

/D

v

n

´

ζ

(2)

n

′

(Cbz)

h

v

nr θ

(ω) =

2n + 1

n

j Cz ζ

(2)

n

′

(Cdz)

`

N

v

n

/D

v

n

´

h

(2)

n

(Cbz)

h

v

nθθ

(ω) = h

v

nφθ

(ω) = −

2n + 1

n

2

j Cz ζ

(2)

n

′

(Cdz)

`

N

v

n

/D

v

n

´

ζ

(2)

n

′

(Cbz)

h

u

nθθ

(ω) = h

u

nφθ

(ω) = (2n + 1) j (Cz)

3

h

(2)

n

(Cdz)

`

N

u

n

/D

u

n

´

| {z }

h

(2)

n

(Cbz)

Radial dipole: Transverse dipole:

H

v

r

(ω) = −

m

r

4πarr

0

∞

X

n=1

n(n + 1) P

n

(cos θ) h

v

nrr

H

v

r

(ω) =

m

θ

cos φ

4πarr

0

∞

X

n=1

n P

1

n

(cos θ) h

v

nr θ

H

v

θ

(ω) = −

m

r

4πarr

0

∞

X

n=1

n P

1

n

(cos θ) h

v

nθr

H

v

θ

(ω) = −

m

θ

cos φ

4πarr

0

∞

X

n=1

n

n + 1

∂

∂θ

P

1

n

(cos θ) h

v

nθθ

H

v

φ

(ω) = 0 H

v

φ

(ω) =

m

θ

sin φ

4πarr

0

sin θ

∞

X

n=1

n

n + 1

P

1

n

(cos θ) h

v

nφθ

H

u

r

(ω) = 0 H

u

r

(ω) = 0

H

u

θ

(ω) = 0 H

u

θ

(ω) = −

m

θ

cos φ

4πa

3

sin θ

∞

X

n=1

1

n(n + 1)

P

1

n

(cos θ) h

u

nθθ

H

u

φ

(ω) = 0 H

u

φ

(ω) =

m

θ

sin φ

4πa

3

∞

X

n=1

1

n(n + 1)

∂

∂θ

P

1

n

(cos θ) h

u

nφθ

Instability

Angular

dependence

Sphere Response in Water 10/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Avoiding numerical instability in the region of interest

N

{v,u}

n

D

{v,u}

n

≡

j

n

(Cz) ψ

′

n

(z) −

_

K

N

_

ψ

′

n

(Cz) j

n

(z)

h

(2)

n

(Cz) ψ

′

n

(z) −

_

K

N

_

ζ

(2)

n

′

(Cz) j

n

(z)

=

(

_

K

N

_

−1)n + z

_

J

n−1/2

(z)

J

n+1/2

(z)

−

_

K

N

_

C

J

n−1/2

(Cz)

J

n+1/2

(Cz)

_

(

_

K

N

_

−1)n + z

_

J

n−1/2

(z)

J

n+1/2

(z)

−

_

K

N

_

C

H

(2)

n−1/2

(Cz)

H

(2)

n+1/2

(Cz)

_

J

n+1/2

(Cz)

H

(2)

n+1/2

(Cz)

J

n−1/2

(z)

J

n+1/2

(z)

∼

sin n

π

2

+ cot z cos n

π

2

cos n

π

2

−cot z sin n

π

2

P

−

cot

_

z −n

π

2

_

−Q

−

P

+

cot

_

z −(n + 1)

π

2

_

−Q

+

P

±

≈ 1 −

n(n

2

−1

2

)(n±2)

2!(2z)

2

+

n(n

2

−1

2

)(n

2

−2

2

)(n

2

−3

2

)(n±4)

4!(2z)

4

Q

±

≈

n(n±1)

1!(2z)

1

−

n(n

2

−1

2

)(n

2

−2

2

)(n±3)

3!(2z)

3

Hankel expansion

Sphere Response in Water 11/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Monostatic measurements

r

m

r

ˆr

m

θ

ˆ

θ

m

α

α

x

0

z

0

The relative weights of the radial and

transverse dipoles are dictated by the

problem geometry

The measured component depends on α

and changes point to point

r

2

= x

2

0

+ z

2

0

tan α = x

0

/z

0

Sphere Response in Water 12/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Transect above a nonmagnetic sphere

0

2

4

6

8

0

0.2

0.4

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

x (m)

log f

R

e

H

z

(

A

/

m

)

0

2

4

6

8

0

0.2

0.4

−0.04

−0.02

0

0.02

x (m)

log f

I

m

H

z

(

A

/

m

)

Inphase

a = 5 cm

z

0

= 15 cm

Seawater: σ = 4 S/m

Quadrature

µ

′

= µ

0

σ

′

= 10

7

S/m

Reduces to a well-known solution for vacuum as σ →0

and to the uniform case when the dipole is placed far away

Sphere Response in Water 13/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Transect above a magnetic sphere

0

2

4

6

8

0

0.2

0.4

−0.15

−0.1

−0.05

0

0.05

x (m)

log f

R

e

H

z

(

A

/

m

)

0

2

4

6

8

0

0.2

0.4

−0.04

−0.02

0

0.02

0.04

x (m)

log f

I

m

H

z

(

A

/

m

)

Inphase

a = 5 cm

z

0

= 15 cm

Seawater: σ = 4 S/m

Quadrature

µ

′

= 150µ

0

σ

′

= 10

6

S/m

Sphere Response in Water 14/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Sphere with vacuum shell, uniform excitation

Now surround the sphere with an empty shell:

A

pr

=

1

2

µH

0

b

kr

kb

sin θ

ˆ

φ

A

sc

=

1

2

µH

0

b

˜

β

2πb

3

κ

1

(kr )

κ

1

(kb)

sin θ

ˆ

φ

=

µ

4πr

3

e

−k(r−b)

1 + kr

1 + kb

(

˜

βH

0

×r)

˜

β

2πb

3

≡

(µ + 2µ

0

) a

3

N

′

−2 (µ −µ

0

) b

3

D

′

(2µ + (1 +ρ) µ

0

) b

3

D

′

−(µ −(1 +ρ) µ

0

) a

3

N

′

N

′

= (2µ

′

+µ

0

) (k

′

a coth k

′

a −1) −µ

0

(k

′

a)

2

,

D

′

= ( µ

′

−µ

0

) (k

′

a coth k

′

a −1) +µ

0

(k

′

a)

2

, ρ =

(kb)

2

kb + 1

σ , µ

σ = 0

µ = µ

0

σ

′

, µ

′

a

b

b −a

Sphere Response in Water 15/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Limiting cases:

1. a →b: Reduces to the no-sheath case

2. k →0, µ →µ

0

⇒

˜

β

2πb

3

→

a

3

N

′

b

3

D

′

Recovers the vacuum expression; the sheath disappears

3. a →0:

˜

β

2πb

3

→

2(µ

0

−µ

2

)

2µ

2

+ (1 +ρ)µ

0

Empty cavity in a conducting medium

4. b →∞: A

shell

=

1

2

µ

2

H

0

a

_

r

a

+

N

′

D

′

a

2

r

2

_

sin θ ˆ ϕ

Sphere in vacuum with a diﬀerent primary ﬁeld

5. There are noticeable diﬀerences in

˜

β at very high frequencies

and when the shell thickness is comparable to the sphere

radius

Sphere Response in Water 16/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Nonpermeable sphere, a = 5 cm

σ

′

= 10

7

S/m, µ

′

= µ

0

, σ = 140 S/m, µ

r

= 1, b −a = a

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

10

5

10

6

10

7

−2

0

2

4

6

8

x 10

−4

Frequency (Hz)

R

e

(

β

)

,

I

m

(

β

)

Vacuum

Cond. med.

Shell

E

M

I

l

i

m

i

t

˜

β

Sphere Response in Water 17/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Permeable sphere, a = 5 cm

σ

′

= 10

6

S/m, µ

′

r

= 150µ

0

, σ = 140 S/m, µ

r

= 1, b −a = a

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

10

5

10

6

10

7

−2

−1.5

−1

−0.5

0

0.5

1

x 10

−3

Frequency (Hz)

R

e

(

β

)

,

I

m

(

β

)

Vacuum

Cond. med.

Shell

E

M

I

l

i

m

i

t

˜

β

Sphere Response in Water 18/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion

Conclusion

1. We considered the electromagnetic induction response of a

sphere surrounded by a medium of moderate but

nonnegligible conductivity

2. We studied both uniform and dipolar (monostatic)

illumination and presented analytic exact solutions and their

numerical implementations

3. The ﬁnite conductivity of the medium both distorts and

attenuates the measurable secondary ﬁeld

4. A vacuum sheath aﬀects the response further, but the eﬀects

are noticeable only for a very thick sheath in a very

conducting medium at very high frequencies

This work was supported by the Strategic Environmental Research

and Development Program under grant # MM-1632

Sphere Response in Water 19/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Sphere Response in Water 2/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion 6 Unexploded ordnance Some 10 acres of underwater land in the U. are contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO) and landmines Detection and disposal of submerged military munitions is more expensive and diﬃcult than on land Sphere Response in Water 3/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .S.

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Introduction ◮ EMI sensing (f ∼ 10 Hz → 100 kHz) is potentially useful for UXO remediation Several EMI sensors and algorithms have been developed and tested in land-based surveys Nontrivial phenomena arise when adapting these devices and procedures to conductive environments ◮ ◮ ◮ ◮ Both primary (exciting) and secondary (response) ﬁelds are attenuated and distorted to a degree that depends on distance and frequency The electric ﬁeld is comparable to the magnetic ﬁeld. wave behavior happens even at low frequencies ◮ We study and implement numerically the analytic solution to the problem of a sphere embedded in a conducting medium 4/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi Sphere Response in Water .

conducting medium 2 z Time dependence ∝ e jωt ⇒ kmed = −jωµmed σmed . κν (z): Modiﬁed spherical Bessel functions kr ˆ sin θ φ ka β ι1 (k ′ r ) 1 ˆ sin θ φ Ain = 2 µH0 a 1 + 2πa3 ι1 (k ′ a) β κ1 (kr ) ˆ Asc = 1 µH0 a sin θ φ 2 2πa3 κ1 (ka) µ −k(r −a) 1 + kr e (βH0 × r) = 4πr 3 1 + ka Apr = 1 µH0 a 2 β ≡ 2πa3 (2µ′ + µ) (k ′ a coth k ′ a − 1) − µ(k ′ a)2 (ka)2 µ′ 1 + − µ (k ′ a coth k ′ a − 1) + µ(k ′ a)2 ka + 1 Sphere Response in Water 5/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Uniform excitation. Hpr = H0 ˆ ιν (z).

4 x (m) 0 −2 −4 −6 Re Hsc (A/m) Re z 4 2 0 0.2 −2 0 0 2 4 log f 6 8 a = 5 cm Depth = 15 cm Sphere Response in Water Inphase µ′ = µ0 ′ σ = 107 S/m Seawater: σ = 4 S/m 6/19 Quadrature Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .2 x (m) 0.The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Transect above a nonmagnetic sphere Behavior in a nonconducting medium x 10 8 −3 “Sombrero” proﬁle Damped oscillation from e −k(r −a) 4 2 x 10 −3 1 + kr 1 + ka 6 Im Hsc (A/m) Re z 0 2 4 6 log f 8 0 0.4 0.

) 2 0 −2 2 (norm.) 2 4 6 8 2 0 −2 2 sc z H 10 0 z 10 10 10 10 10 0 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8 0 0 sc z H −2 z 10 0 10 2 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 4 6 10 8 −2 10 0 10 2 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 4 6 10 8 Quadrature Seawater: σ = 4 S/m Quadrature The relative eﬀect increases with the horizontal oﬀset Sphere Response in Water 7/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Exponential decay and oscillation µ = µ0 σ ′ = 107 S/m (norm.00 m x = 0.50 m ′ 15 cm Nonmagnetic Inphase 25 cm 25 cm Ferromagnetic Inphase a = 5 cm Noncond.25 m x = 0.25 m x = 0.00 m x = 0.) Hsc (norm.) Noncond. x = 0. x = 0.50 m µ′ = 150µ0 σ ′ = 106 S/m Hsc (norm.

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Boundary conditions Re B r Im B r ˆ · [Bpr + Bsc − Bin ] = 0 r ˆ × [Hpr + Hsc − Hin ] = 0 r Re H θ Im H θ µ′ = µ0 .01 Hz (rather small) Sphere Response in Water 8/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi . σ ′ = 107 S/m Seawater: σ = 4 S/m f = 0.

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Dipole excitation C= µ2 σ2 k1 K= N= k2 µ1 σ1 r r0 b= d= z = k2 a a a The secondary ﬁeld is decomposed into one due to a radial dipole and one due to a transverse dipole Each of those in turn is decomposed into magnetic and electric modes v u v u ˆ ˆ ˆ Hsc = Hrv (ω) + Hru (ω) r + Hθ (ω) + Hθ (ω) θ + Hφ (ω) + Hφ (ω) φ + r Hrv (ω) Sphere Response in Water + Hru (ω) r + ˆ v Hθ (ω) u + Hθ (ω) ˆ θ + v Hφ (ω) + u Hφ (ω) ˆ φ θ 9/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion The gory details Spherical Bessel functions π Jn+1/2 (z) 2z ψn (z) = z jn (z) r π (2) (2) H (z) hn (z) = 2z n+1/2 jn (z) = ζn (z) = z hn (z) Radial dipole: Hr (ω) = − v Hθ (ω) = − v ` v v (2) v ´ (2) hnrr (ω) = −(2n + 1) j Cz hn (Cdz) Nn /Dn hn (Cbz) hnθr (ω) = hnr θ (ω) = hnθθ (ω) = hnφθ (ω) = − hnθθ (ω) = hnφθ (ω) = u u v v v v r 2n + 1 n 2n + 1 n 2n + 1 n2 ` v (2) v ´ (2) ′ j Cz hn (Cdz) Nn /Dn ζn (Cbz) j Cz ζn (2) ′ ` v v ´ (2) (Cdz) Nn /Dn hn (Cbz) ` v v ´ (2) ′ (Cdz) Nn /Dn ζn (Cbz) j Cz ζn (2) ′ (2) (2) ` u u ´ (2) 3 (2) (2n + 1) j (Cz) hn (Cdz) Nn /Dn hn (Cbz) | {z } Transverse dipole: n(n + 1) Pn (cos θ) hnrr 1 v n Pn (cos θ) hnθr v Instability n Pn (cos θ) hnr θ 1 v mr 4πarr0 n=1 mr 4πarr0 n=1 ∞ X ∞ X Hr (ω) = v ∞ mθ cos φ X 4πarr0 n=1 ∞ mθ cos φ X n ∂ v 1 v Hθ (ω) = − Pn (cos θ) hnθθ 4πarr0 n=1 n + 1 ∂θ Hφ (ω) = Hr (ω) = Hθ (ω) = u u u v 0 0 0 Hφ (ω) = v mθ sin φ Angular dependence 4πarr0 sin θ n=1 n + 1 0 ∞ X n Pn (cos θ) hnφθ 1 v Hr (ω) = u u Hθ (ω) = − u 4πa3 sin θ n=1 n(n + 1) ∞ mθ sin φ X ∞ mθ cos φ X 1 Pn (cos θ) hnθθ ∂ 1 u 1 u Hφ (ω) = 0 Hφ (ω) = 10/19 1 4πa3 n=1 n(n + 1) ∂θ Pn (cos θ) hnφθ Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi Sphere Response in Water .

u} ≡ ( = ( ′ jn (Cz) ψn (z) − ′ hn (Cz) ψn (z) − K N K N (2) Dn − 1)n + z − 1)n + z K ψ ′ (Cz) j (z) n n N (2) ′ K ζ n (Cz) jn (z) N Jn−1/2 (Cz) Jn−1/2 (z) K Jn+1/2 (z) − N C Jn+1/2 (Cz) Jn−1/2 (z) Jn+1/2 (z) Jn+1/2 (Cz) Hn+1/2 (Cz) (2) − K N C (2) Hn−1/2 (Cz) (2) Hn+1/2 (Cz) Hankel expansion Jn−1/2 (z) sin n π + cot z cos n π P− cot z − n π − Q− 2 2 2 ∼ Jn+1/2 (z) cos n π − cot z sin n π P+ cot z − (n + 1) π − Q+ 2 2 2 P± ≈ 1 − Q± ≈ Sphere Response in Water n(n2 −12 )(n±2) 2!(2z)2 + n(n2 −12 )(n2 −22 )(n2 −32 )(n±4) 4!(2z)4 n(n±1) 1!(2z)1 − n(n2 −12 )(n2 −22 )(n±3) 3!(2z)3 11/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Avoiding numerical instability in the region of interest Nn {v .u} {v .

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Monostatic measurements ˆ m The relative weights of the radial and mθ θ transverse dipoles are dictated by the problem geometry The measured component depends on α and changes point to point mr ˆ r α α r = 2 2 x0 + 2 z0 r z0 tan α = x0/z0 x0 Sphere Response in Water 12/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .

02 0 −0.4 a = 5 cm z0 = 15 cm Seawater: σ = 4 S/m µ′ = µ0 σ = 107 S/m ′ Reduces to a well-known solution for vacuum as σ → 0 and to the uniform case when the dipole is placed far away Sphere Response in Water 13/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .02 0 0.04 0.2 0 2 4 6 log f 0 8 x (m) 0.The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Transect above a nonmagnetic sphere Inphase Quadrature 0.06 0.2 0 2 4 6 log f 0 8 x (m) 0.02 −0.04 0.08 Re Hz (A/m) Im Hz (A/m) 0.4 0.

1 −0.05 −0.15 0.02 0.The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Transect above a magnetic sphere Inphase Quadrature 0.2 0 2 4 6 log f 0 8 x (m) 0.4 −0.02 0 −0.2 z a = 5 cm z0 = 15 cm Seawater: σ = 4 S/m µ′ = 150µ0 σ ′ = 106 S/m Sphere Response in Water 14/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .4 Im Hz (A/m) 0.04 0 2 4 6 log f 0 8 x (m) 0.04 0.05 Re H (A/m) 0 −0.

D′ = ( µ′ − µ0 ) (k ′ a coth k ′ a − 1) + µ0 (k ′ a)2 .µ σ=0 kr 1 2 µH0 b kb ˆ sin θ φ b−a σ ′ . µ′ a b ˜ β κ1 (kr ) 1 ˆ sin θ φ Asc = 2 µH0 b 2πb 3 κ1 (kb) µ −k(r −b) 1 + kr ˜ = e (βH0 × r) 4πr 3 1 + kb µ = µ0 ˜ β (µ + 2µ0 ) a3 N′ − 2 (µ − µ0 ) b 3 D′ ≡ 2πb 3 (2µ + (1 + ρ) µ0 ) b 3 D′ − (µ − (1 + ρ) µ0 ) a3 N′ N′ = (2µ′ + µ0 ) (k ′ a coth k ′ a − 1) − µ0 (k ′ a)2 . Sphere Response in Water 15/19 ρ= (kb)2 kb + 1 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi . uniform excitation Now surround the sphere with an empty shell: A = pr σ .The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Sphere with vacuum shell.

µ → µ0 ⇒ → 3 ′ 2πb 3 b D Recovers the vacuum expression. b → ∞: Ashell = Sphere in vacuum with a diﬀerent primary ﬁeld ˜ 5. a → b: Reduces to the no-sheath case ˜ a 3 N′ β 2. the sheath disappears 3. k → 0. a → 0: ˜ 2(µ0 − µ2 ) β → 3 2πb 2µ2 + (1 + ρ)µ0 1 µ2 H0 a 2 r N′ a 2 + ′ 2 a D r sin θ ϕ ˆ Empty cavity in a conducting medium 4.The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Limiting cases: 1. There are noticeable diﬀerences in β at very high frequencies and when the shell thickness is comparable to the sphere radius Sphere Response in Water 16/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Nonpermeable sphere. Im(β) 4 2 0 −2 0 10 Sphere Response in Water 10 1 10 2 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 17/19 3 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi . Shell ˜ β Re(β). med. a = 5 cm σ ′ = 107 S/m. µ′ = µ0 . µr = 1. b − a = a 8 x 10 −4 6 Vacuum EMI limit Cond. σ = 140 S/m.

The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Permeable sphere. σ = 140 S/m. Im(β) −0. a = 5 cm σ ′ = 106 S/m.5 0 Re(β). med. b − a = a r 1 0. EMI limit Shell 10 1 10 2 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 18/19 3 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 Sphere Response in Water Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .5 −2 0 10 x 10 −3 Vacuum ˜ β Cond. µr = 1.5 −1 −1. µ′ = 150µ0 .

We studied both uniform and dipolar (monostatic) illumination and presented analytic exact solutions and their numerical implementations 3. The ﬁnite conductivity of the medium both distorts and attenuates the measurable secondary ﬁeld 4. We considered the electromagnetic induction response of a sphere surrounded by a medium of moderate but nonnegligible conductivity 2. A vacuum sheath aﬀects the response further.The problem Uniform excitation Dipole excitation Vacuum sheath Conclusion Conclusion 1. but the eﬀects are noticeable only for a very thick sheath in a very conducting medium at very high frequencies This work was supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program under grant # MM-1632 Sphere Response in Water 19/19 Thayer/CRREL/Delpsi .

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