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by James Nearing

**Physics Department University of Miami
**

jnearing@miami.edu

Copyright 2008, James Nearing Permission to copy for individual or classroom use is granted.

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . iii

0 Mathematical Prependix . . . . . 1 Series Hyperbolic Functions Coordinate Systems Vectors Diﬀerentiation Velocity, Acceleration Complex Algebra Separation of variables Constant Coeﬃcient ODEs Matrices 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . Dimensions and Units Types of Mass Conservation Laws Atwood’s Machine 2 One Dimensional Motion . . . . Solving F=ma: F(t) Solving F=ma: F(v) Solving F=ma: F(x) Falling with resistance Equilibrium Conservation of Energy

Anharmonic Example: x4

4 Three Dimensional Motion . . . 139 Projectile Motion General Results E and B ﬁelds Magnetic Mirrors Pendulum, large angles 5 Non-Inertial Systems . . . . . . 169 Galilean Transformation Rotating System Coriolis Force Foucault Pendulum Centrifugal Force Shape of the Earth Tides 6 Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Harmonic Oscillator Planetary Orbits Kepler Problem Insolation Approximate Solutions Spherical Pendulum Center of Mass Transformation Another Orbit Hyperbolic Orbits Time Dependence 7 Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 A String Static case The Wave Equation Energy and Power Reﬂections Standing Waves An Algebraic Aside Perturbation Theory Stiﬀness Other Waves

40

58

Interlude

. . . . . . . . . . .

86 87

3 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . Simplest Case Complex Exponentials Damped Oscillators Other Oscillators Forced Oscillations Stable Motion Unstable Motion Coupled Oscillations Normal Modes Green’s Functions

**Other Velocities Waves and Tides
**

8 Rigid Body Motion . . . . . . . 276 Center of Mass Angular Momentum Tensor Components Principal Axes Properties of Eigenvectors Dynamics 9 Special Relativity . . . . . . . . 310 Time Dilation, Length Contraction Examples Space-Time Diagrams Relative Velocity Superluminal Speeds Acceleration Rapidity

**Energy and Momentum Applications Yarkovsky Eﬀect Conservation Laws
**

10 Coupled Oscillators . . . . . . . 352 Normal Modes Scalar Products Example Perturbation Theory 11 Nonlinear Oscillations . . . . . . 367 A Method that Fails A Kludge Workable, but Special Method General Approach 12 Statics and Bifurcations Bifurcations

. . . . 371

Bibliography

Analytical Mechanics by Grant R. Fowles. Brooks-Cole. Analytical Mechanics by Fowles and Cassiday. A second author was added. I prefer the original. Mechanics by Symon. Addison-Wesley The same subject as this text, at about the same level. It’s been in print for almost 40 years, so it’s got to be pretty good. Introduction to Classical Mechanics by Arya. Allyn and Bacon edition is quite good. Special Relativity by A.P. French. MIT Press duction to the subject.

I think the recent

I think this remains the best intro-

Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering by Riley, Hobson, and Bence. Cambridge University Press For the quantity of well-written material here, it is surprisingly inexpensive in paperback. Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences by Boas. John Wiley Publ About the right level and with a very useful selection of topics. If you know everything in here, you’ll ﬁnd all your upper level courses much easier. Schaum’s Outlines by various. There are many good and inexpensive books in this series: for example, “Complex Variables,” “Advanced Calculus,” ”German Grammar,” “Advanced Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists.” Amazon lists hundreds. Mathematical Tools for Physics by Nearing. Dover Publ it’s pretty good.

In my unbiased opinion,

A Brief on Tensor Analysis by James Simmonds. Springer This is the only text on tensors that I will recommend. To anyone. Under any circumstances. Linear Algebra Done Right by Axler. Springer It’s pretty good.

Don’t let the title turn you away.

Mathematical Prependix

This preliminary chapter could as easily be an appendix to the text, but I prefer to put it here. It is a collection of topics that you will need at many places later on, but that you don’t have to study in detail now. In each section I will try to indicate where the material is used, and when you get to the chapter where you need it I will indicate the reference here. You should at least skim the material now, so that you will have seen where it is. If something catches your eye and you want to study it now, don’t let me stop you.

0.1 Series This section is used in some form in every other chapter in the text. Inﬁnite series is a tool that you see in an introductory calculus course, and you may not at the time realize just how useful it is. Especially power series. There are a few series that show up so often that you need to have them instantly available. Binomial, trigonometric, exponential, geometric, occasionally the logarithm.

ex = 1 + x +

sin x = x − cos x = 1 − ln(1 + x) = x −

x2

2!

+

x3

3!

∞

···

=

0 ∞

xk k!

(−1)k

x3

3!

+ + +

x5

5!

··· ··· − ··· 1)x2

=

0 ∞

x2k+1 (2k + 1)! x2k (2k )! xk k

(|x| < 1) (0.1)

x2

2!

x4

4!

=

0 ∞

(−1)k

x2

2

x3

3

=

1 ∞

(−1)k+1

(1 + x)n = 1 + nx + sinh x = x + cosh x = 1 +

n (n −

2!

+ ··· =

k=0

∞

n(n − 1) · · · (n − k + 1) k x (|x| < 1) k! x2k+1 (2k + 1)! x2k (2k )! xk

(|x| < 1)

x3

3!

+ ··· + ···

=

0 ∞

x2

2!

=

0 ∞

1 = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · 1−x

=

0

Mathematical Prependix

2

The hyperbolic functions, sinh and cosh have power series similar to those for sin and cos except that the signs are all positive instead of alternating. Diﬀerentiate the power series for sine and cosine to get the familiar diﬀerentiation formulas. Now do the same thing for the hyperbolic sine and cosine. Diﬀerentiate the series for the logarithm, and relate it to the last series on the list, the geometric series. The last series, the geometric series, is a special case of the binomial series for n = −1. √ What is 2? Use the 5th series, the binomial expansion: (1 + 1)1/2 = 1 + 1 = 2 1.5. Not bad for two terms, even though it’s at the edge of its domain of validity. What is 1/0.9? Use the last series: 1/(1 − 0.1) = 1.1. What is 0.991/10 ? Use the 5th series again: (1−0.01)1/10 = 1− .001 = 0.999. Evaluate this limit. This example pulls together several techniques with series; it is very worth your time to be able to reproduce this example on your own.

x→0

lim

1−

1 2 √ − 1−x x

(0.2)

Use the binomial expansion a few times. Work ﬁrst on the complicated fraction: 1 1 1 √ = 1 = 1 2 1 2 1 1 − 1 − 2x − 8x − · · · 1− 1−x 2x + 8x + · · · 1 2 1 = 1 = 1 − 4x + · · · + x x 1 + 1x + · · · 2 4 Put this into the original expression 2

2

···

x

−

1 2 1 − −→ − 2 x 2

What is (sin 0.1)/(sinh 0.1)? Use the 2nd , 6th , and 8th series: (0.1 − 0.001/6)/(0.1 + 0.001/6) = (1 − .01/6)/(1 + .01/6) = (1 − .01/6)(1 − .01/6) = (1 − .02/6) = 0.996667. A calculator gives 0.99667221535 What is the behavior of the function x(t) = c2 t2 + c4 /a2 − c2 /a for small time? Use the binomial expansion, but ﬁrst you must arrange the square root as √ “ 1 + small.” This simply involves factoring the larger term out of the square root.

x(t) =

c2 a

1+

a2 t2 c2 c2 a2 t2 c2 1 2 − ≈ 1+ − = at c2 a a 2 c2 a 2

(0.3)

Mathematical Prependix

3

This expression for x(t) is the relativistic expression for motion with constant (proper) acceleration, and at2 /2 is the non-relativistic approximation to it. It is derived in section 9.6. Suddenly apply a force to a mass that is attached to a spring. The result for

x is (see Eq. (3.33)) x(t) = F0 1 − cos ω0 t k

where

k is the spring constant, and ω0 =

k m

What is the behavior of x for small time? And remember that “small” is not “zero.”

x(t) =

F0 F0 2 2 F k t2 F0 t2 1 − (1 − ω0 t2 /2 + · · ·) = ω0 t /2 = 0 = k k k m2 m 2

and that is at2 /2. At the start of the motion the spring hasn’t yet stretched, so the only force is the one that you apply. All of these expansions are special cases of the Taylor series.

f (x) = f (x0 ) + (x − x0 )f (x0 ) + (x − x0 )2 f (x0 ) +

1 2

1 (x − x0 )3 f (x0 ) + · · · (0.4) 3!

Where does this representation come from? If you assume that there is an expansion of the form

f (x) = A + B (x − x0 ) + C (x − x0 )2 + D(x − x0 )3 + · · ·

(0.5)

then evaluate both sides at x = x0 and you immediately have A = f (x0 ). Now diﬀerentiate the hypothesized equation (0.5) for f

f (x ) = B + 2 C (x − x 0 ) + 3 D (x − x 0 )2 + · · ·

and again evaluate it at x = x0 . This gives B = f (x0 ). Another derivative and an evaluation and you have 2C = f (x0 ). And again, and again, . . . This is where all the coeﬃcients in Eq. (0.4) come from, and every one of the series in Eq. (0.1) can be derived this way (with x0 = 0 in all cases). The manipulations in the example of equation (0.3) are typical of the most common way that series are used in this text. When you have a complicated mathematical result for the solution to a problem, the most important step is to understand that result. Series approximations are a powerful tool to dig simple results out of complex mathematics. There are technical details to learn too, though that is not the point of this text: Under what conditions do these series converge? Under what conditions do they converge to the functions they supposedly represent?

coth in analogy with the deﬁnitions of the corresponding circular functions. The circular trigonometric functions such as sine and cosine are familiar. These functions are deﬁned in terms of exponentials as cosh x = ex + e−x 2 sinh x = ex − e−x 2 tanh x = sinh x cosh x (0. csch. It’s not that there isn’t an interpretation at all. .1 There is a similar identity for hyperbolic functions.2 Hyperbolic Functions This section appears in chapters 3. then x2 − y 2 = cosh2 φ − sinh2 φ = 1 (0. why are the others circular? Answer: the sine and cosine satisfy a simple identity that allows them to describe a circle. and its derivation involves nothing more than using the deﬁnitions. but the hyperbolic trigonometric functions may not be. φ then x2 + y 2 = cos2 φ + sin2 φ = 1 Fig. In the circular case there is a simple geometric interpretation of φ.Mathematical Prependix 4 0.7) The coordinates x and y describe a hyperbola. Why are these “hyperbolic?” First. just that it isn’t very useful. 2 2 cosh φ − sinh φ = = eφ + e−φ 2 2 − eφ − e−φ 2 2 e2φ + 2 + e−2φ − e2φ + 2 − e−2φ 4 =1 Divide this equation by cosh2 φ to get 1 − tanh2 φ = sech2 φ.6) Their reciprocals are sech. If x = cos φ and y = sin φ. 0. 9. In the hyperbolic case there is not. and 10. If x = cosh φ and y = sinh φ.

so that forces the + sign on the right. Now take the logarithm. what is cos(ix)? Substitute ix into the third series of Eq. so it should not be too surprising that the inverse hyperbolic functions involve logarithms. e2y − 2xey − 1 = ey 2 − 2xey − 1 = 0 which implies ey = x ± x2 + 1 The exponential ey is positive.8) The hyperbolic functions involve exponentials. These are six graphs of the six hyperbolic functions. For example cosh(x + y ) = cosh x cosh y + sinh x sinh y sinh(x + y ) = sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y (0.6) or the series in (0. For example.11) Use the series for the circular and the hyperbolic functions to see the relations between the two sets of functions.1). y = sinh−1 x = ln x + x2 + 1 (0. Similarly.10) similarly.1). The result is a quadratic equation.9) Multiply by 2ey and rearrange. invert these graphs in the 45◦ line x = y . Fig. It’s up to you to puzzle out which curves go with which functions. substitute ix into the series for the sine to see its relation to the hyperbolic sine. d cosh x = sinh x dx d sinh x = cosh x dx d tanh x = sech2 x dx (0. 0. y = sinh−1 x means x = sinh y = 1 y e − e−y 2 (0. To get the inverse functions. cosh−1 x = ln x ± x2 − 1 (x ≥ 1) Common circular trigonometric identities have their parallel here.2 .Mathematical Prependix 5 What are the derivatives of these functions? Diﬀerentiate the equations (0. (0.

y = r sin φ (0. 4. you can look them up somewhere else. and the equation for that line is x = 0. 0. 8 (at least).The equation x = 5 is a line parallel to the y -axis. and .3 Coordinate Systems This section appears in chapters 3. φ) another time. 6. When you describe a single point using (x. y x y x y r φ x polar rectangular z z y x x y rectangular z r z y z θ r x φ y Fig. When you need parabolic coordinates or toroidal coordinates. φ = tan−1 (y/x) x = r cos φ.Mathematical Prependix 6 0. y ) one time and (r. In the common plane rectangular coordinates the lines parallel to the x-axis are the graphs of the equations y = 1. etc. There are a few common coordinate systems that you will use all the time. The relation between these two coordinate systems is simple. In three dimensions the common ones are rectangular.3 x φ cylindrical spherical All the coordinate lines simply represent the functions saying that all the other coordinates are constant. the equations relating these pairs are x rφ y r = x2 + y 2 . but the ﬁve drawn here are the ones you have to master. In two dimensions you have rectangular and polar.12) . In plane polar coordinates the coordinate lines are r = constant (circles) or φ = constant (rays that start from the origin because r ≥ 0). cylindrical. 7. 5. or y = −10.

y. rectangular coordinates (x. For rectangular and cylindrical. θ = constant (a cone with apex at the origin). The coordinate surfaces are now r = constant (sphere). 6). The z -coordinate is the same as the rectangular z -coordinate. use r to mean the distance to the origin. Commonly in math books the role of θ and φ in spherical coordinates are reversed. and θ is measured strictly South from the North Pole. The equation z = constant is a plane parallel to the x-y plane as before. You need both numbers y and x to specify the quadrant for φ because the inverse tangent is multiple valued. you can ﬁnd the relationships between each pair of these coordinates. φ. As with rectangular and polar coordinates. The third coordinate φ = constant is a half-plane with one edge along the z -axis (0 < r < ∞ and −∞ < z < ∞). What is not so conventional is that I choose is to make the angle φ the same for polar. except that an equation such as y = 1 is now a plane perpendicular to the y -axis as x and z vary from minus to plus inﬁnity. The two angles are measured from the positive z axis and around the z -axis respectively. thereby removing the ambiguity.Mathematical Prependix 7 The only place to stumble in this transformation is in computing φ from y and x. I’m trying to be consistent here. simply stretched parallel to the z -axis. and φ = constant (a half plane with one edge along the z -axis). It is the angle around the z -axis and in the x-y plane. Just to keep you on your toes. The latitude is like θ except that latitude is measured North and South from the equator (zero to 90◦ each). z ) are an extension of two-dimensional polar coordinates. In three dimensions. it is the same as with . Cylindrical coordinates (r. Spherical coordinates (r. In geography. Longitude is measured East and West from the Greenwich meridian (zero to 180◦ in each case). and spherical coordinates. in contrast to cylindrical where it means the distance to the z -axis. You do have to watch out for conventions used elsewhere because you will often ﬁnd that θ is used for this angle in polar and cylindrical coordinates. using φ for the same angle in all three coordinate systems. cylindrical. but the convention that I’m using is the standard in physics and engineering. z ) are much like those in two dimensions. The z -axis itself is described by the two equations {x = 0 and y = 0}. To get a line you need two equations. → Watch out for varying conventions here. and the (r. The signs of y and x will however tell you that tan−1 (1/1) = π/4 and that tan−1 (−1/ − 1) = 3π/4. θ. φ). φ) are the same as the two dimensional polar coordinates. and the equation r = constant is now a cylinder centered along the z -axis. some people prefer to use −π ≤ φ ≤ +π . the latitude and longitude deﬁne a point on the surface of the Earth. For example the pair {x = 5 and z = 6} describes a line parallel to the y -axis and puncturing the x-z plane at (5. and φ is measured in one direction starting from the x-axis (0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π ).

x In spherical coordinates the grid is formed of lines and arcs of circles: Hold the two coordinates θ = constant. but with the diﬀerence that θ is measured from the North pole (0 < θ < 180◦ ) and latitude is measured from the equator. Just use the equations (0. In two dimensions you can draw the coordinate grid as a set of z θ r lines parallel to the x and y axes. On the rare occasions that I do need to make the distinction. y = r sin θ sin φ ← (0. but you see immediately that you have a problem in notation: what is r? I’ve used the same notation r in both systems. others choose the Greek symbol ρ for the cylindrical radius. r = x2 + y 2 + x2 . I ﬁnd that using r for both rarely causes confusion though. 0. I commonly use r⊥ to indicate the perpendicular distance to the axis (the cylindrical r). and you have a radial line.17. For the conversions between cylindrical and spherical I’ll leave it as an exercise. r = constant. When relating spherical coordinates to the geography of the Earth we conventionally take the origin at the center of the Earth and the z -axis out of the North pole. For the next Fig. problem 0. and in three dimensions you would do the same thing. . A line of constant latitude on a globe of the Earth parallels the equator just as a line of constant θ does. The only φ place you will want to do this however is in your mind. zero to 90◦ North latitude and zero to 90◦ South latitude. φ = constant is the intersection of a sphere and a half-plane that has one edge along the z -axis. the ray starting from the origin. because z is the same for each. θ = constant. and there are probably other notations that I don’t know about. Some will do as I have done. z =r cos θ. some will choose R. It deﬁnes half of a great circle. with lines parallel to the three axes.and φ-coordinates are then related to the geographic latitude and longitude. φ = tan−1 (y/x) r x = r sin θ cos φ. and that can be confusing.4 pair of coordinates.Mathematical Prependix 8 rectangular and polar. and they form the intersection of a sphere and a cone whose axis is along z . because it is usually clear from context which one you mean. z θ = cos−1 . It corresponds to setting the φ-coordinate. For the conversions between rectangular and spherical coordinates. A line of constant longitude on the Earth runs from the North to the South pole along a great circle.12) again. There is no standard way to do this. some will choose s.13) The second line of this pair is the set of equations that you encounter most often. because the y drawing on paper will become so cluttered that you can’t see what you have done. The θ. The third pair of coordinates are r = constant. and that is the θ coordinate curve. φ = constant. This deﬁnes the φ coordinate curve as a small circle parallel to the x-y plane.

Probably some are not. Similarly.16) Some of these are familiar. Most commonly 0 < φ < 2π instead of −π to +π (but not always). In rectangular and in plane polar coordinates the equations for straight lines are respectively y = mx + b and r = a sec(θ − θ0 ) (0. England while φ is measured from the direction of the x-axis. or x = a cos θ . or An ellipse is or r = R. 0. In some cases. This map of the Earth* shows the prime meridian at zero longitude. corresponding to the zero point for φ. or r = a cos φ. they have Java versions that * www. You can see many examples of pictures of functions in rectangular and polar coordinates in The Famous Curves Index.worldatlas. r = a + br cos(φ − φ0 ) 2 (0. a2 b 2 or r = 1 A + B cos φ . Fig.5 The equations for simple curves can look very diﬀerent in the various coordinate systems. y = b sin θ or r1 + r2 = 2a (0.com .14) Equations for a circle can come in several forms x2 + y 2 = R 2 . The last one is in two-center bipolar coordinates — not one of your standards.Mathematical Prependix 9 and the diﬀerence this time is that longitude is measured zero to 180◦ East and West from the line through Greenwich. the lines of constant latitude show the relation: latitude = |90◦ − θ| (N or S).15) x2 y 2 + = 1.

it’s the same as two-dimensional polar except for the same extra factor for the distance in the z -direction dV = dx dy dz dV = r dr dφ dz The spherical case requires a little more drawing.st-and. just with an extra factor of ∆z . The area of a rectangle is the product of its sides. φ.Mathematical Prependix allow you to play with the parameters. . and y + ∆y or between r and r + ∆r. in the polar case only approximately rectangular.dcs. the volume element in rectangular coordinates is just as it is in two dimensions. Multiplication is commutative and associative. y . x + ∆x. Well. 10 www-groups. In cylindrical coordinates. When you compute moments of inertia or a center of mass it’s a tool you will use. In three dimensions. something like R 0 0 2π r dφ dr with the convention that you work from the inside out.6 The two shaded regions are rectangles deﬁned respectively by the lines at x. You then integrate right to left.html Areas and Volumes One of the traditional uses for integration is to computes areas and volumes. but I ﬁnd it less confusing when I write the diﬀerential next to the integral sign and its associated limits. You may be accustomed to seeing multiple integrals written diﬀerently. so the area elements are ∆A = ∆x∆y → dA = dx dy The area of a circle is R 2π and ∆A = ∆r r∆φ → dA = r dr dφ R dA = 0 r dr 0 dφ = 2π 0 r dr = πR2 A comment on notation.ac. along with the two pictures. but in the limit that the two sides go to zero it’s true. so r dφ dr = dφ r dr = dr r dφ. ∆x ∆y r ∆φ ∆r Fig. For two dimensions the rectangular and polar coordinates are all you need. Even when that’s not the aim you still need to know how to set up such problems. 0. There’s nothing wrong with this notation. φ + ∆φ.uk/˜history/Curves/Curves.

7 x φ Fix r for a moment and the piece of area on the surface of constant r is bounded by (θ. z dr θ dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ r sin θ r dθ r sin θ dφ y x The volume of a sphere is then R φ Fig. θ + dθ) and (φ. 0. The sides are r dθ and r sin θ dφ. dA = r2 sin θ dθ dφ What about the volume? Just multiply this rectangle by dr to get the volume of the rectangular box with this area as a base. φ + dφ). In the second case the radius is r sin θ with center on the z -axis.8 dV = 0 r2 dr 0 π 2π sin θ dθ 0 dφ R R = 2π 0 r2 dr 0 π sin θ dθ = 2π 0 r2 dr 2 = πR3 4 3 Limits of Integration A very common problem you face with multiple integrals is to ﬁgure out the limits of integration. with center at the origin. Then what happens to those limits when you do the integrals in a diﬀerent .Mathematical Prependix 11 z θ r sin θ r dθ r sin θ dφ y Fig. this forms a rectangle in the same way that dr and r dφ form a rectangle in plane polar coordinates even though all four sides are really arcs of circles. 0. In the ﬁrst case the radius of the circle is r. Again.

electric ﬁeld. angular momentum. starting at ayj /b and ending at a. Even in plane rectangular coordinates you will get frustrated without a picture to guide you. acceleration. angular velocity. The algebra of vectors in two or three dimensions starts from the pictures C =A+B C A B A D =A−B D B . Now you must decide: in what systematic order are you going to add the pieces together? Certainly not randomly. The general deﬁnition of a vector is that it is an element of a vector space. a bx/a b a A= 0 dx 0 dy = 0 dy ay/b dx = ab 2 (0. ∆A’s. 0. gravitational ﬁeld.j summing ∆xi j ∆yj the y ’s go from 0 to bxi /a. In the ﬁrst picture you are ﬁrst i. done as a double integral? Divide the area into little pieces of area. so this is ∆xi . magnetic ﬁeld. ∆A y = bx/a b a ∆yj Fig. force. Velocity.17) 0. momentum. ﬁnally taking a limit as each piece goes to zero. The key is 12 draw a picture of the domain of integration and read the limits from the picture. And these are just vectors that appear in this book. 0 dx bx/a. and add them together. The sum in the other order and using the second picture starts with a sum on the ∆xi and you have to read those limits from the picture.9 ∆xi If the typical piece of area is ∆A = ∆xi ∆yj then when you do the sum ∆xi ∆yj you must choose the order of summation. i a a bx The sum on ∆xi becomes an integral from 0 to a. torque. but for here and now that is more generality than needed. The simplest example: what is the area of a right triangle.Mathematical Prependix order.4 Vectors This section appears in most chapters from four on.

The scalar product (dot product) is the scalar AB cos θ. You can use these pictures to model velocity or magnetic ﬁelds or any other vector and you are guaranteed that they all give the same results. Here I am using the convention that the magnitude of the vector A is the letter A. and for vectors A . 4 = 4 .Mathematical Prependix 13 and these pictures apply whether you are talking about gravity or momentum or any of the other vectors listed above.(3 + 4) = 5 . where θ is the indicated angle between them. This is why you study the geometry of vectors as a subject of its own. This means that you don’t have to learn everything diﬀerently for diﬀerent sorts of vectors — they all behave the same way. Why are these the correct deﬁnitions for products of vectors? Why a cosine in one case and a sine in the other? Probably when the subject was being invented these weren’t the ﬁrst attempts made in deﬁning products. 3 + 5 .19) What about the other sorts of multiplication laws: commutative and associative? . There is a mathematical theorem guaranteeing this. Does a velocity vector look like a line with an arrowhead attached? Very few cars today have arrows sticking out of the front end. Which one to pick is chosen by convention: the right-hand rule.” The same for two dimensions (or seven). designed to skewer pedestrians. and they are in opposite directions. C. You don’t have to relearn it when you encounter the next sort of vector. A× B+C =A×B+A×C (0.18) The vector product (cross product) of two vectors A and B is another vector perpendicular to these two and having magnitude AB sin θ. In mathematical jargon. The vector product as just stated is ambiguous because there are two directions that are perpendicular to the two input vectors. 4 = 35. but A × B = −B × A * but ﬁnd a picture of a 1950-era Oldsmobile! . A×B B θ A A × B = AB sin θ A . but these are the ones that have good properties — especially the distributive law. saying that once you know you are working with three dimensional vectors. B = AB cos θ (0. A. then they are all essentially the same. 5 . 5 and 5 A . B + C = A .* but the import of this statement about vectors is that it doesn’t matter. B = B . “isomorphic. B + A .

y + Ax Bz x . but it won’t appear again in this text. y + Ay By y . with units as appropriate. The dot product is between vectors. The point of writing a single vector in terms of two other vectors (three others in three dimensions) is to change geometry into algebra and arithmetic.Mathematical Prependix 14 so the commutative rule works for the dot product but not for the cross product. Bx x + By y + Bz z = ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Ax Bx x . but it is not associative. The technique of components is a way to turn much of the geometry into algebra and even arithmetic. Unit Vectors The geometry of vectors can become cumbersome to manipulate. A × (B × C ) makes sense. ˆ ˆ Call them x and y . z + Az Bx z . 4 = 60. For the cross product. That is a convenience not a necessity. y + Ax By x . 3) . The basis vectors you will encounter in this book are all orthogonal and normalized to one. In two dimensions pick two vectors. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A . y ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ + Ay Bz y . Not one meter or one second. y + Az Bz z . C ) doesn’t make any sense. 5 . Bases. especially when you have many vectors involved. The closest that it comes is the Jacobi identity. It anti-commutes instead.(B . The former is a multiple of x (positive or negative) and the ˆ latter is a multiple of y .(3 . y + Az By z . z = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz (0. The dot product of two vectors is easy to compute in terms of these basis vectors. The two components of the vector A are the two numbers Ax and Ay . one parallel to the x-axis and one parallel to the y -axis. and in other contexts you may make other choices to deﬁne a basis. the pair forming a basis. but A . and make them have magnitude one. In rectangular coordinates the system should be familiar.20) . one parallel to ˆ ˆ ˆ x and one parallel to y . A × (B × C ) + B × (C × A) + C × (A × B ) = 0 This is useful elsewhere. just one dimensionless. For the associative law. z + Ay Bx y . y ˆ Ay y A x ˆ y ˆ x ˆ y ˆ x ˆ Ax x You can write any vector in the plane as the sum of two other vectors. It is to change the problem of diﬀerentiating vectors into the more familiar problem of diﬀerentiating ordinary functions. It is to vectors what analytic geometry is to plane geometry. B = Ax x + Ay y + Az z . 4) = (5 .

e2 = 0. You then write the vectors as A = A1 e1 + A2 e2 + A3 e3 and B = B1 e1 + B2 e2 + B3 e3 That these vectors are orthogonal and unit vectors translates to e1 . B + A. Index Notation A convenient and powerful notation to manipulate the components of vectors: Denote ˆ ˆ the basis vectors by a uniﬁed notation.Mathematical Prependix 15 The simplicity appears because the basis vectors are “orthonormal.21) where the indices i and j take on any and all of the values 1. each has unit magnitude and they are mutually perpendicular. 2. only the ﬁnal result just has subscripts 1. The dot product is exactly the same as in Eq. and e3 instead of respectively x. e3 . y . Does the product rule for derivatives work for the product of vectors? Yes. e1 .20). x. exactly as in Eq. and ˆ z . y. e3 = 1. First a version of the calculation in this notation.B = i Ai ei .20). (0. and you can see why by diﬀerentiating the component form: d .” That is. 3 instead of x. . dB dAx dB dA . It doesn’t seem to be worth all the trouble does it? It is. j Bj ej = i j Ai Bj ei . A B= Bx + Ax x + · · · = dt dt dt dt dt The same analysis applies to the cross product. ej = i j Ai Bj δij Now do the sum on j Bj δij = Bi j Remember: δij = 0 for the two terms where j = i The rest is i Ai Bi . e2 . A. and all the other combinations Introduce a standard notation: δij = 1 0 if i = j if i = j then ei . 3. This is called the Kronecker delta symbol. 2. (0. ej = δij (0.

5 Diﬀerentiation There’s no chapter in this book in which this is not used. So why bother to write it? The convention is that whenever an index is repeated in a single term it is to be summed.Mathematical Prependix 16 The summation convention was introduced by Einstein when it became clear to him that in manipulating with this notation for the components. B = Ai ei . (0. i ) always appeared whenever an index was repeated in a single term. but if that’s the only notation you use it can hinder you to the point of incapacity. ∆h ∆h . and that is remarkably obscure in one notation while being quite intuitive in the other. for the derivative is useful too.22) This convention also means that if you encounter an expression with three identical indices. The Leibnitz notation of Eq. This can’t happen. 0. a summation symbol e. With this convention you have for example. The standard deﬁnition of the derivative of a function of one variable is df f (x + ∆ x ) − f (x ) (x) = lim ∆x→0 dx ∆x (0. ej = Ai Bj δij = Ai Bi (0.23) The “prime” notation. such as Ajk = Bi Cik Cji then go back and ﬁnd your mistake. Start from the deﬁnition: h(x + ∆x) − h(x) h(x + ∆x) − h(x) . ∆g = ∆x ∆g ∆x (0. So much of this subject depends on knowing what derivatives are and how to manipulate them that it’s worth spending some space to review the subject (and maybe in the process to introduce some ideas you haven’t seen).g.24) . g (x + ∆x) − g (x) = ∆x g (x + ∆ x ) − g (x ) ∆x or in a shorter form. For an immediate example. δij vj = vi . Bj ej = Ai Bj ei . The immediately preceding calculation is then shortened to A . h(x) = f g (x) −→ h (x) = f (g )g or dh df dg = dx dg dx How do you derive this? The deﬁnition of the derivative and the Leibnitz form dictate the manipulations you must use.23) lends itself to manipulation while the f does not. f (x). the most common method you will use to diﬀerentiate anything is the chain rule.

you diﬀerentiate with respect to one of them and then with respect to the next one and add the two results. In the same limit the ﬁrst term becomes the derivative with respect to the ﬁrst x. then h = f ◦ g . x or f2 (x) = 0 t x − t dt √ (0. Now let f (x) = 1/x and g (x) = 1/x. d f (x.25) Think of either of these as a function f (x. The familiar product rule is a special case of this. (This assumes that all the derivatives are continuous. x + ∆x) − f (x. x) = ∆x f (x + ∆x. x + ∆x) − f (x. f 1 (x ) = x x . instead of h(x) = f g (x) . x) = D1 f (x. so that as ∆x → 0 the fact that the ﬁrst diﬀerentiation is approached from near x instead of at x will not matter. the second term becomes the deﬁnition of the derivative of f with respect to the second x. x + ∆x) − f (x. x + ∆x) f (x.* The second factor in Eq. but neither f (0) nor g (0) exist. For example. A common way to write the composition of functions is to use. x) = + ∆x ∆x As ∆x → 0.Mathematical Prependix 17 As ∆x → 0.26) Here D1 means diﬀerentiate with respect to the ﬁrst argument and D2 with respect to the second. the ﬁrst factor becomes df /dg . and that ends the derivation. x) + D2 f (x. the increment in g must approach zero also.24) becomes. x). d df dg f (x )g (x ) = g+f dx dx dx * What is the derivative of the function “h(x) = x” at the point x = 0? One of course. (0. This derivation shows that if x shows up in two diﬀerent places. A possibly unfamiliar rule occurs when you encounter the derivative of a function in which the independent variable appears in several unrelated places. the derivative dg/dx. x) dx (0. the notation h = f ◦ g . Now start from the deﬁnition and manipulate f (x + ∆x. where the ﬁrst x is one of the two x’s in xx and the second x is the other. Also. x + ∆x) + f (x. x + ∆x) − f (x. as otherwise its derivative would not exist and the chain rule would not apply.) A notation you will see in some calculus texts can be useful here. in the limit that ∆x → 0. x + ∆x) − f (x. because in the same limit ∆g = g (x + ∆x) − g (x) → 0. . x) ∆x f (x + ∆x.

but if you encounter the phenomenon in an unfamiliar context you may not think of it. Acceleration This section appears in most chapters from four on. and the rest are rare enough that you can learn them when or if you need them. when computing relative velocity and acceleration. x = r cos φ and y = r sin φ. What is dy/dx as you go around a circle? Here r is constant. spherical. The “dot” notation over the letter is like . The deﬁnitions of velocity and acceleration are v= dr ˙ =r dt and a= dv ˙ =v dt This doesn’t depend on your coordinate system. 18 df1 d x = x = x xx−1 + ln x xx = xx (1 + ln x) dx dx or df2 1 =0+ dx 2 x 0 √ t dt x−t Parametrized Diﬀerentiation Once you see the explanation of this it seems remarkable simple. relativity. If u is a function of time and v is a function of time. cylindrical) are easy. Spherical is more involved but still manageable.6 Velocity. be it rectangular. so dy dy/dφ r cos φ = = = − cot φ dx dx/dφ −r sin φ It’s easy to check this at angles such as φ = 0 or π/4 etc. 0. This technique will show up in a more complicated example in chapter nine.27) Example: In polar coordinates. or oblate spheroidal. Computing them in diﬀerent coordinate system can get technical though.Mathematical Prependix In the less familiar cases. polar. polar. Fortunately three common cases (rectangular. what is du/dv ? At times t and t + ∆t ∆u = u(t + ∆t) − u(t) ∆u/∆t ∆u = then ∆v ∆v/∆t and the limit as ∆t → 0 is and ∆v = v (t + ∆t) − v (t) du du/dt = dv dv/dt (0.

Mathematical Prependix

19

the so common in calculus texts, but it has a particular meaning. It always means diﬀerentiation with respect to time.

ˆ y ˆ x ˆ φ

x y

r

ˆ r

φ

r = x2 + y 2 tan φ = y/x

Fig. 0.10

Rectangular is familiar

ˆ ˆ ˆ r = xx + y y + z z ,

so

˙ ˆ ˙ˆ ˙ˆ v = xx + y y + z z

and

¨ ˆ ¨ˆ ¨ˆ a = xx + y y + z z

¨ Read the components from these equations. E.g. ax = x = d2 x/dt2 . For cylindrical ˆ coordinates the appropriate basis vectors conform to this system, with r pointing away ˆ ˆ ˆ from the origin and φ perpendicular to that. r = z z + rr, and plane polar simply omits the z . Now the unit vectors are functions of position, implying that as a particle moves these unit vectors will change, and you have to use the product rule to diﬀerentiate the ˆ terms. z is constant so it causes no trouble. ˙ ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ˆ v = z z + rr + rr ˆ The one new feature is the third term, and for that you need to notice that r is a function of the coordinate φ, though not of z or r. To evaluate this derivative, use the chain rule. ˆ ˆ dr dr dφ =

dt

dφ dt

The ﬁrst of these derivatives is now a problem in geometry, and there’s a general result about diﬀerentiating vectors that have a constant magnitude: the derivative is perpendicular to the original vector. To show this, let v be any vector of constant magnitude. That is, v . v = C . Diﬀerentiate this with respect to anything.

dC d . dv v v= = 0 = 2v . dt dt dt

(0.28)

That’s all you need, because it says that the derivative is perpendicular to v as claimed. ˆ ˆ ˆ dr/dφ is perpendicular to r. It is in the φ direction. Now, what is its magnitude? A sketch answers the question. The sketch will also answer the question: “Why is it in ˆ ˆ the +φ direction and not along −φ?”

Mathematical Prependix

ˆ r(φ + ∆φ) ˆ ∆r

20

φ

ˆ r(φ)

Fig. 0.11

ˆ ˆ ˆ The three vectors r(φ), r(φ + ∆φ), and ∆r form an isosceles triangle. Construct ˆ the bisector of the vertex angle, and you immediately see that the length of ∆r is ˆ ∆r = 2 . 1 . sin(∆φ/2) ˆ As ∆φ → 0, the sine behaves as ∆φ/2 itself, so the quotient ∆r /∆φ → 1. ˆ dr ˆ = φ, dφ

and similarly

ˆ dφ ˆ = −r dφ

(0.29)

**Now back to velocity and acceleration.
**

˙ˆ ˙ ˙ ˆ ˙ˆ ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ˆ v = dr/dt = z z + rr + rr = z z + rr + rφφ

(0.30)

Another derivative:

˙ ¨ˆ ˙ˆ ˙ ¨ˆ ¨ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ ˙ ˆ a = dv/dt = z z + rr + rr + rφφ + rφφ + rφφ ˆ ˆ dr ˙ ¨ˆ ˙ dφ ˙ ¨ˆ ¨ˆ ˙ ˙ ˙ˆ = z z + rr + r φ + rφφ + rφφ + rφ φ dφ dφ 2 ˙ ˆ ¨ ˙˙ ¨ˆ ˆ ¨ = z z + r r − r φ + φ r φ + 2r φ

(0.31)

ˆ ˆ Here you need dφ/dφ, another derivative of a unit vector, so it’s perpendicular to φ. ˆ How big is it? You can do the same sort of geometry as with r, or notice that ˆ ˆ r . φ = 0 −→ ˆ ˆ ˆ d .ˆ dr . ˆ dφ dφ ˆ ˆ ˆ r φ=0= φ+r. = 1+r. dφ dφ dφ dφ

ˆ and this establishes the sign and magnitude of dφ/dφ as in Eq. (0.29). Increasing the ˆ angle φ a little bit rotates an object a little bit counterclockwise. That rotates r toward ˆ. It rotates φ toward −r. ˆ ˆ φ That the basis vectors vary with position and are not parallel to each other as you move around the coordinate system is a familiar idea in another context: geography. ˆ ˆ ˆ Up, South, and East are not parallel vectors as you move around the Earth.

Mathematical Prependix

21

For spherical coordinates the derivations can be done along the same lines, but with a whole lot more algebra. It’s not worth the trouble to go through it, and you don’t need the results as often. The answer is (remember to distinguish the spherical coordinate r from the cylindrical one — they’re spelled the same).

ˆ r = rr ˙ ˙ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ˆ v = r = rr + rθθ + rφ sin θφ ˙ ˙ ˆ ¨ ˙ ˆ ¨ ˙˙ a = r − rφ2 sin2 θ − rθ2 r + rθ + 2rθ − rφ2 sin θ cos θ θ ¨ ˙˙ ˆ ˙˙ + rφ sin θ + 2rφ sin θ + 2rθφ cos θ φ

(0.32)

**In geographical terms,
**

ˆ r ≡ Up ˆ θ ≡ South ˆ φ ≡ East

Examples Circular motion is a familiar example from introductory courses. If z = 0 and r = a constant, the equations (0.30) and (0.31) are ˙ˆ v = rφφ

and

ˆ ¨ ˆ ˙ ˆ a = −r r φ 2 + φ r φ = −r

v 2 ˆ dv +φ r dt

(0.33)

The last form comes from using the magnitude of the ﬁrst of these equations for v , ˙ that is v = rφ, and it reproduces the familiar inward radial acceleration for circular ˙ 2 = v 2 /r). The tangential component is rφ = d(rφ)/dt = dv/dt. Now ¨ ˙ motion (rφ wait a minute! If you believe this manipulation, look again more critically. Is the motion ˙ counterclockwise or clockwise and does it matter? Is φ positive or negative? Is the magnitude of a vector positive? When you express a vector in terms of components, is the coeﬃcient of the unit vector the magnitude of the vector or a component of the ˙ ˙ vector? Answer: the correct equation is not v = rφ, but vφ = rφ, stating that the ˙ phi-component of the velocity is rφ. Go back and modify these equations appropriately. Another example: x = x0 , a constant, y = v0 t should have constant velocity and zero acceleration, but that’s not so obvious if you see it in polar coordinates.

r=

x2 + y 2 =

2 x2 + v0 t2 0

and

φ = tan−1 (y/x) = tan−1

v0 t x0

ˆ˙ ˆ ˙ v = r r + φ rφ 2 v0 t 1 2 ˆ ˆ =r + φ x2 + v0 t2 0 2 + v 2 t2 x0 1 + v0 t/x0 0 2 v0 t v 0 x0 ˆ ˆ =r +φ 2 + v 2 t2 2 x0 x2 + v0 t2 0 0

2

. v0

x0

(0.34)

Mathematical Prependix

22

You can see that this has the correct behavior at t = 0 and as t → ∞. Does it have the correct magnitude? And what is its derivative?

0.7 Complex Algebra This section appears in chapters 3, 4, 6, and implicitly many other places. There are some standard manipulations with complex arithmetic that take some practice. Even the basic +, −, ×, and ÷ are not exactly what you learned in third grade, so I’ll start with those. The standard commutative, associative, and distributive laws apply to the ﬁrst three, so

(7 + 2i)(6 + 3i) = (6 + 3i)(7 + 2i) = 36 + 33i (1 + 2i) (3 + 4i)(5 + 6i) = (1 + 2i)(3 + 4i) (5 + 6i) = (1 + 2i)(−9 + 38i) = −85 + 20i (1 + 2i) (3 + 4i) + (5 + 6i) = (1 + 2i)(3 + 4i) + (1 + 2i)(5 + 6i) = (1 + 2i)(8 + 10i) = −12 + 26i As for division, it’s no more commutative here than it is for real numbers, but a simple trick allows you to simplify some expressions. The complex conjugate of a number is the number found by changing the sign of the imaginary part.

z = 5 + 7i =⇒ z ∗ = 5 − 7i

¯ The ∗ notation is a common one for this operation, though z is another notation that many prefer. What is the product of a number and its complex conjugate?

z = 5 + 7i,

z ∗ = 5 − 7i =⇒ z ∗ z = (5 − 7i)(5 + 7i) = 25 + 49 + 35i − 35i = 74

z ∗ z is always real: (a + ib)(a − ib) = a2 + b2 is the square of the magnitude of the √ complex number, the square of a2 + b2 . How do you use this to manipulate division?

Rationalize the denominator of a quotient. 1 + 2i (1 + 2i)(3 − 4i) 11 + 2i = = 3 + 4i (3 + 4i)(3 − 4i) 25 (0.35)

Multiplying a number by its complex conjugate results in a real, so you can multiply the numerator and denominator of a quotient by the complex conjugate of the denominator in order to bring the result into a simpler form.

Mathematical Prependix A few examples of such manipulation, simplifying complex expressions: 3 − 4i (3 − 4i)(2 + i) 10 − 5i = = = 2 − i. 2−i (2 − i)(2 + i) 5 1 (2 + i) + 3i(2 − i) 3i (3i + 1)2 = (−8 + 6i) + 2−i 2+i (2 − i)(2 + i) 2 − 26i 5 + 7i = . = (−8 + 6i) 5 5 i3 + i10 + i (−i) + (−1) + i −1 = = = i. 2 + i137 + 1 i (−1) + (i) + (1) i

23

What is the geometric interpretation of i? It is a factor it rotates you by 90◦ .

z = 1 + 3i iz i2 z i3 z

iz = i(1 + 3i) = −3 + i i z = i(−3 + i) = −1 − 3i i3 z = i(−1 − 3i) = 3 − i i4 z = z

2

What is in ? Each multiplication by i rotates you by 90◦ in the complex plane, . so = 1, and i217 = i4 54+1 = i. Various roots of 1 or of −1 or of i appear commonly, and you need the exponential representation, Euler’s formula, to ﬁnd them. This is

i4

**y x + iy = r cos θ + ir sin θ = reiθ θ x
**

(0.36)

You can derive this equation from the series (0.1). Put iθ into the series for the exponential and collect the real and imaginary pieces. the result is eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ. Special cases of this equation say

e2πi = 1,

eπi = −1,

eiπ/2 = i,

e2nπi = 1

There are three cube roots of one, and all that you need to ﬁnd them is the preceding line. 11/3 = e2nπi

1/3

Mathematical Prependix Take n to be a succession of integers

24

n = 0 −→ 11/3 = 1 n = 1 −→ n = 2 −→ e2πi e4πi

1/3 1/3

√ = e2πi/3 = cos 2π/3 + i sin 2π/3 = (−1 + i 3)/2 √ = e4πi/3 = cos 4π/3 + i sin 4π/3 = (−1 − i 3)/2

If you keep going to n = 3, 4, etc. or use negative integers, you simply repeat these three values. A picture of the roots shows them equally spaced around the unit circle, exactly as dictated by Euler’s equation, and the same sort of picture appears for higher roots too.

e2iπ/3

e2iπ/8

e10iπ/8

The polar form of complex numbers uses the exponential representation, and here are some examples that use this manipulation. √

i = eiπ/2

1−i 1+i

3

1/2

=

25

**1+i = eiπ/4 = √ . 2 √ −iπ/4 3 2e √ = e−iπ/2 iπ/4 2e 2eiπ/2 √ 1 2 1 + i2 3 2
**

25

3

**= e−3iπ/2 = i. 2eiπ/2 2eiπ/3
**

25

2i √ 1+i 3

=

=

= eiπ/6

25

= eiπ(4+1/2) = i

Another application of Euler’s formula is to ordinary trigonometry. What happens when you multiply two complex numbers expressed in polar form?

z1 z2 = r1 eiθ1 r2 eiθ2 = r1 r2 ei(θ1 +θ2 )

(0.37)

Putting it into words, you multiply the magnitudes and add the angles in polar form. From this you can immediately deduce some of the common trigonometric identities. Use Euler’s formula in the preceding equation and write out the two sides.

r1 (cos θ1 + i sin θ1 )r2 (cos θ2 + i sin θ2 ) = r1 r2 cos(θ1 + θ2 ) + i sin(θ1 + θ2 )

Mathematical Prependix

25

The factors r1 and r2 cancel. Now multiply the two binomials on the left and match the real and the imaginary parts to the corresponding terms on the right. The result is the pair of equations cos(θ1 + θ2 ) = cos θ1 cos θ2 − sin θ1 sin θ2 sin(θ1 + θ2 ) = cos θ1 sin θ2 + sin θ1 cos θ2 (0.38)

and you have a much simpler than usual derivation of these common identities. You can do similar manipulations for other trigonometric identities, and in some cases you will encounter relations for which there’s really no other way to get the result. That is why you will ﬁnd that in physics applications where you might use sines or cosines (oscillations, waves) no one uses anything but complex exponentials. Get used to it. The important applications of complex numbers in this text appear when you want to diﬀerentiate complex functions, especially the exponential.

**d ix d e = i eix = cos x + i sin x = − sin x + i cos x dx dx
**

and you can easily see that the second and the fourth forms agree. Do another derivative and you get

**d2 ix e = i2 eix = −eix dx2
**

so this function eix satisﬁes the harmonic oscillator equation, the subject of chapter three.

0.8 Separation of variables This section appears in chapters 2, 3, 4, and in another version, in chapter 7. The subject of diﬀerential equations is large enough that you can make a profession of it and still not exhaust the subject, but in this text, when you solve diﬀerential equations, there are just two methods that show up with any regularity. “Separation of variables” is one. “Linear constant coeﬃcient equations” is the other (next section). After that there are a few equations such as Eq. (6.8) that stand on their own, and you can wait until you get there to ﬁnd out about them. A diﬀerential equation is an equation relating a function and one or more of its derivatives, and F = ma is this semester’s diﬀerential equation. The ﬁrst tool in your kit is separation of variables, and it is easiest to understand if you start with an example or two. Let c be a constant.

dx dx = c2 + x2 −→ 2 = dt −→ dt c + x2

c2

dx = + x2

dt

so the slope of the curve x versus t gets bigger and bigger — that’s how the tangent of t behaves. the independent variable t. Never assume that you haven’t made a mistake. so dx/dt increases. dt 4: t dx + αtx = βx dt (0. With an initial conditions such as x(0) = x0 you have x(0) = x0 = c tan(cD) −→ D = tan−1 x0 /c c −→ x(t) = c tan ct + tan−1 (x0 /c) 1 Check the last expression: x(0) = c tan tan−1 (x0 /c) = x0 . True. meaning that it is a relation between the function x and only the ﬁrst derivative dx/dt. x(t) increases. You can’t simply integrate this with respect to t because the right side is a function of x. To separate variables put all the x’s on one side of the equation and all the t’s on the other. 0. But. The second equation does this. There are two variables here. and that is an (unknown) function of the variable t. though in chapters 2 and 3 you will see some manipulations that will dig a separable equation out of even that one. It is now set up for integration. and commonly after that. dx = c sec2 θ dθ −→ c sec2 θ dθ = c2 + c2 tan2 θ 1 1 1 x dθ = θ = tan−1 = t + D c c c c and the solution is x(t) = c tan c(t + D). but not 2. Now do the integral.9 Constant Coeﬃcient ODEs This sort of diﬀerential equation shows up often in this course. and 4 are separable. it works in enough important special cases that you have to know about it and learn to recognize when it can work. It looks like 3 d2 x dx −4 + 7x = 0 dt2 dt or γ d3 x d2 x dx +δ 2 + + ζx = A cos ωt dt3 dt dt . 2: d2 x = −ω 2 x. and the dependent variable x. dt2 3: t dx = αx + β. 1 : dN/dt = −λN. 3. This method looks like such a special one. so don’t try. a trig substitution works: x = c tan θ. It is a ﬁrst order equation.Mathematical Prependix 26 The ﬁrst of these is the diﬀerential equation to be solved. the combination of factors that will let you do this seems so improbable that it can’t work very often. As time increases. so (c2 + x2 ) increases.39) Equations 1. couldn’t you manipulate the second of these to be dxx = −ω 2 dt2 and integrate? No! There’s no such mathematics as this. starting in chapter two. 2 Wait.

and later you will see some general methods for ﬁnding such solutions. with none 3 2 dt dt dt Then x(t) = xinh (t) + xhom (t).” The precise deﬁnition of this term is that if you multiply the variable x by a constant λ. All you have to notice is that the derivative of an exponential is an exponential. The key property of linear homogeneous equations is that the sum of two solutions is a solution. λn . then the whole expression is multiplied by some power of λ. there is one simpliﬁcation: If you (temporarily) throw away the inhomogeneous term (A cos ωt). so the full solution to this equation is √ A1 eα1 t + A2 eα2 t .k.Mathematical Prependix 27 The dependent variable can have any number of derivatives. O. you can solve the remaining homogeneous part of the equation with a simple exponential. That makes these equation “linear. no x2 or x dx or sin(kx). 3 d2 x dx −4 + 7x = 0 −→ 3Aα2 eαt − 4Aαeαt + 7Aeαt = 0 2 dt dt Aeαt [3α2 − 4α + 7] = 0 Since neither A nor the exponential are zero. that leaves 3α2 −4α +7 = 0. d2 xhom dxhom d3 xhom +δ + + ζxhom = 0. giving two solutions to the equation. a polynomial equation with two roots. but at least it’s only a polynomial equation so there are ways to handle it. where α1. with three arbitrary constants 3 2 dt dt dt d3 xinh d2 xinh dxinh γ +δ + + ζxinh = A cos ωt. the linear constant coeﬃcient homogeneous one. and try a solution x(t) = Aeαt . You will not get “A cos ωt” out of it in order to match the right-hand side. 2 = 2 ± i 17 3 How do you handle the inhomogeneous case example above? An exponential won’t work here. For the problems you encounter in this work. But. Because you are trying to undo two derivatives to get x you will somehow get two arbitrary constants. The sum of two solutions is no longer a solution. inhomogeneous solution will not be diﬃcult. i. The ﬁrst case. you get a cubic equation. but it appears just to the ﬁrst power. Now if somehow you can ﬁnd any one solution to the whole equation the trick is to add the two partial solutions. has a simple solution.” That the dt coeﬃcient of the x’s are constants make these “constant coeﬃcient linear” equations. . ﬁnding the special.e. This partial solution will have three arbitrary constants. Here n = 1. That the ﬁrst one has only terms in x or its derivatives makes it “homogeneous” and that the second one has an extra term with no x at all makes it “inhomogeneous. How do you verify this? Plug in to the original equation γ and watch it work.

If you know everything about 2 × 2 arrays. .Mathematical Prependix 28 0. the step from one dimension to two is the big one. Anyway. What matrix plays the role of zero so that adding it changes nothing? An array of all zeroes. And. can wait until they’re needed in section 8. the extension to 3 × 3 is easy. h.41) You run across the rows of the ﬁrst matrix and down the columns of the second matrix in order to construct the entries in the product. multiplied. b = 0 This makes the top right entry work too. You have (vx . They can be rectangular too. Just as you have components of vectors with respect to a basis you will have components of certain types of vector-valued functions. The development of these ideas. They can be added. . thereby reproducing the second factor? For the top left entry of the product. After that the step to three dimensions or even N dimensions is relatively small. It also appears in describing dielectric properties of a crystal. An important sort of function (a linear. divided. there is a unit matrix for multiplication. vy . Just as with with either mechanics or calculus. vθ . it too has components (nine this time) and these form matrices. Besides. g. 8. Just as there is a zero matrix for addition. vφ ) with three components for a vector. For the moment this will be a summary of some rules without any discussion of the reasons that they are the way they are. . What is it? What entries in the ﬁrst factor of (0. ae + bg = e for all e and g =⇒ a = 1.10 Matrices This section appears in chapters 4. I said that there are nine components and these objects have only four. For the moment then a matrix is a square array of numbers. but not here. Similarly for the bottom entries you need to have c = 0 and d = 1. 10. a b c d + e f g h = a+e b+f c+g d+h (0. That makes the identity matrix (I ) = 1 0 0 1 .40) and of course subtraction just changes all the + signs to −. vz ) or (vr .41) make the product equal the array of e.2. f. vector-valued function of a vector variable) appears in describing the angular momentum of a rigid body. Multiplication obeys a b c d e f g h = ae + bg af + bh ce + dg cf + dh (0. And in describing rotations of vectors. even exponentiated. showing the reason for the odd-looking rules that matrices obey. it’s easier to write these and they take only about 8/27 of the arithmetic to manipulate them.

You can however check that this identity matrix works just as well as the right hand factor as it does on the left. (0. cx + dy = q. They also appear in mundane settings.42) obeys BB−1 = B−1 B = I The statement that matrix multiplication is not commutative is AB = BA.42) Multiply this by the original matrix and verify that you get the identity. I’ll just write the answer. acx + ady = aq −→ cby − ady = cp − aq −→ y = bc − ad . Also the distributive law: A(B + C) = AB + AC. then subtract (0. Sometimes a boldface sans serif font is chosen for this purpose. Simultaneous equations Matrices appear in many interesting and elegant contexts. multiply the ﬁrst by d and the second by b. Set the right side of Eq. c.41) to the identity matrix and solve the four equations in the four unknowns a. (0. but for matrices there are no standards. How do you solve two linear equations in two unknowns? ax + by = p. and it serves as well as anything else so that’s what I will use here. It works in either order. d. b. c d B= e f .43) cp − aq cax + cby = cp. You do have the associative law though: A(BC) = (AB)C. g h then AB = C = ae + bg af + bh ce + dg cf + dh The inverse matrix as in Eq. bcx + bdy = bq −→ dax − bcx = dp − bq −→ x = dp − bq da − bc multiply the ﬁrst by c and the second by a.Mathematical Prependix 29 The order of multiplication matters. The inverse of a matrix is that matrix such that the product with the original is the identity. but you should carry out the algebra so that the result is yours and not mine. A= a b . but these are no less important. then subtract dax + dby = dp. and multiplication is not commutative. There is no common notation for a matrix as there is for vectors. e f g h −1 = 1 eh − f g h −f −g e (0. so check it both ways. In the latter case you see boldface type or an arrow or sometimes a squiggly underline.

The second case is exceptional. You can have a solution if p and q are both zero or if a particular combination of p. cx + dy = 0 but ad − bc = 0 (0. 3. It means that the two equations you are solving are ax + by = 0.4. 30 a b c d x y = p q or Mx = p Multiply both sides of this matrix equation by the inverse of M from Eq. You can’t divide by zero. . so this comparison is really circular.42). Now ad = bc. If the determinant is non-zero then the solution exists and is unique. 2. dax − bcx = dp − bq −→ (da − bc)x = dp − bq also (da − bc)y = aq − cp What if da − bc = 0? then the right sides of the equations must be zero. Once you have found one. and the elements of the matrix conspire to make the right side zero. Does this always work? No.43) I ignored that important point. If the determinant is zero and both p and q are zero there are an inﬁnite number of solutions.Mathematical Prependix This is matrix inversion in disguise. not two. multiply the ﬁrst of these by d: dax + dby = 0. In fact. otherwise there is no solution.8 and 10. That in turn means that you have an inﬁnite number of solutions x and y for the answer.44) If for example d and b are = 0. (0. that explicit solution is how the inverse matrix is derived. If the determinant is zero and p or q is non-zero there is no solution unless special circumstances occur. That means you really have one equation for the two unknowns. ad − bc = determinant of the matrix The determinant determines the nature of the solutions (deterministically of course). so this equation is the same as bcx + bdy = 0 or cx + dy = 0. Case #1 is routine. You solve simultaneous equations and you expect to ﬁnd a solution. and in Eq. M−1 Mx = x = M−1 p = 1 ad − bc d −c −b a p q = x y This is exactly the same as the preceding explicit solution for x and y . and it can be used to determine properties of the right-hand side. (0. The third case is the most common for the purposes of this book. It will show up (perhaps in disguise) in sections 7. 1. q .

Index Notation Aij is the set of elements of the matrix A. And how do you write “boldface sans serif” on paper? Perhaps by using “Blackboard Bold” style: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. but it’s cumbersome. The indices i and j run from one to whatever the size of the matrix is (two in these examples). You can understand this most simply by a graphical interpretation. f (x). They have a point. ax + by = 0 is a straight line through the origin. and this graph represents an inﬁnite number of possible solutions. and that you should think of f at the function and f (x) as the particular value of the function at the point x. Arow. .* In this notation matrix addition and multiplication are N A + B = C ←→ Aij + Bij = Cij and AB = C ←→ j =1 Aij Bjk = Cik A column matrix has a single index xi ←→ x ←→ and Ax = y ←→ k x1 x2 A11 A12 A21 A22 x1 x2 = Ajk xk = yj ←→ y1 y2 * Mathematicians will argue that this is bad notation. The ﬁrst index speciﬁes the row and the second the column. and making that distinction can help keep you out of trouble. You are not supposed to think of this as some particular “x” but as a placeholder for any value that argument can take on. and there I will side with the mathematicians.Mathematical Prependix 31 simply multiply x and y by any constant and you have another. This is a way to fake boldface type in writing. There is a case in chapter eight however. That is technically the correct thing to do. It is like the common notation for a function. column = Aij ←→ A ←→ A11 A12 A21 A22 ← ← ﬁrst row second row These are three notations for the same thing because you don’t have to think of the subscripts i and j as particular values. and this good advice is often ignored. where I will raise this issue again.

(0.13). Now integrate the function x over the same area both ways and see if you again get the same answer both ways. Not that the derivation is right. g. 0). (0.1) you have the series for 1/(1 − x). ae + bg = 1 is your ﬁrst equation. 9 Compute the area of the triangle with vertices (0. b).41) equal to the unit matrix. what is it’s time-derivative? 6 Use the series in Eq. It shouldn’t happen. (0. 3 Verify that x2 + y 2 + z 2 = r2 in the second set of equations (0. then solve for a.36). Since you’ve done both integrals.33) or correct it if it’s wrong. Exercises 1 In Eq. Do it twice as a double integral dx dy . (0. 4 Either verify Eq. (0.5) to derive the power series for the sine and for the cosine. The two sums just above then appear as Aij Bjk = Cik and Ajk xk = yj (0.1) to derive Eq. 5 Verify that the result in Eq. 7 Set the right side of Eq. Ans: Eq. 0). (0. b.42) 8 Use the procedure starting at Eq. If you ﬁnd a combination such as Aij Bjk Cjn then go back and ﬁnd your mistake.11) by the other and manipulate to obtain an identity for tanh(x + y ). Next use the binomial expansion for n = −2 and expand 1/(1 − x)2 to see if the results match. Also. (a. interchanging limits. . If you know the numbers e. (0. divide the second by the ﬁrst. (a.34) is right. Whenever a product appears with a repeated index summation is implied.22). h. d. (0. c. (0. (0. For example.Mathematical Prependix 32 This sort of product-and-sum occurs so often that the conventional notation is again to omit the summation symbol just as in Eq. Diﬀerentiate it with respect to x. 2 Divide one of the two equations in Eq.45) In this kind of manipulation you will ﬁnd that a repeated index always appears as a pair. that the result is!. f.

) About what is the average daily change in the Earth’s radius from this bombardment? Express the result in atomic diameters. (0. Verify the same along constant longitude (φ = constant). reduce to the plane polar coordinate versions in the equatorial plane (θ = 90◦ ). re-read Eq. dust. 12 Each day the Earth gains about 100 000 tons from space debris (rocks.Mathematical Prependix 33 10 Verify that the spherical coordinate velocity and acceleration.23).32). Look closely at the map on page 9. Western. Southern. Eq. and Eastern points in the United States? Ans: You’re probably wrong. (0. 11 In what states are the most Northern. If you ﬁnd yourself involved in a lot of arithmetic. etc. .

6 The relativistic expression for the kinetic energy of a non-zero mass particle is K = mc2 For small speed (v 1 1 − v 2 /c2 −1 c) expand this to terms in v 4 at least.5 The limit taken in Eq. so the inverse hyperbolic sine is odd too. Check your approximate result versus the exact one using a calculator for a couple of small x. sinh(−x) = − sinh x. but ﬁrst convert g = 9.1 Find the next order correction to the series expansion for Eq.e. Ans: 1 + 15 x2 3 0. Check the result by a numerical comparison of the exact result versus your approximate result for a couple of modest sized values of at/c.3). but prove that it is anyway. write sinh(2x) then factor the result and derive the identity sinh(2x) = 2 sinh x cosh x. 0. but keep the next order terms.2) was simply the value as x → 0.9 From the deﬁnition of sinh. Again you will use 1 the sine series and the binomial expansion. You can test your result experimentally by putting various values of x into a hand calculator. . (0. 0. 0. Improve it by keeping 1 more terms and ﬁnding the behavior for small x instead of just for zero x. then evaluate the x integral 0 dt/(1 + t) by integrating this series. Ans: See table Eq.8). Similarly.8 Derive the equations (0. (0. (0.2 Write the power series expansion about t = 0 for 1/(1 + t).7 The hyperbolic sine is an odd function. 0.4 Improve on the preceding calculation and ﬁnd the behavior of that function for small x.Mathematical Prependix 34 Problems 0. I.81 m/s2 to the units light-years per year squared. Ans: − 1 − 8 x 2 0. put in −x for x and manipulate. Use a = g . Find the results in a power series up through terms in x2 .3 Use series expansions to ﬁnd the limit as x → 0 of 1 1 − 2 2 sin x x The series for the sine and for the binomial series are what you need. 0. Equation (0.1).10) doesn’t look odd. ﬁnd cosh(2x) in terms of hyperbolic functions of x. 0.

0.10). (0. b). The triangle has vertices at (0. derivative. √ √ Now change variables (rotate coordinates) to x = (x + y )/ 2.11 (a) y = sinh−1 x means x = sinh y . Find an analogous relation for sin(ix). 0).7) you see how the hyperbolic functions produce a hyperbola for a graph. show how to go from the known identities for cos(x + y ) and sin(x + y ) to the corresponding ones for cosh and sinh.13 In Eq. (0. drawing enough pictures to allow you to make a considered choice. . 0.12 Just after the equation (0. Take the ratio. (c) rectangular coordinates.21 Compare the areas on the Earth between 10◦ and 11◦ North latitude to the area between 79◦ and 80◦ . Sort out which graph is which. (a. ﬁnd the relations between cylindrical and spherical coordinates. and (a. Use algebra and some thought instead before you grab the calculator. (0. Can you do this by brute force by using a calculator that keeps a zillion digits? Yes. but starting from Eq. use a simple identity to eliminate the cosh. 0.20 Compute the area of a sphere using (a) spherical coordinates. y = (x − y )/ 2 and draw the corresponding graph for this.18 Compute the area of the triangle in Eq. (b) cylindrical coordinates.Mathematical Prependix 35 0.17) using polar coordinates.10 Derive the power series expansions of sinh x and cosh x about x = 0. but don’t.1). solve the result for dy/dx. and show √ (b) Repeat this calculation of the that the derivative of sinh−1 x is 1/ 1 + x2 .16 From the equation cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 you get a useful identity by dividing it by cos2 x. 0. What is the analogous result starting from cosh2 x − sinh2 x = 1? 0. 0. (0. (b) cylindrical coordinates. 0.14 Substitute ix into the power series for cos x to get cos(ix) and show that it is cosh x. 0.17 Similar to the relations in Eq. 0. 0.15 From the preceding problem to get cos and sin of ix. Consider carefully the order of integration. 0.13). (0.10) there is a set of graphs of the various hyperbolic functions. Diﬀerentiate the latter equation with respect to x. Ans: See table Eq.19 Compute the volume of a sphere using (a) spherical coordinates. 0).

26 (a) For a triangle with two sides being A and B . (0.30 Carry out the calculations of the derivatives from Eq. δii δjk 0. Eq. . A = p have the solution V = A × B + pA /A . Use the area of the triangle that led to Eq. 0. (b) Repeat the calculation to ﬁnd the angle. B = 0 and A is not zero. Equate the results and deduce the angle between the vectors. and evaluate this moment. with answers a few lines after that. Again. From there derive the law of sines. but using the cross product instead — once with the deﬁnition and once with basis vectors and components. 0. Let C = A − B . (b) Make the third side of the triangle C and (having chosen the directions appropriately) show that A × B = A × C . δii δii . show that the simultaneous equations V × A = B and V . z of a point in terms of its spherical coordinates. What ambiguities appear in these results? Ans: in part 16. In the case of f4 . A 0. (0. once in each order shown. show that A × B has magnitude twice the area of the triangle. To do the integral.29 Evaluate (remember the summation convention) δij δjk . No components please. A − B .22 A moment of area is r2 dA.25). notice that the factor t can be written as − (x − t) + x .24 (a) Compute the dot product of (3x + 4y ) and (4x + 3y ) two ways: once using components and once using the original deﬁnition of the dot product. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0. also evaluate the integral and diﬀerentiate the 0 result to see if the two ways to calculate the derivative give the same answer. no components please. B × C is (±) the volume of the parallelepiped spanned by the three vectors.17) with r measured from the origin.23 Express the rectangular components x. 0. Also compute the derivatives of f3 = df1 /dx and of f4 (x) = x/2 √ t x − t dt.18). 0. (0. doing the integral twice. δii δjj . Verify x2 + y 2 + z 2 . δij δij .3◦ 0.Mathematical Prependix 36 0. y .28˙ If A .27 Show by drawing pictures and using the geometric deﬁnitions of the products that A .25 Obtain the law of cosines in trigonometry by interpreting the product A − B .

3 x d dx x −x dt ext .35 Compute ∞ d dx 2x dt ext . 0.Mathematical Prependix 2t 2 37 0. No partial integrations. 0.37 Start from the equation (0. the answer has to be zero doesn’t it? Now set α = 1 and see what relation you get for Γ(x + 1). +1 + i 3 1 + i. 0. Next do a partial integration to put the integral into a diﬀerent form and then do the derivative. Now compute the time derivative and compare the two answers. 14 − 17i . just the deﬁnitions and maybe a coordinate shift. (b) Make a change of integration variables so that the new limits are constants. non-constant.1) for the exponential and substitute x = iθ . Call it Γ(x).36 (a) Take the square of Eq. 3 without doing the integral (you won’t be able to anyway).33¨The preceding problem can also be done by going back to the ∆-deﬁnition of a derivative and manipulating that. (b) Evaluate Γ(1).38 Express in polar form. Try it the straight-forward way ﬁrst and demonstrate all the ways that it blows up on you. (0. Diﬀerentiate the result with respect to α. Now what are Γ(2). (b) Take the cube of the same equation and deduce two not-so-common trigonometric identities for triple angles. f (t) an unspeciﬁed function of t. Sketching a graph will be essential.31 (a) Compute the derivative with respect to t of t dx e−tx . (5)? 0. special f for which you can do the integral. 0. Change variables in the integral to t = αu.34 A function of x is deﬁned to be 0 tx−1 e−t dt. reiφ 1+i . 0. 0. Of course. Compare your solutions to this special case. (3). (4). Collect the real and imaginary parts.36) and deduce two common identities concerning trigonometric functions of double angles. 1−i √ −1 + i 3 √ . Check one point of each of your results by asking what are these derivatives at x = 0.1) to derive Euler’s formula for eiθ .32¨A tricky derivative. and use other series from (0. then diﬀerentiate it. d dx x 0 f (t) dt √ x−t Test your result on an explicit.

(b) What is this for circular motion at constant speed? 0. (0. Ans: πab dx dy is easiest in 0. and a vectors at diﬀerent times. (0. and use that to deﬁne cos(x + iy ) and sin(x + iy ).41 Assume that the equations of problem 0.38) or another way if you prefer. then rearrange the result to show that (a) sin(x + iy ) = sin x cosh y + i cos x sinh y . v . 0. and re-assemble the results to show that it works.” leaving the rest of the derivation to you. z + z ∗ = 5. (0. diﬀerentiate it. start with cos(x + iy ) deﬁned by replacing x → x + iy in problem 0.45 In Eq.39 Sketch the points in the complex plane: |z | < 1. Write its velocity and ˆˆ acceleration in the r-φ basis and sketch the r .Mathematical Prependix 38 0. Then compute its acceleration. Doing the integral dA = rectangular coordinates.48 (a) Compute da/dt = d3 r/dt3 in plane polar coordinates.316958 0. |z − 2| > 1. and derive the occasionally useful identities cos x + cos y = 2 cos cos x − cos y = 2 sin x+y 2 x+y 2 cos sin x−y 2 y−x 2 . It has constant forward acceleration. 0. 0.34). Can you really do this? Write v .47 A car starts from rest and moves along a circular track of radius R. (0. Pictures of course. and verify that the result is plausible. with the equation Eq.46 Fill in the steps leading to the example result. Lots of arrows.35) it shows how to simplify a fraction by rationalizing the denominator. Eq.40 are valid for complex values of x. That is. so the distance along the track is at2 /2. 0.43 Find the area of an ellipse. Do it. (0.16). (0. 0.49 In Eq. What do you get if you rationalize its numerator instead? 0. v in rectangular components.570796 − i1.40. 1 1 0.44 In Eq.50 Use the identities in Eq.42 Diﬀerentiate eiθ with respect to θ to derive the diﬀerentiation formulas for sine and cosine.29) it says “and similarly. 0.40 Show that cos x = 2 (eix + e−ix ) and that sin x = 2i (eix − e−ix ). (c) And what are these when x = 0? (d) What is cos−1 2? What is sin−1 2? Ans: in part: 1. (b) Find the analogous equation for cos(x + iy ). z − z ∗ = 5.28) there’s the derivative of a dot product.

51 Solve by separation of variables dx/dt = a + x with the initial condition that x(0) = b.Mathematical Prependix 39 0. and 4th of the equations in Eq.52 Solve the 1st . 0. . ﬁnding the general solution.39). 3rd . (0.

can’t you derive it from the second? Just set the total force on an object to zero. Start with the last one. “The exertion of force by one body upon another. * The Oxford English Dictionary says it is either momentum times time. but there’s no force causing it to do this. that I’m the one who’s moving. or kinetic energy times time. in the ﬁrst law as stated above. If one object exerts a force on a second. then a = 0 and the velocity is constant. is this precluded? The last time that I was on a merry-goround I saw people moving up and down and going in circles around me. They weren’t moving at constant velocity even though there was no force to push them into this odd motion. F = ma.Introduction What are Newton’s laws of motion? For a caricature of them (don’t believe this) you have 1. . What in the world is “action”* let alone “reaction?” The answer is that you would never write this law in such a language today. but another. If you think that I’m wrong to say this. inﬂuence.” and it is only in inertial systems that the laws of nature take on an especially simple form. It’s moving on a circle and its velocity is certainly changing. A formulation in contemporary language is 3. An object with no external forces on it will either remain at rest or stay moving at constant velocity. Newton’s ﬁrst law is really a deﬁnition: that of an “inertial frame.” For the ﬁrst law. the ﬁrst law is obviously false. In colloquial mathematics this is Fon 1 by 2 = −Fon 2 by 1 Not obviously so. better way to state the third law is “momentum is conserved. It is a question of complexity. The sun goes around the Earth daily. 3.” And that doesn’t exhaust the possibilities. then the second will exert on the ﬁrst a force of the same magnitude but opposite direction. Didn’t Newton notice this? As stated. You say that this is because of the Earth’s rotation on its axis? Where. 2. What if I prefer to think that the world moves around me and that I am forever standing still? The answer is that I can do this. then explain why I can’t assume that I’m the center of the universe. or maybe closest of all. Action equal reaction.

only some of the mass is moving at any time. a = F /m. This is the deﬁnition of an inertial system. you can look up plato. F = ma or F = d(mv )/dt? That is an experimental question. F = d(mv )/dt. But. More generally. and that’s the one that is consistent with conservation of momentum.stanford. When you write the laws this way you can’t even ask that question about deriving the ﬁrst law from the second. The merry-go-round isn’t either. For most of the material in this text. Example: a raindrop is falling and while falling it picks up more water from the surrounding moist air. Does that mean there’s anything wrong with setting up a coordinate system centered on either of these? No. some of them hard. It simply tells you what it means to be inertial. the mass will be constant. For the second law.edu/entries/spacetime-iframes/ for a far more detailed deﬁnition. it simply means that you can’t use Newton’s laws in their simplest form. You need the deﬁnition stated in the ﬁrst law even to state the second law. so you can pull it out of the derivative and use the simpler form. The Earth is not an inertial system. There are still some ideas to resolve. . IF you are in an inertial frame. 2. but if you’re not satisﬁed. Despite this snarky comment. An inertial observer (or inertial frame or inertial coordinate system) is one for which IF no forces act on an object — there are no discernible interactions with any other body — THEN that object will move with constant velocity. pulling it straight up at constant speed. Of course the validity of that law is an experimental question too.1—Introduction 1. What is acceleration? (easy) What is mass? (pretty easy) What is force? (tough) Which is correct. What do you do if you really want to work in a non-inertial system? Read chapter ﬁve. Example: a rope is coiled on the table and you pick up one end. the two forms aren’t the same. and when the mass of an object is not constant. It will tell you more than you want to know about the subject. 41 This doesn’t say that there’s anything wrong with a coordinate system that is not inertial. THEN the acceleration of a point mass is equal to the total force on it divided by its mass. Do these restatements of the laws of mechanics clarify everything? No. This statement of Newton’s ﬁrst law deﬁnes an inertial frame. In a non-inertial system F = ma and it = d(mv ) dt either. The second one is right. it is very clear and readable.

One meter is the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 seconds. 1. Is this the only way to deﬁne such a mass ratio? No. You do not have to go to Paris for it (though perhaps that’s a point against it). When you use a unit of measurement. v1 m1 m2 v2 Fig. and many others. grams. etc. if m2 is a standard kilogram then you are measuring m1 in that unit.1—Introduction 42 1. or Newton). that’s all you are doing — stating a ratio of what you measure to some conventional standard. c = 299 792 458 m/s. There is a diﬀerence between dimensions and units. You can even deﬁne the ratio in another way that may make no immediate sense. then kilograms. perhaps by putting a very light spring in between them and letting them push apart. For the dimension length you have units meter. but it is appropriate to understand that they are needed at some point in order to deﬁne the words that we use. grzywna. time. though this distinction is often ignored without serious consequence. even slugs are units. temperature. charge. measure their speeds. If mass is a dimension. and for ordinary speeds this deﬁnition reduces to the ﬁrst one. light-year. including your own weight (unit: pound. It is just as arbitrary as the kilogram. For most purposes you do not need to refer to these precise statements. but it is exactly what you do any time that you measure something. If it seems arbitrary that’s because it is. When you say that an object has a mass of two kilograms you are saying that the ratio of its mass to the mass of a certain piece of platinum-iridium alloy kept in a vault near Paris is two to one. When you measure a length the common unit is the meter. you could measure accelerations and deﬁne this using the ratio of the measured accelerations. mile.1 Deﬁne the ratio of the two masses to be m1 /m2 = v2 /v1 . decimeter. 2 m1 v2 1 − v1 /c2 = 2 m2 v1 1 − v2 /c2 In this equations c is the speed of light in vacuum. . stone.1 Dimensions and Units Almost every physical quantity that you encounter will have some sort of dimensional property: mass. and that is deﬁned in terms of the properties of light in conjunction with a special atomic clock. What is mass? Maybe not in any very fundamental way. but at least it uses a physical standard that can be reproduced anywhere in the world. furlong. but is the right deﬁnition when you encounter relativity. After they have pushed apart. but what is a deﬁnition that will let me know what I am measuring? One way is to let two masses interact with each other. length. That way.

In the equation a = F /m. a = Ftotal /mi . For this entire book the only forces are 1. you simply say that there is a force of contact between two objects and then let Newton’s equations ﬁgure out how big it is. They are 1. Fortunately you never have to examine the problem at this level. describing the resistance to acceleration. One is inertial mass. the bigger the mass the less the acceleration. 3. gravity. E .” appeared in two diﬀerent meanings. Any of the ways to deﬁne mass in the preceding section came from this idea.” Look at the last two paragraphs. describing the coupling to the gravitational ﬁeld. you should object. but those are the result of a coordinate transformation. the other is gravitational mass. Are there exceptions? You could argue that the inertial forces in chapter ﬁve are diﬀerent. When two masses push each other apart the more massive one accelerates less. “mass. A little later these were combined with the strong nuclear force (really the interaction of quarks). More recently the electromagnetic force was united with the weak nuclear force (responsible for beta-decay). gravity. commonly called “mass.1—Introduction At a fundamental level there are just a few types of forces. Those are in fact molecule to molecule forces and those are electrical.2 Types of Mass Mass is in some sense a resistance to acceleration. One involved resistance to acceleration and the other involved the eﬀect of a gravitational ﬁeld. 1. electric or magnetic ﬁelds.” Two objects touch each other and exert forces on each other. The same word. gravity electromagnetism weak nuclear strong nuclear standard model 43 electroweak ? At one time (before Maxwell in the 1860s) electricity and magnetism were two diﬀerent forces. but he found that they were just two diﬀerent aspects of the same thing. 2. Mostly numbers one and two. If I say that the electric ﬁeld. Now we’re stuck. and in the latter case the most common manifestation is the “contact force. and Fgravitational = mg g . Why is it that the eﬀect by an electric ﬁeld behaves so diﬀerently from the eﬀect by a gravitational ﬁeld? There are logically two diﬀerent types of mass. 2. other things being equal. In classical mechanics there are exactly two types of forces that you encounter: gravity and electromagnetism. The equation Fgrav = mg says that a gravitational ﬁeld g pushes on an object in direct proportion to some special property of the object. 3. contact. Friction? That is just a contact force. so it is basically electromagnetic. 4. caused a force mE on an object. Mass appears in another basic physical law. That it involves interacting molecules is someone else’s business.

3 Conservation Laws Classical mechanics is not just about forces and accelerations. In the late 1800’s and continuing into the ﬁrst decade o o of the 1900’s. At this point it seems safe to say that the two masses are the same. There are a couple of ways to do so. he carried out some miraculously precise experiments to measure the ratio of the two masses. etc. Fx = max = m dvx dvx dx dvx =m = mvx dt dx dt dx (1.1) This used the chain rule for diﬀerentiation and then it used the deﬁnition of velocity.5 then go back and do it now).3) . Conservation of energy. There are other ways to approach those problems. and the conservation laws are at least as fundamental as F = ma. Later experiments. especially by Dicke and more recently others. but did you know that you can derive F = ma from energy? If so. the work-energy theorem is very simple and is not at all diﬃcult to derive from Newton’s equations. Is it the same for all materials? His conclusion was yes. of momentum. but more tedious. one involves the full power of calculus manipulations and a few lines of algebra. Now integrate this equation with respect to x between some speciﬁed initial and ﬁnal limits. Even if the problems you examine are traditional ones with masses interacting — gravity. then which is more fundamental. Energy In one dimension with point masses. the other is more intuitive. of angular momentum can all be derived from that equation.2) Strip the intervening material from this and you have the work-energy theorem: xf W= xi Fx dx = m 2 vf2 − m 2 vi2 = ∆K (1. have improved this to one part in 1012 . Start with the ﬁrst way (and if you haven’t reviewed section 0. 1. magnetism. friction. to a precision of at least one part in 108 .1—Introduction 44 Who says that these two masses are the same? It’s an experimental question. F = ma or energy? Work. xf W= xi Fx dx = x=xf dvx dx = mvx dvx dx xi x=xi m 2 x=xf m 2 m 2 = vx = vf − vi = ∆K xf mvx 2 x=xi 2 2 (1. Are they? The question was ﬁrst asked by Newton. but the real credit goes to E¨tv¨s. mi /mg .

and the reason for the ﬁnal manipulation.1—Introduction 45 This took two (long) lines. 02 + C . v0 = ax . Constant forces are textbook idealizations of the real world. Second. 0 + C. knowing how to do the manipulations.. but you need to have a complete understanding of the chain rule for diﬀerentiation and of the methods to change variables in an integral. That becomes 2 2 1 Fx . Approximate a position-dependent force as a sequence of steps. A second way to reach this result is longer but simpler. only the deﬁnition of an integral.2 (xN −1 < x < xN ) . x0 = 1 ax . It doesn’t involve any special calculus tricks. 0 + D 2 1 and x = 2 ax t2 + v0 t + x0 Eliminate the variable t between the last two equations t = vx − v0 /ax . simplifying the algebra to get x= 1 2 2 2 vx − v0 /ax + x0 or 2 2 max (x − x0 ) = 1 mvx − 1 mv0 2 2 All of this rearrangement was just elementary algebra. so x = 1 ax vx − v0 /a2 + v0 vx − v0 /ax + x0 x 2 2 Rearrange the last result. 1 then x = 2 ax t2 + Ct + D Use the initial conditions that at t = 0 position is x = x0 and velocity is vx = v0 .. 1. so vx = ax t + v0 . That’s a familiar case: ax = constant −→ vx = ax t + C. It starts with the special case of a constant force. understanding what the manipulations mean and why they are valid.(x − x0 ) = 2 mvx − 1 mv0 (1. then since ax = Fx /m the acceleration is a constant. What about the more common case for which the force is not at all constant? Answer: use successive approximations as you do in calculus and then sneak up on the result.4) 2 Now for the real case. At best you can approximate some force to be close enough to constant for most purposes. F1 F2 (x 0 (x 1 (x 2 (x 3 Fx (x) = F3 FN F4 . There are two parts to this derivation: First. multiplying by m was to get the combination max in the ﬁrst term. < x < x1 ) < x < x2 ) < x < x3 ) < x < x4 ) x0x1 x2 · · · Fig.

and if the force is a function of position only. W = ∆K . etc. When you look closely at them and compare them step by step they are much more alike than you ﬁrst think. In conventional notation this is N N 2 1 2 mvf 2 1 2 mvi Fk ∆xk = k=1 k=1 Fx (xk ) ∆xk = − where ∆xk = xk − xk−1 xN = xf x0 = xi The limit of this equation as ∆xk → 0 is just the deﬁnition of the word “integral. . Write down this combination and manipulate it. .. 2 2 1 F1 (x1 − x0 ) = 1 mv1 − 2 mv0 2 F 2 (x 2 − x 1 ) = F 3 (x 3 − x 2 ) = F 4 (x 4 − x 3 ) = F 5 (x 5 − x 4 ) = 2 1 2 mv2 2 1 2 mv3 2 1 2 mv4 2 1 2 mv5 2 1 − 2 mv1 2 1 − 2 mv2 2 1 − 2 mv3 2 1 − 2 mv4 ··· 2 2 FN (xN − xN −1 ) = 1 mvN − 1 mvN −1 2 2 The sum of all these equations is 2 2 1 1 F1 (x1 − x0 ) + F2 (x2 − x1 ) + F3 (x3 − x2 ) + · · · + FN (xN − xN −1 ) = 2 mvN − 2 mv0 because the terms on the right telescope. v1 . Mechanical Energy For this same simple case of a point mass in one dimension. (1. All the terms except the ﬁrst and the last cancel in pairs. At each point x0 . look completely diﬀerent.3). the equation (1.” so this reproduces Eq. the speed is v0 . What happens if you don’t have a point mass? What if you aren’t working in one dimension? What if the force is not a function of position alone? All good questions and all will have to be addressed in chapters 8.4) applies. . x1 .1—Introduction 46 In each of these intervals. These two derivations of the same equation. you can rearrange the work-energy theorem to get a conservation law. you get the work-energy relation stating that the work on a point mass ( Fx dx) equals the change in its kinetic energy. 4. The second derivation tells you that the combination of force times distance is important — especially force times a little bit of distance: Fx dx. and 2 respectively. Fx dx = max dx = m dvx dv dx dx = m x dx = m dvx = mvx dvx dt dt dt However you do it. but they aren’t.

A more correct way to write it is ˆ Ffr = −µk FN v (1. In this example of dry friction.6) Now apply this to the work-energy theorem. The frictional force as an object slides over a surface is the coeﬃcient of (kinetic) friction times the normal component of the force on the surface. F x (x ) = − dU (x) . (1. the frictional force is velocity dependent even though it doesn’t look like it — there’s no velocity in the expression −µk FN . b If f (x) = dF (x)/dx then a f (x) dx = F (b) − F (a) (1.5) In the present case the function you’re integrating is Fx (x) and I will denote its antiderivative by −U (x). in this conservation of energy equation.1—Introduction 47 The work is an integral of Fx (x) dx. True. the most common way you use is to ﬁnd an anti-derivative and then to evaluate it at the endpoints of the integration interval. It’s just a constant. xf W = ∆K is Fx (x) dx = −U (xf ) + U (xi ) = m 2 xi m 2 vf2 − m 2 vi2 (1. When you evaluate integrals. If you don’t put the minus sign there you would not get a plus sign here. so you can certainly integrate a constant and get a potential energy U and then get conservation of mechanical energy. dx xf then xi Fx (x) dx = −U (xf ) + U (xi ) (1. No.6).8) .3). but that’s because this expression is wrong. what about common dry friction? Perhaps you remember an equation such as Ffr = −µk FN . and this equation says that the sum of the kinetic and the potential energies has the same values throughout the motion. This commonly used expression for the force is simply not right. That is. U is called the potential energy corresponding to the force Fx (x). the sum is conserved. (1.7) which is vi2 + U (xi ) = m 2 vf2 + U (xf ) This is the reason for the minus sign in the deﬁnition of U in Eq. Eq. The frictional force is velocity dependent because it is always opposite the velocity. the fundamental theorem of calculus: If f has an antiderivative and if f is integrable then the two are related. Can’t you always do this manipulation to get conservation of mechanical energy out of the work-energy theorem? Can’t you always ﬁnd an anti-derivative (maybe in a big table of integrals)? For example.

Derive F = ma A few paragraphs back I said that you can derive F = ma from energy. The diﬀerence with the abstraction called energy is that we think we know what goes into it. . Then there are whatever mysterious manipulations the Federal Reserve Board can implement. Or do we? Cosmologists were surprised by the discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. It is not a function of x alone and no U exists. If you include what’s in your checking account. of which just a tiny amount is in any sense concrete. do you pay for it with hundred dollar bills? Most people don’t. Energy is not a thing. and eventually mass were added to the mix. These two expressions. that’s not bills and coins stored in a vault. and bills and coins are nowhere near conserved. If you buy a car. No one knows what it is. . If it slides in the reverse direction. Newton may have written his basic equations in the late 1600s. . It is a prescription saying that certain mathematically described properties of a system are to be added together and if you do it right.1—Introduction 48 ˆ where v = v/v is the unit vector in the direction of the velocity of the sliding mass. If you ask ﬁve economists to deﬁne money you will likely get ﬁve answers (M1 . but historically even these were discovered through tortuous and tortious routes. you can come back later. Notice that I keep using the clumsy phrase “conservation of mechanical energy” instead of “conservation of energy.” Energy is an abstraction. It was resolved when heat was seen to be another form of energy (a term in the sum). sound. caused by something called “dark energy” for lack of a better name. The total “money” is a combination of many diﬀerent things. a bookkeeping device much like money. . but conservation of energy did not become an accepted law of physics until around 1850. Did I just say that money is an abstraction? Isn’t it just the bills and coins that you carry with you? No. How? Take conservation of mechanical energy and diﬀerentiate it: 2 E = mvx + U (x) is conserved −→ 1 2 dE =0 dt * but fortunately not torturous .* The problem is that “energy” is not just “mechanical energy. seem easy to derive now. The historical confusion arose in trying to ﬁgure out what terms to include in this sum. chemical energy. A savings account is more of the same. redo the sum and you’re going to get the same answer. M5 ). It is a set of bits stored on a computer disk. the force from friction is reversed and you can have two opposite values of the force at the same value of the position. Then light. even though you can get that impression if you read newspaper articles on the subject. Why don’t people (including me) write this the correct way? Answer: It’s awkward and I’m lazy.” Why? That’s tied in to the fact that conservation of energy was one of the most diﬃcult laws to sort out. kinetic energy and potential energy.

This is not just a pretty theorem. t2 t2 F = ma −→ t1 F dt = t1 ma dt = mv (t2 ) − mv (t1 ) When you have at least two interacting masses. Put indices i and j on the masses instead of simple 1 and 2. only the notation changes. The ﬁrst and least interesting way is to start from Newton’s equation for a single point mass and integrate it with respect to time. Fon 2 by 1 = m2 a2 (1. mi ai = i i j =i Fon i by j = 0 Write this out for three masses! Really (1. and the two forces cancel because of Newton’s third law.9) Add these. The total force on particle i is the sum of the forces from all the other particles mi ai = j =i Fon i by j Now add this equation over all values of the index i. If you have three or three million particles the result is the same. it is sometimes a useful way to derive the equations of motion in speciﬁc cases. leaving 0 = m1 dv2 d dv1 + m2 = m v + m2 v2 dt dt dt 1 1 (1. and I’ll use this method several places later in the text. Momentum There are other ways to manipulate Newton’s equation.10) This is conservation of momentum. It doesn’t matter how complicated to two forces are as long as the third law is satisﬁed. you get something more useful Fon 1 by 2 = m1 a1 . m =− dt dx and that is Fx = max .11) .1—Introduction 49 d 1 2 dv dU dx dvx dU 1 mv + U (x) = m 2vx x + = vx m + =0 dt 2 x 2 dt dx dt dt dx dvx dU or. Often it involves much easier manipulations to reach the answer.

9) to (1. Notice the diﬀerence here: This result depends on having chosen an origin. external + j =i Fon i by j This represents the total force on a single particle as caused by everything else in the universe. is Fi = Fi. when you have many particles. this equation says that 50 d dt mi vi = 0. torque and angular momentum. (1. The index j is for all the other particles in the body.) Angular Momentum Another manipulation of Newton’s equation uses the cross product. i or i mi vi = a constant (1.10)? What if mass isn’t constant? Then F = ma anyway and you should have been using F = dp/dt. you put indices on the masses and sum over all the particles. How to derive this? The force on a single particle. τ= dL dt is torque = time-derivative of angular momentum (1. That also makes the whole process much more natural.1—Introduction Because acceleration is the time-derivative of velocity. Pick an origin and let r be the coordinate vector of a single point mass from that origin. In the present case. It doesn’t matter which origin you pick. and the terms in this equation get names. In the absence of external forces. (Go back and do it that way. you have the conservation law: Ltotal = constant. but you have to pick one. but unlike the case of linear momentum the results are suﬃciently complex that they deserve a complete chapter (eight) to themselves.14) Again. r×F =r× dp dr d dp =r× + ×p= r×p dt dt dt dt (1. the ith one.12) Can you really go from Eq. and τ= i r i × Fi = i ri × j =i Fon i by j . The ﬁnal term is the ordinary product rule for derivatives.13) What was the trick that appears after the second equals sign? The terms that I added is zero because it is simply v × p = v × mv = 0. there is no external force.

This showed that if you start from momentum conservation and look at it from another point of view. If two objects collide and they have masses m1 and m2 . especially section 9. If you measure the velocity of some mass to be v and a friend of yours is moving by at velocity u then your friend will conclude that the velocity of the mass is v − u. j = 2 and i = 2.15) The idea here appears again in much more detail in chapter nine. so this is r1 × Fon 1 by 2 − r2 × Fon 1 by 2 = r1 − r2 × Fon 1 by 2 If the forces acting between these masses act along the line between them then this cross product is zero. The two equations are m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m3 v3 + m4 v4 and m1 (v1 − u) + m2 (v2 − u) = m3 (v3 − u) + m4 (v4 − u) Subtract these and you have (for all u ) m1 u + m2 u = m3 u + m4 u =⇒ m1 + m2 = m3 + m4 (1. The same will apply to all pair of forces. then after the collision the total mass will be the same. If momentum conservation holds for you then it should hold for your friend. Those are r1 × Fon 1 by 2 + r2 × Fon 2 by 1 These two forces are opposite. What if kinetic energy is . Mass can be moved from one object to the other. you get a very interesting result.11. You can see why this is true if you assume that momentum conservation is valid. Mass Mass is conserved. j = 1. the ones for which i = 1.1—Introduction 51 Look at one particular pair of terms in this sum. perhaps by chipping oﬀ or because a loose part of one mass becomes attached to the other. There. m1 + m2 = m3 + m4 This doesn’t mean that m3 = m1 and m4 = m2 . in the context of special relativity you will see that mass conservation is not quite right after all.

1.3 Hang two masses on strings and run the string over a ﬁxed pulley. Galileo went to great pains to argue why this is true. Later you can return to the subject when you wish to add more reality to the analysis. you automatically get conservation of momentum and of mass. a device that appears in every introductory physics book (probably by an act of Congress). That is “automatically” if you assume that diﬀerently moving observers will all have the same basic equations for mechanics. Acting on m2 are again gravity and the string. You can see pictures of real versions of this apparatus at this web site of early scientiﬁc apparatus: physics. but I will do it anyway for now. These are m1 + m2 = m3 + m4 and m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m3 v3 + m4 v4 This says that once you’ve assumed that you have a completely elastic collision. what does a diﬀerent point of view say about that? 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m3 v3 + m4 v4 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 m1 (v1 − u)2 + m2 (v2 − u)2 = m3 (v3 − u)2 + m4 (v4 − u)2 2 2 2 2 =⇒ If this is true for all values of u. Can I neglect the mass of the string? Again. The things that act on m1 are gravity and the string. a completely elastic collision. then the coeﬃcients of u2 and of u itself must agree. but do it anyway this time.4 Atwood’s Machine A classic example of a mechanical system is Atwood’s machine. and the problem is to ﬁgure out the acceleration of either. The single coordinate y applies to the motion of each mass if . maybe not. 1. The heavier mass will start to drop and the lighter one to rise.html y m1 m2 y Fig. Look on page 310 for a quote from his text on the subject.kenyon. Can I neglect the mass of the pulley? Probably not.1—Introduction 52 conserved.edu/EarlyApparatus/Mechanics/Atwoods Machine/ Atwoods Machine.

17) m1 In analyzing this solution there are three cases that push it to its limit: m1 = m2 . Second: m1 m2 : ay ≈ m1 g = g. m1 + m2 T1 = T2 = 2m1 m2 g m1 + m2 (1. T1 . and m1 m2 .5)). m1 T≈ 2m1 m2 m1 g = 2m2 g With m1 dominant. (8. giving zero acceleration and with just enough tension in the string to make the total force on each mass zero. m2 . requiring a tension of 2m1 g to do so. m2 T≈ 2m1 m2 m2 g = 2m1 g Now m2 accelerates toward −y and pulls m1 up against gravity.16) These are two equations in the three unknowns (ay . (1) F1y = m1 g − T1 = m1 ay . and it does. treating the two masses as two separate problems having nothing to do with each other. electronic timers hadn’t yet been invented. That is T1 = T2 . this requires the string to pull up with twice this force. Perhaps a better reason is as a device to verify the then recently discovered Newton’s Laws. In 1780. If the mass of the pulley is zero. With these three equations you can solve for everything. so you need another equation. and this device slowed the motion enough to make measurements of acceleration easier. First: m1 = m2 : ay = 0. Also as a device to measure g . Third: m1 m2 : ay ≈ − m2 g = −g. Why is this so? It comes from a torque equation. As m2 experiences a downward force from gravity of m2 g . any non-zero torque on it would give it inﬁnite angular acceleration (Eq. T= 2mm g = mg m+m It balances. and that can’t happen. (2) F2y = −m2 g + T2 = m2 ay (1.1—Introduction 53 you make the reasonable assumption that the string doesn’t stretch. causing the other mass to accelerate up at +g . (Conservation of String?) Apply Newton’s law to each mass. If you look at the Kenyon historical link to early scientiﬁc apparatus. that mass accelerates at +g . Why did Atwood invent his machine and why is it important enough even to have a name? Perhaps he invented it as a way to harass physics students. T2 ). you will see that Atwood’s . ay = m1 − m2 g.

low-friction bearings didn’t exist then. Take the zero-point of potential energy to be zero at that point too. What does this have to do with energy? In chapter two you will ﬁnd much more on the subject of energy.18) 2 The second line used the chain rule for derivatives to diﬀerentiate vy with respect to t. but for now I’ll assume that you have seen something of the subject before and that the development of mechanical energy in the last section is familiar. Write down the total mechanical energy. Solve the ﬁnal equation for the acceleration ay = dvy /dt and you have the result Eq. Using energy methods is often an easier way to get to the result you want. and if you don’t. The third line used the deﬁnition of velocity. but it does not always give you all the results you want. Or at least part of it.17). 2 2 E = m1 vy + m2 vy + m2 gy − m1 gy 1 2 1 2 The two kinetic energies are positive and (for positive y ) the m2 gets positive potential energy and the potential energy for m1 is negative.1—Introduction 54 original machine does not look like the simple picture here. I will assume that everything starts at rest when the masses have coordinates y = 0. . then the equation (1. d 1 1 dE 2 2 =0= m1 vy + m2 vy + m2 gy − m1 gy dt dt 2 2 dvy dvy dvy dy = m1 vy + m2 vy + m2 g − m1 g dt dt dt dt dvy = (m1 + m2 ) + (m2 − m1 )g dt (1. Later the masses will have picked up speed and their positions will have changed. You remember the gravitational potential energy to be mgh. In this case it doesn’t provide an equation for the tension in the string. to cancel some factors. That means that the derivative of the total energy with respect to time is zero. dy so U (y ) = mgy In the Atwood machine as drawn. it has complications designed to reduce the eﬀects of friction because good. vy = dy/dt.6) tells you that Fy = −mg = − dU . (1. Energy is conserved.

1—Introduction 55 Exercises 1 Verify the chain rule with an example constructed so that it has enough structure to show something. . but it is simple enough to work with easily. h(t) = f g (t) then dh df dg = dt dg dt Take g (t) = At2 and f (x) = Bx3 and evaluate dh/dt two ways. Next write h explicitly in terms of t and diﬀerentiate that. First use the chain rule.

v . determine the values of a. as v = pa ρb λc where a.1 Derive Eq. Assume that the speed is given by an expression v = g a ρb λc where a. You know the units of all the items. g . 1.5 A mass moves in a straight line and its velocity satisﬁes the equation vx = C/x for some constant C . 1. If there is enough friction with the wall.11) for the case of three masses. so mass may or may not be constant.7 (a) The same as problem 1. having velocity v1x collides with it. must mass still be conserved? 1. b. 1. 1.6 A mass m2 is at rest.12) again. the density and the wavelength of the sound. g .8 If two masses collide and in the process they break into three.2 Write out Eq. so there’s no way by looking at the dimensions to tell if or how it aﬀects the results. b.3 In the deep oceans. and the wavelength of the waves. In air at low frequencies it enters as γ 1/2 . 1. Another mass m1 . the speed of a wave is expected to be a function of at most the gravitational ﬁeld.6. but it is dimensionless.1—Introduction 56 Problems 1.4 The speed of sound in a ﬂuid such as air may depend on the pressure. and after it’s come to a suﬃcient rotation rate the ﬂoor drops by a few feet. λ in the equation. . ω . looking at the eﬀect when the ﬁnal masses are the same and when they are very diﬀerent. 1. and c are unknown numbers. Assume that all the motion is along a straight line and that both kinetic energy and momentum are conserved. Examine special cases to see if your result is plausible. ρ.9 You can sometimes ﬁnd an amusement park ride called a Rotor. In this case there is another parameter that can enter the equation: γ = cp /cv is the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. Sketch a graph of this force. (1. ρ. b. Solve for the values of a. (b) Test the special case m1 = m2 in detail. (1. You walk into a cylindrical room and stand against the wall. and c so that the equation is dimensionally consistent. you will not slide down. Find the force acting on this mass as a function of x > 0. and c so that the equation is dimensionally consistent. the density of the water. Find the velocities of m1 and m2 after the collision. except that mass is exchanged so that the ﬁnal masses are m3 and m4 . The room starts to rotate. and c are unknown numbers. b. but starting from F = dp/dt. 1. λ. but at very high frequencies (megaHertz) it disappears. What is the relation between the radius R.

10 A variation on a Rotor is a Gravitron. also ask what happens if α is negative. The diﬀerence is that the cylindrical wall is not vertical. Analyze the problem assuming that the wall tilts out by an angle α. That one is probably not going to make a lot of money. . When you look at the answer to examine if it behaves plausibly as you vary the governing parameters. 1.1—Introduction 57 and the coeﬃcient of static friction µk so that you stay up? Check the dimensions of your result and see if this minimum ω behaves in a plausible way as µk is changed.

Fy = −mg = m d2 y dt2 1 2 The mass conveniently cancels and then you need to do a couple of integrals. What if you now remember that there’s an atmosphere on Earth.1) In the ﬁrst pair you specify the initial position and velocity. When you toss an object straight up. but most of the time you can’t. In the third pair you specify the initial position and the velocity you desire at a later time. y (t) = vy dt = − gt2 + Ct + D The two arbitrary constant C and D come from the integration and you need two more equations to determine them. “Wet friction” is a model along the lines Fx = −bvx . vy (t) = ay dt = −gt + C. but only through its direction and not its magnitude. and you will have to make some simplifying model to describe it. “Dry friction” is the sort that is typical of dry sliding surfaces at low speeds. A typical equation is something like Ffriction = µk FN . Air resistance is complicated. the simplest model of the force on it is to assume that only gravity acts and that the gravitational force is a constant in time and space. This sort of behavior is characteristic of lubricated surfaces or of objects moving at (very) low speed through air. There are a few commonly used mathematical models for air resistance. In the second pair you specify the initial position and the time you want it to return. . so that it is explicitly dependent on the velocity. This frictional force depends on the velocity. What eﬀect will that have on the motion? Usually lots. both in magnitude and direction. Remembering some of the formulas for constant acceleration will get you only so far and then you come up against various forms of friction and against position or time dependent forces. If the object is massive enough and moving slowly enough you can get away with ignoring such air resistance. Boundary conditions are equations such as y (0) = 0 vy (0) = v0 or y (0) = 0 y (T ) = 0 or y (0) = 0 vy (T ) = v1 (2. with varying simplicity and accuracy.One Dimensional Motion The simplest problems that you saw in a ﬁrst introduction to mechanics start to become harder as soon as you add some reality. More of the former typically means less of the latter.

2—One Dimensional Motion 59 A respectable model for air resistance is F = cv 2 . Take an example.2) Each integral has a constant of integration that must be determined.1 Solving F=ma: F(t) Time to get away from the generalities and to start solving some problems. for which Fx depends on t alone: you simply have to do a couple of integrals. Fx (t) = m d2 x =⇒ vx (t) = dt2 dt 1 m Fx (t). what do you expect the mass to do? You’re applying an oscillating force. Before doing the mathematics. To do that. so will m wander around the origin or will it move away? vx (t) = 1 m dt F0 sin ωt = − x(t) = F0 cos ωt + C. Golf is big business. so this means that you need two more equations in order to ﬁnd these two constants and to solve the problem. or nightmarish depends on the function Fx . mω so C= F0 mω . but you don’t think that Titleist is going to share their data with Callaway do you? Don’t forget also that the gravitational ﬁeld of the Earth decreases with altitude. and the ﬂight of golf balls is as well studied as the ﬂight of any spacecraft has ever been. Then there are the experimentally determined functions that you need for exact work. hard. as much positive as it is negative. x. vx (0) = 0 = − F0 + C. Start with the simplest case. Does that matter? Not for a golf ball. I would try to refer you to the experimentally determined air resistance functions for commercial golf balls. =⇒ x(t) = dt dt 1 m Fx (t) (2. vx ) = m dvx d2 x =m 2 dt dt Whether this is easy. Assume that the mass starts from the origin and was at rest before time zero. 2. and we will examine that. stay in one dimension for a while so that the basic equation to solve for a single mass is Fx (t. though not always. This applies to a broad range of objects as long as the speed isn’t too high. Commonly these equations will come from specifying an initial position and an initial velocity. but does it make a diﬀerence when you ﬁre a projectile many kilometers? Yes. Fx (t) = F0 sin ωt (t > 0). then mω F dt vx (t) = − 0 2 sin ωt + Ct + D mω Apply the initial conditions.

F0 is (dimensionally) [F0 ] = ML/T2 . mω 2 D=0 Put this together and you have x(t) = F0 F t − 0 2 sin ωt mω mω (2.3) have the same dimensions.3) Does this make sense? First check the dimensions. The position and the velocity .” and the individual dimensions are M = mass. Can I understand why? For comparison I know that if it started as a0 t2 /2 then this would imply that there was a force ma0 . This bracket notation for the dimensions is a common one. This starts oﬀ as t3 . 0 + D. What is the behavior of the solution for small time? Not zero time! For small time use the power series expansion of the sine.1). 0 + C . t is the same as 1/ω . so [ω ] = 1/T. because dimensionally. This means that the two terms in Eq. L = length. Remember the equations (0. but the t term means that it has an average drift velocity of F0 /mω . T = time The parameter ω has to be such that ωt is an angle. This uses the notation that the heavy square brackets denote “the dimensions of. It moves away gradually. and that’s t3 . What is the behavior for large time? The sine term oscillates and goes nowhere. Compare problem 2. You’d cannot change the dimensions by making an approximation to the result. simple equation? What if Fx (t) is a sin ωt on Monday and a cos ωt on Tuesday and an eωt on Wednesday? Answer: you notice that the end of Monday is the beginning of Tuesday and the end of Tuesday is the beginning of Wednesday.2—One Dimensional Motion 60 so x(0) = 0 = − F0 . but you can always make a mistake.3 and then puzzle out the diﬀerences. That implies that it has to start more slowly than t2 . x(t) = F0 F 1 t − 0 2 ωt − (ωt)3 + · · · mω mω 6 F0 3 ωt + · · · = 6m Check the dimensions again. (2. What if the time dependence of the force can’t be written in a single. This force function F0 sin ωt however starts at zero force. Now. are they the correct dimensions? [F0 mω 2 ] = ML/T2 M/T2 = ML/T2 T2 /M = L and the dimensions pass their test.

I . In Eq. vx (T1 ) = F F2 T1 + C = 1 T1 −→ C m m F2 2 F 2 x(T1 ) = T1 + C t + D = 1 T1 2m 2m F1 2 F2 2 F1 T − T − T − D = 2m 1 2m 1 m 1 F1 F T1 − 2 T1 m m F1 2 F2 2 −→ D = T − T − C T1 2m 1 2m 1 F2 F 2 F 2 T1 T1 = − 1 T1 + 2 T1 m 2m 2m = → Surely there must be a better way! ← There is. the old 1 ax t2 + v0 t + x0 2 In the second interval F2 2 t +C t+D 2m (2. I’ll do this two diﬀerent ways. The new initial conditions are the old terminal conditions.5) Now the conditions at the start of this F2 -force are values of x and vx at the end of ax = vx dt = the ﬁrst force. Choices of coordinates are up to you and in this case the coordinate in question is t. Start from rest at the origin.5) you are starting a new part to the problem. F2 dvx F2 = −→ vx (t) = t + C −→ x(t) = dt m m vx (T1 ) = F1 T m 1 and x(T1 ) = F1 2 T 2m 1 Apply these equations to determine the values of C and D . the second is easier.2—One Dimensional Motion 61 at the end of one day determine the position and the velocity at the start of the next day. Fx (t) = In the ﬁrst interval F1 (0 < t < T1 ) F2 (T1 < t < T2 ) Fx (2. Take a more concrete example of a constant force for the time from zero to T1 and another constant from T1 to T2 > T1 .4) x ax = dvx F1 F1 = −→ vx (t) = t + C −→ x(t) = dt m m vx dt = F1 2m t2 + Ct + D The initial conditions state vx (0) = 0 = C and x(0) = 0 = D — all very familiar. but does that mean that you must keep the same coordinates as in the ﬁrst part? Of course not. (2.

vx t T1 T2 1 2 2 F1 t 1 2 F2 (t vx (t) = 1 m F1 t (0 < t < T1 ) F2 (t − T1 ) + F1 T1 (T1 < t < T2 ) (2. but their meaning is diﬀerent when you apply the terminal conditions from the ﬁrst interval.2—One Dimensional Motion 62 just automatically used the same t as in the ﬁrst part of the problem. vx (t ) = F2 t +C m and x (t ) = F2 2 t +C t +D 2m (2.6) now become vx (t ) = F2 F t + 1 T1 m m F2 2 F1 F 2 x(t ) = t + T1 t + 1 T1 2m m 2m You can now combine all of these results in a fairly compact set of equations. but instead you can start over with a new time measured from T1 . F1 0+C = T m m 1 F 2 F x(t = 0) = x(t = T1 ) −→ 2 .5) appear the same. When you can explain why this is obvious.7) x(t) = 1 m − T1 )2 + F1 T1 (t − T1 ) + 1 2 2 F1 T1 (0 < t < T1 ) (T1 < t < T2 ) (2. 0 + D = 1 T1 2m 2m The equations (2. then you’re well on your way to understanding a lot of basic structure. . At least. See why it is obvious. Now the equations (2. 02 + C . Call it t . see why it’s obvious after you’ve looked at it closely for a while and can explain why you should have been able to write it down directly.8) Study this version of the solution carefully.6) vx (t = 0) = vx (t = T1 ) −→ F2 . The new time coordinate is just a shifted version of the old: t = t − T1 .

Under other circumstances perhaps bv 2 will be a better model. x(0) = 0. (b) Friction proportional to speed: m dvx b dvx = −bvx −→ = − dt −→ dt vx m dvx b =− vx m dt −→ ln vx = − b t+C m This solution used separation of variables as in section 0. with b a constant. What is the frictional force? Maybe it is common dry friction. solve for vx = dx/dt and integrate. 63 Fx (vx ) = m dvx dt becomes dt = m dvx Fx (vx ) This separation of variables method described in section 0. and you can combine that logarithm with the one on the left side of the equation. and feel how it responds. and something such as a force of magnitude Ffr = bv is a better approximation.2—One Dimensional Motion 2. this determines D = mv0 /b. If you lubricate the surface this won’t be a good approximation at all.10) With the same initial position as in the preceding case. handle it. How do the results of these assumptions vary? There is a qualitative diﬀerence in the behavior of these solutions. each of which can be integrated. Slide an object along a tabletop. dt2 x(t) = v0 t − Ffr t2 /2m (2.8. Give it an initial speed v0 and see how it travels. you can do the same calculation more eﬃciently by using deﬁnite integrals to apply the initial conditions directly. for which the magnitude of the force is approximately independent of the sliding speed. . When the two limits on an integral are equal. massage it. (a) Constant friction: m d2 x = −Ffr −→ vx (t) = v0 − Ffr t/m. The initial condition that vx (0) = v0 determines the constant C = ln v0 . Next. caress it. and the only way to understand these behaviors is to grasp the result of each problem.8 easily breaks the equation into two parts.9) This applies until the mass stops: vx (t) = 0 at time mv0 /Ffr .2 Solving F=ma: F(v) If the force is a function of the velocity alone. ln b dx vx = − t −→ vx = v0 e−bt/m = v0 m dt −→ x = dt v0 e−bt/m = − m −bt/m ve +D b 0 (2. OR.

How do these solutions behave for small time? The power series expansions of Eqs. applying the limits the same way: vx = v0 e−bt/m = dx −→ dt x t dx = 0 0 v0 e−bt/m dt (2. so you can immediately recognize that the initial acceleration ax = Fx /m = −bv0 /m.12) are bt 1 b2 t2 + − ··· and m 2 m2 m bt 1 b2 t2 mv0 bv0 2 x(t) = − v0 1 − + − ··· + = v0 t − t + ··· 2 b m 2m b 2m vx = v0 1 − The t2 term in this equation for x shows the familiar form ax t2 /2. the integral to get x.13) Again. then the integral is zero. vx (0) = v0 . That’s such a simple idea that you may not immediately see what good it is. That happens if the two limits there are equal. ex = 1 + x + x2 /2! + x3 /3! + · · ·. separation of variables handles this equation. Now for the position. and that says that . Next.1) are again what you need for this. It doesn’t even have the same dimensions.14) Start the analysis at the start. (2. This b is of course diﬀerent from the one before. (0.12) −→ x(t) = − (c) Friction proportional to speed squared: m −bt/m mv0 ve + b 0 b m dvx 2 = −bvx −→ dt vx v0 dvx =− 2 vx t 0 b 1 1 b dt −→ − + =− t m vx v0 m (2.11) When t = 0 the dt integral vanishes. and you have then applied the initial conditions.2—One Dimensional Motion 64 so that the integration interval is zero. vx = dx v0 = −→ dt 1 + bv0 t m x t dx = 0 0 v0 1+ bv0 mt dt −→ x(t) = m bv0 ln 1 + t b m (2. so Eqs. Repeat the preceding lines as deﬁnite integrals: m dvx = −bvx −→ dt b dt v0 0 m b −→ ln vx − ln v0 = − t −→ vx (t) = v0 e−bt/m m vx dvx =− vx t (2. and this in turn requires the vx integral to vanish.

maybe next time. The series expansion not only shows that this does not happen. x (a) x vx t (b) x vx (c) vx Fig. Why the diﬀerence? For (a). and the corresponding integral for x is divergent. exactly as it should be. But notice that it takes a long time to get very far. The velocity never reaches zero. . (2.12) behave diﬀerently. the geometric series and the logarithm: 1/(1 + x) = 1 − x + x2 − x3 + · · · and ln(1 + x) = x − x2 /2 + x3 /3 + · · ·. and makes the braking more gentle. it appears that x(t) will blow up when the friction coeﬃcient b approaches zero. so the t2 term shows the initial acceleration ax = Fx /m. though ever more slowly as time approaches inﬁnity. The velocity approaches zero fast enough that the integral for x converges. Here the velocity approaches zero as 1/t. (b) Equations (2. (0. the friction does go to zero as the mass comes to a halt. again because it is in the form ax t2 /2. It moves no farther than mv0 /b and that is the horizontal asymptote for x in the graph. 2.14) call for two other series from Eq. The frictional force 2 starts out as −bv0 . . as the velocity drops toward zero the friction drops really fast. The x-graph keeps going up. If you brake a car to a stop this way.14) again have the property that the velocity never equals zero. but for this case the position function also goes to inﬁnity as time increases. (c) Equations (2. as vx → 0 the frictional force does not go to zero and it maintains its slowing eﬀect all the way to the end. and as time goes on it becomes so small that it isn’t even capable of bringing the mass to a halt in a ﬁnite distance.1 What happens for large time? (a) Equations (2.2—One Dimensional Motion 65 the initial force is −bv0 . . (Well. vx = v0 1 − bv0 b2 v 2 t + 20 t2 − · · · m m and x= 2 m bv0 b2 v0 2 t− t − ··· b m 2m2 2 The x equation is x = v0 t − (bv0 /m)t2 /2 plus higher order terms. e−t goes to zero very fast.12). ) Equations (2. For (b). it shows that the small time behavior agrees with what you would have expected if you had thought about it ahead of time. you feel an abrupt halt. but even as time goes to inﬁnity the position approaches a ﬁnite value. Notice that in the exact equation for x.1). with a large jerk at the end as the acceleration drops from −Ffr /m to zero in an instant (jerk being the time-derivative of acceleration). For (c).9) show that the velocity reaches zero in a ﬁnite time and the position goes to a ﬁnite limit at that time.

For large v the braking force approaches the constant F0 . For small v (what means small?) the behavior of Fx follows from a series expansion. try to anticipate what the answer will be even before you carry out the solution. . How do you acquire good intuition? Just solving a problem is just the start. so in that domain the motion will look like example (a) above.2—One Dimensional Motion Don’t skip this analysis! Why spend all that eﬀort to check and to analyze the solution to a fairly simple set of problems? These are the tools that you will use on every problem that you solve in the future. wouldn’t it be nice if they’re correct? Wouldn’t you like to ﬁnd your own mistakes before they’re in print? If you decide to become a surgeon. You need to tie those ideas to the mathematical descriptions you learn here. analyzing how the result behaves is the next step. don’t you want to be sure you’re removing the right leg? 66 You’re not born with intuition. so black cats are unlucky. In the process you will probably ﬁnd that some of your pictures of reality will change. The subject of mechanics is a particularly good one on which to hone these skills because you already have ideas about how things move. I notice that when a book slides across the table it soon comes to a halt.2 and the ﬁrst non-vanishing term of this looks like example (b). so force is always required to sustain motion. 2. Your intuition about how things move is unlikely to be 100% accurate. That is a skill acquired only through long and careful thought — at least that’s the case with good intuition. Fx Fx = −F0 1 − [1 − v v1 v + · · ·] ≈ −F0 v1 −F0 v1 Fig.15) and the mass m starts with velocity v0 as in the preceding examples? You can solve the problem using separation of variables. Most people’s intuition about most things comes from casual and unconsidered experiences. but instead. and then to get some intuition about the mathematics describing the real world. When you’ve analyzed the results of your calculations often enough you can use the intuition that your analysis provides to solve problems without solving them! What will happen if the frictional force is Fx = −F0 1 − e−v/v1 (2. If you ever want to publish the results of some of your work. A black cat passes in front of me and I then slip and skin my knee.

3 Solving F=ma: F(x) I’ve looked at the cases for which the force is a function of t alone and of vx alone. the total energy is then the sum instead of the diﬀerence of two terms.18) This constant of integration E is the total mechanical energy. so −U (x)+E = mvx .12). the braking is more like the equations (2. as in section 0. This conservation of energy equation is a relation between position and velocity. mv 2 /2 is the kinetic energy and U is the potential energy. the acceleration is constant and the velocity and position look like equations (2. It is in the form of a conservation law. Fx (x) dx = m dvx dx = dt m dvx dx = dt 2 m vx dvx = mvx vx = dx = dt 2 m E − U (x) . then move everything involving x to one side of the equation and everything involving t to the other. 2.16) with respect to x. this equation is separable. now for the case that it’s a function of x alone. This is a conservation law. K + U . conservation of mechanical energy. which rearranges to dx 2 E − U (x ) = dt m (2. d2 x dvx =m (2. why would you want to integrate dt anyway? You can however integrate the left side of (2. This is why there’s a minus sign in deﬁning U .2—One Dimensional Motion 67 Put these together and they say that if the initial velocity is well above v1 . with the velocity dropping linearly. because it says that the same mathematical expression evaluated at two diﬀerent times is guaranteed to give the same value.9). then dU 1 1 2 2 Fx = − . and with the proper change of variables you F x (x ) = m can do the same on the right. After the velocity has dropped to the neighborhood of v1 or so.16) dt2 dt You can’t integrate this with respect to t because x isn’t a constant. Solve for vx = dx/dt. Why minus? It makes later manipulation easier to interpret.19) . Call its constant of integration E . making it impossible to do Fx (x) dt until after you know the solution for x(t). so that though the velocity never exactly goes to zero.17) 2 The integral of Fx on the left deﬁnes (minus) the potential energy. the total distance travelled will still be ﬁnite.8. and sometimes that’s all you want. kinetic plus potential. And if you already knew the solution for x. and the ﬁnal equation is arranged so that the integration constant is on the right and everything else on the left. 1 (2. remains constant throughout the motion. or mvx +U (x) = K +U = E dx 2 2 (2. If you need to go all the way to the end and to ﬁnd the position as a function of time. Something.

the algebra is too. Even before doing the integrals there is much more to glean from the conservation equation (2. As x approaches the intersection of the E and U curves. As the mass moves along the x-axis its kinetic energy increases as it approaches x = 0. and if you don’t show any fear. passing through the point e and headed toward f. The absolute simplest case to start with ought to be a constant force. and they represent the Fig. The integral is easy.2—One Dimensional Motion 68 Whether this integral is hard or easy will depend on U . This says U (y ) = mgy so y 0 dy = 2(E − mgy )/m t dt 0 (2. and the kinetic energy decreases after it has passed that point and moves away from the origin. and take the common gravitational force near the Earth’s surface: Fy = −mg = −dU/dy . The graph of E versus x is the horizontal f line representing the constant total energy. the mass stops. and the total energy as a function of x is E = constant. If you confuse the (dummy) integration variable with one of the parameters of the problem you can cause yourself confusion and will probably make mistakes that can be very hard to ﬁnd. Even at this stopping point there is still a force . The kinetic energy as a function of x is K (x) = b c d e E E − U (x).3 kinetic energies at those values of x. − 1 2(E − mgy ) y g m =− 0 1 2(E − mgy ) g m + 1 2E g m 1 = t −→ y = − gt2 + 2 t m (2. At the very worst it’s reduced to something that you can integrate numerically. the kinetic energy approaches zero. U with the corresponding force −dU/dx = −kx (like a sima ple spring). t is the integration variable and the ﬁnal coordinate is the time t.21) 2E and the last term is v0 t. You can get qualitative information even without ﬁnding a full solution.11)–(2. x This graph has several vertical lines showing the difference (K ) between E and U . If you look at previous pages you will ﬁnd that I sometimes don’t obey this rule myself even though I know better. and sometimes that is more important than a detailed analytic result. At the point of intersection f. This is clearly the hard way to solve the problem.14) and correct my notation. Perhaps you would like to go back to equations (2. y is the variable of integration and y is the limit.18). 2. Start with y = 0 at t = 0.20) Why did I start sprinkling primes around the y and t variables? Because it is poor form to use the same symbol for two diﬀerent things in the same equation. Keep it in mind though. Suppose that the potential energy is U (x) = kx2 /2.

−dU/dx = −kx pushes it back toward the center and it continues until it hits the other stopping point at a. It can never go negative. the combination of kinetic and potential energies stays constant. In the preceding example. Now you can remember that Fx = −dU/dx = −kx.3 alone. The same reasoning says that Fx is positive on the left. and portions are dashed to indicate the forbidden regions (K < 0). you can proceed from this qualitative analysis and ﬁnd a complete solution because you can do the integral in Eq. From a it is pushed to the right and repeats the cycle.) On the right. and chapter three is devoted to it. and however the mass moves. so that it really is a straight line passing through the origin. just that it passes through the origin and gets more negative on the right and more positive on the left. and K = E − U (x) is the vertical distance between the line E and the curve U in the graph. That means that just as in the simple special case above. Portions of the E = constant graphs are solid to indicate where the mass is allowed to be (K > 0).11). At the origin the slope is zero.2—One Dimensional Motion 69 on the mass.19) without too much trouble. (problem 2. what can you say about the force function? (Yes. you already know it. This example is a simple harmonic oscillator. the slope dU/dx is positive. the graph of total energy versus position is just a straight horizontal line. kx2 /2. (2. but the graphical analysis is still available. If the force and its corresponding potential energy is more complicated this may not be practicable. it can however go to zero. That’s where the mass stops. but pretend you don’t. so Fx is zero there. From looking at this graph of U alone can you tell that the graph of Fx is a straight line? No. so Fx = −dU/dx is negative. From the graph Fig 2. U f c Cd b a A F D B g G E5 E4 E3 E2 x E1 . Take the following potential energy (please): U is some function of x.

In the example of E4 between f and F. that means that the Fx curve passes through zero between those two points. The gravitational ﬁeld of the Earth drops oﬀ with distance. the details of which are discussed in detail in chapter six.4 Fx = −dU/dx tells you the direction of the force by reading the slope of the graph of U . so those are easy to ﬁnd. It then slows down but doesn’t stop and then it speeds up even more before ﬁnally stopping at F. For now. The points at which Fx = 0 correspond to the minima and maxima of the potential energy. The slope of U there says that it gets pushed back where it came from. For the same potential energy you can have oscillation between points a and A or between c and C or d and D or f and F or g and G. That point is where it’s kinetic energy goes to zero. Between c and C for example there is a minimum of the potential energy. Of course there may be more to the graph and there could be a stopping point way to the right. between C and d there is a maximum of U so another zero for Fx . and a few of them are labelled. and g0 is the gravitational ﬁeld at the Earth’s surface (at distance R from the center). use gravity. Similarly. If you ﬁre a projectile straight up.2—One Dimensional Motion 70 Fx c C A d a g G x Fig. This Fx -graph shows the force that you ﬁnd by looking at the potential energy graph and estimating not just the sign but the size of the slope. 2.19) from xf to xF and multiplying the result by two. Here the single coordinate is r. the distance from the center of the Earth. you can read the kinetic energy from the graph and tell that after it leaves f it speeds up until it passes the bottom of the curve. how high will it go (ignoring air resistance)? .) K + U = E shows that you can read the kinetic energy straight from the graph as the diﬀerence between the total energy E and the potential energy U . The stopping points for the energies E1−4 are indicated by dots on the Fx -curve. but apparently not when the energy is too big. For example. g and G label values of x at which U (x) = E4 . Then it returns. At that energy the mass can oscillate between these points. and if I know the energy then I can determine where (or whether) the mass will stop. (2. and at that point it stops. (It can also oscillate between points f and F. You can ﬁnd the total period of this oscillation from f to F to f by doing the integral Eq. For a more interesting example. say that the radial component of the force on a mass m is Fr = −mg0 R2 /r2 .

2. It has a diﬀerent form inside. STOP! Is this result for rstop plausible? Does it have the correct dimensions? What happens if the initial speed is small? How big must v0 be to escape the Earth? Compute the number. How high will it go? Where is its stopping point. That deﬁnes the escape speed from the planet. and is that number reasonable? Can you compare it to any other number you’ve seen? How does the number compare to the orbital speed of a satellite in near-Earth orbit? F(v) again You can sometimes combine the methods of the preceding two sections by solving the . F r (r ) = − mg0 R2 r2 and Fr = − dU mg0 R2 −→ U (r) = − dr r (2. The equations simply evaluate the energy at two points. Stated another way. to use the language of this section? 1 mg0 R2 2 E = mv0 − 2 R =0− U R E rstop r mg0 R2 rstop Fig. so it is the same as the equations (2. This conservation of energy equation gives the ﬁnal height in terms of the initial speed. 2 E = mv0 − 1 2 mg0 R2 mg0 R2 R =− −→ rstop = 2 /2g R R rstop 1 − v0 0 (2. They also pretend that there is no atmosphere to complicate the mathematics and that he Earth isn’t rotating.16) and (2. if v0 is increased enough the denominator in the solution for rstop will go to zero and the stopping distance goes to inﬁnity.22) 1 2 mvr + U (r) = E 2 These equations represent ﬁring something straight up with an initial speed v0 .18) but changing the name of the variable.5 The graph of potential energy behaves as 1/r only above the Earth’s surface. but you do not need that because you typically don’t ﬁre a rocket from below ground.23) If E is large enough the horizontal line for the E -graph will never intersect the potential energy curve and the projectile will never stop (E > 0). at r = R and at r = rstop .2—One Dimensional Motion 71 This is still a one-dimensional problem with coordinate r (R < r < ∞).

m ln(mg + u) b = bv0 m mg + bvy ln = −t b mg + bv0 m mg + bvy ln = −t −→ vy (t) = −mg/b + v0 + mg/b e−bt/m b mg + bv0 (2. It’s not all that accurate. moving all the vy s to one side of the equation and all the ts to the other.. That is the terminal velocity.26) directly in terms of the terminal speed. Fx (vx ) = m dvx dvx dx dvx vx dvx =m = mvx −→ dx = m dt dx dt dx F (vx ) (2.4 Falling with resistance A plausible example comes by assuming that air resistance is proportional to velocity. vt = mg . vy (0) = v0 .25) There are several ways to solve this equation. may = m dvy d2 y dy = m 2 = −mg − bvy = −mg − b dt dt dt (2. but it’s another tool in your utility belt. I’ll use separation of variables again. The same trick that you saw in Eq. vy approaches −mg/b. this make the acceleration zero. Is this more useful than getting vx (t)? Usually not. m dvy dvy = −mg − bvy −→ m = −dt dt mg + bvy This is something that I can integrate.24) Integrating this gives a relation between x and vx .2—One Dimensional Motion 72 problems of a velocity-dependent force as a function of x instead of t. A more accurate model will assume that air resistance is proportional to v 2 . does this make sense? At time zero you have vy = v0 as required. b then vy (t) = −vt + (v0 + vt )e−gt/vt (2. (2. (2. but this is easier to start with. Use the same initial conditions as in the preceding example. but it is a fairly simple place to start. You can re-write Eq.17) to solve for forces depending on x alone also works for F (v ).27) .26) Before proceeding. (2. Eq. 2.25). At large time. and let u = bvy vy m v0 dvy =− mg + bvy t dt = 0 m b bvy bv0 du mg + u bvy = Solve for the velocity. and from the original diﬀerential equation of motion.

These go beyond the elementary calculation. • The correction for small viscosity comes in the terms linear in b.2—One Dimensional Motion 73 To ﬁnd y (t) you have a simple integral with respect to time. the ordinary at2 /2. • Some of the terms canceled: Those that involved 1/b. The initial force is the sum of gravity (down) and the friction (also down). That’s an important check on the algebra because if they don’t cancel then everything goes to inﬁnity as the air resistance vanishes. Why this last expression? Look at the original equation (2.28) g Do these make sense? First. check the dimensions! Do not assume that you will never make a mistake. so you can recognize that the acceleration has the correct initial value.29) • When I multiplied out the last equation. though it was hidden inside a more complicated exponential expression.25). Notice that it’s easier to check dimensions now that everything is expressed in terms of vt instead of m. The initial velocity of the mass should be vy = v0 . and that tells you the acceleration at all times. producing initial acceleration ay0 = (−mg − bv0 )/m. in particular the time t = 0. waiting to be dug out. That is in the t2 terms. and g . That means that when I drop a b2 term in one place I should drop it everywhere. y (t) = − m bt (bt)2 (bt)3 mg t + (bv0 + mg ) 2 1 − 1 − + − + ··· b b m 2m2 6m3 t2 b 3 ≈ v0 t − (bv0 + mg ) + (bv0 + mg ) t 2m 6m2 1 bt3 = v0 t − (mg + bv0 )t2 + (bv0 + mg ) 2m 6m2 2 2 3 bt bt t +g + ··· = v0 t − g − v0 2 2m 6m (2. and those are the ones that reproduce what you expect in the much simpler calculation for zero viscosity. I was careful to keep terms to a consistent order in b. so look at the initial acceleration. Use the boundary condition that y (0) = 0 and t y (t) = 0 dt − mg/b + v0 + mg/b e−bt /m = − =− mg m t + bv0 + mg 2 1 − e−bt/m b b t m mg t − bv0 + mg 2 e−bt /m b b 0 vt −gt/vt = −vt t + (v0 + vt ) 1 − e (2. . Start with the small time behavior (not zero time). • Some terms become independent of b as the viscosity approaches zero. b. and its acceleration should be (−mg − bv0 )/m. see what the behavior of the solution is in some special cases. Now use a power series expansion on y (t) to ﬁnd the small time behavior. Next.

10. You’re not done. and look at that for small b. Go back to the original equation (2. the terminal velocity For large times. (2. but you don’t know until you try. ” What is large? That is meaningless because time is not dimensionless. and the correction is linear in the factor b. .29).30) This means that it very quickly goes up a distance proportional to its initial momentum. If b is large the exponential e−bt/m will go to zero very quickly. hence this correction has a positive sign. There I go again. As the object start to rise. the exponential e−bt/m dies out. The bigger the initial speed. (2. . What is “small b?” This time it is bt/m 1. the more time it spends going up.2—One Dimensional Motion 74 The t3 term is starting to get harder to interpret.25) and ask for the value of the velocity for which the acceleration is zero. Just go to the original equation Eq. If you set b = 0 there. Yes.31) What can I say about the second term? It’s positive. but at least the sign is understandable. see problem 2. where I said that t is small. Did it help to rearrange the factors in the last expression and to put it in the form of something like (t − t0 )? Probably not. and then slowly drifts down at its constant terminal speed mg/b. In this case the solution (2. and I essentially analyzed this case in Eq. may = 0 = −mg − bvy −→ vy = −mg/b. because the ball has to spend some time going up before it starts down and eventually reaches its terminal speed. Still another way to squeeze information out of this result: What if the air resistance is very small? Maybe even zero? One thing that I cannot do is to let b become small in the last equations. Large compared to a femtosecond or large compared to a galactic year? What I should have said is that bt/m 1.28). stops at a height mv0 /b. Is there more that you can analyze in this simple-looking problem. Can I see why any of this is true independent of solving the whole equation? The terminal velocity is easy to see. This in turn implies that the viscous force is not quite as big as it would have been without gravity. making the exponential small compared to one.28) will be approximately y (t) ≈ mv0 mgt − b b (2. because I was very careless in the preceding paragraph when I said “For large times. you get v0 t − gt2 /2. and that’s correct. y (t) ≈ − mg m mg m bv0 t + v0 + mg/b =− t− 1+ b b b b mg (2. for which the viscosity is very large? Perhaps you’re ﬁring a bullet into a barrel of honey. . What happens in the opposite case. and you are left with a constant velocity. The viscous force will be much greater than the gravitational force: bv0 mg . it starts to slow down (−gt).

and in one dimension that’s all you need. The second curve has a potential minimum as dU/dx = 0. the force pushing them apart becomes very large. but on the right the push is also to the right.2—One Dimensional Motion 75 2. To the right of the maximum the force. For the example of the molecule HCl the chlorine and hydrogen nuclei have an equilibrium separation distance of about 1. but there is a very good approximate one due to Morse. It is a stable point however.13 nm). −dU/dx. Neutral equilibrium. There are unstable equilibria between C and d and between F and g and just to the right of G. There is no simple exact expression A for the potential energy of the molecule as a function of the atomic separation. on harmonic motion will look at that motion quantitatively. Just look at the directions of the forces on the left and the right. Fx = −dU/dx. Now. making Fx = −dU/dx negative.32) The ﬁrst of these curves has a potential maximum at dU/dx = 0. is positive — toward the right. an unstable equilibrium. the total force on the mass is zero. The graph of U on page 69 shows several equilibria. the motion near that point will be an oscillation around the equilibrium. but it is not a stable equilibrium when you consider motions in both directions. U x (2. is it stable or unstable? Stable equilibrium means that if the mass is disturbed slightly from the critical point. Between c and C and between a and A and between g and G there are minimum points of U . The next chapter. The third has a potential minimum even though the derivative isn’t zero there. to its left it’s to the left. In fact it doesn’t even exist there. When two atoms are bound into a diatomic molecule. The fourth graph has a point with zero derivative. so a point of U at which the slope vanishes is an equilibrium point. You can see from its graph that when the distance between the atoms shrinks. If the energy is just above that of a stable equilibrium.5 Equilibrium At a point of equilibrium. On the left the push is back to the right. then the force pushes it back toward the equilibrium position. Move to the right from any of them and dU/dx becomes positive. a stable equilibrium because to the left the force is to the right and on the right it is to the left. If being a slight distance away from equilibrium causes it to be pushed even farther away then it is an unstable equilibrium. Those are stable equilibrium points. the potential energy representing the force binding the atoms together is a function of their separation distance.3 ˚ (0. And of course the x-axis itself graphs a potential function that has zero derivative everywhere. When they are farther apart than the equilibrium position the atoms are .

and if you look back to chapter one in Eq. The total energy is (h + y )/2 y h 1 1 1 2 2 2 E = m1 vy + m2 vy + µLvy + m1 gy − m2 gy m1 2 2 2 + µg (h − y )(h + y )/2 + µg (h + y )(h − y )/2 m2 . For this example of HCl they are (data from T. but that’s all. but at least it’s possible. The ﬁgure on page 52 remains the same. d 1 2 1 dv 2 dv dU (x) dx dU (x) dE = mvx + U (x) = m x x + = m vx ax + v =0 dt dt 2 2 dvx dt dx dt dx x The vx factors cancel and you have m ax = −dU/dx = Fx . when you get into quantum mechanics and study molecules.1 nm−1 This approximate form is a clever one for two reasons. Newton’s equation of motion. Diﬀerentiate Eq. it ﬁts the data quite well with only three parameters.2—One Dimensional Motion 76 pulled back together unless they are too far apart and the attractive force drops to zero.39 × 10−19 J = 4. β . Suddenly it becomes hard just to write the equations of motion. U (r) = B 1 − e−β (r−r0 ) 2 B r0 (2. β = 1.16) it’s already there. hang two masses over a pulley and ﬁnd the acceleration of either mass.127 nm. The mass density of the rope is µ (= dm/d ).81 × 1010 m−1 = 18. The length of the rope is L. Ignore the mass of the pulley and ignore friction.33) The three parameters B . Use the chain rule a couple of times. Remember that the rope holding them has mass too.61 eV. (1. As an example of this consider the Atwood machine. But. When problems start to get complicated. heading straight for the conservation laws is often the easiest way to get through the diﬃculties. This is very easy to set up. and r0 can be ﬁt to the data for various diatomic molecules. First. (2. this choice of potential energy function leads to an equation that can be solved exactly — not easily. 2.6 Conservation of Energy When energy is conserved it is sometimes easier to start from that conservation law than it is to start from F = ma. Zielinski) r0 = 0.18) with respect to time and use dE/dt = 0 to state that energy is conserved. That represents the fact that the molecule can break apart if you add too much energy to it — dissociation. B = 7. Second.

The potential energy of the rope is “mgh” or something like it. Notice that even if m1 = m2 = 0. If you set µ = 0 and diﬀerentiate this with respect to t you get the same result as Eq.35) I’ll leave the solution of this equation for chapter three. The potential energy of the vertical right hand piece of rope is then µ(h − y ) . so that there are no masses hanging on the ends.2—One Dimensional Motion 77 The kinetic energy is clear. On the right side change y to −y . Does this equation put it in the correct direction at least? Exercises 1 Do the dimensions in Eq.17). (2. Carry the analysis at least through terms linear in b. That is for large terminal speed vt .14) become with more care in writing? 3 Start from the result Eq.34) m2 + m1 For the more complex case in which you don’t neglect the mass of the rope. g . (2. How does this analysis diﬀer from analyzing the system for small times instead? . dvy dE = (m1 + m2 )vy + (m1 − m2 )gvy = 0.10) agree? For both x and vx . and on the left side it is µ(h + y ). If you would like to try setting up this equation starting from F = dp/dt (not F = ma).27) and analyze the velocity for small friction. 2 Starting at Eq.(h + y )/2. (1. Measure the potential energy from the y = 0 point. dt dt or ay = m2 − m1 g (2. Let h = (L − πR)/2 where R is the radius of the pulley. dvy dE =(m1 + m2 + µL)vy + (m1 − m2 )gvy − 2gµyvy = 0 dt dt d2 y or (m1 + m2 + µL) 2 − 2µgy = (m2 − m1 )g dt (2. This is the distance from the origin to the center of the pulley. What would equations (2.11) through (2. do the same thing. you’ll see it’s not that easy to do. problem 3.20) I started to be more careful to distinguish between integration variables (dummies) and parameters.65. The amount of mass on the vertical right side is µ(h − y ). (2. and the center of the vertical rope on the right is (h + y )/2 and on the left the center is (h − y )/2. The potential energy for the two masses m1 and m2 are clear. you still get acceleration.

Diﬀerentiate it with respect to t. what is the acceleration for µ = 0? More important: Analyze this answer for plausibility.35). 6 Sketch a graph of the force function for the Morse potential energy. rigid rod instead of a string to hold the mass at its end. Re-do the calculation leading to Eq. (2. (2. Instead. (2. U (R) = 0. 5 A pendulum has a very light.22) the zero point of potential energy was at inﬁnity. does the equation (2.2—One Dimensional Motion 78 4 In Eq. the constant of integration in ﬁnding U was zero. now assume that the potential energy is zero at the Earth’s surface. Eq. 7 Write the total energy for a mass falling freely under gravity. .23) and compare the answers. 8 In Eq. (a) What is the potential energy of the mass as a function of the angle from the vertical? And graph it of course. (b) Use this to describe all the qualitatively diﬀerent sorts of motion this mass can have. (2.33). 9 With the parameters stated.33) really agree with the graph drawn there? Check some numbers.

(2.2 ˙ The solution for a purely time-dependent force.6 For the constant force Fy = −mg . (b) A mass m starts at the origin from rest and is subject to this force. vy (t) = −gt + 1 gT 2 2 2.1 For the three sets of conditions speciﬁed in Eq.3) but using a force proportional to sine squared instead of sine. though deriving this particular result is problem 2.5˙ A force along the x-direction is given to be F0 for the time between zero and T .43. ﬁnd the stopping point under the initial conditions vy (0) = v0 . (2. then draw a more accurate graph from the result.21). Ans: (2) y (t) = − 2 gt2 + 1 gT t. 2. (2. kinetic energy. 1 t dt (t − t )Fx (t ) x(t) = x0 + vx0 t + m 0 Diﬀerentiate this twice to verify that it works.2—One Dimensional Motion 79 Problems 2. (2. repeat the analysis of the solution and compare the results here to those with the sine. (Assume α = 1 for. where U = kx2 /2.) Analyze the result for all (real) α. Stopping points. . but do the qualitative and graphical analysis as in the example following it.4 Repeat the example leading to Eq.9) or (2.2).21) and (2. Look back at your graph and see how good it is. force. Why the diﬀerence? 2. The general reason why this works and where it comes from can wait until section 3. Eq. Then graph it. 2.5. (2. I hope. Especially. obvious reasons. Read section 0.1). can be written as a single integral.3 Repeat the example leading to Eq. From this. . Can you anticipate what at least some pieces of the solution should be even before you do an integral? 2. Without solving any new equations. assume the α friction obeys Fx = −bvx and ﬁnd the velocity and position starting from x(0) = 0 and vx (0) = v0 . (2. Do this as if you don’t already know the answer. (0. ..4). (a) Write this function Fx using the notation of Eqs. sketch a graph of what its velocity should be like as a function of time. solve for C and D and get 1 the corresponding y and vy .3) but using a force proportional to cosine instead of sine.7¨Instead of the speciﬁc functions of velocity as in Eq. It then drops to zero in a straight line for the time from T to 2T .10).10. you already have the solution Eq. (c) Solve for vx (t) and x(t). Use all the tools in that second analysis to verify the plausibility of this solution. 2.

19) to get t in terms of x (a trig substitution) and then solve for x(t). The frictional force is −F0 ekv (v > 0). 2.2—One Dimensional Motion 80 2. but turn it upside down ﬁrst. What is the period of oscillation? The amplitude? How does this period vary with the amplitude of the oscillation? Sketch a graph of the dependence. Do not assume that you have any knowledge of A or ω .8 ˙ A mass is initially moving at a velocity vx (0) = v0 > 0. go back and ﬁnd your mistake. The mass has a total energy E . Compare your solution to the qualitative description in the text. Set up the integral to ﬁnd the relation between r and t. small and large k ).15 A particle with mass m is subjected to a force Fx (x) = −F0 x3 /a3 . you can try assuming the simplest functional form for the motion.22) and solve for dt.9 Start from the form of Eq.28) but no. I did not consider the cases for which E < 0. 2. If you ﬁnd that you can do the integral easily. Find its behavior for small b and see if it is plausible. 2. (2.14 ˙ A particle of mass m is subject to the force as speciﬁed by the potential energy U (x) = U0 |x|/a where a is a (constant) length and U0 is a constant energy. Suggestion: Write |x| as two cases: x > 0 and x < 0. Find the velocity and position as a function of time and of course. 2. then carry out the integral in the special case that E = 0. Now U (x) = −kx2 /2. what terms dominate? v2 v 2 3 Ans: ymax = − gt ln 1 + v0 + vtg 0 ≈ (v0 /2g ) − (bv0 /3mg 2 ) + · · · vt 2.11 After Eq. (c) Approximately what is this result for large air resistance? That is.23). (2. (2. analyze the results (small time. (a) Find the maximum height to which the projectile rises. Compute the total mechanical . large time. (b) Set up the integral that you would have to do to go from the result in (a) to get the relation between x and t. Now do the integral in Eq.19) there is a qualitative analysis of the potential energy U (x) = kx2 /2.10 You thought I spent enough time on analyzing the results of Eq.26) and (2. as on page 68.12 (a) Analyze the preceding quadratic potential energy qualitatively as in the text. At time t = 0 the particle is at rest at position x0 (a) Find vx (x). draw the potential energy graph in the process. (b) For small air resistance your result looks like it is going to inﬁnity. (2. x(t) = A cos ωt. (2. (b) For the example in the text. 2. Why not? What about this new potential? 2. 2.16 When a mass m is oscillating within a potential energy function kx2 /2. The integrals aren’t so bad in this case and you can spend your time analyzing the result.13 Answer all the questions presented immediately after Eq.

23. Take the same initial 2 conditions as there but assume the air resistance is −bvy on the way up. (2. the force F2 is turned oﬀ after time T2 . This E(t) will be a function of time.2—One Dimensional Motion 81 energy mv 2 /2 + kx2 /2 for this assumed x. given x(0) = 0 and vx (0) = 0. if the mass is moving down then the air resistance is Fy = +bvy . so may = 2 −mg − bvy . but it’s not supposed to be. not minus. Show that v − vt tan(gt/vt ) vy (t) = vt 0 and that if vt = 100 m/s (typical for a 30 caliber bullet) vt + v0 tan(gt/vt ) then no matter how big the initial speed is the mass will stop in less than about 16 seconds. with Fx = Av 2 /x. Find x(t) if x(0) = x0 > 0 and vx (0) = v0 > 0. as the dependence on velocity is more nearly quadratic than linear. You have to handle this case separately because the form of the equation is diﬀerent. Did you sketch any graphs? Does the same statement apply to Eq. where c is a constant. 2. with initial velocity v0 .24 A boat is slowed by a frictional force Fx (v ). and x(0) = 0 with zero velocity.19 Derive the equation (2. (t < t1 of course. ﬁnd the velocity and position as a function of time. Solve for the velocity if the mass starts from rest and drops. Starting at time t = 0 there is an additional force Fx = ct.) Ans: −2mcv 1/2 2 2.23 ˙ The assumption about air resistance made in Eq. and express the result in terms of the terminal 2 speed. (2.3 to ﬁnd the total time between bounces. Assume the ball’s total energy is E and use the methods of section 2. 2. Find the value of ω so that E is independent of t.8) using the result of problem 2.20 In the problem leading to Eq. Find the motion as a function of time.21˙ For the force in Eq.26)? 2. 2. (2. .22 A mass m is subject to a frictional force Fx = −bvx . 2. Its speed decreases according to the equation v (t) = c2 (t − t1 )2 where c is a constant and t1 is the time at which it stops.2.18 Find x(t) if Fx = F0 ect . Solve for vy (t) in this case. 2. What are vx and x for all times after that? 2. (2. Analyze the results and compare this analysis to that done in the paragraphs just after that equation. where mg = bvt . A straight line mgy for y > 0 and jumping almost straight up at y = 0. and there’s not a neat analytical way to handle it.25˙ In problem 2.26 A force acts on m.15).25) isn’t very good. 2. the potential energy curve is like the third one at Eq. 2.17 If an elastic ball is bouncing on the ﬂoor. (2. Find the force Fx (v ) as a function of v .32).8).

At position x = x0 . Find x(t). the probability dP to see it in the interval dy is C dt. This lets you evaluate C and then graph dP/dy versus y . ﬁnd v (x).29˙ In the preceding problem. At time t = t0 . [b] Fx = −α/v for v > 0. At time t = 0 the mass has x(0) = 0 and vx (0) = v0 . (a) At any one time.) Stated mathematically. the velocity is v = v0 > 0. and the ﬂoor is at y = 0. 2. and does it make any sense? Do the dimensions of dP/dy make sense? Examine the simulation on the right. .30 A mass m moves in one dimension and subject to a variety of forces and initial conditions. where dt is the time spent there and C is some constant. 2. 2. approximately how many of the balls would be at a height from the ground up to one-half the maximum height? (b) The median height is that height so that one-half the balls are below it and one-half are above.28˙ If a mass is bouncing up and down elastically on a rigid ﬂoor. does the mass stop in a ﬁnite time or distance as the case may be? [a] Fx = −α/t for t > 0. Ans: 3 y0 2. (b) Just as the total probability is one. Why does the graph have the shape that it does. [c] Fx = −α/x for x > 0. 2. The mass is given an initial velocity v0 . remember that physics is an experimental science so you may want to try bouncing a tennis ball yourself. the mean (or average) value of ∞ 2 the height is y dP = 0 y (dP/dy ) dy. ﬁnd v (t). the velocity is v = v0 > 0. The air also provides a frictional force proportional to velocity. Evaluate this. Solve for x(t) and vx (t).31 The force on a mass m is Fx = kvx x where k is a positive constant. you have 100 balls all bouncing up and down randomly (but all with the same energy). the probability of seeing it somewhere is proportional to the time it spends within dy .2—One Dimensional Motion 82 2. The probability density is deﬁned as dP/dy . At time t = t0 . (a) Compute this as a function of y for a bouncing ball that has total energy E = mgymax . so this is C dt/dy = C/v . The total probability must be one: dP = 1. And when in doubt. dP = 1.27 A particle of mass m is initially at rest at a coordinate x = x0 . if you take a photograph of all of them at once. In each case. It is repelled from the origin by a force Fx = A/x3 . Find vx (t). ﬁnd v (t). (If you look at it only occasionally. the probability of seeing the mass within the interval y to y + ∆y is proportional to the amount of time it spends in that interval. What is that median for these bouncing balls and how does it compare the mean value found in the preceding problem? There are 100 dots in the simulation on the right. Find x(t).32 The coeﬃcient of friction between a mass m and the horizontal table on which it rests is µk . the velocity is v = v0 > 0.

Release the chain. There are exactly two things acting on the chain: gravity and the table. When the point that was at the bottom at time t = 0 has gone around N times and then comes up to the position directly to the right of the axis. It rains. keeping enough terms that you may be able to surmise what the assumed form for the air resistance force is? Are these results plausible? 2. Another approach is to draw careful pictures at the times t and t + ∆t and to see what has happened between the two times.] 2. causing water to ﬁll the car at a rate dm/dt = β . Show that as the chain drops. Use the axis of the wheel as the origin and ﬁnd the displacement vector from the origin to the position of this piece at the time it reaches its maximum height. 2. Analyze the possible motions qualitatively. not = max .2—One Dimensional Motion 83 2. where a and b are positive. An open railroad car of mass M is traveling in a straight line.35 The more general form of Newton’s equation of motion is Fx = d(mvx )/dt.33 A potential energy us given by U (x) = (a/x) − (b/x2 ). Measure the coordinate y positive downward from the starting position. a small piece of the wheel at that point breaks oﬀ and ﬂies straight up. Remember: F = ma. Assume no friction. On approach is to ﬁgure out what the motion will be and then take the time derivative of the chain’s momentum. For what range of energy is the motion periodic? For what range is it not? 2.34 A wheel of radius R is rotating about a horizontal axis.36¨A uniform chain is hung vertically with its bottom point just touching a table. 2. Find the velocity and the position as a function of time. Compute the force the chain exerts on the table as this happens.37 A mass m is dropped with initial velocity zero. The angle through which it has rotated is φ(t) = At3 where A is a constant and φ is measured in radians from the bottom. and the forces on m are from gravity and some form of air resistance. this force is three times the weight of the chain that has already come to rest on the table. If you get the result y (t) = 2 gt vt ln sinh g vt (a) What is this position function for large time? Is the behavior correct? (b) What is this function for small time. it = dp/dt.38 Someone else got a diﬀerent answer for the preceding problem: y (t) = 2 vt gt ln cosh g vt . letting it drop onto the table. starting with an initial velocity v0 .

Then interchange the order of integration and compute the area again as another double integral. 2.) For example. 2.24) to ﬁnd (a) how high the object will go and (b) its speed when it returns to the original height.2—One Dimensional Motion 84 In the same way. but now the mass starts from rest and drops because of gravity. (U0 > 0. Re-read the comment after Eq. (Start over from Fx = mdvx /dt to do this. also analyze this solution for large and for small times. is stood on its point. the terminal speed. Express the results using vt . And how does your result change if you change the origin from which you measure height? 2.40 A simple pendulum is a point mass m on the end of a string of length . you may by mistake get the right answer but you will be unable to do the next part of the problem.12).11) and (2. If you do this without thought and without carefully drawing a picture of the sums you are taking.44 A pencil. If not. analyze the possible motions. Assume F0 < mg . Compute its area by a double integral dx dy .41˙ Use the same frictional force as in problem 2. or almost so. (2.39 For the potential energy function U (x) = U0 x2 /a2 − α cos(x/a) . (b) If you think you did part (a) correctly then the corresponding problem for the area bounded by y = x2 (0 < x < a) should be easy. below y = a.) Interchange the order of integration in the double integral to derive the result of problem 2.43˙ (a) Take the triangle in the x-y plane to the right of x = 0. 2. If you attempt to interchange the order of integration without drawing a picture of the domain of integration you will most likely not succeed.2. The potential energy of the mass is mgh measured from whatever height you choose. then you probably didn’t do part (a) correctly and you’d better do it again. Write the total mechanical energy and compute dE/dt to obtain the diﬀerential equation of motion. (2.8. if α is small (≈ 0. 20 cm long.42 Fire an object straight up at initial speed v0 . instead of the other parameters. write the total energy as at falls .1) what motion can occur? If it’s big (≈ 10)? 2. and assume that the air resistance is proportional to the square of the speed. (2.20) concerning using the same symbol for two diﬀerent things in the same equation. (c) Take the equation (2.2) for x(t) and rewrite it as a deﬁnite integral in the spirit of Eqs. Express everything in terms of the angular coordinate. and left of x = y . (a) If it starts with zero velocity at the small angle θ0 from the vertical. and try to determine what the air resistance force is. Determine if this solution is more or less plausible than the other solution. 2. Use the method of Eq.

That’s because for most of the duration of the fall (i.2—One Dimensional Motion 85 over. it gives pretty good results. when it’s just starting out). assume that the angle θ as measured from the vertical is small all the way up to π/2. evaluate the time to fall and evaluate it numerically for initial angles of 1◦ . and 10−6◦ .45 The equation (2.e. does it take a ﬁnite time to go an inﬁnite distance? (b) More generally. Even though this approximation looks crude. 10−3◦ . the angle is small. Then separate variables to get a well-deﬁned deﬁnite integral to determine how much time it will take to fall to the horizontal surface. for what values of the exponent in U (x) = −kxa /2 (a > 0) will that time be ﬁnite and for which is it inﬁnite? . Apply this to the potential energy U (x) = −kx2 /2.19) lets you get time as a function of how far you’ve gone. so that sin θ ≈ θ and cos θ ≈ 1 − θ2 /2. 2. starting at x = x0 > 0 with positive velocity v0 . (b) This is a hard integral. does this converge? That is. so to estimate it. (a) As x −→ ∞.

and that’s almost always a bad thing to happen. (2. the goal is not an answer.14) had been diﬀerent.14). The goal is understanding. You will not get this understanding by checking whether your answer agrees with the back of the book or if it agrees with someone else. Even if m2 m1 . That is clearly wrong because v = 0 at that time. Both of these are wrong. What about small time? vx ≈ v0 1 − bv0 2 mt for small t 3 This implies that at time zero.18) you see that ay would have to be negative in this case. In the second case. because ∞ dt 1 + t2 converges to a ﬁnite value That’s diﬀerent. this would be positive even though from the picture preceding Eq. Even with the air resistance.13) this says that there is no decelleration at the beginning. If you have a simple mechanical system with a mass hanging on a string that is wrapped around a pulley. (1. at least it has the same combination of parameters bv0 t/m that appeared in Eq. not obviously wrong.18) said dvy m1 − m2 = g dt m1 + m2 What if it had said m1 + m2 m1 = g or = g? m1 − m2 m1 + m2 In the ﬁrst case. look at the expression for the special case that m1 = m2 . or if a teacher says it’s right. perhaps saying v0 vx = 2 ? 1 + bv0 t m Would this make sense? It’s dimensionally correct.2. (2.13) and (2. Is that bad? Not obviously so. notice that it is always positive. Does that happen here? No. what will the acceleration be? In chapter one the equation (1. As t → ∞ this goes to zero faster than the other solution. whether you know the correct solution or not. Does your solution make sense? In the preceding chapter. the integral of vx dt went to inﬁnity for large time because the velocity went to zero so slowly. the acceleration = −2b2 v0 t/m2 = 0. but again. section 2. Before. what if Eqs. so if it was correct there then it is here too.Interlude When solving problems. . (2. assumed in deriving Eq. The denominator vanishes. −mv 2 .

The reason for the emphasis on this one problem is that it is ubiquitous. What functions do you know whose second derivative is proportional to themselves? A moment’s thought and you can easily come up with sines. and that’s about it. The way to ﬁnd out if a guess is right is to try it. but it does require using many of the tools that these other. ? −k cos t = m d2 cos t = −m cos t dt2 No. The second reason is of course: because it is simple. The ﬁrst and easiest is to guess the solution. Every time that you look at a new problem there’s probably a harmonic oscillator hidden somewhere in it.1) This is a simple diﬀerential equation for x(t) and there are several ways to solve it. Does it satisfy the equation? cos t doesn’t work. where the coordinate x is measured from the point of equilibrium. x 3. What is the cosine of a day? Also. more complex problems entail. It has the right form of function. Fx = −kx = max = m d2 x dt2 (3. Try the cosine. You can’t do this very often.Simple Harmonic Motion Why have a whole chapter devoted to the simple harmonic oscillator? Just because it’s easy maybe? No. It doesn’t have the right constants. sin t doesn’t work. cosines.1 Simplest Case The ﬁrst instance of an oscillator is a mass attached to the end of a spring. so take advantage of it when you can. The force that a spring applies is. et doesn’t work. in fact some of the developments in this one subject will take some hard thought to understand. . Assume that the mass is sliding on a horizontal table and that there’s no friction. to a good approximation and for small distances. exponentials. It has the right sign. Certainly any time that you’re looking at a question about equilibrium there’s an oscillator lurking in the background. it doesn’t even have the right dimensions. You can see even before plugging it into the diﬀerential equation that it’s wrong. Fx = −kx. It doesn’t have all the complexities that occur in other problems.

All that’s left are the constants. just try it. where nothing is happening. For a second order diﬀerential equation there are two arbitrary constants in the complete solution. noting speciﬁcally that for this equation the sum of two solutions is a solution. This means that you can use whichever of these is . Will x(t) = A sin ω0 t work too? Yes. ? −kA cos ω0 t = m d2 A cos ω0 t 2 = −mAω0 cos ω0 t dt2 The cosines match. and A better not be zero or you have a trivial solution. Also. x(t) = A cos ω0 t + B sin ω0 t = Ceiω0 t + De−iω0 t Other equivalent forms are (3. dt2 or which implies α2 = −k/m α = ± −k/m = ±i k/m = ±i ω0 All of these work. but x(t) isn’t. The signs match. You can put the solutions in several diﬀerent forms.3) These are all diﬀerent forms of the solution and they all equal each other if the coefﬁcients are arranged appropriately. How about x(t) = Aeαt ? Try this and you have ? −kAeαt = m d2 Aeαt = mAα2 eαt . You’re undoing two derivatives and each gives a constant of integration. you need two constants in order to be able to specify an initial position and an initial velocity.2) x(t) = F cos(ω0 t + δ1 ) = G sin(ω0 t + δ2 ) (3. Try x(t) = A cos ω0 t instead.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 88 the output of the cosine is dimensionless. 2 kA = mAω0 implies 2 ω0 = k/m or ω0 = k/m For this value of the constant ω0 you have a solution. It says nothing about A. −k x1 (t) + x2 (t) = m d 2 (x 1 + x 2 ) dt2 If x1 and x2 satisfy this equation separately then their sum does. You need to sprinkle some constants around to take care of the units if nothing else.

(3. For example. B = G cos δ The last step is simply the observation that Eq. take the square root of the sum of the squares of the two equations and also take the quotient of the equations. so the respective coeﬃcients of cos ω0 t and of sin ω0 t must match.1. (2. can be rearranged in order to apply the method of separation of variables as in section 0. one that’s harder and that will make you feel that you’ve done enough work to appreciate it. (3. A cos ω0 t + B sin ω0 t = G sin(ω0 t + δ ) = G sin ω0 t cos δ + cos ω0 t sin δ(3. G= A2 + B 2 and tan δ = A/B (3. problem 3. easily done by a trigonometric substitution: x = A sin φ then dx = A cos φ dφ A cos φ dφ = t − t0 2E k − m A2 sin2 φ m .8. to see if the ﬁrst and the fourth of these agree. Solve for vx dx 2E k vx = = − x2 dt m m This equation separates.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 89 the most useful for a particular problem: most often. move all the x’s to one side and all the t’s to the other.3) also follow with a little algebra. An abbreviated form of that whole section is m dvx = −kx =⇒ m dt =⇒ dx dvx =m dt vx dvx = −kx dx 1 1 2 mvx = − kx2 + E 2 2 where E is an arbitrary constant of integration.3.2).2) and (3.4) has to work for all values of t. start from the deﬁning equation and integrate it with respect to x. dx 2E = dt k 2 m − mx and this is a standard integral. Now you have two equations for the two unknowns G and δ . getting the energy integral as in section 1. and to solve them. Yes. Is guessing the solution somehow unsatisfactory? Maybe there’s another way to get the answer.18). which is Eq. This equation.4) which requires A = G sin δ. one or the other of Eq.5) The relations between the other forms of solution in (3. That’s really an inﬁnite number of equations.

(3.2) and (3. Examples A mass moves along the x-axis in a potential energy function U (x ) = −U0 a2 a2 + x 2 (3. use the binomial series with n = −1.1). dU d −U0 a2 −U0 a2 2x Fx = − =− = 2 dx dx a2 + x2 (a + x2 )2 This force is zero at x = 0 as you can also see from the graph of U . Make the factors in the two terms match: A2 = 2E/k .6) k This matches the fourth of the four forms in Eqs. Equivalently. (3. In this approximation F = ma is Fx = −2U0 x a2 =m d2 x dt2 and this is a harmonic oscillator as in Eq. You can do this calculation another way by using a geometric series as in Eq. U (x ) = −U0 a2 x2 = −U0 1 − 2 + · · · a a2 (1 + x2 /a2 ) −→ − dU U0 2x = − 2 + ··· dx a . (0. A couple of ways to do this: First compute the force directly from the energy function. and whose oscillation frequency is ω0 = 2U0 /ma2 . Near to this point the denominator is mostly (a2 )2 = a4 because x is small.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 90 Now choose A so that the denominator simpliﬁes. and when you put φ back into the equation x = A cos φ you have x(t) = A sin φ = 2E sin ω0 (t − t0 ). and the integral is now 2E/k 2E/m cos φ dφ 1 − sin2 φ = t − t0 −→ φ = k (t − t 0 ) m t0 is another integration constant.7) What are the equations of motion and their solution? At least in the approximation that the motion is small enough to be harmonic.1). where E and t0 are arbitrary constants (3. which has zero slope there.3).

U (x ) = β2 α2 − x x − x1 (x1 > 0) (3. Is the motion simple harmonic? No.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 91 ¨ and this again gives the harmonic oscillator diﬀerential equation mx = −U0 2x/a2 . .2). ˙ and x(0) = ω0 B = v1 x(t) = − m0 v0 sin ω0 t (m + m0 )ω0 First. so you need x4 /a4 x2 /a2 . What happens in a potential energy such as you saw on page 69? Between points a and A or between points c and C or g and G you have oscillations. (3. Both of these match the expected behavior of the solution. except that it is explicit in the second one. For small time. 2. suppose now that a bullet is ﬁred from the right. and this mass starts from the equilibrium position x = 0. Instead. the dimensions are right. (3. because these are lengths. Sketch U for x close to x = 0. 1. so this starts as x(t) ≈ −m0 v0 t/(m + m0 ). x(t) = A cos ω0 t + B sin ω0 t.8) First you must sketch this function. but as in the example Eq. If m0 m (a big bullet). What is the motion of the mass afterwards? Use conservation of momentum to ﬁnd the initial velocity of the combined mass: (m + m0 )v1 = −m0 v0 Now v1 is the initial velocity of the combined mass. Whichever way you do this. The solution is then then x(0) = 0 = A. hitting m and becoming embedded in it. this is close to −v0 t. Sketch U for x close to x = x1 . or |x| a. Get used to it. This applies to both methods. The most convenient form for the solution is sines and cosines as in Eq. In the ﬁrst ﬁgure in this chapter. I have no equation available to describe these graphs because they were just drawn at random. and I mean you. the power 1 3 series expansion of the sine is sin ω0 t = ω0 t − 6 ω0 t3 + · · ·. This series manipulation is a very common technique. so computing with them is diﬃcult. Remember when using the binomial expansion that you need to put it in the form of (1 + something small)n . you neglect a higher order term in an inﬁnite series. make a new function to illustrate the ideas.7) it is approximately simple harmonic for small oscillations about the equilibrium. Now. so you can use that series to estimate either how good the approximation is or the range over which it makes sense. The bullet has mass m0 and speed v0 . In the geometric series the next term appears as (1− x2 /a2 + x4 /a4 −· · ·).

4). Expand the force about x0 using the general Taylor expansion.] 4. Expand the potential energy about x0 using the general Taylor expansion Eq. Expand the potential energy about x0 using the binomial (or other) series expansion Eq. When applicable. There are (at least) four ways to proceed from here: 1. 3.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 92 3. you can easily see that one of the roots corresponds to a minimum of U . three and four are usually the easier methods. 5. Sketch U for x large and positive (but not inﬁnite). 2. (0.1). Expand the force about x0 using the binomial (or other) expansion. From the sketch that you just drew. Now ﬁll in the gaps.9) 2 (α + β )4 x3 1 αβ . Start with number three: α2 β2 dU =+ 2 − dx x (x − x 1 )2 2 2 dFx α β = −2 3 + 2 dx x (x − x 1 )3 α2 β2 at x0 this = −2 3 + 2 (x0 − x1 )3 x0 α2 β2 = −2 +2 3 αx1 /(α + β ) αx1 /(α + β ) − x1 2 (α + β )3 2 (α + β )3 2 α β + = 3 − 3 α (−β )3 x1 Fx = − =− =− (α x3 1 2 + β )3 1 3 α + 1 β (3. [Arbitrarily pick α > β . α2 (x − x1 )2 = β 2 x2 −→ α(x − x1 ) = ±βx −→ (α β )x = αx1 The root x0 = αx1 /(α + β ) lies between 0 and x1 and is the stable equilibrium point. (0. so it’s not hard to ﬁnd the roots. The next step: where is the minimum energy? dU α2 β2 =− 2 + =0 dx x (x − x 1 )2 This is a quadratic equation in x. Sketch U for x large and negative (but not inﬁnite). and with somewhat more eﬀort you will be able to verify that the other root is a maximum. 4.

This formula. In this example.36). but for the next steps you can’t really do without it.1). (3. and one way to derive it is to use the inﬁnite series expansion of the exponential. Complex numbers can be represented graphically as points in the x-y plane — rectangular coordinates. is the single most useful equation involving complex numbers.10) x(t) = x0 + A cos(ω0 t + δ ) The potential energy is singular at the origin. method three is easier than four. (3. Eq.3—Simple Harmonic Motion The force near the equilibrium point is the Taylor series: 93 Fx (x) = Fx (x0 ) + Fx (x0 )(x − x0 ) + · · · = 0 − 2 (α + β )4 x3 1 αβ z=m d2 z dt2 where z = x − x0 . but that’s not always so. 3. and it’s essential for what follows. You already know what the ﬁrst factor ex is. what is ez = ex+iy ? The ﬁrst step is to use the property of exponentials that this is the same as ex eiy . That is a review of the basic arithmetic of complex numbers. It is time to stop and go over that bit of mathematics to be sure that you can manipulate it. (3.2 Complex Exponentials The complex exponential that appears as one of the forms of these solutions in Eq. What then is eiy ? The answer was stated in Eq. look back at section 0. eiy = 1 + iy + (iy )2 + 1 1 (iy )3 + (iy )4 + · · · = 3! 4! 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 1 = 1 − y + y − y + · · · + i y − y3 + y5 − · · · 2! 4! 6! 3! 5! = cos y + i sin y 1 2 The last line comes from recognizing the known series expansions of the sine and cosine. (0. This is a simple harmonic oscillator equation with solution z (t) = A cos(ω0 t + δ ) and 2 ω0 = 2 (α + β )4 x3 mαβ 1 (3. x + iy = r cos φ + ir sin φ = r eiφ . First. exactly as Eq.10) says. The polar coordinates. and when x1 becomes smaller the point of minimum potential is squeezed between 0 and x1 . You will see it everywhere. Euler’s. You need to know all these ways to handle problems. in the same plane represent the complex exponential. r and φ.2) isn’t essential for anything up to this point.7. For a complex number z = x + iy . (0. The potential energy curve that you sketched right after Eq.8) then rises ever more steeply and as a result the frequency of oscillation becomes larger.

the point representing the complex number keeps wrapping around the circle counterclockwise. When you multiply them the polar form has advantages. The radius of the circle is one and the angle φ is the angle between the radial line and the +x-axis. so this is eiφ = The exponential is periodic.11) Compare the third and ﬁfth expressions and you have an instant derivation of the double angle formulas of trigonometry because the respective real and imaginary parts here must match. and the angles add. When you add and subtract complex numbers. The special case φ = π is notable: eiπ = −1. cos2 φ + sin2 φ = 1 ei(φ+2π) = eiφ e2iπ = eiφ (cos 2π + i sin 2π ) = eiφ and this is clear in the picture because as phi increases. 3. problem 3. cube the exponential. because r1 eiφ1 r2 eiφ2 = r1 r2 ei(φ1 +φ2 ) (3. it’s usually more convenient to use the rectangular form. Examples What is the square of eiφ ? = e2iφ = cos 2φ + i sin 2φ = (cos φ + i sin φ)2 = cos2 φ − sin2 φ + 2i cos φ sin φ (3.3.1 How does a graph of eiφ = cos φ + i sin φ appear in the complex plane? It’s a circle.12) The radii multiply as ordinary positive numbers. The magnitude of a complex number is deﬁned in terms of the Pythagorean Theorem as the length of this radial line. as x + iy .3—Simple Harmonic Motion 94 eiφ x r sin φ r φ r cos φ 1 r eiφ = x + iy y φ Fig. What happens if you use Euler’s formula on the left side of this equation? eiφ 2 r1 (cos φ1 + i sin φ1 ) r2 (cos φ2 + i sin φ2 ) = r1 r2 ei(φ1 +φ2 ) . If you want the triple angle formulas (not so well known).

but it isn’t exact. such as in electrical circuits. Having said that. This is a decent approximation for dry surfaces over a range of speeds and normal forces. this approximation can be a very good one. Also use Euler’s formula on the right side. and as much as anything I’ll make the assumptions for convenience. All this leads to the fact that I have to make some assumptions. and the resulting force is then independent of the magnitude of the velocity. depending only on its direction.3 Damped Oscillators When you say that friction is present in a system. I do this not because it’s the best approximation. I’ll start by picking the frictional force to be linear in the velocity. I’ll spend a little time on one of the other models. not for the best possible representation of physical reality. The sort of friction that you’ve seen in introductory texts is dry friction. you still don’t know what the force is. Take another 2 derivative of eiω0 t and you get −ω0 eiω0 t . 3. and you can multiply the remaining binomials. but any serious treatment of it will require some of the tools that won’t . Friction is complicated and you have to make some simplifying assumptions about it in order to make any headway in solving the resulting mathematics. (cos φ1 cos φ2 − sin φ1 sin φ2 ) + i(cos φ1 sin φ2 + sin φ1 cos φ2 ) = cos(φ1 + φ2 ) + i sin(φ1 + φ2 ) The real and imaginary parts must match. using an equation for the magnitude of the force that looks like F = µk FN . where µk is the coeﬃcient of friction. When a golf ball is ﬂying the air resistance depends in a complicated way on its velocity. so this provides an immediate derivation of the sine and cosine of the sum of two angles. FN is the component of the force perpendicular to the sliding surfaces. When you diﬀerentiate complex exponentials such as eiω0 t . When the surfaces are lubricated (wet friction) the frictional force is dependent not only on the direction of the relative velocity of the surfaces. but because it is mathematically the simplest. the manipulations are exactly the same as with real exponentials. d iω0 t e = iω0 eiω0 t dt That the derivative results in a multiple of the original function is what makes complex exponentials so easy to use when you’re trying to describe oscillations.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 95 The factors r1 r2 cancel. though a decent ﬁrst approximation assumes that the resistance is proportional to the square of the speed. showing again that this exponential satisﬁes the harmonic oscillator diﬀerential equation. but on its magnitude. In some applications.

then m The exponential is not zero. Try initial conditions specifying that at time t = 0 the position is x = 0 and the velocity is vx = v0 . (3. It doesn’t even have the right dimensions. Such equations are easy to solve because of the special property of exponentials. though this linear approximation is actually a pretty good representation for an object moving slowly through a ﬂuid. That doesn’t mean that et is a solution (much less ex ).13) Sines and cosines are not enough here. the argument of the square root is negative. so you’re left with a quadratic equation for α.14) α= 2 2m 2m 4m m The general solution to Fx = max is the sum. They are “linear. With this “viscous damping” the equation (3. The general solution in Eq.16) and this i is where the oscillations come from.15) produces x(0) = A1 + A2 = 0. so Eq. The dependent variable. homogeneous. x.14) becomes α=− b ±i 2m k b2 − = −γ ± iω .9. The derivative of an exponential is itself. because the ﬁrst derivative changes one into the other. This diﬀerential equation falls into a class of equations that appear repeatedly. constant coeﬃcient” diﬀerential equations of the sort described in section 0. x(t) = A1 eα1 t + A2 eα2 t (3. or its derivatives appear just to the ﬁrst power. √ b2 b k −b ± b2 − 4km =− ± − (3. m 4m2 ω = 2 ω0 − γ 2 (3. In the common case that the damping is not too large (the underdamped case). (3.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 96 appear until another chapter. That is. Use d2 x dx +b + kx = 0 is dt2 dt mα2 Aeαt + bαAeαt + kAeαt = 0 = Aeαt mα2 + bα + k x(t) = Aeαt . and ˙ x(0) = α1 A1 + α2 A2 = v0 .15) where A1 and A2 are arbitrary constants and the two α’s are the ones that I just found. and A = 0. and the coeﬃcients are all constants.1) become Fx = −kx − bvx = −kx − b dx d2 x = max = m 2 dt dt (3.

so if this hadn’t come out real I would then have to go back and ﬁnd my mistake. What sign do these α’s have? α1. for large times the motion dies out exponentially as the damping removes the energy.2 = − b ± 2m b2 k − 2 4m m and b2 k b2 − < 4m2 m 4m2 which makes the square root smaller in magnitude than the −b/2m term. This implies that both α’s are negative. and that both terms in the solution are decaying exponentials. The damping slows the oscillations. Overdamped Oscillations If the damping is large. and equation (3. x(t) = = v0 −γ + iω − (−γ − iω ) e−γt eiω t − e−iω t v0 −γt v0 e cos ω t + i sin ω t − cos ω t + i sin ω t = e−γt sin ω t (3. and shows the initial acceleration to be −bv0 /m. The second terms is in the form at2 /2. in which α1.17) In the underdamped case it’s easier to interpret if you switch to the explicitly complex form. [Do so. 97 x(t) = v0 eα1 t − eα2 t α1 − α2 (3.] What is the behavior for small time? The power series expansion for the exponential starts oﬀ as ex = 1+ x +· · · and for the sine as sin x = x − x3 /6 + · · ·. If you put a mass on the end of a spring and then immerse everything in a vat of honey you don’t get any oscillations and in time the mass will approach x = 0.17) is all you need to write.3—Simple Harmonic Motion Solve these for the coeﬃcients and put them into the equation for x(t). v0 t. The oscillation frequency ω is less than the undamped frequency ω0 = k/m. and it has to be because everything in the diﬀerential equation is real and the initial conditions are real.18) 2iω ω In the end this is real. says that the mass starts with velocity v0 as speciﬁed. . The ﬁrst terms are then x(t) = t2 v0 [1 − γt + · · ·][ω t − ω 3 t3 /6 + · · ·] = v0 t − bv0 + ··· ω 2m and this is easy to interpret. which in turn says that the initial force is −bv0 . At the other extreme. The ﬁrst term. Does it make sense? First check the dimensions. then the α’s are real and negative (the overdamped case).2 = −γ ± iω . That is the initial viscous force because the spring hasn’t yet started to act (x = 0). so that b2 /4m2 > k/m.

The problem is the ﬁrst term. b2 /4m2 k/m. What’s wrong? The answer is that this approximate result is good as long as the time is not too large. In the exact equation. . The exponent is really (here use the binomial series expansion) − bt + 2m b2 4km k bt b − t=− + 1− 2 t 2 4m m 2m 2m b bt b 2km k t=− t ≈− + 1− 2 2m 2m b b For this large damping case. Is it really right? Does it really represent the motion when the damping is very large? Answer: Yes and No.20) from a constant to a curve that slowly drops toward zero. then η ≈ b/2m and x x(t) ≈ mv0 1 − e−bt/m b (3. That would give the contradictory equation max = 0 = −kx = 0.17) for the answer. Look back at where it came from. depending. though it’s sort of a special instance of either of the ﬁrst two. the denominator b is large and this exponent dies oﬀ slowly.19) If the damping factor is large. This approximate answer and graph imply that for large enough time the velocity will go to zero even though x doesn’t go to zero. (3.14). It is e−bt/2m eηt = e−bt/2m e 4m 2 b2 − k m t and this is not exactly one but it’s close. You don’t have to do it again. What if the discriminant of the quadratic equation inside the square root in Eq. then letting η = x(t) = 2 b2 4m2 k −m v0 b2 4m2 k −m e−bt/2m eηt − e−ηt = v0 −bt/2m e sinh ηt η (3. “1. and when t becomes large that diﬀerence becomes important.” that keeps the graph from ﬁnally going to zero. It changes the right side of the graph at Eq. (3.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 98 If you start a mass at t = 0 at the origin with velocity vx = v0 you get precisely Eq. Take α1 as the α with the plus sign. as e−kt/b . max = ¨ ˙ mx = −kx − bx.20) t Look at this closely. All that changes is that both αs are now real. Critical Damping There is one further case. (3.

start with the solution for the under. Energy How does the energy behave in a damped oscillator? Plausibly enough. (3.) If the damping is too large however. (3. The answer is that you already have the solution Eq. all with the same initial velocity: Eqs.17) as α1 → α2 . maybe diﬀering by one part in 1020 or so. so the standard choice it to make the damping parameter very close to critical. (3. x(t) = lim v0 α1 − α2 α1 →α2 eα1 t − eα2 t = v0 d αt e = v0 teαt = v0 te−bt/2m dα (3. but not quite the same.25 ω0 → critical. In the example leading to Eq.18) the energy is * These sort of limits are not always just a derivative. When you want to specify the two initial conditions.or overdamped case and take the limit of Eq. (If that happens. but it’s worth looking at the details to verify that it behaves as you think it should.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 99 is zero? The two α’s are then the same and you have only one solution to the diﬀerential equation.2 These four graphs show the motion for values of the damping from zero through critical damping.17) in front of you for the case that the damping does not have this special value. γ = ω0 → γ = 0. If the two α’s are almost. the ride becomes uncomfortably stiﬀ. Usually you have to do a little work.21) correct? γ=0 x γ = 0. One point that’s easy to miss is that in evaluating this special limiting case you must apply the initial conditions ﬁrst and only after that can you take the limit. then does it matter? The solution can’t change much by changing α by a tiny amount. Just try it in the other order and you will see that nothing works. you don’t have enough arbitrary constants to go around and you cannot get a solution. 3. (3. then it’s time to replace them. you expect it to be dissipated by the friction. position and velocity. Is the small t behavior of Eq. (3.21) This limit is nothing more than the deﬁnition of the derivative* with respect to α. In other words.10 .21).1 ω0 t Fig.18) and (3. as in problem 3. The shock absorbers in an automobile are strongly damped because you do not want the car to keep oscillating up and down after you go over a bump.

. Fig.6. That is dE d = dt dt 2 1 2 mvx 2 1 + 2 kx2 = mvx ax + kxvx = (max + kx)vx = −bvx 2 v0 −2γt e − sin ω t + cos ω t ω2 2 2 = −2mγvx = −2mγ 2 (3.31) . Take the second choice ﬁrst. so look back at section 0.3—Simple Harmonic Motion kinetic plus potential and that is 1 1 1 v2 mv 2 + kx2 = m 02 − γe−γt sin ω t + ω e−γt cos ω t 2 2 2 ω = 2 100 1 v2 + k 02 e−γt sin ω t 2 ω 2 2 mv0 e−2γt 2 2 − γ sin ω t + ω cos ω t + ω0 sin2 ω t 2ω 2 2 mv0 e−2γt 2 ω0 − γ 2 [cos2 ω t − sin2 ω t] − 2γω sin ω t cos ω t (3. or by using energy conservation. Pendulum The pendulum is one of the easiest oscillators to study and for this reason it was probably the ﬁrst (Galileo).24) Eq. γ = 0.31) describing acceleration in polar coordinates. so its derivatives are zero and the acceleration is ˙ ˆ ¨ ˙ ˆ ¨ ˆ ¨ ˙˙ ˆ a = r r − rφ2 + φ rφ + 2rφ = r − φ2 + φ φ d2 φ g = − sin φ 2 dt φ m (3. To ﬁnd its equation of motion. is dE/dt = 2 Fx. the time derivative of total energy. 3. then this is a constant mv0 /2 The power by the frictional force. The ideal model of a pendulum has a point mass on the end of a light and inelastic string.4 Other Oscillators Any stable equilibrium will provide a harmonic oscillator for small motions. use plane polar coordinates with the angle φ measured from the vertical. or ˆ ˆ z r by using the equations (0. dE/dt = 0. Well.3 ˆ φ You can derive this either by using the torque equation. τ = Iα. but I’m not going to go through the trouble because it does not show anything either new or useful. Here the radius r is a constant. (0. 3.22) = 2ω 2 2 If there’s no friction. almost any.23) Does this expression for the power equal the time-derivative of the preceding expression for the total energy? If you have the patience to work it out it will.frict vx = −bvx .

the frequency is approximately ω0 ≈ g 1− 1 2 16 φmax (3. The simple form of solution such as cos ωt or eαt won’t work.26) That the frequency of oscillation is (nearly) independent of the amplitude of the oscillation was a surprise to Galileo and others of his time (ca. for most of the pendulum’s swing the error is smaller than its maximum value. section 4.25) The last equation is the one of any interest here. not φ itself. shows that the error in calculating the frequency is about 0. taking z positive downward. There is however an approximation that works surprisingly well.06φ. or φ< √ .3—Simple Harmonic Motion The force on m comes from gravity and the string. 1600). With this small angle approximation. A consequence of this observation was the development of the pendulum clock. If the angle of oscillation is small then you can use the series expansion of the sine and get g g 1 1 5 g d2 φ = − sin φ = − φ − φ3 + φ − ··· ≈ − φ dt2 6 120 How good is this approximation? The term omitted should be a lot less than what I’m keeping. In the next approximation. constant coeﬃcient diﬀerential equation. The problem is that it’s not a simple harmonic oscillator. This is smaller than 1% because the error in estimating the sine reaches its worst value only at the ends of the swing. 2 dt where ω0 = g (3.06 = .4% when φ swings back and forth ±14◦ . It is certainly not a linear. keeping the φ3 term.27) . the equation of motion is that of a simple harmonic oscillator g d2 φ = − φ =⇒ φ(t) = A sin(ω0 t + δ ).24 = 14◦ A more detailed calculation.5. 1 3 φ 6 φ so if the ratio is 1% then φ3 < . ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ F = −rFstring + mg z = −rFstring + rmg cos φ − φmg sin φ 101 Combine these and you have ˆ ˙ ˆ ¨ ˆ ˆ ˆ −rFstring + rmg cos φ − φmg sin φ = m r − φ2 + φ φ ˙ −→ − Fstring + mg cos φ = −m φ2 and ¨ − mg sin φ = m φ (3. as it is the diﬀerential equation for φ versus t. Try it and see. so what’s it doing in this chapter? It says that the second derivative of φ with respect to t is a sine of φ.

5 and problem 4.24) again. In describing mechanical friction I made a point about the sort . The ˙ factor of φ cancels. You don’t have to study anything new in order to solve these equations. and the result is Eq. and this way doesn’t require knowing the equation (0. 102 Energy Method Another method to derive the diﬀerential equation of motion uses conservation of energy. 2 dφ ˙d φ = m 2 φ 2 + mg sin φ =0 (3. Energy is conserved. L I q C L dI q + = 0. The kinetic energy is mv 2 /2 = m 2 φ2 /2. they’re the same equations you’ve been reading about in the last several pages except that the symbols have changed.25) for the tension in the string.3—Simple Harmonic Motion See section 4. but with less eﬀort. and the potential energy is the gravitational mgh = mg (1 − cos φ). All that you need is an inductor and a capacitor. Do you lose anything by using this simpler approach? Yes. φ h then 1 2 ˙ ˙ dE 1 2 dφ2 dφ d cos φ dφ = m − mg ˙ dt dt 2 dφ dt dφ ˙ E = m 2 φ2 + mg (1 − cos φ).31) for acceleration in ˙ polar coordinates.28) dt dt The chain rule is the only mathematical tool you need to do these manipulations. (3. dt C and R I= dq d2 q q =⇒ L 2 + =0 dt dt C Put in a resistor and you have L d2 q dq q +R + =0 dt2 dt C Add an oscillating voltage source and you replace the zero on the right side by V0 cos ωt. Here I took the zero of potential at the bottom of the swing. so its time-derivative is zero. Electric Circuits The simplest electric circuits will exhibit oscillations. but just the part of Eq. Write the total energy.35 for the details of this. (3.

Both of these equations satisfy this. 2. Find any one solution to the full. That’s the reason that ﬂuorescent ﬁxtures use a “ballast” to keep the system stable. but it too is just an approximation. For an ordinary incandescent light bulb you would probably expect this to be valid. “Linear” means that the dependent variable and its derivatives appear only to the ﬁrst or zeroth power.29) doesn’t. Toss out the inhomogeneous term and ﬁnd the general solution of this homogeneous part. the situation is not even close to linear. Terminology: “Homogeneous” means that if you multiply the dependent variable x by a constant then every term in the equation is multiplied by that constant. It’s not a function. The resistance in the tungsten ﬁlament depends on its temperature. the diﬀerential equation will be something like m d2 x dx = −b − kx + Fexternal (t) 2 dt dt (3. but in practice that would waste too much energy so other devices are used instead.29) This is not a linear. That replaces the potential diﬀerence “IR” with a slightly nonlinear function of I . The same question arises here too. Can you really say that the electrical resistance is IR with a constant R? Sometimes and in some approximation you can. constant coeﬃcient diﬀerential equation. homogeneous. 3. To show that this is true. If the oscillator is a child on a swing (a pendulum) you may be pushing periodically. simply plug the result into the original equation. That ballast could be just another resistor. but (3.5 Forced Oscillations When you have any sort of harmonic oscillator you can also have other forces besides the spring and the damping (or the capacitance and the resistance). 1. and it doesn’t need to have any arbitrary constants. and the voltage-current relation even has a negative slope (dI/dV < 0) in some regions. If it’s a mass on a spring you may be pulling on the end of the spring.13) satisﬁes this.* Equation (3. 3. but not always. There is a plan of attack for handling problems such as these.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 103 of modelling that you have to do to describe it. and the sum of two of its solutions is not a solution. complete with all the arbitrary constants. The relation between current and voltage in that case is not even single-valued. Add the results of steps 1 and 2. If you use a ﬂuorescent bulb. inhomogeneous equation. varying the force on the mass by changing the length of the spring. In any case. It is an inhomogeneous equation. * or a power of that constant . but it comes pretty close. and that in turn depends on the size of the current going through it. This will provide a solution to the full equation complete with the arbitrary constants needed to ﬁt the initial conditions.

Step two: The most eﬃcient way to ﬁnd a solution to an equation is guesswork. but for a ﬁnite time.31) As usual.10. is halfway between these two. but this will do for the simple cases. what does this say? The dimensions check easily.3—Simple Harmonic Motion Put a mass on the end of a spring and hang the spring vertically. What function does it take so that a combination of the function and its second derivative gives a constant? A constant. The equation of motion is 104 Fx = m d2 x = −kx + mg dt2 (3. x t Example Apply a constant force to an oscillator. and the solution to this is x(t) = A cos ω0 t + B sin ω0 t + F0 /k . mx = −kx + F (t) F (t) = F0 (0 < t < T ) 0 (otherwise) F0 0 T (3. giving x(t) = mg [1 − cos ω0 t] k (3. where the total force is zero.32) ¨ For the interval 0 < t < T the diﬀerential equation is mx + kx = F0 . xinh = C = mg/k Step three: x = xhom + xinh = A sin ω0 t + B cos ω0 t + mg/k If the initial conditions are that I release the mass from rest at the origin. Assume ¨ the mass starts at the origin at rest. The equilibrium point.30) x Step one: Toss out the mg term and you already know the solution to be xhom (t) = A sin ω0 t + B cos ω0 t. ˙ x(0) = 0 = Aω0 . What does it look like for small time? small t =⇒ x ≈ mg 2 1 − 1 − 1 ω0 t2 + · · · 2 k = 1 mg 2 2 1 2 ω t = gt 2 k 0 2 The ﬁrst thing it does is drop. x(0) = 0 = B + mg/k. There are more systematic ways that I’ll get to in section 3. Then shut it oﬀ. Of course. After that it oscillates between x = 0 (when cos ω0 t = 1) and the bottom point x = 2mg/k (when cos ω0 t = −1).

If you turn oﬀ the force at that instant then it stays stopped. Put this all together and (t < 0) 0 F0 (0 < t < T ) x(t) = k [1 − cos ω0 t] F0 (T < t ) k (1 − cos ω0 T ) cos ω0 (t − T ) + (sin ω0 T ) sin ω0 (t − T ) (3. (a) If ω0 T = 2π all motion stops after t = T .33): x(T ) = k k 0 F ˙ match x and x: x(T ) = C cos ω0 T + D sin ω0 T = 0 [1 − cos ω0 T ] k F0 ˙ x(T ) = −Cω0 sin ω0 T + Dω0 cos ω0 T = ω0 sin ω0 T k The last two lines are two equations for the two unknowns C and D. not zero. That happens because at the time just before T the mass comes in to a gentle stop at the origin. The diﬀerential equation no longer has the F0 term. F0 F0 ˙ [1 − cos ω0 T ]. The natural origin for the second half of the problem is T . so the solution is (I will set up the hard way ﬁrst. then show no fear and plunge ahead. . F x(t) = 0 [1 − cos ω0 t] k ˙ x(0) = 0 = B (t < T ) (3. This is the same sort of diﬃculty as in the example at Eq. start again with the ﬁnal conditions at the end of 0 < t < T as the initial conditions for T < t < ∞. look to see if you could have set it up more skillfully. but not the easy way. If not.35) Examine the result a moment. Straight-forward to solve. then show an easier way) x(t) = C cos ω0 t + D sin ω0 t. You solve it the same way.4).33) At the end of the T -interval. Plan ahead and choose your coordinates carefully.34) then C = x(T ) = k k Any time that you ﬁnd yourself with an algebraic mess. x(T ) = ω sin ω0 T from (3. That suggests writing the solution as for t > T. This includes where you start your clock. x(t) = C cos ω0 (t − T ) + D sin ω0 (t − T ) (t > T ) F0 F0 ˙ [1 − cos ω0 T ] and D = x(T )/ω0 = sin ω0 T (3.3—Simple Harmonic Motion Use the initial conditions. 105 which imply x(0) = 0 = A + F0 /k. (2. but here you see what a little insight will do.

You have to adjust the coeﬃcient. If a child is on a swing and I push periodically. The right technique is to say that the cosine is the real part of the complex exponential.3—Simple Harmonic Motion (b) If the force lasts just a short time (short compared to what? ω0 T motion is approximately 106 1).12.37) A more explicit way to say this is that instead of solving one equation. Solve everything with the exponential form and then take the real part of the result. you can guess a solution to this. Two diﬀerent forcing functions (cosine and sine) give two diﬀerent x’s (xr and xi ) that satisfy two diﬀerent diﬀerential equations. one that appears very often and in many contexts. m d 2 xr dxr +b + kxr = F0 cos Ωt dt2 dt and m d2 xi dx + b i + kxi = F0 sin Ωt dt2 dt . ω0 sin ω0 t = 0 sin ω0 t 2 sin ω0 t = ω k m k m ω0 0 and vinitial is the velocity just after the impulse. but the damping term makes those much harder to work with.36) If the damping term is absent. then the x(t) ≈ F0 k 2 1 2 (ω0 T ) cos ω0 t + ω0 T sin ω0 t The second (sine) term is the dominant one now. but that’s easy to do. See problem 3. F0 FT m F T ω0 vinitial ω0 T sin ω0 t = 0 . (c) You can ﬁnd a trigonometric identity to simplify the appearance of Eq. A cosine itself will do that. If I hold a spring by one end with the mass hanging from the other and I then move my hand up and down. Up to now there’s little I’ve done that I couldn’t do just with simple sines and cosines. Does it help? Example Another time-dependent force. Call the frequency of this force Ω (capital ω ). The simplest mathematical form for such a push is a cosine or sine. solve two. A generalization to a more complicated periodic force can wait. You want a function such that the second derivative plus the function itself result in a cosine of Ωt. (3. m d2 x dx +b + kx = F0 eiΩt 2 dt dt (real part understood) (3. Here is where the complex exponential form comes into its own. that’s a time dependent force. The damping term makes inspired guesswork more diﬃcult to do because the ﬁrst derivative changes a cosine into a sine. that will provide an oscillating force on m. then m dx d2 x = −kx − b + Fexternal (t) 2 dt dt where Fexternal (t) = F0 cos Ωt (3.35).

and the key is to remember that while addition and subtraction of complex numbers is more easily done in terms of rectangular components.40) There’s a slightly tricky point about this. A + iB = A2 + B 2 (cos δ + i sin δ ) = A2 + B 2 eiδ and tan φ = * If you write a computer program that calls on the inverse tangent function. It takes a bit of manipulation to put this into a simple and useful form. −mΩ2 + ibΩ + k and xinh (t) = F0 eiΩt −mΩ2 + ibΩ + k (3. Where are A and B in the complex plane? That answers the question.37). xinh (t) = CeiΩt −→ −mC Ω2 eiΩt + ibC ΩeiΩt + kCeiΩt = F0 eiΩt The exponential cancels and you have the equation for C . the cosine and the sine of the angle φ are the two terms in the fraction. The arctangent is multiple valued and by specifying both rectangular components you remove the ambiguity. . Now if you want an exponential output on the right hand side.3—Simple Harmonic Motion Now take the ﬁrst of these equations and add it to i times the second. That allows me to write it as an exponential. sin φ B = cos δ A (3. √ The denominator is A2 + B 2 −mΩ2 +ibΩ+k = A+iB = A + iB A2 + B 2 √ 2 (3. Knowing the quadrants that A and B are in will tell you what angle you are dealing with. (3.39) A + B2 B δ A The reason for this multiplication and division by the same factor is that it makes the ﬁnal fraction have magnitude one. From the picture. I’ll look more closely at this inhomogeneous solution.* The best way remains: look at the picture. put an exponential in. this is Eq. Use a solution that’s a constant times eiΩt and you get a solution. multiplication and division work more easily in polar form. eiδ . C= F0 . If you say φ = tan−1 (B/A) then what happens when A is zero? Or if it changes sign? Do you get π/2 or −π/2? What is tan−1 (−1)? The real way to do this is to look back at the rectangular form.38) Before worrying about adding the solution to the homogeneous part of the equation. A + iB . look for a library version that takes two arguments (A and B ) and not just one. 107 m d2 (xr + ixi ) d(xr + ixi ) +b + k (xr + ixi ) = F0 (cos Ωt + i sin Ωt) 2 dt dt If I let x = xr + ixi .

2 4 and as Ω varies from zero to inﬁnity the ﬁrst term. varies from ω0 to inﬁnity. In the same analysis. When the denominator is small the inhomogeneous solution is large. so Ω → π . There are six plots in each case. The ﬁrst is the amplitude (the 1/ factor in Eq. change ei(Ωt−δ ) → cos(Ωt − δ ). (ω0 −Ω2 )2 . xinh (t) = (F0 /m)ei(Ωt−δ ) 2 − Ω2 + ω0 2 (3.41) xinh (t) = F0 eiΩt = (−mΩ2 + k )2 + b2 Ω2 eiδ F0 ei(Ωt−δ) (−mΩ2 + k )2 + b2 Ω2 (3. This inhomogeneous solution is then where tan δ = sin δ bΩ = cos δ k − mΩ2 108 (3. carrying δ up to π/2 when mΩ2 = k . for very large Ω this is mostly negative real (−Ω2 ) plus a comparatively small amount of positive imaginary (iΩ).3—Simple Harmonic Motion The denominator in Eq.02. for various values of b/mω0 from 0.42)). The third plots the complex number that is the . when the forcing frequency varies what happens to the angle δ in Eq.5 to √ 0. When Ω 0 all that’s left in the denominator of (3. Eq. the angle goes to zero. (3.42) For the real part of this. This is the phenomenon of resonance. and examine the denominator of the last equation. The square root factor is a function of the applied frequency Ω.41)? As Ω → 0. −mΩ2 + ibΩ + k ∝ eiδ In this rectangular form. The second plots the phase for the same parameters. (3. Now what? The answer is really much easier to ﬁnd by looking at the original complex form. (3. Finally.38) is now (−mΩ2 + k )2 + b2 Ω2 eiδ .43) + b2 Ω2 /m2 This is worth more study all by itself before I combine it with the homogeneous solution. The next three graphs show the amplitude and phase as a function of the driving frequency Ω. It is also easier to interpret 2 the result if you divide numerator and denominator by m and write ω0 instead of k/m.39). As Ω increases the denominator goes to zero so tan δ goes to inﬁnity. small Ω makes this positive real and then δ → 0 as stated. As Ω increases you pick up a positive imaginary part. 2 = ω 2 = k/m this parenthesis is zero and but notice: it vanishes in between.43) is the damping factor bΩ/m and I said I’m assuming that b is small. Suppose that the damping coeﬃcient b is small. (3.

02 ω0 0 Ω Ω In the second graph you can see the phase δ as it starts from zero.5 → ← .4 (b) . then δ → π and the response approaches 180◦ out of phase from the applied force. discussed in chapter ﬁve on page 191.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 109 whole coeﬃcient of F0 eiΩt in the same equation. The peak occurs when the denominator in Eq.02 π δ .4 → → ω0 Fig. Better yet. The graph showing how the phase approaches π when the forcing frequency is well above the natural frequency helps explain why the highest high tides occur when the Moon is either rising or setting.3 is the “transient. It’s not very instructive and it is moderately messy. I’ll expect you to do it for the undamped case.1 → ↑ 0.43) is a minimum.2 → .3 → . d dΩ2 2 − Ω2 + ω0 2 2 + b2 Ω2 /m2 = 2 Ω2 − ω0 + b2 /m2 = 0 .02 ←− 1 −mΩ2 + ibΩ + k . These phase diﬀerences have a major eﬀect on the structure of ocean tides. . The steady-state term keeps going.12. (3.4 (c) The next logical step would be to add the full solution of the homogeneous equation and to apply initial conditions. 3. Terminology: The inhomogeneous term that I just derived is called the “steadystate” term.5 . It is worth seeing how diﬀerent parts of the third graph correlate with the ﬁrst two graphs. problem 3. and the homogeneous term computed in section 3. diﬀerentiate with respect to Ω2 . I won’t. 2 Is the value Ω2 = k/m = ω0 the position of the peak in the ﬁrst of these graphs? That’s the one that shows the amplitude of the response to the force.5. and to ﬁnd that you have to diﬀerentiate with respect to Ω. No it is not. 3. b/mω0 = . because in that special case there is enough payoﬀ for the relatively modest eﬀort involved.1 Fig. 3. meaning that when you push with a slow oscillation the mass will follow your push.” That is simply because the homogeneous solution has a negative exponential in it and it eventually dies out.4 (a) Fig. If however the forcing frequency Ω is high.

3. and the light is either strongly absorbed or strongly scattered.5 656. what .8 657. but the atom also suﬀers many collisions with its neighbors. The light from the hot sun passes through the (relatively) cooler solar atmosphere where un-ionized atoms can exist. The large width of this line is partly caused by the natural width of the resonance as in the graph on the preceding page. In the sun this phenomenon causes the Fraunhofer lines.4 656. and as a consequence it applies an oscillating force to the atom.2 657.6 Stable Motion When do you encounter harmonic oscillators? Not just springs and pendulums or even electric circuits. but it is surprising just how much of the intuition that you get from the classical harmonic oscillator will extend to the advanced treatment. If you have a system in equilibrium and you disturb it a little. leaving a dark line in the spectrum. you get a large response.2 656. If the frequency of the light matches one of the natural transition frequencies in the atom. For the most common interesting cases the damping is small and this distinction is not large. The second picture is a greatly magniﬁed version in which this line appears as the large blob at a wavelength just below 656. Fig.3 nm.0 657. and the speciﬁc colors of light whose frequencies match the resonant frequencies of some of the atoms is absorbed or scattered. but it is there and you can see it in the amplitude graph above.3—Simple Harmonic Motion then 2 Ω2 = ω0 − b2 /2m2 110 You see from this that the resonance peak really occurs slightly below the natural frequency. 3. Detailed understanding of this phenomenon requires quantum mechanics.6 656.8 The line labeled “C” in the ﬁrst picture is the Hα line due to the presence of excited hydrogen atoms.6 657. and this accounts for most of the spreading.4 657. Example of Resonance Light hits an atom.

U (x0 )(x − x0 )2 /2. If an atom is in a molecule and it gets bumped to the side then the other atoms in the molecule will push it back into place. Fx = −dU/dx. See problem 3. U (x) = U (x0 ) + (x − x0 )U (x0 ) + (x − x0 )2 U (x0 ) + 1 2 1 (x − x0 )3 U (x0 ) + · · · 3! If x0 is an equilibrium point of the potential energy U (x0 ) = 0.44) Cancel the v and you see that using energy methods is often a faster way to the equations of motion. The third graph (U = Ax3 ) is neither. If it’s unstable then it is pushed farther away.6 The ﬁrst graph leads to stable oscillations and the second graph provides a force that pushes the mass away from equilibrium. If U (x0 ) > 0 then this looks like the ﬁrst picture above and you have stable equilibrium ¨ mx = Fx = −dU/dx = −U (x0 )(x − x0 ) * This shape is called “generically unstable. not simply quantitative. In the ﬁrst graph that force is toward the origin and in the second graph that is away from it. so a positive slope for U implies a negative Fx and vice versa.” A little change make a qualitative diﬀerence. but it never happens in practice* because even the slightest change in the system changes the graph into something quite diﬀerent. E = mv 2 /2 + U (x). The condition for equilibrium is that Fx = −dU/dx = 0. and whether this is stable or not depends on whether the potential energy function curves up or down. then the dominant term after that is the quadratic. If you’re skateboarding in a valley or on top of a hill you have diﬀerent concerns. d 1 2 dv dU dx dv dU mv + U (x) = 0 = mv + =v m + dt 2 dt dx dt dt dx (3. U ∝ −x2 x U ∝ x2 x x U ∝ x3 Fig. 3. If you add ±10−20 x to this U then it’s behavior changes. The power series expansion of U allows you to analyze the motion quantitatively.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 111 happens? If it’s a stable equilibrium then it is pushed back toward its original conﬁguration. You can get the equation of motion directly from energy conservation by saying that dE/dt = 0. and you can see why by looking at the potential energy. .20. What if there’s friction? See problem 3.17. Every one of these examples leads to a harmonic oscillator.

3—Simple Harmonic Motion 112 This is a standard harmonic oscillator with center at x0 .46) For small x. The third method is to use series expansions on the potential energy and to diﬀerentiate that. the sech is essentially 1. (3.1) includes the cosh and the binomial expansions. (3.1) for a mass attached to a spring. If α is small. giving the same equation as before.45) and this is the simple harmonic oscillator with frequency ω0 = α A/m. I said that the force by the . and that solution is the standard x(t) = C cos(ω0 t + δ ) with 2 ω0 = α2 A/m. 3. the potential well is wide and has a weak restoring force. U (x) = −A sech(αx) = − A cosh αx Fig.7 The ﬁrst method (and usually the hardest) is to plug in to the Taylor series formula to get the series representation for U out to the quadratic term. (0.46)?. ¨ mx = Fx = − dU = −αA sech αx tanh αx dx (3. and tanh αx ≈ αx so this equation reproduced Eq. This is however exactly the same diﬃculty that occurred in Eq. U (x ) = − A A =− = − A 1 − 1 α 2 x2 + · · · 2 1 2 2 cosh αx 1 + 2α x + · · · and the force comes from the derivative of the second term. and U (x) = αA sech αx tanh αx −→ U (0) = 0 U (x) = α2 A − sech2 αx tanh2 αx + sech3 αx −→ U (0) = α2 A U (x) = −A + 1 α2 Ax2 + · · · 2 The equation of motion is ¨ mx = Fx = −dU/dx = −α2 Ax (3. but just because the approximation that α|x| 1 is required. Is this an exact solution for Eq.45) for small oscillations. Once you have more practice with series. this is commonly the easiest choice. the corresponding frequency is small. (3. Take a speciﬁc example and do it several diﬀerent ways. No. the equation to solve is Eq. Eq. The second method to obtain the approximate equation of motion from the potential is to stop after doing the ﬁrst derivative. (3. U (0) = −A. Whichever way you arrive at it (only occasionally the ﬁrst method).45).

In this example the diﬀerential equation is exactly a harmonic oscillator.7 Unstable Motion Balance a pencil on its point. but that’s an approximation too. After that you have a harmonic oscillator with solution yhom (t) = C cos(ω0 t + δ ) and 2 ω0 = ρw gA/m. the equilibrium position. constant coeﬃcient diﬀerential equation. yinh = m/ρw A. even in contexts for which you don’t expect it. It will even show up in the study of planetary orbits. and probably much more. with no approximations needed. but the volume submerged will not be as simple to calculate as “Ay .5. The diﬀerence in the present example is that I can specify just what I mean by “small enough. and ﬂuid ﬂow is notoriously complicated to ﬁgure out. Or is it? Water has to ﬂow around the box as the box moves. Make it a rectangular block. 1 E = Iω 2 + M g cos θ (3.” and the resulting diﬀerential equation will usually have to be expanded in a power series about the equilibrium point. A is the area of the top. A solution for the inhomogeneous part is a constant. This sort of expansion is typical of why the harmonic oscillator appears so often.” and for the spring I couldn’t. just write the total energy. It is valid only if |x| is “small enough” in some unspeciﬁed way.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 113 spring is represented by Fx = −kx.47) 2 I is the moment of inertia about the tip and is the distance from the tip to the center of mass. It’s easy to write the equations for its motion.8 The density of water is ρw . This is an inhomogeneous. 3. Example What is the behavior of a piece of wood ﬂoating in the water? If you leave it alone. If you disturb it then it will oscillate up and down according to F = ma. If the box is not rectangular the procedure is the same. but completely . 3. section 6. Simpler conceptually. and let y be the distance the bottom is below the surface (dashed line) of the water. and m is the mass of the box. The forces on it come from gravity and the surrounding water. linear. nothing. There will at the least be ﬂuid friction (viscosity). But that is another book. so the geometry is easy. and the latter is computed easily by the rule that Archimedes found for buoyant forces. The angle θ is measured from the top. A ¨ Fy = +mg − ρw gAy = my h y Fig.

θ(t) = Aeωt + Be−ωt = C cosh ωt + D sinh ωt (3.51) A typical initial condition is to start at rest with initial angle from the vertical θ0 . and here it is often more convenient to use hyperbolic sines and cosines as in section 0. then θ(0) = C = θ0 θ(t) = θ0 cosh ωt.07 s−1 (3. It’s often more convenient to use sines and cosines directly in that case. Then 1 ˙ E = 1 M v 2 + M gh = 2 M 2 θ2 + M g cos θ 2 (3.50) The general solution to the diﬀerential equation is now θ(t) = Aeωt + Be−ωt .2 = 7.2. simply diﬀerentiate this with respect to time. dE ˙¨ ˙ = 0 = M 2 θθ − M g sin θ θ dt ˙ What is E ? Cancel the θ factor and you have ¨ θ − g sin θ = 0 Just as with the standard pendulum. then ¨ θ − gθ = 0 (3. ¨ θ = A eαt −→ θ − gθ = Aα2 eαt − gAeαt = 0 −→ α2 − g = 0 −→ α = ± g/ (3. with ω= g/ This is like using the complex exponential solutions for the simple harmonic oscillator.49) and this linear equation is handled the same way as all the other linear equations in this chapter. and if and ˙ θ(0) = ωD = 0 = 20 cm = 0. this inverted pendulum simpliﬁes enormously if you make the small angle approximation. Assume an exponential.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 114 equivalent mathematically: Put a point mass M on the top of a massless rod of length and balance the rod on the other end.48) For the equation of motion.52) .2 m then ω= 10/0.

193/ 50 = 0. but at 90◦ . and is zips through the last part of its fall.1◦ or 0.49) is not good enough. Most of its time is spent where the small angle approximation is good.39 seconds. It is an elliptic integral. it’s terrible.53) This is not an integral that you’re likely to have seen before. What is E ? Assuming that everything starts from rest that is E = M g cos θ0 . . The explanation of why it is so good is that as the mass falls it spends most of its time moving slowly. As a prototype for all oscillators. roots.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 115 How much time would this take to hit the table starting with an initial angle of one degree? √ 1◦ cosh ωt = 90◦ −→ t = ω −1 cosh−1 90 = 5. See problem 3. When you understand this example you can graduate to the vibrational properties of water and then to those of hemoglobin. and you cannot do it in terms of the functions (polynomials. exponentials) that you are familiar with. ˙ E = 1 M 2 θ2 + M g cos θ −→ dt = 2 dθ 2(E − M g cos θ)/M 2 Integrate this from θ0 to π/2 to get the time to fall. Maybe the linear approximation made in Eq.48) and separate variables. Rather. trig functions. but now each oscillator can aﬀect all the other oscillators.379 s.09 and 1. 3.069 s.742 s. 1. (3. so that invites the question: Why? The linear approximation to the sine function is good even at 30◦ . For the three angles used one paragraph back. If they are disturbed in any way they will oscillate about that point. (3. That’s the subject now. two masses on three springs. making this π/2 dt = θ0 dθ ω 2(cos θ0 − cos θ) (3. How much diﬀerence would there be in the time it takes to hit the table? You have to go back to Eq. the results using this integral are respectively 0. You get a single oscillator when you have a stable equilibrium and you then examine small oscillations about that equilibrium point. They are remarkable close to the numbers you get by using the linear approximation in the second paragraph back.64.8 Coupled Oscillations Oscillators don’t always come singly. 1. I’ll use a mass on a spring again. A molecule consists of several atoms. and each is in some sort of equilibrium.01◦ ? Plug them in and ﬁnd out just how little diﬀerence this change makes: respectively 1.5. when it is near the top. and there will be a brief introduction to the subject in section 4.73 seconds How much more time would it take to fall this far if the initial angle is smaller? Perhaps starting at 0.

(3.55) .1) then so does cos ω0 t + sin ω0 t. It’s just that they are simultaneous diﬀerential equations. After that. x1 and x2 are measured from the equilibrium position of the respective masses.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 116 k1 m1 x1 k2 m2 x2 k3 Fig. homogeneous. This is like saying that if cos ω0 t and sin ω0 t satisfy Eq. that is to (x1 − x2 ). Nail x2 down and let x1 alone vary. The force from the middle spring is proportional to the compression of that spring.54) dt2 The reasoning for the second mass repeats that for the ﬁrst. That means that if the pair of functions x1A (t) and x2A (t) are a solution and if x1B (t) and x2B (t) are. so the total forces are zero at x1 = 0 and x2 = 0. (Or did I forget to say that?) These equations are not as formidable as you may expect. but I’m going to do it again anyway. One of the key properties of these equations. then so is their sum. then it is easier to see that the force this spring applies is −k2 (x1 − x2 ). For the ﬁrst mass. Solve ax + by = 0 cx + dy = 0 for x and y . when the coordinates change then the additional forces that arise will appear because of the change in length of the attached springs. It’s important.9 The two coordinates. one that I’ve already used several times is that the sum of two solutions is a solution. The same with the B -terms. constant coeﬃcient diﬀerential equations that this whole chapter is devoted to. so you have to learn a couple of new techniques. and that the force on the middle spring is zero. Notice that the two forces from the middle spring obey Newton’s third law. because the are the familiar linear. and d2 (x1A + x1B ) = −k1 (x1A + x1B ) − k2 (x1A + x1B ) − (x2A + x2B ) dt2 d2 (x2A + x2B ) m1 = −k3 (x2A + x2B ) − k2 (x2A + x2B ) − (x1A + x1B ) dt2 m1 Just look at the terms with subscript A and they already agree. the force from the left spring is −k1 x1 . That’s easy. 3. That’s required because of the approximation that the springs have zero mass. (3. A Digression There is a little bit of elementary algebra that you probably already know. m1 d2 x1 = −k1 x1 − k2 (x1 − x2 ) dt2 and m2 d 2 x2 = −k3 x2 − k2 (x2 − x1 ) (3.

59) These equations are in precisely the form of Eq. homogeneous.58) (3. .57) m1 α2 Aeαt = −k1 Aeαt − k2 (Aeαt − Beαt ) m2 α2 Beαt = −k3 Beαt − k2 (Beαt − Aeαt ) eαt is a common factor.3—Simple Harmonic Motion To solve for x.55) are the same equation. with two coeﬃcients.54) and solve them. A further point: If ad = bc then the two equations (3. The second equation is a multiple of the ﬁrst. If the product of two numbers is zero then one or both of the numbers is zero. x1 (t) = Aeαt . (3. constant coeﬃcient equations. (3. then multiply the second of the pair of equations by a to get acx + ady = 0 = acx + bcy = c(ax + by ).55). Plug in. That determines α. x2 (t) = Beαt (3. The only way to have a non-zero solution for x or y is to have ad − bc = 0. m1 α2 + k1 + k2 A − k2 B = 0 −k2 A + m2 α2 + k3 + k2 B = 0 (3. look at that case for yourself and show that the result still holds. These equations are linear. then subtract.56) Now return to Eqs. Now however there are two functions. multiply the ﬁrst equation by d and the second by b. Now start over and eliminate x by multiplying respectively by c and a and subtracting. (If c = 0. Cancel it and rearrange. (Otherwise why bother?) Say a = 0.) (3. and this implies that if ad − bc = 0 then both x and y are zero. If there is to be a non-zero solution for A and B then the determinant of the coeﬃcients must vanish. 117 dax + dby = 0 =⇒ adx − bcx = 0 bcx + bdy = 0 cax + cby = 0 =⇒ bcy − ady = 0 acx + ady = 0 These are both in the form (ad − bc) × (x or y ) = 0. and an exponential solution works here just as it did in the previous cases. that’s why this method works. At least one of the numbers a and b is non-zero. The quantity ad − bc is the determinant of these simultaneous equations.

then x1 (t) = A1 eiωt + A2 e−iωt . . now you need A and B in order to get the functions x1 and x2 .55). once you know that the determinant is zero. Geometrically that determines a straight line through the origin in the x-y plane. take a special and more symmetric case.60) The determinant of these equations must be zero.60). Let the two masses be equal and let the two springs on the ends be equal. so it factors. m1 = m2 = m and k1 = k3 = k =⇒ mα2 + k + k2 A − k2 B = 0 −k2 A + mα2 + k + k2 B = 0 (3. mα2 + k + k2 This is the diﬀerence of squares. with with x2 (t) = x1 (t) x2 (t) = −x1 (t) k + 2k2 /m. whichever is more convenient. then x1 (t) = A3 eiω t + A4 e−iω t . and the general solution is a linear combination of all of them. This tells only the frequencies of oscillation. (3. there is really just one equation.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 118 Instead of grinding through the rather messy algebra of this general problem. Pick one. and solve for the ratio of x to y . 2 2 − k2 = 0 mα2 + k + k2 + k2 mα2 + k + k2 − k2 = 0 = mα2 + k + 2k2 mα2 + k and the four roots for α are now ±i k = ±iω m and ±i k + 2 k2 = ±iω m You’re not done. For the present application. pick one of the alphas. say α2 = −k/m and substitute is into the ﬁrst of Eqs. ω= ω = k/m. as each is a multiple of the other. In the equations (3. m − k + k + k2 A − k2 B = 0. m or A=B The other choice for alpha with the same equation gives m − k + 2k2 m + k + k2 A − k2 B = 0 or A = −B You now have four solutions to the original equations.

look up chapter four of the text Mechanics by Keith Symon. so as one moves to the right so does the other. As the left mass moves by x1 to the right. ω For the other form of solution.4 = 0.62) x1 (t) = C3 cos ω t. x2 (t) = −C3 cos ω t Here the two masses are oscillating in opposite directions.4 = 0. the k3 spring is squeezed by x1 − x2 = 2x1 . x1 (t) = C1 cos ωt + C2 sin ωt + C3 cos ω t + C4 sin ω t x2 (t) = C1 cos ωt + C2 sin ωt − C3 cos ω t − C4 sin ω t What do these solutions look like? Pick one: C1 = 0. 3. x1 (0) = x0 = C1 + C3 .10 (3.* Example Take as initial conditions that you push the coordinate x1 to the value x0 while holding x2 in place at zero.2. These solutions are the two modes of oscillation of the system. The solution behaves as if the middle spring is not there (left picture). C3 = 0. x2 (t) = C1 cos ωt (3. This frequency is higher then the ﬁrst one because there’s now a larger restoring force applied to each mass. C2. and the (x1 − x2 ) terms in Eq. x2 (0) = 0 = C1 − C3 ˙ x2 (0) = 0 = ωC2 − ω C4 * If you want to see this normal mode problem fully worked out without making assumptions of symmetry. general solution is now the sum of these.54) are identically zero. ˙ x1 (0) = 0 = ωC2 + ω C4 . ω Fig. (3.61) The two masses are moving together. C1.3—Simple Harmonic Motion The total. and the middle spring is squeezed from both sides. Then release everything from rest. so that k1 = k3 and m1 = m2 . . 119 x1 (t) = A1 eiωt + A2 e−iωt + A3 eiω t + A4 e−iω t x2 (t) = A1 eiωt + A2 e−iωt − A3 eiω t − A4 e−iω t OR. That’s why the frequency ω involves the combination k +2k3 (right picture). The length of the middle spring does not change. x1 (t) = C1 cos ωt.3. often easier to work with.

The two sine factors that compose x2 are drawn lightly.63) are approximately ω+ω 2 ¯ =ω and ω −ω 2 ≈ ω. This in turn means that the second factors in the equations (3. and the mathematics describing them is the same that you see here. Recall problem 0. ω = (k1 + 2k2 )/m 1/2 = k1 1 + 2k2 /k1 m 1/2 ≈ k1 1 + k2 /k1 m The two frequencies in Eq. ω+ω ω−ω x1 (t) = x0 cos t cos t 2 2 (3.11 This graph shows the functions from the second of the equations (3. (3. k2 2k1 ¯ ω x2 Fig. 3.50.63). To interpret them. The periodic pulsations in intensity are there called beats. and the product is drawn as the heavy graph. This is the same sort of phenomenon you hear when you listen to two musical notes that have slightly diﬀerent frequencies and that are played together.3—Simple Harmonic Motion The solutions are C2 = C4 = 0 and C1 = C3 = x0 /2. When you draw the same sort of graph for x1 you will see that the energy that was given to mass #1 gradually shifts over to #2 and then back again to #1. That implies ω − ω ω + ω. .63) oscillate much more slowly than the ﬁrst factors. it is much easier if you rewrite them using two not-sowell-known trigonometric identities for the sum and diﬀerence of two cosines. with the amplitude of oscillation of mass #1 slowly going from zero to maximum and back again.63) ω+ω ω −ω x2 (t) = x0 sin t sin t 2 2 As a special case. 120 x1 (t) = x0 2 cos ωt + cos ω t x2 (t) = x0 2 cos ωt − cos ω t You will have seen equations like these before if you’ve studied the subject of beats in sound. if the spring in the middle is much weaker than the two on the ends. then the frequency ω is just a little larger than ω .

.62) are called “normal modes” of oscillation. You might think that you could simply omit the matrix in the middle of Eq. (10. but all this can wait until that later chapter. (3. and it is a special case of Eq.16).60) the masses m1 and m2 were set equal. in which there is a complex conjugation on each component. The modes themselves will be more complicated. In that case the ∗ ﬁrst factor is ( C1 C1∗ ).3—Simple Harmonic Motion 121 3. Starting with Eq. (3. The reason for this is not that the word normal means “typical” or anything like it.64) would still be zero provided that you have the two masses m1 and m2 in the product.64) because m1 = m2 .59). This is like the scalar product ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A .61). and where the tilde over the M means transpose. you would ﬁnd that the product in Eq. It is used in the sense of “perpendicular” as when two lines intersect at right angles. Bx x + By y = Ax Bx + Ay By and the vectors A and B are perpendicular if A . This redeﬁnition of the scalar product may be unfamiliar.62) states the components for the second (ω ) mode as M = These are orthogonal to each other in the sense of the scalar product ˜ M m1 0 0 m2 M = ( C1 C1 ) m1 0 C3 −C 3 m2 = m1 C1 C3 − m2 C1 C3 = 0 (3. (3.64) too.9 Normal Modes The two modes of oscillation represented by the equations (3. so that the ﬁrst (ω ) mode is represented by the column matrix M= C1 C1 C3 −C3 0 Similarly Eq. and if you go back to the equation preceding it (3. This example could be misleading because the equal masses make the example so special. That conjugation should even be done in Eq. but it is part of a larger picture that is explored in chapter ten. (3. but the product ( C1 C1 ) m1 0 0 m2 C3 C3 will still be zero.64). It’s actually even a little more involved because when you deal with complex exponential solutions (eiωt ) the coeﬃcients can be complex. B = AB cos θ = Ax x + Ay y . (3. It can wait until then. carrying out all the calculations.61) and (3. B = 0. You can think of the components of a mode of oscillation as the coeﬃcients in the equation (3.

a method that turns out to be of astoundingly great utility.* Take the speciﬁc problem of the undamped harmonic oscillator with a forcing function.66) I specify explicitly that the solution = 0 for t < t . you give it an initial velocity and after that it obeys the ¨ homogeneous equation mx + kx = 0.10 Green’s Functions Is inspired guesswork the only way to solve for the inhomogeneous solution to (3. that simply shifts the origin.29)? No. so x(t) = v0 sin ω0 (t − t ) ω0 (t > t ) (3. . this is not so far from the truth anyway. The key fact about the equation that you’re trying to solve is that it is linear. as a miller. not some distant initial conditions. and was largely self-taught in mathematics when he published his most famous works. It is central in the subject of scattering theory in quantum mechanics and quantum ﬁeld theory.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 122 3. This says that it’s the external force that is causing the motion.65) The idea behind this method is to treat the added force as a sum of impulses. m then d 2 x1 + kx1 = F1 (t) dt2 and m d 2 x2 + kx2 = F2 (t) dt2 m d 2 (x 1 + x 2 ) + k (x1 + x2 ) = F1 (t) + F2 (t) dt2 * George Green’s life as a scientist is the stuﬀ of ﬁction. If you later give a second kick F2 ∆t2 you don’t have to know the result of the ﬁrst kick to ﬁnd the result of the second kick. How is this v0 related to the applied force? A force F1 applied for a (short) time interval ∆t1 changes the momentum by dp = F dt −→ F1 ∆t1 = mv1 and this v1 is the v0 of the preceding equation. m d2 x + kx = Fext (t) dt2 (3. He started life in the family business. An initial velocity of v0 at time t = 0 produces x(t) = (v0 /ω0 ) sin ω0 t for t > 0. If you administer the kick at time t instead of zero. There is a systematic method developed by Green. and because of the atomic nature of matter. If the mass is at rest and you kick it.

and the force there has height F (tk ). assuming that ∆tk is small. or at least it is a limit of such a sum.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 123 x1 x1 + x2 + = x2 Fig. 3. The equation (3. leading to the solution (3. 3. and it is the solution to the original diﬀerential equation when both impulses are applied.13 + k=0 k=2 k=1 The k th interval has width ∆tk = tk − tk−1 . with two kicks.12 In these graphs you apply an impulse at one time (t1 ) to get the ﬁrst graph.66) becomes F (tk )∆tk = mvinit so xk (t) = F (tk )∆tk sin ω0 (t − tk ). a similar solution would use the terminal conditions just before the second kick as the initial conditions at the second kick. In the example that started from Eq. In the current problem. The third graph is the sum of the ﬁrst two. But what about another sort of forcing function. one that is not just the sum of a couple of impulses? Another insight: every function is a sum of impulses. mω0 (t > t k ) .35).32). or at least it will be when eventually ∆tk → 0. the process required you to solve the problem completely up to the second time (T in that case) and then to use the terminal conditions before T as the initial conditions after T . Take a typical one of these boxes and compute its eﬀect on the harmonic oscillator. Just as when you deﬁne an integral. = + + + Fig. you divide the independent variable into small pieces and approximate the function by a sequence of steps. Green’s insight was that the linearity of this diﬀerential equation allows you to avoid that complexity and to handle the two impulses independently. Separately apply an impulse at a later time (t2 ) to get the second graph. (3. One such box is an impulse.

−∞ 0 F0 (0 < t < T ) 0 (otherwise) This integral is t = −∞ −∞ + 0 The ﬁrst integral is zero. Because this Green’s function is deﬁned to be zero for negative arguments t < t . 1 sin ω0 (t − t ) (t > t ) G(t − t ) = (t < t ) mω0 0 (3.67) t so that x(t) = dt G(t − t )F (t ) −∞ and this function is called Green’s function for this diﬀerential equation. you improve the approximation by taking smaller time intervals. That the response to the impulse is zero until the impulse happens dictates the limits of integration. x(t) = lim 1 k (tk <t) ∆tk →0 mω0 F (tk ) ∆tk sin ω0 (t − tk ) = 1 t mω0 dt F (t ) sin ω0 (t − t ) −∞ You see that you have to be careful to use diﬀerent notations for the various time variables. The solution is now a plug-in: t x(t) = −∞ dt G(t − t )F (t ) = 1 t mω0 t dt sin ω0 (t − t ) . and the next has two cases: t < T and t > T . using an explicit limit. you add the results of all these impulses to get the (approximate) result for the motion of m. I prefer the redundant form. Does it Work? Apply this to the example Eq. and ﬁnally make it exact in the limit. you could write the limits on this integral as ±∞ without changing anything.32). (3. especially to distinguish the integration variable t from the independent variable t.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 124 As when there were just two impulses. t dt F (t ) sin ω0 (t − t ) = 0 dt F0 sin ω0 (t − t ) (0 < t < T ) 0 dt F0 sin ω0 (t − t ) (T < t) 0 t T then x(t) = F0 2 mω0 1 − cos ω0 t cos ω0 (t − T ) − cos ω0 t (0 < t < T ) (T < t) . N x(t) ≈ k=1 F (tk )∆tk mω0 sin ω0 (t − tk ) 0 (t > t k ) (t < t k ) As with any other integral.

60. problem 3. To solve that problem you can write the energy equation directly and separate variables. U = αx4 1 2E 2α 4 2 4 2 ˙ ˙ E = mx + αx −→ x = − x 2 m m E (3. The potential from a single point charge at the origin is φ(r) = q/4π 0 r. The analog of Eq. For two charges the potential is q1 q2 + 4π 0 |r − r1 | 4π 0 |r − r2 | For many charges. You are integrating over these points. Instead of an impulse in time to produce an oscillation. (3.68) You can derive this yourself.35).3—Simple Harmonic Motion 125 This is identical to the solution Eq. Notice that this solution is continuous at t = T and it has a continuous derivative there. this is an analogous potential function of position produced from a point in space. and that smooths the result. though perhaps not under that name. The total potential produced by a lot of charges is the sum (integral?) over the potentials produced by the individual charges.11 Anharmonic Example: x4 What happens if the approximation of a linear harmonic oscillator isn’t even approximately right? There are examples in problems 2. 3. What is the electrostatic potential produced by a point charge? That’s a Green’s function. including a continuous distribution of them you have G(r − r ) = 1 −→ φ(r ) = 4π 0 |r − r | dq G(r − r ) = d3 r ρ(r )G(r − r ) ρ is the volume charge density.67) for the damped harmonic oscillator is G(t − t ) = 1 mω e−γ (t−t ) sin ω (t − t ) (t > t ) 0 (t < t ) (3.69) dx = 2E/m dt 1 − αx4 /E .29. This is so despite the fact that the Green’s function has a discontinuity in its derivative and the force function is discontinuous at 0 and T . The ﬁrst really diﬀerent potential energy after x2 that still gives oscillations is x4 . though you will have to do a small amount of algebra to verify that fact. Other Green’s Functions You have seen Green’s functions before. but the latter one is sort of extreme. and the Green’s function in this case is conventionally deﬁned without the q . and the potential from several point charges is the sum over such contributions.14 and 3. (3.

That is a turning point. ) 3. ∆z = 2/N 2. The integral is still ﬁnite.70) Here I chose the initial condition that x(0) = 0. Divide the interval 0 ≤ z ≤ 2 into N ≥ 1 pieces. . and 2’s disappear. Integrate from zk−1 to zk = zk−1 + ∆z 5. You now have the integrals z so let √ = dz −→ z = 2 − 2 1−y dy 1−y u= 0 dz 1 + y + y2 + y3 where y = z − z 2 /4 (0 < z < 2) (3. because the function you’re integrating goes to inﬁnity only as one over a square root.71) The point z = 2 corresponds to the turning point of the oscillator. It comes to a stop there and reverses direction. but you take what you can get. Set k = 1 and z0 = 0 and z1 = ∆z and u0 = 0 4. but it can still give a computer hiccups. Factor out the bad behavior near y = 1. you will run into trouble when you get near y = 1. I will proceed along this route for a while. where it hit a singularity. Simpson. 0 < z < 4. uk = uk−1 + this integral. it’s sometimes easier to solve such problems numerically. The trick to get around this annoyance is to make a change of variable. Choose your favorite integration method (midpoint. That is. and that’s integrable. If you don’t know about them then they are unknown functions. . This form in terms of z works all the way back to when the mass returns to the origin. It also sets the derivative dy/du = 1 at u = 0. trapezoid. 1 − y 4 = (1 − y )(1 + y + y 2 + y 3 ). and the integrand blows up there. m’s. If you try a brute-force numerical integration of this equation (or let a computer do the dirty work for you).3—Simple Harmonic Motion 126 If you know about elliptic integrals and elliptic functions you can solve this for x(t) in terms of known functions. Let α 4 x = y 4 and E α E 1/4 y 2E/m t = u then 0 dy 1 − y4 =u (3. The original integral in terms of y worked only up to that turning point. Make all the E ’s. This integral expresses time as a function of position instead of the reverse. The procedure to compute this is 1. The ﬁrst thing to do is to change variables to get rid of a lot of parameters. In any case. . so y = 0 when u = 0. . and since there are some technical points about this example.

(b) (1 + i)3 . 8 In Eq. They aren’t as diﬀerent from each other as you might have expected. 3.14 The solid line is this quartic oscillator. Increment k and unless you’re done. Plot one versus the other and then remember that the function is periodic so you can use the same results to plot the rest of the graph.18) come out correctly? 3 Perhaps you’re more familiar with l’Hospital’s rule for evaluating certain types of limits. then dt eiαt = iαeiαt . d 10 Let α be an arbitrary complex number.30) with x(0) = 0 = x(0). Try it and see. Exercises 1 Where are the equilibrium points for the potential energy U (x) = A cos kx for A > 0. ˙ 5 Solve the problem Eq. Write this out using Euler’s formula and verify that the diﬀerentiation works as promised. Compute yk from zk . apply it to Eq. Which are stable and which are unstable? 2 Do the dimensions of Eq. it says in that text that the solution φ(t) = A cos ωt won’t work. (3. (c) e137iπ/4 . and that corresponds to a quarter of a period. The value of u when y = 1 (and z = 2) is u = 1. . use Green’s function methods. (3. This time.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 127 6. y u Fig. and the dashed line is a pure harmonic oscillator having the same period and amplitude. (3. then dt eαt = αeαt .21) to see if you get the same answer as there. 6 Write in the form reiθ : (a) 1 − i. (3. (b) e−1 eiπ . 7.311029. go back to 4. what are C and D in terms of A and B ? d 9 Let α be an arbitrary complex number. (3.25). (c) 1/(−1 − i). 4 For the equation Eq. Pictures! 7 Write in rectangular form: (a) 5e−iπ/2 . This gives you two arrays: the uk (time) and the yk (position). Write this out using Euler’s formula and verify that the diﬀerentiation works as promised.51).

where α > 0 and β > 0. When m1 is held ﬁxed. (3. (b) For small motions about equilibrium. If there are oscillations. (a) Show graphically why there are oscillations.30) with the initial condition that it is dropped from rest. x(t).70) it states that dy/du = 1 at u = 0.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 128 11 What is the general solution for md2 x/dt2 − kx = 0? And sketch some of them. and a mass m moves in this potential. 14 Sketch the potential energy U (x) = U0 a2 cos(αx)/(a2 + x2 ) and describe the sort of motions you will get. Find the frequency of oscillations when m2 is held ﬁxed instead. (3. 12 A potential energy is given to be (in one dimension) U (x) = αx2 + βx4 . m2 oscillates with a frequency ω0 . 17 Use Eq. 13 Two masses m1 and m2 are connected by a spring and there is no damping. ﬁnd the motion.67) to solve the problems presented in Eq. Show why. . how do they behave? ¨ ˙ ¨ ˙ 15 What solutions do you get for mx + bx − kx = 0 and for mx − bx + kx = 0? 16 Just after Eq. (3.

3.8 From eiφ you also have e−iφ = cos φ − i sin φ.3 From the cube of eiφ . √ 3.2 Find the general solution to d2 Λ = −ΞΛ. 3. Which of the methods on page 92 will you choose? 3. From these. what are cos(iφ) and sin(iφ)? Use the standard equation for functions of sums of angles (from problem 3. Set up Fx = max for this mass and in the approximation that it moves only a small distance from the origin ﬁnd the general solution for the motion. take some special cases for t (or ωt) and check that your result matches what you started with. d ℵ2 (Ξ > 0) 3.4 A particle of mass m is subject to a force computed from the potential energy: 2 U (x) = −U0 e−αx .10 In the damped harmonic oscillator specify the initial conditions that x(0) = x0 and vx (0) = 0. When you’re done. Add and subtract these to express cos φ and sin φ in terms of complex exponentials. with a sketch in the complex plane. derive expressions for the sine and cosine of triple angles in terms of single angles. Eq.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 129 Problems 3.6 Derive the formulas for the sine and cosine of sums of angles.6) to evaluate cos(x+iy ) and sin(x+iy ).7 Use Euler’s formula to evaluate i. for the approximate solution to the equation to be good. 3. Find the later motion.9 Derive the critically damped solution for the harmonic oscillator starting from the underdamped (oscillating) solution. how small must the oscillations be — and check the dimensions of your answer. what is ii ? 3.11). Evaluate the solution in the general case and ﬁnally take a limit to get the critically damped solution. Check your result numerically by trying cos(1+i) in Google. (3. How big can the “small distance” be? That is. At time t = 0 it is at the origin and you give it an initial velocity vx (0) = v0 . (3. Since you already have i expressed as a complex exponential. x(t). The derivation should occupy not much more space than does Eq. both of them.1 Work out the relations between the other forms of the solutions given in Eq. 3. . (3.4) 3. ﬁnding D and δ .5 Express − cos ωt − sin ωt as D sin(ωt + δ ).18).

Analyze the resulting solution in detail. ˙ (b) Express the kinetic energy in term of θ and compute dE/dt just as in Eq. You simply assume a solution of the form x(t) = A cos(Ωt − δ ) and plug it in to the diﬀerential equation. Add the solution of the homo˙ geneous equation and then apply the initial conditions that x(0) = 0 and x(0) = 0.36) without resorting to complex exponentials. It has to be compared to something. you can write the right-hand side as F0 cos (Ωt − δ ) + δ and expand that. plot the amplitude of this inhomogeneous solution versus Ω. Expand this for small angles about the equilibrium point at the bottom to show the shape of the energy function there.14 In the paragraph following Eq. you can easily guess a solution for the inhomogeneous equation. but it doesn’t look like either of the two parabolic potentials that I analyzed for stability or instability. (3. ﬁnd where it is. 3. 3. Ω ω0 . Ω ω0 .3—Simple Harmonic Motion 130 3.11 If there is no damping in the harmonic oscillator and there is a forcing term F0 cos Ωt. where is as small as I like.15 You can solve Eq.36) you easily guessed a solution for the inhomogeneous equation in the preceding problem. On the left you get a combination of sines and cosines of (Ωt − δ ) and on the right you have a cos Ωt. (c) Assume that the position is near the top. Compare the result to the solution in the text. it says “I’m assuming that b is small. Describe the possible motions in all cases and if there is an equilibrium.17 The potential energy function U (x) = Ax3 has Fx = 0 at x = 0. (3. OR. Graphs of course! 3.” This really makes no sense.13 In the preceding problem what happens to your solution if Ω = ω0 ? Take the limit Ω → ω0 and then analyze the result. It saves a lot of work. You can expand the left side using trigonometric identities and then making the two sides match.12 ˙ If the damping term is missing in Eq. What? 3. large t. because b is not dimensionless.16 (a) Write the potential energy for a simple pendulum as mgh and express it in terms of the angle with respect to the vertical. Do it again for the equilibrium point at the top. Compare the result to the graphs on page 108. What happens to the conditions for equilibrium (stable. It’s a lot of algebra. (3. positive or negative.43). For ﬁxed ω0 . assuming initial conditions θ(0) = 0 and θ(0) = θ0 . and get the diﬀerential equation for small deviations from the vertical there. 3. . (3. What is the solution to this equation for small angles ˙ ˙ from the vertical. small t.44) to get the equations of motion. unstable) if I add x to the potential energy. 3.

but now include friction. ﬁnd the tension in the pendulum’s cord as a function ¨ of time. You can model this as ¨ mx + hix + kx = 0. 2(α + β )4 2(α + β )4 (a) − .23¨An undamped harmonic oscillator is subjected to a force Fx = α + βt2 starting with the initial conditions x(0) = 0 and vx (0) = 0. Examine various special cases of your result. Can you anticipate the answer before doing the expansion to derive it? 3. Solve this equation with the usual exponential solutions and show why it doesn’t make much sense.] 3.22˙ A mass m moves in one dimension in the potential energy U (x) = ax3 − bx + c. I.31) near the bottom of the oscillation. ( b) − 3 2 3 βx1 α x1 .25˙ Another model for damping is one for which the damping force is proportional to the amplitude (not velocity) but is 90◦ out of phase with it. The time derivative of the total ˙ mechanical energy is the power from other forces. In the model used in Eq. do a series expansion about that point.21 What is the behavior of the solution Eq. where F0 and α are positive constants. 3.10) I made some algebraic mistakse. [I did not make this up. Use φ = A sin ω0 t as the small angle solution to the second (φ) equation and keep terms to a consistent order in the amplitude A.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 131 3. 3.20 Derive the equation of motion for a simple harmonic oscillator directly from energy considerations as in Eq.44).19 Using the equations (3. .e. but you could do it. 3. Find where the mass is in stable equilibrium and ﬁnd the frequency of small oscillations about there. resulting ﬁrst in the expression (a) and later in expression (b) for the coeﬃcient of δ = x − x0 . b and c are positive constants. (3. (3. It would be wrong. ﬁnd the potential energy function and sketch it.18 What is the behavior of the damped harmonic oscillator if it starts at x = x0 and vx = 0 and is just slightly overdamped? 3. 3. Next.25).24 A particle of mass m moves in one dimension with an applied force Fx = −F0 sinh αx. Find the frequency of small oscillations about the equilibrium position.13) that is ˙ − bx . Find the subsequent motion. where i is the usual imaginary unit and h is a damping parameter. Here the Fx is speciﬁcally the frictional force. and that is Fx x in one dimension. (3. where a. 3. near the time π/ω0 .26˙ In the calculations leading to the equations (3.

Why is (b) not possible as a solution? For this one look at the behavior of U (x) as the parameters α and β vary. x (a > 0 b > 0) Sketch this and ﬁnd the frequency for small oscillations about the equilibrium point.27 An undamped harmonic oscillator has mass m and spring constant k . 3. and the potential energy associated with the force on it is b U (x) = ax + . It is subject to an additional force = ct for time t > 0.29 A mass m is moving under the force from a potential energy that is given by U (x) = U0 x a 1000000 Carefully sketch U and analyze the motion qualitatively ﬁrst! Find the period of oscillation for m if it has a total energy E .33˙ Two point masses M are ﬁxed on the x-axis at the coordinates x = ±a and y = 0.31 A mass m is moving in one dimension. I’m not asking that however. . Find the gravitational force exerted on m by the other two masses in terms of G and the given quantities. 3. Find the subsequent motion. (3. 3. and is subject to an additional force Fext = F0 t/t0 . Compare how this period depends on E to how the period depends on E in the case of a simple harmonic oscillator. and it starts from the origin with zero velocity. A more diﬃcult problem is to determine the circumstances (R.32¨A piece of wood is ﬂoating in the water. 3. ﬁnd the diﬀerential equation from F = ma and then the general solution y (t). 3.6 however its shape is not rectangular.8). If |y | a.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 132 I quickly realized that (a) was wrong and backtracked to ﬁnd the source of the error. but use either method one or two instead. Why is (a) clearly wrong? After making another error to get (b) I realized that it too must be wrong. A third mass m is placed on the y -axis. The base of the cone is a circle of radius R and the height of the cone is h. Find its position as a function of time. It is conical.28˙ Do the problem that started at Eq. 3. Draw graphs! 3.30 A critically damped simple harmonic oscillator starts at the origin at rest. h) so that it will not tip over. Set it to ﬂoat with the base down and determine the frequency of vertical oscillations of this piece of wood. Unlike the example of section 3.

or −b1 vx1 .34 Same as the preceding problem except that the mass m is placed on the x-axis at |x| a.) Each little piece of the spring will be moving at a speed proportional to the distance from the ﬁxed end. To solve it. Set up the equations assuming that the masses are diﬀerent and the three dampers are diﬀerent. 3. but don’t assume you know what ω is. x = 0. Take the ﬁxed end as the origin. so that the force it applies is not ±k2 (x1 − x2 ). and add this to the kinetic energy of the spring and of the mass .66) and culminating in (3. L is the unstretched length of the spring.35 The equation (3. (3. At time t. Verify by two diﬀerentiations that your answer produces the correct result. and getting to its maximum value at the end where M is attached. for example −b2 (vx1 − vx2 ). The spring itself has mass m. what is the kinetic energy of each dm of the spring. Assume that M is oscillating as x = L + A cos(ωt).36 In (3.40 For the potential energy of the problem 3.37 The three springs for the system described by the equations (3. This will result in a single integral that undoes two derivatives.63) has two equations. 3. and what then is the total kinetic energy in the spring? Use the usual k (x − L)2 /2 for the potential energy. ¨ 3. (It should cancel from the ﬁnal result. 3. make it symmetric so that the masses are equal and the two outside dampers are equal.38 What is the solution to the equation mx + kx = F0 sin ω0 t? Assume that the force starts as t = 0 and that the mass was not moving before then. Set up the general diﬀerential equations and then solve the special symmetric case as in the text.65) and (3. Do this using Green’s function methods.41¨A mass M is on the end of a spring having spring constant k and with the spring ﬁxed at the other end. ω0 = k/m. replace the spring in the middle with a viscous damper. For about what time interval will this solution be good? 3.54) are replace by viscous dampers. Start the particle at the origin with the same small initial velocity and ﬁnd (approximately) the future motion. The graph of the second one appears in the text. 3. Each damper produces a force proportional the relative velocity of its two ends. but is proportional to the relative velocities of the masses. 3. assume now that U0 < 0.54).4. Find the solution of the equations of motion after it is released from rest (small x).67).3—Simple Harmonic Motion 133 3. Graph the ﬁrst one and compare to two graphs to see how the energy moves from one mass to the other and back. applying it to the equation m d2 x/dt2 = F (t). ±b(vx1 − vx2 ). Find the general motion of such a system.39 Mimic the derivation starting with Eqs.

and the potential energy associated with the force on it is. beginning at t = 0 is subjected to an additional force F0 . The period of oscillation turns out to be independent of the energy.) Ans: ω = k/(M + 3 m) 3.43 The velocity of a particle varies with position as vx = C/x for x > 0. for x > 0. ﬁnd the approximate solution to equation of motion: x(t). Everything starts at rest and at time t = 0 you start to apply a force Fx = αeβt .46˙ A particle of mass m moves in one dimension in a potential energy U (x) = − A a2 + ( x − b ) 2 (A > 0) (a) Sketch U .47 A spring is attached at one end to a wall and at the other end to a mass m. . Find x(t).48.44 A particle of mass m moves in one dimension with a potential energy U (x) = −A cos kx (A > 0) Sketch the potential energy and the corresponding force. so your approximate result is in fact. Assuming this force to be suﬃciently small that the particle does not move far from equilibrium. Write the diﬀerential equation of motion. Write the general solutions for x1 (t) and x2 (t). exact.e. and ﬁnd the frequency and period for small oscillations about the position of equilibrium. 3.) Ans: 2a/m 3. 3. (b) Write the diﬀerential equation of motion. b > 0) Sketch this function.61 and 6. ﬁnd the future x1 (t) and x2 (t). 3. Find the force acting on the particle as a function of x.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 134 M . 1/2 1 independent of time. 3. The coordinate for m is x.42 A mass m is moving in one dimension. The particle starts at rest at the origin and. i. What must the value of the frequency ω be so that this is conserved? (That is. (Cf. If the system was at rest for t < 0 and you give x1 x2 mass m2 a kick to start its velocity as v0 .45 Find the normal modes of oscillation for the system m m k k drawn here. problems 3. U (x) = ax2 + b/x2 (a > 0. ﬁnd the approximate solution for x(t). and for the case that the particle does not move far from the position of equilibrium. Fx (x). Neglect the mass of the spring.

Assume that the molecule emits radiation at that frequency.50˙ Two springs having spring constants k1 and k2 are attached end-to-end (in series). In particular. assuming Cl is big enough that it doesn’t move much. has a stable equilibrium at r = r0 . (3. (2. . so the integral of this function with respect to x must be one. (3. Next take the symmetric special case of Eq. Sketch it. For small oscillations about that point. If you look at the mass at random times you will ﬁnd it somewhere between ±A. but without damping. The probability per interval is then proportional to dt/dx.33). Apply this to the HCl molecule where m is the mass of the H-atom. and describe the behavior of this inhomogeneous part of the solution (the steady-state part) as Ω varies.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 135 3. Get x1 (t) and x2 (t).29? 3. or like the ﬁrst part of problem 3. Derive the eﬀective spring constant of the whole combined spring. Evaluate this probability density as a function of x and graph it.60) and ﬁnd a solution to these inhomogeneous equations. Eq. you will ﬁnd it helpful to take the equations for x1 and for x2 and to break them up using partial fractions. (What is the force on the point of attachment?) 3. Write the diﬀerential equations for this case. What is a the position of equilibrium? What is the frequency of small oscillation about equilibrium? 3.51¨The system described by Eqs. what is the probability that you will ﬁnd it at diﬀerent places between those limits? In a little interval between x and x + dx the probability of seeing it is proportional to the amount of time dt that it is in that interval. what is the probability density for the motion in problem 3.53 A particle of mass m moves in a straight line with a potential energy given by U (x) = αx2 − βx4 . (a) Determine the range of energies for periodic motion. 3. ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation of a mass m.49 In the spirit of the preceding problem. Is such behavior plausible? The total probability of being found somewhere is one. draw a graph of the amplitude of the x1 motion versus Ω and a graph of the amplitude of the x2 motion versus Ω.48 When a mass oscillates as x(t) = A sin ω0 t the velocity is dx/dt = Aω0 cos ω0 t.52 A one dimensional potential energy is U (x) = −U0 x e−x/a . When you analyze your results.54) now has an additional force F0 cos Ωt acting on mass m1 . It is just like the problem of Eq. √ Ans: 1/π A2 − x2 3.36). (b) What is the period of small oscillations? 3. Cf.12.54 The Morse potential. the plot immediately below. where α and β are positive constants. (3. Use that to evaluate the proportionality constant and then graph the function. You should ﬁnd two diﬀerent resonances. Use the parameters stated there to compute the numerical value of this frequency. at Ω2 = k/m and at Ω2 = (k + 2k2 )/m.

assuming that the motion is along the single long axis between the atoms. 3. m1 and m2 . CO. then write the general form of I1 (t) and I2 (t). (b) What is the work done by this force at the time t? (c) What is the energy in the masses and in the spring? . The capacitances are C .58 Two masses. and two such circuits can form coupled oscillators. The one in the middle is L .57 to see how to handle the motion of the Cl atom. can be modeled as two masses on the ends of a spring. The resulting equations for the two parts of the circuit are I1 I2 d2 I1 1 d2 I2 + I1 + M 2 = 0 dt2 C dt d2 I2 1 d2 I1 L 2 + I2 + M 2 = 0 dt C dt L Find the modes of oscillation of the currents I1 and I2 so you can write the general form of I1 (t) and I2 (t).56 A circuit involving inductors and capacitors will have currents that can undergo harmonic oscillations and even coupled oscillations.39). The two capacitors are the same. start to apply a constant force to m1 having magnitude F0 and along the line connecting the masses.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 136 what is its wavelength and where is it in the electromagnetic spectrum? See section 6. are sitting on a table with no friction and initially at rest. They are connected by a spring. one for each part of the circuit. and the mutual inductance is M . the self-inductances are L. C . 3. one for each part of the circuit.7 or problem 3. (a) Solve for the motion of the two masses.7. The circuit drawn has two currents. The resulting equations for the two parts of the circuit are I1 L L I2 L d2 d2 I1 + L 2 I1 + I2 = 0 C dt2 dt 2I d d2 1 I2 + L 22 + L 2 I1 + I2 = 0 C dt dt 1 I1 + L Find the modes of oscillation of the currents I1 and I2 . and the two inductances on the ends are L.55 Electric circuits involving inductors and capacitors will have currents that can undergo harmonic oscillations. Compare your result to what appears in section 6.57 The carbon monoxide molecule. Solve for the oscillations of this molecule. At time t = 0. (L > |M |) and why must this inequality be true? 3. especially Eq. 3. (6. The circuit drawn has two currents.

E = aα + b/α. 3. and γ it works. a. xmax = β . β = (b/aα). (d) Write the total solution. Assume that θ0 = π − α0 and that α and α0 are small.59˙ Two equal masses m are attached to three springs as shown on page 115. and b. 3. What does the graph of x(t) look like for small energy and for large energy? And can you anticipate what the graph should look like even before trying to use the equation to sketch it? The reason this problem can be solved will be clear after doing problem 6. Is the frequency correct? And draw graphs. expressing E . (e) At time t = 0 both masses are at their equilibrium position with zero velocity.42 can be solved.53) to check the . The spring constants on the ends are k and the one in the middle is k . and α be the controlling parameters.68). Verify that this is so by substituting it into the conservation of energy equation K + U = E and showing that for appropriate α. 3. look at the comparison of the exact integral and the linear approximation in Eqs. γ and β in terms of them. And of course analyze the results. resulting in an anharmonic oscillator. Find their future positions. This is a result that you can compare to a simple at2 /2 type of calculation.52) and (3.63 In Eq. but it is simpler if you work backwards and let a. Expand 2 the cosines and do the resulting integral.61 ¨The motion in the potential energy function of problem 3.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 137 3. ﬁnd Green’s function for the solution. You can solve for these in terms of E . 3. b. How much time does it take to return to its initial point? Also.53) there is a special case that you can do approximately in order to check the analysis. xmin = α. (c) Find the general solutions for the homogeneous part of the equations. √ Ans: γ = 2a/m. (b) Find an inhomogeneous solution to the equations.48. A constant horizontal force F0 is now applied to the mass on the left. (a) Write all the diﬀerential equations of motion for the coordinates x1 and x2 . β . sketch a graph of the force function that comes from this potential.60 For the case that the harmonic oscillator is damped (underdamped). (3.62 A potential energy is speciﬁed to be (α > 0) U (x ) = (x ≤ 0) αx2 (x > 0) 0 A mass m starts at a point x = −d with a speed v0 to the right. deriving Eq. (3. The solution is x(t) = (α cos2 γt + β sin2 γt)1/2 for appropriate values of the constants. 3. (3.64¨For those who want to try a numerical integral.

35) for the motion of Atwood’s machine. They are connected by a spring.67 Two masses. (3.65 Solve the equation (2. Use the midpoint rule with N = 1 and with N = 2 (or Simpson — look it up). (3.3—Simple Harmonic Motion 138 numerical results stated there. (b) m1 = m2 = 0. 3.69) to Eq. are sitting on a table with no friction and initially at rest. then the integrand in the x variable is no longer singular.69 The manipulations that led from Eq. and sketch the graph of U . 3. but you must evaluate it as x → 0 in order to ﬁnd its value at zero. Many cases to analyze here: (a) µ = 0. (b)Separate variables to get dt and write the integral that will allow you to ﬁnd t in terms of x.71): do the same for the simple harmonic oscillator.68 For the simple harmonic oscillator. m1 and m2 . Solve for the motion of the two masses. Eq. For the quartic potential. The more accurate answer for this u when z = 2 is 1. Assume It starts from rest at initial y = y0 . .66 (a) Write the equation for conservation of energy for the potential function U (x) = −kx2 /2.70 Do the numerical integral. (3. At time t = 0. Then integrate dx from x = 0 to where θ = π/2. (c) there’s an exponential in this solution. 3. the period is independent of the energy. Can the acceleration ever be larger than g ? The special case (b) will suﬃce for this one. start to apply a force F0 cos ωt to m1 having magnitude F0 and along the line connecting the masses. 3. (c) Evaluate the integral for the special case that E = 0 and apply the initial condition that x(0) = x0 to solve for x(t).71) from 0 to 2. If you make the substitution θ − θ0 = x2 . U ∝ x4 . how does the period depend on the energy? 3. 3.311029. To do this integral numerically you must ﬁrst recognize that the integrand is singular at θ = θ0 .

but because it’s the only assumption that allows you to use straightforward mathematics. Of course you neglect air resistance because you have to start with the easiest problems ﬁrst. What if you don’t neglect it? How do you describe air resistance mathematically? To do so fully is quite diﬃcult and complicated. for which the force is a function of time or velocity or position. and ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ v (0) = vx0 x + vy0 y = v0 cos θ x + v0 sin θ y . Air resistance with any object is strongly dependent on velocity. there’s seems to be not much diﬀerence from the one-dimensional case except to turn everything into vectors: d2 r/dt2 = F (t)/m. 4. Start with the same sort of special cases that you have in one dimension. You do a couple of easy integrals and the rest is interpreting the algebra. At low enough speeds it’s typically a linear function of v . Assume that the resistance is linear in v . F = mg . not because it is a good approximation for ordinary speeds. Can that be all there is to this case? Pretty nearly so. I’ll stay with the case of constant mass for now. In this model the equation to examine is F = mg − bv = ma. the diﬀerential equation for r will involve the angle φ(t) and the equation for φ will involve r. and then put them together. some surprising results. and a good golfer can hit it twice as far as a smooth ball. so that F = ma for a single particle. The added complexities you get when you leave the straight line lead to some pretty results. or ˆ − mg y − bv = m d2 r dt2 where I pick the y -axis to be up. then at somewhat higher speeds it is more nearly quadratic.Three Dimensional Motion The world isn’t one dimensional. Every other model is more diﬃcult to handle. Take the initial conditions to be r(0) = 0. When F is a function of time alone. and the pictures of the results will be harder to draw. You have three times as much calculation to do. The reasons for this are complex. because it depends on many factors. At still higher speeds it can even decrease with increasing speed for some range of v . but there’s no new concept here — at least in rectangular coordinates! In polar coordinates. and some just plain hard results. The air resistance is much less for the rough surface. Why does a golf ball have dimples? Because if you use a smooth ball you can’t hit it nearly as far. some perplexing results.1 Projectile Motion A standard problem that every introductory physics text handles is that of ﬁguring out motion in a uniform gravitational ﬁeld. Not necessarily simple.

This has to be a reﬂex.1) These are linear constant coeﬃcient diﬀerential equations. from Eq. x(0) = 0 = A + B. so I’ll leave it to you. If there is no air resistance after all. and y (0) = 0 = A + B . The same for y . First check that the dimensions are correct. m vy (0) = v0 sin θ = − b mg B − m b (4. then you know the answer. Both of Eqs. Put these together and the total solution is or C = −mg/b x(t) = A + Be−bt/m . y (t) = A + B e−bt/m − mgt/b Apply the initial conditions to evaluate the constants. so try a constant times time for a solution: y = Ct =⇒ m . The exponential is. The inhomogeneous part of the diﬀerential equation is a constant. so do that ﬁrst. though with diﬀerent constants.] The next step is to check that it’s plausible. 2 dt dt m d2 y dy +b = −mg 2 dt dt (4. so use power series expansions.4—Three Dimensional Motion With these conditions the z -coordinate stays at zero. 0 + bC = −mg.2) vx (0) = v0 cos θ = − x(t) = m v cos θ 1 − e−bt/m b 0 mg m mgt v0 sin θ + y (t) = 1 − e−bt/m − b b b Now comes the part that makes this worthwhile: analyzing the result. b B. [Quickly: Look at the exponential and determine the units for m/b.9. You can solve them in several diﬀerent ways. so α=0 or α = −b/m The homogeneous solution is then x(t) = A + Be−bt/m . Assume an exponential. The rest follows. and I choose to use the method of section 0. Does this give the right answer if b → 0? You’ve got 0/0 and ∞ − ∞. x = Aeαt =⇒ mAα2 eαt + bAαeαt = 0.1) have the same homogeneous part. (0.1) e−bt/m = 1 − bt b2 t2 b3 t3 + − + ··· m 2m2 6m3 . (4. 140 m d2 x dx +b = 0. one inhomogeneous.

It’s oﬀ to the right a constant distance (mv0 cos θ)/b. In other words it’s not yet clear which one applies. Next. (4. y : y (t) = m v sin θ + b 0 m = v sin θ + b 0 mg b mg b 1− 1− bt b2 t2 b3 t3 + − + ··· m 2m2 6m3 bt b2 t2 b3 t 3 mgt − + + ··· − 2 3 m 2m 6m b − mgt b (4. bt/m is dimensionless. . so keep going. so I can say b mg/v0 or t m/b. the second says that after a long enough time viscosity dominates. m.3) All the rest of the terms go to zero as b → 0. giving an approxiIn Eq. This is not necessarily big viscosity. the rest of the terms vanish as b → 0.4) 1 = v0 sin θ t − gt2 + · · · 2 Again. for which b is very large? What does “very large” mean? It has to be compared to something. Dimensionally you have few choices: v0 + mg/b is dimensionally consistent.5) This says that eventually the mass is moving straight down with a constant velocity vy = −mg/b. The ﬁrst of these says that the viscous drag is much bigger than the gravitational force. the terminal velocity. and this is the correct result for zero resistance. These two limiting equations for x and y are what you must ﬁnd or you have to go back and discover your mistake. you just have to wait long enough for this approximation to be valid.2) the exponential terms will disappear if bt mate solution after a long time: x(t) ≈ m v cos θ b 0 and y (t) ≈ m mg mgt v0 sin θ + − b b b (4. What about the opposite extreme.4—Three Dimensional Motion Substitute into x(t) and you have 141 x(t) = m bt b2 t2 b3 t3 v0 cos θ 1 − 1 − + − + ··· b m 2m2 6m3 m bt = v0 cos θ − ··· b m = v0 cos θ t + · · · (4.

and that point is x = mv0 cos θ/b. mgt/b is comparable to the ﬁrst term. (4. mv0 /b. (4. (4.6) That helps a lot. y = x tan θ + mg bv0 cos θ + m2 g bx ln 1 − 2 b mv0 cos θ (4. v0 bt m m bt m v sin θ − gt v0 sin θ = v0 t sin θ and ends as b m b 0 and this is very similar to Eq.1 equation. b so then the exponential is already dead.2) becomes the approximate x(t) = m v cos θ 1 − e−bt/m b 0 and y (t) ≈ m mgt v0 sin θ 1 − e−bt/m − b b Why did I keep some terms and drop others? This time the answer is simple. and that is explicitly what I just assumed to be true. The shape of the motion with friction is no longer the symmetric parabola that you’ve seen so often before. the same value as computed from Eq. and you cannot make some of the simplifying assumptions that you may have taken for granted.2) for x and y to get a non-parametric equation for the trajectory. The x log goes to −∞ there. What is the behavior for small x? Is it what you expect? The vertical dashed line in the ﬁgure shows the vertical asymptote x = mv0 cos θ/b. this is zero. The only term that I dropped was the one inside the brackets for which mg/b v0 . doesn’t it? There really are some things that you can dig out of this y Fig. and the trajectory approaches that vertical motion as time goes to inﬁnity (or until it hits the ground). When x increases. Just as with the zero viscosity case you can eliminate t between the equations (4. The curved dashed line is the trajectory the of the same mass with the same initial conditions but without friction. We’re not done yet. As x starts at zero.5). so the exact result Eq. for which you are ﬁring a bullet into a large jar of honey? b mg/v0 . 4. Does it take the same time to come down as to go up? No.4—Three Dimensional Motion 142 What about the case for which the viscosity is big. Now what? Is the term in the exponent big enough kill the exponential? Check it out: gt = mgt/b mv0 /b v0 This says that if the second term in y (t). mg . .5). the argument of the logarithm drops from one to zero. even though the approach to analyzing it was y starts as slightly diﬀerent. Is the peak of the curve halfway between the left and right intercepts with the x-axis? No.

dx xf xf then xi Fx (x) dx = −U (x) xi = −U (xf ) + U (xi ) (4. Fx = m 2 dvx dvx m dvx −→ Fx vx = mvx −→ Fx vx = dt dt 2 dt Reading from right to left.2 General Results If you read Newton’s Principia you will not ﬁnd the equation F = ma. tf xf Wtotal = ti Fx vx dt = xi Fx dx = ∆K = Kf − Ki (4.7) This is the simplest form of the work-energy theorem. Call this anti-derivative −U . tf tf Fx vx dt = ti ti 2 m dvx dt = 2 dt t=tf t=ti m 2 2 d(vx ) = mvf2 − mvi2 1 2 1 2 (4.9) Put this into the preceding equation and rearrange it. Starting from the basic equation describing the motion of a particle. then the integral depends on the initial and ﬁnal values of x and not on how fast or how slowly you went from the start to the ﬁnish. Fx (x) = − dU . and if you look up Euler’s collected works you will ﬁnd the language and the notation remarkable modern. Start with one dimension. and if the force Fx is a function of the coordinate x alone.8) Does this look familiar? In one dimension.4—Three Dimensional Motion 143 4. You will not even ﬁnd the equation F = dp/dt. and the fundamental theorem of calculus says that you evaluate this anti-derivative at the endpoints and subtract. Fx vx dt = Fx dx. 1 1 −U (xf ) + U (xi ) = mvf2 − mvi2 −→ 2 2 1 1 mvi2 + U (xi ) = mvf2 + U (xf ) (4. Fx (x) has an anti-derivative. His presentation of physics was nothing like the modern way to develop the subject.10) 2 2 . the rate of change of energy is dW d1 2 = mv = Fx vx dt dt 2 x Still another way to manipulate it is to integrate with respect to t. and it is close to unreadable today. there are some general results to derive. That is because we mostly use Euler’s notation. this says that the power. The treatment we are accustomed to was mostly developed by Leonard Euler.

depends on the direction of the ˆ motion. if the object slides to the right the force is to the left. of course it doesn’t return. where FN is the perpendicular (normal) component of the object’s force on the surface and µk is the coeﬃcient of kinetic (sliding) friction. When an object slides along a surface.11) If the friction is too large or the angle too small. It produces a nicer result. you do not have conservation of mechanical energy. At one value of x. look at a mass sliding up x and back down a slope. Staying with one dimension for a moment. what can go wrong? A simple form of force that you’ve seen in an introductory course is friction. corresponding to the direction of motion and so to the direction of friction. . This is the reason for choosing the minus sign on U . xtop and 1 2 W= dx Fx = − − mg sin θ + µk mg cos θ xtop = ∆K = mvf2 − 0 Divide these equations to eliminate xtop and simplify the result.8). 0 then 1 2 W= 2 dx Fx = − mg sin θ − µk mg cos θ xtop = ∆K = 0 − mv0 That was on the way up. Coming down it is (down) 0 Fx = −mg sin θ + µk mg cos θ. the component of force. dry friction is represented by Ffr = µk FN . but it depends on v . Then too there is the pesky fact that static friction is not the same as kinetic.2 fast is it moving when it comes back to its starting position (assuming that it does)? For this example you have to take two cases. violating the assumptions leading to this conservation law. 4.4—Three Dimensional Motion 144 This is in the form of a conservation law. In any case. Common dry friction is velocity dependent. Assuming that this coeﬃcient is independent of the speed of sliding. the force is to the right. How θ Fig. It starts uphill with speed v0 . It may not depend on the magnitude of the velocity. Fx . A fuller form for the equation of dry friction is in Eq. 2 vf2 = v0 sin θ − µk cos θ sin θ + µk cos θ (4. Something evaluated at one time equals the same thing evaluated at a later time: Conservation of mechanical energy. (1. There is no U . This will aﬀect whether it sticks at the top or not. For a simple example of this. if it slides left. There is no Fx (x) and so no U (x). (up) xtop Fx = −mg sin θ − µk mg cos θ.

K + U .7) relates the change in kinetic energy to an integral of the force. The partial derivative notation (∂ instead of d) means that the other two coordinates are treated as constants during the diﬀerentiation.7) and (4. other (x) dx = xi 2 1 2 mvf + U (x f ) − 2 1 2 mvi + U (x i ) (4. Fx = Fx.9).e. the resulting work integral may not be a function of position alone (i. but it includes other forms as special cases. If there is no “other” force then you have conservation of mechanical energy. z ) and with (z. if there is a potential energy function of position the initial value of the energy has some determined value. the necessary conditions are ∂Fx ∂Fy − =0 ∂y ∂x (4. x) instead of (x. not a function of its endpoints alone).12) applies to one dimension. other dx Put this into (4. so the ﬁnal value does too. but with (y. There are conditions on the force needed in order that the potential energy exist.4—Three Dimensional Motion 145 Even in this example with friction there is a part of the force (gravity) for which potential energy exists. In the work-energy theorem it is useful to divide the force into two types: Conservative (there is a potential energy) and Nonconservative (there isn’t). giving a total of three equations. not of the endpoints of the path. y. If you decide not to use the potential energy then you simply make “other” the whole thing. To . Did you go on a straight line? Did you move along the arc of a circle? In Eq. y ). F (x. but of the whole path. and in two or three dimensions there are more complexities. (4. Eq. xf then Fx. cons + Fx. It’s a function. z ). (4.13) You also need the same equations.7) and rearrange. The work integral cannot then depend on the way you went from the initial to the ﬁnal position. cons (x) = − xf xf dU dx and Wtotal = xi Fx dx = −U (x) xi + xi Fx.12) Wother = ∆E and this E is the total mechanical energy. Potential Energy. Even if the force is a function of position alone. In three dimensions the same condition must hold. When the force is a function of the rectangular coordinates. 3-d Eqs. (4. and that integral will usually depend on the path that you took to go from the initial position to the ﬁnal position. xf Fx. This form of the work-energy theorem is equivalent to the others. other .

v = m −→ d mv 2 /2 dv . z ) = − ∂U . In three dimensions the diﬀerential relation between force and energy simply extends that of Eq. z ) = − ∂U ∂z (4. especially the ma . See problem 4.24 for a quick derivation. v dt will almost always depend on the path you take from the beginning to the end. ∂x Fy (x. v= dt dt tf ti F .15) Are these equations as easy to derive as in one dimension? If you’re familiar enough with vector manipulations they are. a dt dt dt dt and you see that the manipulations were valid. v equation.4—Three Dimensional Motion 146 see why this equation is needed. The ﬁrst of the integrals in this equation is not necessarily well-deﬁned without t more eﬀort. ti f F .. In three dimensions there are many ways to get from one point to another. v dt = ti tf d mv 2 /2 dt = 1 mvf2 − 1 mvi2 2 2 dt Are these manipulations legal? Yes. dvy dvx d 2 dvz 2 2 (vx + vy + vz ) = 2vx + 2 vy + 2vz = 2v . z ) = − ∂U . but until you are comfortable with them you should write them out in x-y -z components to see what’s happening. It’s just as true of r: Fr = − ∂U ∂r whether spherical or cylindrical. so that the ﬁnal point is the same as the initial point. y. (4. F = ma −→ F . Fx (x. In this approximations it has the potential energy: Fr = − GM m dU =− 2 r dr −→ U (r) = − GM m r (4. The gravitational force by the Earth on a mass m is radial and is a function of the single coordinate r (at least to a good approximation). in one dimension. look at the case where the potential energy integral goes around a loop. y. Simply giving the limits ti and tf is not enough. ∂y Fz (x.14) All these say is that a particular component of the force is (minus) the derivative of the potential energy with respect to the distance in that direction.9) to more components. . y.

3 a graph of potential energy U (x) became a useful tool to gain a qualitative (and quantitative) understanding of the motion of a mass.9) deﬁnes U as a function of the upper limit. x x+∆x U (x ) = − x0 Fx (x ) dx then U (x + ∆ x ) = − x0 Fx (x ) dx Subtract these.v dt dt If the work integral.11) to see that the work integral from zero to zero depends on the path. xf . The equation (4.v dt (4. but even there you can look back at the analysis leading to Eq. otherwise it does not. = F .16) This is true whether the integral depends on the path or not because power is a derivative and you need to go only the short distance ∆r = v ∆t to evaluate it. F . r+∆r ∆W = r F . (4. taking the zero of the potential to be at x0 . and not on how you go from one to the other. v dt −→ dW = F . x+∆x U (x + ∆ x ) − U (x ) = − x Fx (x ) dx .4—Three Dimensional Motion 147 there are not so many. what happens to the integral as the upper limit is changed? Rewrite that equation. does in fact depend on only the starting and ending points. Even when you can’t solve the equations explicitly you can see how the mass behaves.8) shows that power in one dimension is dW/dt = Fx vx . then potential energy exists. the equation for work in three dimensions gives W= F . ∆r −→ dW dr =F. d = F (r ) . and the parts of the integrals from x0 to x cancel.d = F . Just as the equation (4. d . bouncing between stopping points. 0 W= 0 Fx dx = 0 xtop 0 if the mass doesn’t move at all W= 0 Fx dx + xtop Fx dx = − mg sin θ − µk mg cos θ xtop − − mg sin θ + µk mg cos θ xtop = −2µk mg cos θ xtop = 0 if it goes up and back In section 2. v dt = F . The same sort of pictures help in three dimensions too.

when the increment ∆r is small enough the integral is just a product. If the integral does depend on only the endpoints and not on how you get from one to the other. and Eq. and if this is a constant then r is constant. Move in against F and the potential energy increases. so that they represent the height above mean sea level as you wander over the ground. Move in the direction of F and U decreases. The equipotentials are spheres. d =− r F (r ) . d + r0 F (r ) . so you can write this as a diﬀerential dU = −Fx (x) dx What happens in three dimensions? Much the same thing. . the force is close to radial (in the pretty good approximation that the Earth is spherical). 4. (4. r U (r ) = − r0 F (r ) . If you move in a direction perpendicular to the force. You are walking along a contour. For the gravitational ﬁeld of the Earth. The equation for U is Eq. Make a little change in the endpoint and r+∆r r r+∆r U (r + ∆r ) − U (r ) = − r0 F (r ) . The factor mg is omitted from the contours.3 This is a map of the Earth’s gravitational potential energy mgh over the surface of the Earth in a mountainous region. That implies that the surfaces of constant U are spheres. The component of force you must contend with on your hike is downhill. d Here.4—Three Dimensional Motion 148 For small enough ∆x the integral is just Fx (x)∆x. d and just as in one dimension. (4. dr (4. and this is dU = −F . the potential energy will change. Fig. the dot product is zero and the potential energy does not change in that direction.15).17) says that if you move (d ) perpendicular to the downhill direction then U doesn’t change. U = −GM m/r. d is the little bit of path along which you are integrating.17) How do you picture this? As you move around.

For the other component. You should go back and look at what you’ve studied previously and review it to see that you can get this simple answer by elementary means involving circular motion and a = v 2 /r. If the force is magnetic then power = F .20) It’s the electric ﬁeld alone that does work.4—Three Dimensional Motion 149 Example If in two dimensions (easier to draw) U = αy − βx2 where α and β are positive constants. v = qv × B . the problem now is to determine their eﬀect on charges. You’ve seen the result. but there’s one important simpliﬁcation that applies to all magnetic ﬁelds. so ˆ dU = −F . If it sounds straightforward. Fx = −∂U/∂x = 2βx.16) for power: F .3 E and B ﬁelds How does a charge behave in an electromagnetic ﬁeld? The force law is F = q E + v × B ) = m d2 r/dt2 (4. When you put them together you already get some interesting and surprising results. v . a helix is more likely. because that’s another subject. Recall the expression (4. Well no. that’s probably because you’ve looked at the cases of uniform ﬁelds when you took a beginning course on the subject. just move in the y -direction to get Fy = −α 4. Suppose that someone works them out or measures them. ˆ Start with the case of uniform ﬁelds E = 0 and B = B0 z . When you allow the ﬁelds to be functions of position the mathematics escalates dramatically. What is the force? Equation (4. uniform or not: a magnetic ﬁeld does no work.17) determines the answer. v = 0 (4.19) The values of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds have to be computed somewhere else. d = −F . then ˆ d = xdx. the equipotentials are αy − βx2 = C (4. If you take dr to be in the direction such that y is a constant.18) and Each C deﬁnes a diﬀerent parabola as an equipotential. The force corresponding to this potential is everywhere perpendicular to these parabolas. The charge will go in a circle. xdx = −Fx dx That just gives the ﬁrst of the equations (4. you probably saw only the two ﬁelds separately. Here .14). Even there.

21) Let qB0 /m = ω . z (t) = z0 + vz t (4. so they can wait. x(t) = 1 ω A sin(ωt + δ ) + C. so A/ω is too. but that allow for later generalization. but it’s a perfectly good way to get to the solution. so the solution is ˙ x = A cos(ωt + δ ). dt ˙ dz =0 dt (4. (3) Use matrix methods. How do you solve them? Several ways. y (t) = 1 ω A cos(ωt + δ ) + D. (4) Use operator methods.8 and assume an exponential solution. then this breaks into components ˙ dx ˙ = ω y. The ﬁrst method is not the most general. take y from the ﬁrst equation and substitute it into the second equation. ˙ y= ˙ 1 dx ω dt −→ ˙ ˙ dy 1 d2 x d2 x ˙ = = −ω x −→ = −ω 2 x dt ω dt2 dt2 ˙ This is a simple harmonic oscillator equation for x. (1) Just as with algebraic equations you can eliminate one of the variables between them and get a single equation in one dependent variable. y (t) = R cos(ωt + δ ) + D (4. To eliminate ˙ one of the coordinates between the equations (4.25) . One integral each and you have the functions x(t) and y (t) themselves (plus z ). m d2 r ˆ ˆ ˙ ˆ˙ ˆ˙ ˆ ˙ˆ ˙ ˆ = qv × B0 z = q xx + y y + z z × B0 z = qB0 y x − xy dt2 (4.23) ˙ ˙ You now have the solutions for x and for y . they are simultaneous equations for x and y .4—Three Dimensional Motion 150 I will get the same result using methods that are not so elementary. As for the other two. Call the combination another arbitrary constant. (2) Follow the methods of section 3. dt ˙ dy ˙ = −ω x.22).22) The third of these equations stands by itself and says that the z -component of velocity ˙ ˙ is a constant. then the ﬁrst equation of (4. More powerful methods are not needed. x(t) = R sin(ωt + δ ) + C. and I will pick the letter R.22) says ˙ dx ˙ = −Aω sin(ωt + δ ) = ω y dt (4.24) The constant A is arbitrary. (5) Use complex algebra.

Operator Solution This is an excuse to show you a totally diﬀerent way to attack problems. this accelerator still has some applications.27) . y ) = (0. with B ∝ z . mostly in medicine. D = 0.26) starts at (x.26) Equation (4. and you know that the solution to that is an exponential. (Where did I use assumption that q > 0? And what if it isn’t?) With vz < 0 in the picture. This says v ∝ x. They describe a circle of radius R and with a center at the x-y coordinates C and D.4 The quantity ω = qB/m is called the cyclotron frequency. x(t) = R sin(ωt).22). 4. The acceleration is along v × B . It is. It will look like nothing you’ve seen before and you may well ask if it’s legitimate. The name refers to its application in the ﬁrst high energy particle accelerator invented (1932). you have Fig. C = 0. v (x − C )2 + ( y − D )2 = R 2 Is it going in the correct direction? Set δ = 0. Despite its antiquity. dt or dv q =− B×v dt m This has the same form as the simple equation dx/dt = αx. and a little time later the x-coordinate is ˆ ˆ a little bit positive.4—Three Dimensional Motion 151 Verify that these really do satisfy the equations (4. and take q > 0 to check. R). ˆ ˆ ˆ and this is proportional to x × z = −y . The equation of motion for a charge in a magnetic ﬁeld is m dv = qv × B. Starting from the initial position x0 the result is dx = αx −→ x = eαt x0 dt Then why can’t I solve the previous line as qt dv q = − B × v −→ v = e− m B × v0 dt m (4. y (t) = R cos(ωt) (4. This is exactly what the picture shows — acceleration toward the center of the circle.

so I can at least ask if it satisﬁes the diﬀerential equation. the directions are right. 4th . If you ˆ draw the picture using the unit vector ω × as the factor. 5th .·28) ·· There is still some manipulation to put this series into a manageable form (less than you may think though). 3rd . are in (±) one direction and the 2nd . and you can add it back later.28) itself. etc. d 2t 3t2 v (t) = ω × v0 + ω × (ω × v0 ) + ω × (ω × (ω × v0 )) + · · · dt 2! 3! and this is ω ×(4. It works! Now for some vector manipulation.5 Now the series of terms in Eq. I can deﬁne it by its power series representation. Just set vz = 0 for now. (4.28) are easy to sum. ω × v0 rotates v0 by 90◦ about ω and each successive factor of ω × eﬀects a rotation by another 90◦ about the +ω ˆ ˆ direction.28) term by term. but in the series for v all the terms after the ﬁrst are perpendicular to the direction of ω ˆ (or B ). Call B the z -direction. Diﬀerentiate the series (4. then ex = 1 + x + x2 2! + x3 3! + ··· with x = tω × gives v (t) = etω× v0 = v0 + tω × v0 + t2 2! ω × (ω × v0 ) + t3 3! ω × (ω × (ω × v0 )) + (4. 4. . the ﬁrst few are (and yes. The initial vector v0 can be in any direction. Looking down along the z -axis (B out and ω = −q B/m in). The 1st . then vz stays constant and only the other components change. let ω = −q B/m.4—Three Dimensional Motion 152 Now if I can just ﬁgure out what the exponential of “B ×” is. etc. so the cross product by a unit vector z is purely a rotation. look again) (ω ×)2 v0 v0 ω × v0 (ω ×)3 v0 (ω ×)4 v0 Fig. Each term in the series is a well-deﬁned product of vectors. To keep the algebraic factors from accumulating. are in (±) the perpendicular direction. You do that the usual way: You plug in. In drawing the picture the lengths of the vectors change because of the factor ω . then all the lengths would be ˆ the same.

25)? It represents motion along a helix: a constant velocity in one direction and uniform circular motion about that direction as an axis. (4. It doesn’t work because v × B is perpendicular to B .28) is ˆ ˆ v (t) = z v0z + v1 + ωtω × v1 + ˆ = z v0z + v1 1 − ω 2 t2 2! − v1 + ω 3 t3 3! ˆ − ω × v1 + ω 4 t4 4! v1 + . Both E and B With both ﬁelds present (but still uniform) the equations are dv (4. Instead of pursuing a general solution to these equations. and that is not necessarily in the direction of E .) Start the charge at the origin with zero velocity. both ˆ generalities. The ˆ ˆ ˆ magnetic force qv × B is in the y × z = x-direction.4—Three Dimensional Motion 153 Write the initial velocity as two terms.30) Does this agree with Eq. See problem 4.31) dt This is a linear. notice that E and B are constants. so that’s done. After that go for the ˆ-direction and E along the y -direction. and only the v1 is rotated. . Equation (4.29) ω 2 t2 2! 4! ˆ ˆ = z v0z + v1 cos ωt + ω × v1 sin ωt t + ω 4 t4 ˆ − · · · + ω × v1 ωt − ω 3 t3 3! + ω 5 t5 5! The position as a function of time is now r0 + 0 ˆ dt v (t ) = r0 + z v0z t + 1 ω ˆ ω × v1 + 1 ω ˆ v1 sin ωt − ω × v1 cos ωt (4. perpendicular to both E and B . ﬁnding the general solution to the homogeneous part and ﬁnding any one solution to the inhomogeneous part. For a solution to the inhomogeneous part.32) . A function that is linear in t will work. One along the z -axis and the other ˆ perpendicular to it: v0 = z v0z + v1 . take a special y E case and solve it by the simplest possible methods. The homogeneous part is Eq. .17. Take B along the z x uniform. (q > 0. so a constant v is a plausible guess. and the magnetic ﬁeld does nothing (initially) because the velocity is zero. ˆ In a little time the velocity has a y -component and now the magnetic ﬁeld will act.25). The B out ˆ ﬁrst thing to happen is that the charge accelerates along y because of the electric ﬁeld. inhomogeneous diﬀerential equation for v . (4. dv ˆ ˆ m = q Ey + v × Bz dt −→ ˙ mvx = qBvy ˙ mvy = qE − qBvx ˙ mvz = 0 (4. so it pushes the charge along the x-axis. As such you can divide the F =q E+v×B)=m problem in two. − ··· (4.

4—Three Dimensional Motion 154 The third equation says that vz started at zero and so it stays at zero.34) x 2πE/Bω Fig. the ﬁrst implies that vx ∝ t. this is the curve that the pebble will follow as you drive down the road — rotation about an axis with constant motion of that axis. inh = 0. so this determines δ = 0 and A = −E/B . and if that doesn’t work. Let ω = qB/m.3. inh = E . the ﬁrst implies that vy is zero. 4. B vy (t) = −A sin(ωt + δ ) (4. vx. starting with the initial conditions at the origin and getting x(t) = E E E t− sin(ωt). then the second equation can’t work. Now integrate these.22) with solutions (4. hom = A cos(ωt + δ ). then without the E -term these are the equations (4. add a term proportional to t. hom = −A sin(ωt + δ ) The general solution is the sum of these. What is the initial behavior of this motion? Expand the solution for small time. Try a constant. . consistent with the graph just before Eq. B vy. so you know the solutions to the homogeneous part of these equations. Now try guessing a particular solution for the inhomogeneous part.23).6 B This curve is called a cycloid. x(t) ≈ and E E Eω 2 3 t− ωt − ω 3 t3 /6 = t B Bω 6B E Eω 2 qE 2 y (t) ≈ 1 − 1 + ω 2 t2 /2 = t = t Bω 2B 2m For these small times. vx. and the second does work for the right value of the constant vx .32). * see the Famous Curves Index mentioned at the end of section 0. and start with the simplest guesses. B Bω y y (t) = E 1 − cos(ωt) Bω (4. so the motion starts along the y -direction as expected. vy.* If a pebble is caught in the tread of your car’s tire. vx (t) = E + A cos(ωt + δ ). (4. If vy is a constant.33) The velocity at time zero is zero. the t2 term is much bigger than t3 . If vx is a constant. The shape of the curve near the origin behaves as y ∝ x2/3 .

The result when you do it with the correct relativistic equations and small enough B is that there is no oscillation. Other Initial Conditions The equations (4. Can you do it that way? Yes. I didn’t try to show manipulations using the whole vector formalism with E ’s and B ’s. y . They look like y x y x Fig. and these two examples simply have respectively positive and negative initial components of velocity in the x-direction.7 The curves are called trochoids instead of cycloids. you will get other shapes for the curves.35) Depending on the initial conditions. but it is a lot of work without enough beneﬁt. and 2 . The simplest such B -ﬁeld has space dependence linear in x. The analog of the equations (4. and the mass will continue to accelerate in the +y -direction. Non-uniform B-ﬁelds You may think that a non-uniform magnetic ﬁeld will be somewhat more diﬃcult than a uniform one. (4. B y (t) = γ − β cos(ωt + δ ) (4. and it is something like ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ B = B0 z + α z z − 2 xx − 2 y y A form such as this is needed in order to satisfy Maxwell’s equations. but then you have to use the relativistic version of these equations. 4.34) xE/B . approaching the speed of light as time goes on. You would be wrong. even without E in the mix it’s a lot more diﬃcult. In solving the equations for crossed electric and magnetic ﬁelds.4—Three Dimensional Motion 155 ˆ The average velocity is from Eq. just make the magnetic ﬁeld small enough. No more cycloid. and z . x(t) = α + E t + β sin(ωt + δ ).21) and (4.34) assume that the charge started from rest. all the equations used components. Is it possible for this result to be bigger you can write it as the product E × B/B than the speed of light? Of course. or equivalently on your choices of the four arbitrary constants this equation.33).22) are m d2 r ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ 2 ˆ = qv × B0 z + qv × α z z − 2 xx − 1 y y dt2 ˙ˆ ˙ ˆ ˆ ˙ 2 ˙ ˆ ˙ 1 ˙ ˆ 1 ˙ ˙ = qB0 y x − xy + qα x z y + 1 y z + y − z x − 2 xz + z 2 xy − y x . perpendicular to both ﬁelds. A more general initial condition is easy enough to implement simply by integrating the equations (4.

**4—Three Dimensional Motion These equations are
**

¨ x=

156

qB0 qα ˙ ˙ 2 ˙ y+ zy + 1 yz , m m

¨ y=−

qα qB0 ˙ ˙ 2 ˙ x+ − z x − 1 xz , m m

¨ z=

qα m

1 ˙ ˙ 2 xy − y x

and these are non-linear equations. Their solution (even approximately) is quite diﬃcult, and I am not going to spend much time on them. I present this simply to show how fast simple-looking problems can become very diﬃcult to solve.

4.4 Magnetic Mirrors There is one exception. Not because it is any easier, but because the result is both interesting and important, so that it’s worth some time to look at it. The Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is not uniform, being larger near the magnetic poles and weaker in between. The solar wind sends charged particles, electrons and ions, in a steady stream, and in the absence of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld the abrasive eﬀect of that solar wind would gradually strip the Earth of its atmosphere. This is probably what has happened on Mars because that planet’s magnetic ﬁeld is far too weak to deﬂect these particles. When charges reach the Earth, many are deﬂected, but some are trapped in the Earth’s ﬁeld and form belts of charged particles that bounce around in “magnetic mirrors.” These are the Van Allen belts. In a uniform magnetic ﬁeld, a charge moves according to Eq. (4.24) — a helix. In the Earth’s ﬁeld, an electron will, to a good approximation, spiral around a B-ﬁeld line, with the axis of the helix bending around with the ﬁeld. Furthermore, as the ﬁeld gets stronger the radius of the electron’s orbit will get smaller and its motion along the ﬁeld line will slow. Eventually the electron’s orbit will stop and reverse, sending it back toward the other magnetic pole. The mirror eﬀect is what traps the charges in the Van Allen belts. The equations describing the Earth’s ﬁeld are not too bad to handle, but in order to understand the phenomenon I will take a simpliﬁed model of the ﬁeld and avoid unneeded complexities.

+z

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ B = B0 z + B0 z 2 z − z (xx + y y ) /

2

(4.36) The Earth’s ﬁeld is largest near the North and South magnetic poles, but the ﬁeld lines curve around the Earth following the structure of a magnetic dipole ﬁeld. This mathematical model straightens out those lines while still showing the essential structure

z=0

B-ﬁeld lines

4—Three Dimensional Motion

157

of the ﬁeld. The parameter is the scale over which the ﬁeld changes a lot. On the axis, if you go from z = 0 to z = ± the ﬁeld strength doubles and the ﬁeld lines come closer to each other. The equation for the magnetic ﬁeld lines is r = x2 + y 2 = √ α/ 2 + z 2 , where α is a parameter that speciﬁes which ﬁeld line you are referring to, and the line lies in a plane with the z -axis, which is left-to-right. The picture shows many ﬁeld lines, with the magnetic ﬁeld strength largest on the left and right. The equations describing the motion of an electron in a magnetic ﬁeld are

dr = v, dt

dv q = v×B dt m

With initial data r (0) = r0 and v (0) = v0 you can, using a lot of arithmetic, march the electron a little bit at a time through its motion. Call the little bit of time by the traditional name: ∆t. The step from time zero is approximated by

v (∆t) = v (0) + (q/m)v (0) × B r(0) ∆t,

r(∆t) = r(0) + v (∆t)∆t

After the ﬁrst step comes the second step, from ∆t to 2∆t. It’s the same as the ﬁrst step except that the initial conditions are now the values of r(∆t) and v (∆t) that you just computed. And keep doing this one ∆t at a time. (Computers are good at blindly repetitive arithmetic.) Repeat this for n = 0 on up to n = the end of your patience,

**v (n + 1)∆t = v (n∆t) + (q/m)v (n∆t) × B r(n∆t) ∆t r (n + 1)∆t = r(n∆t) + v (n + 1)∆t ∆t
**

Is your result accurate enough? If not you can use a smaller ∆t. If still not, then you can learn one of the more sophisticated methods to do this sort of computation. Runge-Kutta or Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg are popular techniques. Look up chapter 11 of “Mathematical Tools in Physics” for an introduction to the subject. The primitive form that I wrote above is rarely used in practice because it’s not very accurate, and the other, better, methods are not much harder to implement. In making this plot, I used a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to step through the motion of the charge as it traverses the ﬁeld.

Fig. 4.8

4—Three Dimensional Motion

158

This picture shows one of the magnetic ﬁeld lines as in the preceding drawing. The charge starts on the left side with initial velocity at some angle to the ﬁeld and it spirals around the direction of B as represented by the ﬁeld line. As the ﬁeld becomes weaker toward the midpoint the orbital radius increases, the transverse component of the velocity decreases, and the longitudinal component of velocity increases. Toward the right side, the longitudinal component of velocity decreases to zero and the charge is reﬂected back along its path. The center of the orbit follows the ﬁeld line to good accuracy. How is it possible to understand this motion without recourse to all this numerical computation? There is one key fact that provides insight, allowing you to understand most of these results without detailed calculation. Deriving that fact gets into the subject of adiabatic invariants, which is well beyond anything in this book, but I will simply state the result and use it. The result needed is that as the charge moves through the ﬁeld it circles around a ﬁeld line and the center of the circle follows that ﬁeld line. Also, the product of the local magnetic ﬁeld and the area of the circular orbit stays constant (the adiabatic invariant). Both of these statements are approximate, but useful. If you accept them, you can explain the results of the preceding paragraph. An assumption needed to make this valid is that the movement along the ﬁeld is slow compared to the rotation around it. v v⊥ .

v r v⊥

B

Fig. 4.9

For a little circle around the ﬁeld line, start by taking B as the value at the center of the circle. The charge has speed v with components parallel to the axis and 2 perpendicular to the axis: call them v and v⊥ . The speed is constant v 2 = v 2 + v⊥ . Why constant? Magnetic forces do no work, Eq. (4.20), so mv 2 /2 doesn’t change. For this circle, the radial component of F = ma is

m

2 v⊥ v qB = qv⊥ B −→ ⊥ = r r m

I claimed that πr2 B is an adiabatic invariant, which means that it’s nearly constant. Combine that equation with this one.

πr2 B = Φ

Rearrange this to get

and

2 v⊥ q 2 B 2 = r2 m2

imply

2 v⊥ q2B 2 = m2 Φ/πB

2 v⊥ =

q2Φ B πm2

(4.37)

4—Three Dimensional Motion

159

The factors are less important than the relation between v⊥ and B . It says that as the magnetic ﬁeld gets stronger, the component v⊥ gets bigger. But, the speed stays constant, so that says that the other component, v , must get smaller. When B gets big enough, that parallel component goes to zero and the motion along the ﬁeld line stops. That’s the magnetic mirror. You can get a surprising result out of this by writing the equation for the kinetic energy of the charge. (A constant, remember.)

2 K = mv 2 = m v 2 + v⊥ = m v 2 +

1 2

1 2

1 2

q2Φ B πm2

(4.38)

Look at the motion along the axis, where the ﬁeld has only the z -component. From Eq. (4.36),

B = B0 + B0 z 2 /

This says that

2

1 q2Φ −→ K = m v 2 + B + B0 z 2 / 2 πm2 0

2

1 1 q2Φ z2 mv 2 + B0 2 = a constant (4.39) 2 2 πm That is a harmonic oscillator. That means that not only does the motion along the ﬁeld line stop, it reverses and keeps bouncing back and forth in simple harmonic motion until it hits something, typically another particle. As an aside: If you you approximate the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld as a magnetic dipole (pretty good) and do the same energy analysis that led to Eq. (4.39), you will ﬁnd that the motion of the electron matches that of a pendulum, the subject of the next section.

4.5 Pendulum, large angles The pendulum was an example of a simple harmonic oscillator in the last chapter, but it wasn’t exactly harmonic, any more than any other oscillation about an equilibrium will be. In Eq. (3.24) you had something that was not a simple harmonic oscillator, and it became one only in the small angle approximation. What if the angle isn’t small? Solving for the position as a function of time is diﬃcult, but if all you want is the period of oscillation then that’s not so hard — all that is involved is doing a diﬃcult integral. In the equation (3.28) you have

U E φ

˙ E = m 2 φ2 + mg (1 − cos φ)

1 2

(4.40)

4—Three Dimensional Motion

160

In that chapter, I diﬀerentiated the energy, dE/dt = 0 and got the diﬀerential equations of motion. Instead, solve this energy equation for dt directly. 2

m

2

E − mg (1 − cos φ) =

dφ dt

2

−→ dt =

dφ (2E/m 2 ) − (2g/ )(1 − cos φ)

This separates the equation, and all you have to do now is to integrate. It is a tough integral but not impossible, and it helps to do a little manipulation ﬁrst. Remember the trigonometric identity for half-angles? sin2

φ

1 = (1 − cos φ) 2 2

dt =

dφ

(2E/m 2 ) − (4g/ ) sin2 (φ/2)

=

dφ

4g (E/2mg ) − sin2 (φ/2)

(4.41)

Why manipulate the expression in this way? It’s not obvious, and I’m sure that the ﬁrst person to solve this problem did not ﬁnd the right path through the maze with the initial attack. The motion of the pendulum is back and forth between the stopping points as in section 2.3. The stopping points occur when the kinetic energy drops to zero — when the line of constant E in the graph, Eq. (4.40), crosses the curve U (φ). That is when ˙ φ = 0, ˙ φ = 0 =⇒ E = mg (1 − cos φ) = 2mg sin2 (φ/2) and that is the point where the denominator under dφ vanishes in Eq. (4.41). Now you can try to do the integral of dt to get the period of the pendulum, and up to this point all the manipulations have been the same kind that you see in a “techniques of integration” chapter in your introductory calculus text. But now comes a clever trick. Again, it is nothing beyond what is done in beginning calculus (a change of variables), but it is not an obvious change. As it stands the period of the pendulum is four times the time it takes to go from the center to the stopping point

φmax

T =4

dt = 4

0

dφ

4g (E/2mg ) − sin2 (φ/2)

where

φmax = 2 sin−1

E

2mg

4—Three Dimensional Motion

161

The integral goes from zero to a limit that depends on the energy. It would be much easier to handle if the limit is ﬁxed. The trick: let

E φ sin θ = sin 2mg 2

(4.42)

This is designed so that as θ goes from zero to π/2, the angle φ goes from zero to φmax . Why should this help? If it didn’t I would not be telling you about it. Execute the change of variables.

**E 1 φ cos θ dθ = cos dφ 2mg 2 2 dφ
**

(E/2mg ) − sin2 (φ/2) =2

=

E 2mg

cos θ dθ

1 2

cos φ 2

(E/2mg ) − sin2 (φ/2)

cos θ dθ 1 − sin2 (φ/2) 1 − sin2 θ

=2

dθ 1 − k 2 sin2 θ

where

k2 =

E φmax = sin2 2mg 2 (4.43)

**Assemble everything to get the period of oscillation
**

π/2

1 − k 2 sin2 θ (4.44) There are a lot of missing steps in this derivation, but not big ones. You should carry out these details for yourself. Why k 2 ? That’s simply the most common convention in the treatment of these “Elliptic Integrals,” though not the only one. In Abramowitz and Stegun they use the letter m instead of k 2 . The standard notation for this “elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind” is

0 0

T =4

dt = 4

4g

dθ

2 1 − k 2 sin2 θ

π/2

=4

g

dθ

1

π/2

K=

0

dθ

1 1 − k 2 sin2 θ

,

so

T = 4K

g

(4.45)

Should I believe the answer? If the oscillations are small enough this must reduce to the solution of T for oscillations with small enough energy to allow small angle

4—Three Dimensional Motion approximations. Small enough energy means that the parameter k 2 = Start by making it zero.

π/2

162

E/mg

1.

T =4

g

dθ

0

1 =4 1

π g2

= 2π

g

and that is 2π/ω0 from Eq. (3.26), so it works. Now what if the energy is not so small? k 2 can still be small but not negligible. Do a power series expansion using the binomial expansion of Eq. (0.1). (1 + x)n =1 + nx + + ··· and for n = −1/2 this is 2! 1.3 1.3.5 1 1 − x + 2 . x2 − 3 . x3 + · · · 2 2 2! 2 3! 1 2 1.3 4 4 k sin θ + · · · 22 . 2! 1.3 2.4

2

n(n − 1)x2

π/2

T =4

= 2π

g g

dθ 1 + k 2 sin2 θ +

1 2

2

(4.46) 1.3.5 2.4.6

2

0

1+

sin2

φmax

2

+

sin4

φmax

2

+

sin6

φmax

2

+ ··· (4.47)

This requires another integral, that of sin2n θ dθ, and you can either learn how to do it (probably with complex variables) or have a big enough table of integrals such as that by Gradshteyn and Ryzhik. The integral here is equation number 3.621.3 in their book:

π/2

0

dθ sin2n θ =

(2n − 1)!! π (2n)!! 2

The double factorial notation means the product of every other integer up to the given one. For example 5!! = 15 and 6!! = 48. For an angle of φmax = 30◦ this series is 2π For 90◦ it is 2π 1 + 0.1250 + 0.0352 + 0.0122 + 0.0003 + · · · , = 1.173 1 + 0.01674 + 0.000005 + · · · , = 1.017

g

g

48) ∼ 16 1 − k2 as k → 1 Though this function approaches inﬁnity as k → 1.39) in terms of the cyclotron frequency at z = 0. (4. equation (17. (4. (4. 4 Rearrange Eq. . (4. The logarithm has a very mild sort of inﬁnity. k 2 = sin2 (179◦ /2) = 0. evaluated using Eq. Find the relations between speed.128 −→ 2 = π K = 3.13) to Eq. angular frequency. π/2 K= 0 dθ 1 ln 2 1 1 − k 2 sin2 θ = π 2 1+ 1 2 2 k2 + 1.4 2 k4 + 1. (4. Exercises 1 Apply Eq.3 2. and magnetic ﬁeld strength for a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.9999238 −→ K ≈ 6.90 The deﬁning equation for this elliptic integral can be evaluated by the series shown for not too big values of k . qB0 /m. y ) = (k/r2 )r = (k/r3 )r against Eq.4—Three Dimensional Motion 163 You can see that even at 90◦ this series converges rapidly and changes the small angle result by about 17%. ˆ 2 Check the radial force function F (x.14). It is from Abramowitz and Stegun. radius.3. If you want to try 179◦ you will quickly conclude that there’s got to be a better way. At this point you can look up a reference on elliptic integrals to ﬁnd that the quantity in brackets is approximately 3. because this time the sine of φmax /2 is close to one and the series converges very slowly.4. and the radius of the orbit at z = 0.3.6 2 k6 + · · · (4.90.48). and the equation following is an approximate expression that is useful for larger k (near one). r0 .13).26). it does so slowly. 3 Using only the elementary methods (before you ever heard of a diﬀerential equation).5 2.

4. 4.3 What is the maximum height as found from either Eq.5 ˙ Sometimes a quadratic equation is a linear equation in disguise. so x = 1 is almost right. The equation for the ground is y = 0 if you assume that the ground is level. but pick your origin for the angular momentum and torque about the point (x. Also.6) for small b.6) will tell you where the projectile hits the ground. 0).13)) about the origin at time t.2) or (4. and getting your answer correct to terms linear in b. the equation for the ground is no longer y = 0. (If x is big. Assume that x is very big in this quadratic equation and estimate its value as the root of a linear equation.) Do you choose your coordinate system x-y as .4—Three Dimensional Motion 164 Problems 4.7 A mass drops from rest without air resistance. 4. (4. Assume that the hill is represented by a straight line at an angle α from the horizontal and write its equation.1 Fill in the missing steps in taking the limits.5. 4. y. 0. First take the case b = 0 and solve that for the range.6) for small b to ﬁnd the equation for the trajectory as b → 0. 4.6) to the ﬁrst order in b and ﬁnd the ﬁrst order correction to the range. Repeat this. compare it to the torque on the mass.6 Expand Eq. Compare it to the traditional quadratic formula’s answer by using a series expansion on it. Eqs. Find the range of a projectile ﬁred up such a hill. For this problem.001x2 gives a correction to the ﬁrst approximate answer because you know the approximate value of x on the right (→ 1.4).4 Expand Eq. z ) = (2x0 .3) and (4. (4. (4. z = 0. now would be a good time. starting from coordinates x = x0 . and the other one is big.6). Is your answer plausible? 4. which terms must nearly cancel each other?) 4. At what angle do you ﬁre it to get the maximum range? (And is this angle measured from the horizontal or from the hill itself? Again.2 Derive Eq.9˙ If you ﬁre a projectile up a hill and want to ﬁnd its range. (1. (b) A quadratic equation has two roots.001). (a) Solve the equation 0. ﬁnd the next order terms in b for these equations — the ﬁrst non-vanishing correction. (4. assuming a level surface.6).8˙ The equation (4. keeping terms up to those linear in b. Compute its angular momentum (Eq. Then x = 1 + 0. If you haven’t done problem 4. (4. (4. the range. your choice.001x2 − x + 1 = 0 by noticing that it is almost linear. assume zero air resistance. 4. Next expand Eq. What is the range of the projectile. Do you measure the position where it hits horizontally or along the hill? Your choice. y = y0 .

. but I recommend the latter. the air has a horizontal ˆ velocity −vair x. Is the result compatible with the expression ω = qB0 /m as found in the text? 4.18). and it is Fy (0) dt = mv0 sin θ. ˆ ˆ 4. assuming a solution x = A1 eαt and y = A2 eαt just as in Eq. your choice. (4.25) agree. (4.15 Eq. and you will need this in chapter six.1 now has a headwind. 4. Here you are getting the same result by a diﬀerent method.22) can be solved several diﬀerent ways. with B = B0 x. Rearrange the components and group the terms in order to derive the expression for acceleration found in Eq. What wind will it take to bring the mass back to its starting point? 4. 4. but for an arbitrary force on the right: m d 2 + b dy = dt dt F (t). Find the motion of the charge.31). (3. (4. If you include this in the integral. so that the very ﬁrst time interval contributes a large chunk to the whole integral. you can solve for the motion of a charge in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld by elementary means.30) and (4.14 Draw pictures of the equipotentials and of F for the example in Eq. using such equations as a = v 2 /r.2). start a charge at the origin ˆ ˆ with zero velocity and take E = E0 x. Solve for the trajectory now and analyze the result. you add this to the result from part (a) to get the full solution for y (t) in agreement with Eq.10 The projectile analyzed in section 4. (4. You had to apply a force to give it the initial velocity. Do it using method (2).11 Following the methods of section 3. (0.57). a large force acting for a very short time. that is an impulse. You can handle that if you remember that −mg is not the only force that acts on the projectile.16 As stated in the second paragraph of section 4. Do so. (b) The result doesn’t agree with the y part of Eq.13˙ Start from r (t) = x r(t) cos φ(t) + y r(t) sin φ(t) and diﬀerentiate it once and twice. as mentioned in thee paragraph ˙ ˙ right after it.1).4—Three Dimensional Motion 165 horizontal and vertical or do you choose it parallel and perpendicular to the hill? Again. (4. ﬁnd the Green’s function solution for 2y equations of the form Eq.2) because the initial condition vy (0) = v0 sin θ is not included. 4.12˙ (a) Now use the formula from the preceding problem and apply it to Eq. 4.18 For motion in uniform electric and magnetic ﬁelds.17 Show that the solutions (4. 4. Follow that method through to get a non-zero solution for A1 and A2 and then on to the complete solution. Does your answer reduce to the correct values in all the special cases for which you can ﬁnd the answer easily? 4.10. (4.3.1).

22˙ A particle of mass m is displaced slightly from its equilibrium position at the top of a smooth ﬁxed sphere of radius R. Through what angle does the particle move before it leaves the sphere? ˆ 4. (One possible path from a point to itself just sits still. 4.47). Divide by the area of the rectangle and take the limit as ∆x and ∆y → 0.4—Three Dimensional Motion 166 4. The integral in this approximation is just the sum of four dot products. y + 1 ∆y ). and is made to rotate in a horizontal plane about an axis perpendicular to one end at a ﬁxed angular speed ω0 . Show that the result is Eq.47). you can approximate the value of the integral along each side by assuming that F has the constant value it attains at the midpoint of each side. The wire is straight and horizontal. Find the future motion of m.19 There is a lot of algebra between equations (4.24 If the work integral in three dimensions is independent of path.46) and (4. 4. For example. what happens if E > 2mg ? And draw some graphs. through sin2 . 4.13).26 In Eq.23) you determine the escape speed from the Earth.43) and those preceding it. Assume zero friction. 4. .23 A gravitational force is F = −GM mr/r 2 .20˙ There is one case for which the integral in Eq.41) is possible in terms of elementary functions: E = 2mg .25 In Eq. 2 ˆ d → y ∆y . What is the force that the wire exerts on m? Have you done problem 4. Show that Fx = −GM mx/r 3 and that this force satisﬁes Eq.40) and (4. At the equator you have the speed of the ground added to the total velocity vector. on the right-hand side F = F (x + ∆x. (b) Then evaluate the integrals for the ﬁrst two terms in the series Eqs.13). Since this rectangle is so small. (a) Fill in the missing steps. (4. and it slides because of gravity. Start the pendulum at the bottom with exactly this kinetic energy and solve for the angle as a function of time. That assumed that the planet is not rotating. (4. (2. Put in the numbers and compare the two speeds. graphing and interpreting the result φ(t). For that side. (4.21 A particle of mass m can slide freely along a wire. then in particular. (4. At time t = 0 the mass is at radius r0 and has zero radial velocity. (4. 4. from y to y + ∆y and from x to x + ∆x.) Apply this to a very tiny rectangular loop in the x-y plane. the work going around a closed loop is zero. going nowhere.13 yet? 4. Take that into account and determine the minimum speed that you have to give the rocket relative to the ground so that it escapes.

with half the Earth’s radius. It’s just like the forced simple harmonic oscillator except that the two functions x1 (t) and x2 (t) will have diﬀerent amplitudes. 4. (4. Pick radii for the electron’s circular motion of 1 mm and 1 cm.35 In chapter three.29 A charged particle has an initial velocity perpendicular to a uniform magnetic ﬁeld (no E ). interpret this operator acting on functions of the real variable x.30 In the magnetic mirror of section 4. Now there is friction with the air. 4.32 In the same spirit as the operator solution in section 4.28 To obtain Eq. Now solve for the motion assuming that you start the system from rest. (4. starting at Eq.27). Note: This assumption −bv is not a good one for this process. What is the shape of the path ˆ ˆ of the charge if the initial velocity is in the −x direction? In the +x direction? 4. Apply an oscillating force to one of the masses: F0 cos Ωt. . Compare them to the results of problem 3.5 × 10−4 T.27). Derive it from Eq. eh dx f (x) d (h is a constant) 4. where is the stopping point? Did you do the exercise #4 to express this in terms of the cyclotron frequency? 4.8.33 An Atwood machine has two masses hung over a pulley. (4.34¨There’s more to say about the coupled oscillators of section 3.5 Gauss = 0. In this otherwise ideal Atwood machine.3.4. submerge one of the masses in water so that it feels a force −bv .34) the charge started at rest.39)? Also get the numerical value for an electron in a ﬁeld the size of Earth’s: 0. 4. and for motion along the central axis. Graph the two results (for just the inhomogeneous solution) for the two amplitudes versus Ω.32).47). there is an approximate expression for the frequency of a pendulum. what is the frequency of oscillation determined by Eq. Find (and of course sketch) the charge’s subsequent motion.27 Using crossed electric and magnetic ﬁelds as in Eq.31 For the same magnetic mirror. but the mathematics is much harder in that case.11. Why do the graphs behave this way? 4. A constant magnitude force (like dry friction) is better. Write the equations of motion as done there. Do it in the symmetric case m1 = m2 and k1 = k3 . ﬁnd the initial conditions on the velocity so that the charge is unaccelerated. (4. and now ﬁnd the inhomogeneous solution to the equations.4—Three Dimensional Motion 167 4. (4. Eq. 4. assumed to be a force −bv . (3. and idealized versions use massless strings and pulleys.

How large is this change if θ = 45◦ and v0 is large enough to get an uncorrected distance of 30 km? Ans: about 100 m. getting the variation of g with altitude near the surface.36 In problem 3.36 one spring was replaced by a damper. Be sure to check some special cases to verify your result. Set up and solve F = ma for this case.38¨The electromagnetic force that one charged particle exerts on another starts with the Coulomb law. The next approximation is that a moving charge creates a magnetic ﬁeld that will aﬀect the other charge if it too is moving. Fire a projectile from the surface at initial speed v0 and angle from the horizontal θ. What is the total force on the two particles. Still assuming a ﬂat Earth. make the problem symmetric so that the two on the end are the same. 4. neglecting air resistance this time.37˙ The Earth’s gravity drops oﬀ with height. r = R + y is the distance from its center. What if all three springs are replaced by dampers? Again. Fon 1 by 2 + Fon 2 by 1 ? To simplify the result you will have to hunt up the “Jacobi Identity” involving cross products.4—Three Dimensional Motion 168 4. Expand this to the ﬁrst order in y . . 4. The total of these is Fon 2 by 1 = q1 q2 ˆ r+ 4π 0 c2 v 2 1 ˆ × v1 × r ˆ where r is the unit vector pointing from charge q1 toward charge q2 . g0 is the gravitational ﬁeld at the surface. g (y ) = −g0 R2 /r2 where R is the Earth’s radius. ﬁnd where it hits the ground and then the diﬀerence between this answer and the traditional one that assumes g has the constant value it had at the surface.

work out the simpler example of transforming to a coordinate system that’s accelerating in a straight line. a car perhaps. Is it? How big is the error and are there any circumstances where it matters? If you are looking at something small. then the eﬀect is very important. Newton’s second law. z. Now what are the velocity and acceleration in the new coordinate system? x x = x − v0 t Fig. Well no. as the sun orbits our galaxy every 250 million years or so. This is exactly what it’s supposed to be because it is what I will write down in my coordinate system for your position. Trying to understand the weather is complicated enough without adding that sort of obstacle. you must be in an inertial system. it’s rotating. The second law says that if you’re in an inertial system then F = ma (or dp/dt). t) and your (moving) coordinate system is (x . the Galilean transformation. y . the size of a house or a bathtub or even a golf course. chapter one. is the deﬁnition of an inertial system. z = z. so it’s probably o. . If you want to understand the Gulf Stream or weather systems or how to ﬁre long-range artillery. That means that to describe something on the Earth you should use a sun-centered* coordinate system. not really.1 Galilean Transformation Before jumping to the rotating case.1) To check that the signs are right. so the change of coordinates is x = x − v0 t.1 dx d(x − v0 t) dx = = − v0 dt dt dt * Maybe even a galaxy-centered system. 5. so the better way to do it is to work out the mathematics to ﬁnd out what changes you have to make to F = ma in order to apply it to a non-inertial system. And before that I’ll look at the transformation to a coordinate system moving at constant velocity. That means that you can’t use this equation on the Earth. the eﬀect is too small to detect without delicate instruments and careful controls. The Earth isn’t rotating all that fast. z . y. t =t y O y x O (5.Non-Inertial Systems The ﬁrst of Newton’s laws. My coordinate system is (x. t ).k. The Earth is not an inertial system. y = y. You are in motion along the x-axis at a velocity v0 . the moving coordinate’s origin is at x = 0 and that’s x − v0 t = 0. If you want to use the basic equation. to ignore the error. 5.

Or is it? Suppose that the force is velocity dependent. Does that mean that the force will be diﬀerent in the two systems? No. frictional forces commonly depend on velocity. and that means that the diﬀerence of two velocities will not change and that the forces remain unaﬀected. etc. (That will change when you get into special relativity. Repeat the previous calculation: dx d(x − v0 t − a0 t2 /2) dx = = − v0 − a0 t dt dt dt d2 x d2 x d dx = − v0 − a0 t = 2 − a0 dt2 dt dt dt In the primed coordinate system Newton’s second law now becomes Fx = m d2 x d2 x =m + a0 dt2 dt2 Rearrange this and make is look like the old F = ma. but with an extra term that looks and behaves just like an extra force. section 9. Fx − ma0 = m d2 x dt2 The y and z part are unchanged (5. so it doesn’t matter whether you use t or t . All frictional forces depend on the relative velocity of two things. . an airplane going through the air.) but mathematically you can handle it as if it is. x = x − v0 t − a0 t2 .4) If you are in the accelerated system this looks like the normal F = ma. t =t (5. so F = ma is the same for both. a swimmer in water. A book sliding on a table. It is variously called an “inertial force” or a “ﬁctitious force” and it appears simply because of the transformation to a non-inertial system of coordinates.2) d2 x d = 2 dt dt dx d2 x − v0 = 2 dt dt Time is the same for each system. Accelerated System Now suppose that the moving coordinate system is accelerated at a constant rate.6. It’s not one of the basic forces of nature (gravity.) Here the acceleration is the same for both.5—Non-Inertial Systems 170 (5. 1 2 y = y. electromagnetism. z = z.3) The position x = 0 again deﬁnes the position of the moving observer. When you transform the velocity of one object you have to do it for all.

If you don’t believe this. What you perceive as weight is the force by the ﬂoor on your feet. take the y -axis up and let the y coordinate be ﬁxed inside the elevator. That doesn’t mean that gravity has stopped. The key calculation is pretty much the same as for straight-line . you are sitting still (with respect to yourself). so you must include the extra inertial force. are the two “real” forces. accelerating left. and (3) inertial force. but now there are just the two real forces. 5.5—Non-Inertial Systems If you are in an elevator that is accelerating upward. From your self-centered viewpoint your acceleration is zero and there are two horizontal forces on you: the seat is pushing you left and some other force is pushing you right. Your coordinate y is constant. because from your perspective you’re standing still and not accelerating. You respond to that push by accelerating left. the next time you jump oﬀ a high-diving board carry a bathroom scale and weigh yourself on the way down. That’s −ma0 . it’s the same idea as the preceding work. from the ﬂoor and from gravity. It’s the rest of the universe that is accelerating. (2) ﬂoor. When you are a passenger in a car that is turning the corner to the left. but with vectors. but the non-inertial system adds the extra term. What would this system look like from the inertial frame? The ﬁnal answer must be the same. just that the force that you are able to feel (the contact force) has stopped. From the vantage of an inertial pedestrian there’s only one horizontal force pushing on you and that’s the seat pushing left. The force from the seat and the inertial force keep you in equilibrium.4) in this system is 171 y y m d2 y = 0 = Fﬂoor − mg − ma0 .2 Rotating System To work out the transformation to a rotating system. m d2 y = ma0 = Fﬂoor − mg. d2 y /dt2 = 0. In the elevator’s coordinate system the forces on you are (1) gravity. The force that you feel from the ﬂoor makes it feel that your weight has increased. If you jump oﬀ a diving board that force from the ﬂoor is removed and you temporarily feel weightless. Here you are analyzing the motion in your own (selfcentered) coordinate system. dt2 implying Fﬂoor = m(g + a0 ) You never feel a gravitational force! You don’t feel your weight because every atom in your body is pulled in the same way. dt2 implying Fﬂoor = m(g + a0 ) The ﬁrst two terms. and the equation of motion (5. and that’s really molecule-to-molecule contact — electromagnetic forces in disguise.

The second (primed) set is in terms of the rotating basis vectors. so to diﬀerentiate Q all you need to do is to diﬀerentiate its components. 5. the result will be dQ dQ +ω×Q = dt dt (5. of each pair is nothing more than the time derivaˆ tive that the rotating observer sees. and along a circle of radius u sin θ.5) To derive this. The vector Q is the vector Q in either coordinate system. du u u = 0 = 2u dφ = ω dt dt dt That means that if the vector u has constant length then the time derivative of u is perpendicular to u itself. . The ﬁrst observation to make about such a derivative is that rotations leave magnitudes unchanged.6) ˆ The ﬁrst term. For an arbitrary time-dependent vector Q. That ˆ is. For the time-derivative of Q in this basis. and the length of the derivative is |du| dt = u sin θ ωdt = u sin θ ω dt . unit vector or not.2 In time dt the tip of the vector u rotates by an angle dφ = ωdt about the ω -axis. ˆ dQ dQx dx ˆ = x + Qx + ··· dt dt dt (5. To u θ get the details of this derivative. all that’s left is to do the derivatives of the rotating unit vectors with respect to the ﬁxed (inertial) system. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Q = Qx x + Qy y + Qz z = Qx x + Qy y + Qz z The ﬁrst set of components. . such as (dQx /dt)x . one from the change of the vector within the transformed system and the other from the change of the transformed system itself. look at it in terms of components and it’s nothing more than the product rule. . To complete the equation. . That person says that x is ﬁxed. then u sin θ ω d . draw a picture of a vector rotating about an axis with angular speed ω . to compute dx /dt. For any vector. The length of the arc along this circle is then rdφ = u sin θ ω dt. but that the component Qx may be changing. Fig. use the product rule. Qx . if the time derivative of u2 is zero. .5—Non-Inertial Systems 172 motion: what is the time derivative of a vector that is itself expressed in the transformed system? The result has two terms. is expressed with respect to a stationary set of basis vectors.

In the preceding equation Q can be anything. v= dr ˙ =r+ω×r dt (5.9) If ω = 0 this equation says that there’s no diﬀerence between the inertial system and ˙ the non-rotating system. dx /dt = ω × x . Now repeat the process with Q = v and compute the acceleration a= dv d ˙ = r+ω×r dt dt . I’ll ﬁrst compute it for the vector r and then for the velocity vector. ˆ dQ dQx dx ˆ = x + Qx + ··· dt dt dt dQy dQx dQz ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = x + Qx ω × x + y + Qy ω × y + z + Qz ω × z dt dt dt dQy dQz dQx ˆ ˆ ˆ x + y + z +ω×Q = dt dt dt (5.7) Now go back to Eq. That’s the meaning of the ﬁrst term in Eq. and that is the deﬁnition of the cross product. u ω sin θ. du =ω×u dt (5. E. If r = 0 then an object’s velocity comes solely from the ˆ ˆ fact that it is held ﬁxed in a rotating system. ˙ ˙ = r+ω×r +ω× r+ω×r (5. the convention that d/dt means the time derivative in the inertial system and the dot means the time derivative in the rotating system. call the ﬁrst term on the right r. v= dr dr = +ω×r dt dt ˙ In order not to get too bogged down in notation.8) The ﬁrst three terms form the time-derivative of Q as seen in the rotating system. Now back to the question of transforming F = ma into a rotating coordinate system.5). where ω is the angular velocity vector. Put those two facts together with this magnitude.6) and apply this result to the derivatives of the rotating unit vectors. and establish. (5.g. (5. Duh.5—Non-Inertial Systems 173 The direction of du/dt is perpendicular to u and from the picture it is also perpendicular to the vector ω . for this chapter only.10) ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ =r+ω×r+ω×r+ω× r+ω×r ¨ ˙ ˙ = r + ω × r + 2ω × r + ω × (ω × r ) .

5—Non-Inertial Systems ¨ Put this into F = ma and move everything but the r term to the other side. This Coriolis force has the same form as the magnetic force on a moving charge.11) seldom comes up. It’s the same thing. No more Coriolis force.12) ˙ This time derivative of ω is the same in both systems. The rock will go straight. ˙ ˙ ¨ F − mω × r − 2mω × r − mω × (ω × r ) = mr 174 (5. Just step up above the Earth for a moment. (The sun rises in the East. Everything in this equation is now expressed in the rotating system. You shouldn’t then be surprised when it twists motion around at right angles just as the magnetic ﬁeld does for the motion of a charge. qv × B .11) This is the modiﬁed form of Newton’s second law that you use in a rotating coordinate system. ˙ −2mω × r ω N N ω rotating system inertial system Fig. as in the ﬁrst picture. This is easy to understand.3 is to your right. though really the ω term in Eq.3 Coriolis Force On the Earth. ω . . 5. If you now throw a rock horizontally. That last factor. ω is pointing out of the North Pole. what does the Coriolis term do? ω is up and ˙ r is horizontal in front of you. (5. The rock that you threw will (in this rotating system) experience a Coriolis force to the right and that is the direction its trajectory will curve. has a simpliﬁcation that you ˙ can easily overlook. but the Earth is rotating counterclockwise under you. it’s the other two terms that are important. so all that ˙ ˙ you need to have given is ω and ω .) If you’re standing at the North Pole the vector r from the Earth’s center is parallel to ω so the term representing the centrifugal force on you is zero. This time for the vector Q use Q = ω How does ω compare to dω/dt? dω ˙ ˙ =ω+ω×ω =ω dt (5. but the Earth turns left underneath it as in the second picture. They’re important enough to have names: ˙ −2mω × r Coriolis force − mω × (ω × r ) Centrifugal Force 5.

consider the case that you are standing on the equator and that you throw the same rock straight up. z = Ceαt or r = r0 eαt I’m not going to do it this way. It then gets more complicated because when the rock comes back down its velocity is reversed. or at the speed of water draining from a sink.8. It is rather that it’s complicated and hard to interpret the results. for which I ignore the Coriolis term at ﬁrst and then go back and treat .13) is a linear. ﬂat Earth? Yes. inhomogeneous. It is not that it’s wrong. aiming at something ﬁve or 10 kilometers away? For both of these cases ignore the curvature of the Earth. so the corrections due to the ω terms are small. coming down instead of up. just as in section 3.13) To see how big this new term is. This is not so obvious. despite all contrary urban legends and stage magic. (5. Equation (5. All it means is that you’re still dealing with distances that don’t take you over the horizon. so all that’s left is ¨ ˙ mr = mg − 2mω × r (5. For now I’ll ignore the centrifugal force term and air resistance. The Coriolis force is reversed as it drops. Which one wins? Wait until Eqs. Now ˙ see what −2mω × r becomes. even if you UP stand oﬀ the Earth and look at it.5—Non-Inertial Systems 175 From the previous paragraph you may get the impression that the Coriolis force is easy to understand intuitively. pushing it east. it is more like 10−5 so the Coriolis eﬀect at these speeds is imperceptible. 1 day 4π . I can take advantage of the fact that the Earth is rotating slowly. Does it make sense to have a rotating. In components this would look like x = Aeαt . and at low speeds such as walking. y = Beαt . 300 = ≈ 4 × 10−3 86 400 s 864 000 10 m/s2 N mg This correction is small even at this speed. If you play golf do you have to consider the Coriolis force? What if you’re handling a large gun on a battleship. constant coeﬃcient diﬀerential equation for r .(2π/day) . it isn’t important in the ﬁrst case and doesn’t even have a huge eﬀect in the second.17) and (5. Fire a riﬂe at 300 m/s and compare the Coriolis term to the gravitational term.(300 m/s) .21) to see. ω ˙ ˆ ˆ ˆ −2mω × r ∝ − north × up = west and the rock will experience a Coriolis force that pushes it a little W west of where you threw it. That suggests an iterative attack. and as such you can solve the homogeneous part using an exponential solution. 2mωv = 2 . To reassure you that it’s not. plug in some numbers.

14) This is pretty easy.17) If you need still higher order accuracy.13) and ¨ ˙ repeat the process to get a still better result: r 2 = g − 2ω × r 1 . r1 = 1 gt2 −2ω × 2 2 1 3 1 6 gt + 2 v0 t + Et + F = 1 gt2 −2ω × 2 2 1 3 1 6 gt + 2 v0 t + v0 t (5. The improved approximation is r1 .13). and ω × v0 is East. (5. This is in the spirit of problem 4. canceling the m’s.5—Non-Inertial Systems 176 it as a correction. ignoring Coriolis eﬀects. which now satisﬁes ¨ ˙ r1 = g − 2ω × r0 = g − 2ω × gt + v0 (5. note that neither of these two terms aﬀects the amount of time that the projectile stays in the air because East and West are not up and down. 1.15) The subscript zero on r indicates that this is the lowest order approximation to the ﬁnal answer. try some special cases. Use these equations as input to the right-hand side of Eq. (5. then reapply ˙ the initial conditions to evaluate these constants. r1 . At the North Pole ﬁring straight up the g and v0 terms in Eq. (5. To ﬁnd where the projectile hits the ground. The lowest order approximation to Eq. (5. 2.16) Integrate this equation to get r1 . and 1 r0 = 2 gt2 + Ct + D = 1 gt2 + v0 t 2 (5. (5. so the cross products vanish and the Coriolis force contributes nothing.13) is ¨ mr = mg (5. including a couple of arbitrary constants. At the equator ﬁring straight up ω × g is West. you compute the position of the projectile. r1 (0) = 0 and r 1 (0) = v0 . then ˙ r0 = gt + C = gt + v0 .17) are along the vector ω . 1 The time aloft is governed solely by the old terms in r1 (t): 2 gt2 + v0 t = 0.18) .17). put this into the right side of Eq. 1 2v0 − gt2 + v0 t = 0 ⇒ tf = 2 g then the corrected term r1 back at ground level is 1 6g 1 3 r1 (tf ) = −2ω × = −2 − 2v0 g + 1 v0 2 2v0 2v0 2 g 2 + 1 2 ω × v0 g = 3 4ωv0 West 3g 2 (5.5 — a good warmup if you haven’t already done it. To understand this result. At the value of t that this determines. from Eq. Take initial conditions to start from the origin with velocity v0 .

and z Up — like the coordinate system sketched below. changing the result from 26 m to 1 m. not even close.11. and if it is ﬁred up at 300 or 400 m/s it comes to the maximum height in under 15 seconds.5—Non-Inertial Systems For a speed of 300 m/s this is 4 . To see how much air resistance can aﬀect these results.17).19) by 100 m/s. (5. v0 = v0 z 2 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r1 = x1 x + z1 z = − 2 g z t − 2ω y × − 1 g z t3 + 1 v0 z t2 + v0 z t 6 ˆ 2 1 1 x1 = 3 ωgt3 − ωv0 t2 . The motion described by this equation is then all in the x-z plane. z = x × y . but this time ˆ ˆ ˆ start from an arbitrary latitude.21) x The scale on this graph is greatly exaggerated horizontally so that you can see the eﬀect.5 km 2g 2 .19) At least this answers the question raised a few paragraphs back: Which part of the Coriolis force wins? The one while the rock is going up or the one when it’s going down? Well.(2π/day) . ask how much time the bullet is it in the air and how high does it go? Answer: tf = 2 . 1 day = 26 m 2 86 400 s 3 . Then replace the 300 m/s in Eq. For a 30 caliber bullet (not tumbling) the terminal speed is about 100 m/s. What is the trajectory of the bullet you just ﬁred? It’s no longer a z straight line up and down. 3. Still. You can make a very crude estimate of the Coriolis eﬀect in this case by assuming the extreme case that it reaches terminal speed very fast. but on the equator. Air resistance is very important here. Again use coordinates x-East. z1 = − 2 gt2 + v0 t (5. 10 m/s2 177 (5. A simpler version of this calculation appears in problem 5. g = −g z . ˆ ˆ ˆ ω = ωy. . (5. 10 max height = 2 v0 2 . v0 g = 2 . but working out the details requires a little eﬀort. and it cuts these results by a big factor. Reality is closer to the latter number than the former. ↓ use a coordinate system with x East.(300 m/s)3 . For another example. but something described by Eq. 10 (5. y North. which is it? Does this result of 26 m seem to be much larger than you would expect? To see how reasonable this is. ﬁre a projectile and see where it lands.20) Will a bullet go that high? No. the Coriolis eﬀect is signiﬁcant. 3002 = = 4. For this. go back to problem 2.23. 300 = 60 seconds. y -North.

82 3/2 day (10 m/s2 )2 3 23/2 2 1 day 86 400 s = 0. so this is 1 ˆ ˆ ˙ ˙ r1 = 1 gt2 + v0 t + 3 ωgt3 x cos λ + ωt2 x(y0 sin λ − z0 cos λ) 2 which says that the y and z -coordinates are not aﬀected by ω (to this approximation). Eq. − . Group terms and express the initial velocity in terms of speed v0 and the angle α above the horizontal. 1 .22) ˙ The initial conditions are x0 = 0 and the other initial velocity components non-zero. Where will it land? That is determined by z . so from Eq. Your average world champion golfer can hit the ball about 300 meters.24) ◦ . and ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ x1 = gω cos λ (2z0 /g )3 + ω y0 sin λ − z0 cos λ (2z0 /g )2 ˙3 ˙ ˙ 4 z0 y0 z 2 v3 4 cos λ + 4ω sin λ 2 0 = ω 0 − sin3 α cos λ + 4 sin2 α cos α sin λ 2 2 3 g g g 3 (5. (5.17) is 1 ˆ ˆ r1 = 2 gt2 + v0 t − 2ω (y cos λ + z sin λ) × 1 3 6 gt + 1 v0 t2 2 ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ ˆ g = −g z .5—Non-Inertial Systems The latitude is λ.11 m = 11 cm . 0.23) 1 3 You can simplify this. ˙ ˙ z1 (t) = z0 (t) = 0 = z0 t − gt2 /2 =⇒ tf = 2z0 /g then ˙ ˙ ˙ y1 = y0 tf = 2z0 y0 /g (5. only x is. 0.57 + 4 . λ = 55 coordinate θ = 90◦ − λ. (5. and hit the golf ball α = 45◦ above the horizontal. so 178 ω ˆ y ˆ x ˆ ˆ ω = ω (y cos λ + z sin λ) λ (5. and v0 = y0 y + z0 z .23) √ 2 2 ˙ ˙ y1 = 2z0 y0 /g = 2v0 cos α sin α/g = v0 sin 2α/g = 300 m =⇒ v0 = 3000 = 55 m/s x1 = − ω Then the deﬂection is x1 = 2π (55 m/s)3 4 1 . with spherical How big is this for a golf ball? Choose the latitude of Scotland.

the value of x. evidence not depending on the motion of the stars. except that contrary to tradition the angle θ is measured from the −z axis. These equations become ¨ ˙ ˆ ˆ mr = −mg z − Fcord r − 2mω × r ˆ z ˆ y ˆ x θ m ¨ ˙ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ mr = −mg z + Fcord (z cos θ − x sin θ cos φ − y sin θ sin φ) − 2mω × r Fig.edu. is that enough? As late as the middle 1800’s this was an important question because people wanted to have some simple. use the same coordinate system as in Eq.24) says that the deviation. Stand oﬀ the Earth a moment and try to visualize the motion in an inertial coordinate system. The pendulum becomes a simple problem only if you make the * Why not the North Pole? There’s an ocean there.4 (5. To describe the mechanics. (5. varies as speed cubed.phys. except that now there’s another force on the mass. so 1003/2 = 1000 and the deviation is 110 meters.unsw. which is not so small any more. . and I suppose that an expert golfer will have even this eﬀect trained into the muscles. so all I have to do is see how the result scales with the range. Everything else is the same. Is that the direction it should move? 5.4 Foucault Pendulum A classic experiment to give a decisive answer to the question: Does the Earth rotate? After all.3. but fast enough to go 30 km instead of 300 m. that of the cord that suspends the mass from the ceiling.au/PHYSICS_!/FOUCAULT_PENDULUM/foucault_pendulum To ﬁgure out what happens at any point on the Earth other than the poles takes some eﬀort and the apparatus of rotating coordinate systems developed in this chapter.5—Non-Inertial Systems 179 Compared to all the other variables.22). meaning that the deﬂection is toward the East. the time it takes the Earth to rotate once on its axis. (5. What happens when the tournament is in Southern Australia? Take the same equations and ﬁre a large artillery shell in the same way. The result for x1 is positive. www. this is not much. To someone standing on the surface it will appear that the plane of the pendulum’s swing will rotate counterclockwise once every 23 hours and 56 minutes. so Eq.23) for y1 says the speed is larger by 1001/2 . If you have a pendulum swinging at the South* Pole. 5. just because such authorities as Galileo and Newton said it does. The distance is 100 times greater.25) θ and φ are the spherical coordinates from the point of suspension on the ceiling as in section 0. Then Eq. especially wind. easy-to-see evidence of the rotation. (5. what will the Earth’s rotation do to it? Stand oﬀ the Earth again and the pendulum will be swinging back and forth in a plane while the Earth rotates underneath it.

the plane parallel to the Earth’s surface. constant coeﬃcient equations and use an exponential solution. you can note that these are simultaneous.13) to the spherical coordinates: x = sin θ cos φ. 2 α = i − ω sin λ ± ω0 1 + ω 2 sin2 λ/ω0 2 = i − ω sin λ ± ω0 1 + ω 2 sin2 λ/2ω0 = ±iω0 − iω sin λ . Take the ﬁrst of the equations (5.5—Non-Inertial Systems 180 approximation that it is oscillating through a small angle. (0. linear.27) ˙ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (−xx−y y )−2mω ×r = Look at the components in the x-y plane.28) To solve these. That means that the cord is almost vertical. g g ¨ ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ x + iy = − (x + iy ) + 2ω sin λ(y − ix) = − (x + iy ) − 2iω sin λ(x + iy ) (5. θ is small and the z -component of acceleration is small. so the z -component of the force is small too. cos θ ≈ 1 and Fcord ≈ mg (5. g ˙ ¨ x = − x + 2ω sin λ y g ¨ ˙ y = − y − 2ω sin λ x (5. This is a perfectly correct method and it works.28) and add i times the second equation. but I’ll show two other methods to solve these equations more easily.26) The x and y -coordinates are related as in Eq. Use this 2 observation to get a simpler approximate value of α by a series expansion. and y = sin θ sin φ Put these into the equation of motion and you have approximately ¨ mr = mg ˙ mg (−xx−y y )−2mω y cos λ+z sin λ ×r (5.29) Let q = x + iy and this is g ¨ ˙ q = − q − 2iω sin λq g This is an ordinary constant coeﬃcient equation with a solution q (t) = Aeαt α = −iω sin λ ± with α2 + 2iω sin λ α + =0 −ω 2 sin2 λ − g/ = i − ω sin λ ± ω 2 sin2 λ + g/ To interpret this. recall that the Earth is rotating slowly so that ω 2 g/ . Let ω0 = g/ . The use of complex algebra leads to much simpler equations.

getting the answer more quickly. This means that you can drop it while it’s still inside the square root. y (0) = 0 −→ q (0) = R. Sometimes you will see an explanation of the Foucault pendulum claiming that the plane of the pendulum’s oscillation stays ﬁxed with respect to the stars. y (0) = 0. q (t) = R 2 ei(ω0 −ω sin λ)t + ei(−ω0 −ω sin λ)t = R cos ω0 t e−iω sin λ t The real and imaginary parts of this are x(t) = R cos ω0 t cos(ω sin λ t) y (t) = −R cos ω0 t sin(ω sin λ t) λ>0 (5. having no rotation with respect to the Earth. All the action occurs in the exponents controlling the phase of the exponentials. dropping ω 2 . The equator is an extreme case that clearly shows the error of this statement. do I need to include the terms in ω sin λ? No. A = B = R/2. but nowhere else. For the real case the ﬁgure-eight motion will squeeze into something so close to a line you can’t tell the diﬀerence. and during one swing the pendulum appears to execute a ﬁgure eight. . Start the pendulum by pulling it to one side and releasing it gently. ˙ ˙ ˙ x(0) = 0. In this picture the rotation of this plane is greatly exaggerated. If the oscillation period of this pendulum is two seconds. q (0) = Ai(ω0 − ω sin λ) + Bi(−ω0 − ω sin λ) = 0 In these equations for the coeﬃcients A and B . q (0) = 0 i(ω0 −ω sin λ)t i(−ω0 −ω sin λ)t q (t) = Ae + Be ˙ q (0) = A + B = R. note that you are going to keep just the lowest order terms in ω .5—Non-Inertial Systems 181 More directly. but the plane of the oscillation is rotating with the slow rotation rate ω sin λ. the period of rotation of the Earth would have to be less than one minute for this picture. That’s true if you are at the North or South Pole.30) and this is an oscillation in the x-y plane with frequency ω0 . Simply start the pendulum moving in a north-south plane and it stays there. and the pendulum will appear to move back and forth in a plane that rotates once per day if you’re at the Earth’s pole or once every two days if you are at latitude 30◦ . but rotating once per day with respect to the stars. x(0) = R.

g ¨ ˙ x = − x + 2ω sin λ y g ˙ ¨ y = − y − 2ω sin λ x −→ g ¨ ˙ ˙ x = − x + 2ω sin λ y + 2ω y g ˙ ¨ ˙ y = − y − 2ω sin λ x − 2ω x If I choose ω = −ω sin λ the equations become two separate harmonic oscillators and in that system the pendulum does not rotate.28).31) * The book ”Pendulum: Leon Foucault and the Triumph of Science” by Aczel is a good history of the subject. Go back to the system ﬁxed in the Earth and it says that the plane of oscillation of the pendulum will rotate at this rate ω and it even gets the direction right. then there is a precession that can easily be much larger than that caused by the Earth’s rotation. Go back to the equations (5. What else can I do?) In the next chapter. (I had to use dots for time derivatives in both systems. If the pendulum is swinging back and forth but started with even a tiny amount of angular momentum about the vertical axis. If I do it right I can cancel the ω terms. so that the original motion is not a straight line but a very narrow ellipse. It will completely mask the Foucault eﬀect. The new rotating system will have (unknown) angular velocity about the z -axis. Forget about the fact that these refer to a rotating coordinate system and pretend that someone handed them to you in an inertial system. Equation (5.25) and leave everything in vector form. If you’re at the North Pole it gives ω = −ω . Foucault’s achievement was not trivial!* The Really Slick Way Go back to Eq. don’t bother with the centrifugal force term and simply ˙ add the Coriolis term to the forces. As before. The case examined there is quite a long way from the one here because it concerns a pendulum going around almost in a circle. This is one reason it was so diﬃcult to build a pendulum to measure the Earth’s rotation.11) tells you how to modify the equations of motion by adding ω =z the inertial forces. Again step oﬀ the Earth for a moment to verify that this is correct. (5. Transform these x-y coordinates into a new rotating system. After all isn’t the use of vectors supposed to simplify the mathematics? Take the cross product of each side with r. but the basic ideas will still apply.5—Non-Inertial Systems 182 The Slick Way And then there’s another. in section 6. more clever way to solve this. These are now (except for m’s) F = ma in a (pretend) inertial system. −2ω × r . ˆω . ¨ ˙ ˆ ˆ mr × r = −mgr × z − r × Fcord r − 2mr × ω × r (5.6 you will see an analysis of the precession of a pendulum even without a rotating Earth. . or ˆ ω = −z ω so that it’s rotating clockwise.

33) where this new unknown ω is the rotation with respect to the old coordinate system. There’s no rotation left. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ L + ω × L = L + mω × r × r = L + m r(ω . r ) − r (ω . pushing away from the axis. the vector ω is perpendicular ˙ to the velocity vector r . The symbol r is overused. In this rotating system an extra force appears.35) ˆ Now let ω = −2ω sin λz and the only term left is the mg sin θ term that causes the pendulum to swing back and forth. C ) − C (A . The right side is the torque: The ﬁrst term is the vector version of mg sin θ. r ) (5. B ) −mω × (ω × r ) = −mω (ω . r ) − r(ω . r ) 183 ˙ ˆ L = −mgr × z + 2mr(ω . Use A × (B × C ) = B (A . −mω × (ω × r ). pretend this is a stationary system and go to a new system rotating with respect to it. 5. so this deﬁnes the coordinate system in which the pendulum does not precess.) The equation is now ˙ ˙ ˙ ˆ L − mr(ω . r ) ˙ ˆ = −mgr × z − 2mr ω sin λ (5.32) This is how you derive the angular momentum equation from F = ma.5—Non-Inertial Systems ˙ m r×r . and now ignore the Coriolis term. (Remember: small angle approximations here.11) and look closely at the other inertial force term.34) If the rotation of this system is about the vertical axis.3. dL ˙ ˙ ˆ = −mgr × z − 2mr ω sin λ = L + ω × L dt (5. r ) + mrω 2 ˆ Choose the coordinate system so that z is along ω . There is a problem in notation here. and this is ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ −z mω (ωz ) + m(xx + y y + z z )ω 2 = mω 2 (xx + y y ) It points away from the axis of rotation. It is the vector from the axis in cylindrical . and the last term is the one that causes all the interesting problems. As was done a couple of paragraphs back. Notice: slicker does not mean easier. It is the vector from the origin in spherical coordinates. r ) = −mgr × z − 2mr ω sin λ (5. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˆ = −mgr × z − 0 − 2m ω (r .5 Centrifugal Force Return to the general equation (5. as in section 1.

because r⊥ = 0 there. What about the tides? That brings in the Moon. It has an equatorial bulge with about 43 km greater diameter at the equator than through the poles. At the equator. If you’re in a car turning a corner then you can take the perfectly common point of view that you’re the center of the universe and that you are not moving. This is certainly not an inertial system. You haven’t computed your apparent weight change until you include both eﬀects. I’ll resolve the dispute by using a special notation for the vector perpendicular to the axis as in cylindrical coordinates: ˆ ˆ r⊥ = xx + y y then ˆ r = z z + r⊥ (5. because the Earth isn’t exactly spherical. 5. giving a total force of zero. This gives you an apparent decrease in weight of about 0.034 m/s2 .36) r⊥ is perpendicular to the z -axis. You then have zero acceleration with respect to yourself. but here I need both in the same discussion. because it’s easier to see that the ocean surface should be an equipotential.3%. The centrifugal force term is then mω 2 r⊥ . r = 0. It’s not quite as simple as the preceding paragraph implies. so you have to include the centrifugal force term to ¨ make sense of the observations. What is the potential energy of a mass m in this system? The force on a mass m at the distance r from the center of a spherical Earth is ˆ F = Fr r where Fr (r) = −GM m/r2 . This changes the gravitational ﬁeld of the Earth from the simple 1/r2 of a spherical Earth to a more complicated ﬁeld.6 Shape of the Earth In an Earth-centered coordinate system the eﬀective force is the gravitational force plus the centrifugal force. If it isn’t then the higher parts would slide over to the lower parts at a lower potential energy and you would be right back to an equipotential. or F + mω 2 r⊥ = 0 The seat cushion friction pushes you in toward the center of rotation and the centrifugal force pushes you out. What does this do to the shape of the Earth? Think of the oceans ﬁrst. letting r remain as the vector from the origin. ω 2 r⊥ is away from the Earth and of magnitude ω 2 R = (2π/1 day)2 (6400 km) = 0. This doesn’t usually cause confusion. When you’re standing still on the surface of the Earth. what eﬀect does the centrifugal force have? At the North and South Poles nothing. and one thing at a time if you don’t mind. That change provides an eﬀect comparable to the one just calculated. so ¨ F − mω × (ω × r ) = mr = 0.5—Non-Inertial Systems 184 coordinates.

37) The centrifugal potential energy is like a harmonic oscillator energy turned upside down. the result will be oﬀ by a factor of about two. The distance to the axis is r⊥ = r sin θ. For an equipotential. so the Earth is nearly spherical.) The potential energy associated with the centrifugal force F = +mω 2 r⊥ is 2 2 −mω 2 r⊥ /2. N GM m 1 R U =− − mω 2 (R + )2 sin2 θ R+ 2 1 GM m 1− − mω 2 R2 + 2R sin2 θ =− R R 2 Fig. As in Eq. 5. where R is some average radius that will have to be pinned down and properly speciﬁed eventually. and mRω 2 is the centrifugal force. but not yet. (It is not a bad ﬁrst try. To see this. the whole point of this section is the shape of the Earth. U0 = − GM m GM m 1 − mω 2 R2 sin2 θ + − mω 2 R sin2 θ R 2 R R (5.38) The fourth term is much less than the third term. making it very small. Remember that it is also multiplied by . so how can I assume that the Earth is spherical? You can’t really. This give the value of U = −GM m/r.5—Non-Inertial Systems 185 M is the mass of the Earth. so I can neglect the mω 2 R sin2 θ term in Eq. (5. and the total potential energy for a mass m near the Earth’s surface is U =− GM m 1 2 − mω 2 r⊥ r 2 (5. is a function of the angle θ alone. Fr = −dU/dr.18). so the radial centrifugal force is −(d/dr⊥ )(−mω 2 r⊥ /2) = +mω 2 r⊥ .38). keeping only the ﬁrst order in . But wait. This leaves GM m 1 GM m U0 = − − mω 2 R2 sin2 θ + R 2 R R R2 GM m 1 or = U + + mω 2 R2 sin2 θ GM m 0 R 2 . (2. but not good enough.3%). set this to a constant. simply interpret the meaning of the two coeﬃcients of : GM m is the gravitational force on m.5 This is a binomial expansion on each term. This centrifugal term is much smaller than the gravitational energy. R2 The latter is much less than the former (≈ 0. but as a ﬁrst approximation to ﬁguring it out I’ll try the simplifying assumption that it is almost spherical and then return to see if that is good enough. It’s shape is r = R + .

5—Non-Inertial Systems The last expression is =C+ 1 Rω 2 1a R sin2 θ = C + c R sin2 θ 2 2 GM/R 2 g 186 (5.39) The last term involves the ratio of the centrifugal acceleration at the equator to the gravitational ﬁeld there. That makes R the mean radius of the Earth. Just set θ = 0 and θ = π/2 to see the eﬀect. It’s a plausible assumption. as the measured value of the diﬀerence in the diameters is closer to twice this. 8π R = 0. (What does = 0 mean?) I will specify this so that the mean value of over the surface of the Earth is zero. The major error in this calculation is in the assumption that the gravitational ﬁeld is spherically symmetric. 2 g 3 C=− 1 ac R. . 1000 m 1 km = 22 km You saw this faster directly from Eq. Recall that I never precisely deﬁned R. How accurate it this? Not very. If you’re not already familiar with them you will be. but it turns out to introduce an error that is about as big as the eﬀect you’re calculating. The diameter through the equator is R ac /g = R2 ω 2 /g more than through the poles. so it’s not good enough. Working out the more correct version would take too much time and eﬀort for this single result.39). but the expression in terms of a Legendre polynomial is useful too. 1 day = g 86 400s 10 m/s2 2 . What is at the equator and at the poles? poles =− ac R R2 ω 2 =− 3g 3g and equator =+ R2 ω 2 6g The diﬀerence in the equatorial and the polar diameters (not radii) is then 2 −2 = eq pol R2 ω 2 (6400 km)2 (2π/day)2 . (5. and until I do that the value of is ambiguous. The constant C is a combination of an already unknown constant U0 with another term. That is dΩ C + This is 4πC + 1 ac R sin2 θ = 2 g 2π π dφ 0 0 sin θ dθ C + 1 ac R sin2 θ = 0 2 g 1 ac . 3 g =− ac 3 1 R cos2 θ − 3g 2 2 I wrote it in the ﬁnal form because that is a Legendre polynomial in the brackets. and it is already enough to tell you the diﬀerence between the polar diameter and the equatorial diameter.

This suggests a series expansion because r R.6 Moon M Why am I carrying along the factor m for the mass of a drop of ocean water? No good reason. so are there air tides? (Yes. Now recall the geometry of the system. as distinct from the gravitational potential energy is the potential energy per mass. V =− GM GM − 2 /R2 ) − 2(r/R) cos θ r R 1 + (r . 5. where you can use U = mgh. What will that do? Find the total gravitational potential near the Earth’s surface by adding the potentials from both Earth and Moon. r = 6400 km and R = 380 000 km. The surface of the ocean is an equipotential.7 The last line used the law of cosines (problem 0.7 Tides Why are there tides? The Moon’s pull on the side of the Earth nearer the Moon is stronger than its pull on the farther side of Earth. Remember that the Moon pulls on the Earth. why are there two tides? Air is much easier to push around than water.) For now.37). −GM m/r and − GM m/r r Earth r M Fig. The gravitational potential. V =− GM GM − r r GM GM =− −√ 2 + R2 − 2rR cos θ r r Earth r θ R r Moon Fig. but the gravity of the Earth and of the Moon and the inertial force from the acceleration of the Earth. (5. 5. The potential energies from the Earth and from the Moon are the ﬁrst term in Eq. yet to come. There are several steps in understanding this. the gravitational potential is V = gh. The ﬁrst is to ask what determines the shape of the ocean’s surface. And why is all of this in a chapter on non-inertial systems? That will be the ﬁnal step. Use R for the distance between the centers of the two bodies. accelerating it. look at the ocean.25) in order to express all the information in terms of coordinates centered on the Earth. Near the Earth’s surface. This time however the combining forces are not gravity and centrifugal forces. It’s easier to deal with V = −GM/r and −GM /r . That is the same question that I asked when determining the shape of the rotating Earth.) Are there Earth tides? (Also yes.5—Non-Inertial Systems 187 5. Now. Take into account the presence of the Moon but ignore the distortion of the Earth caused by the Earth’s rotation.

and to the lowest order that is correct. Call the radius of Earth at mean sea level RE and δ the tide’s height above (or below) mean sea level. (5. and second the height of that tide is about 22 meters. the equipotential is V =− GM GM − = a constant r R and that says that r is constant. (b) used the binomial expansion on the ﬁrst term. Legendre polynomials show up. so try including the next term.5—Non-Inertial Systems Use the binomial expansion with n = −1/2 (and you will need terms out to x2 ). Again. (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + 188 n(n − 1) 2 x2 + · · · = 1 − x + x2 + · · · 1 2 1 2 3 8 V =− =− GM GM − r R GM GM − r R 1− 1+ r2 r 3 − 2 cos θ + R2 R 8 r2 r − 2 cos θ R2 R + ··· 2 + ··· (5. .42) (a) is Eq. 6. it’s the correction that I want. then (a) (b) (c) (d) GM GM RE + δ − 1+ cos θ = C RE + δ R R GM δ GM RE + δ − 1− − 1+ cos θ = C RE RE R R GM GM GM RE GM + + cos θ 2 δ =C + R R R2 RE E 3 M RE δ= cos θ M R2 3 7.40) r r2 cos θ + 2 R R 3 1 cos2 θ − 2 2 In the last step I collected all the terms out to the order r2 /R2 .41) There are two diﬃculties with this approximation.84 × 108 m 2 − (5. making life along the ocean coasts very wet. If you drop all the terms in r/R because it is small.35 × 1022 kg . dropping the higher powers of r/R.41) written in terms of δ . − GM GM − r R 1+ r cos θ = a constant R (5.5 m cos θ 5. First it has only one high tide per day.37 × 106 m δ= cos θ = 21. a sphere.98 × 1024 kg 3. The ocean surface is approximately a sphere.

and is not an inertial system (even ignoring its daily rotation). leaving you with Vtotal = − GM GM − r R 1+ 3 1 cos2 θ − 2 2 + ··· Already you can see that the problem of the single high tide is gone. What is the Earth’s acceleration as caused by the Moon? a = F/M = GM M /M R2 = GM /R2 ≈ 3 × 10−5 m/s2 It doesn’t sound like much.5—Non-Inertial Systems 189 2 (c) solved for δ while dropping δ/R2 δ/RE . or in this case ma0 h.43) .42). because where before there was a cos θ there is now a cos2 θ and that is positive on both sides of the Earth. uniform gravitational ﬁeld. The “height” h is the distance toward the Moon from your origin. This ﬁgure looks down from above the North Pole and the Moon is on the right.42) is most positive at θ = 0 and most negative at θ = π . to transform to the accelerated (Earth) coordinate system. Call this acceleration a0 and apply Eq. The range from low tide to high tide is δ 2 × 21.8 What is missing? The fact that the Earth is accelerating toward the Moon. What is the potential energy for that? mgh. The equation (5. (5. (5. That is one (very large) high tide θ Moon underneath the Moon and one very low tide on the opposite N side of the Earth. Now solve the size of the tides in exactly the same way as led to Eq. 5. (5. (d) that the mean sea level is at δ = 0 determines C . the center of the Earth.40) and that troublesome cos θ term cancels. R2 r2 R2 so Vinertial = U GM = r cos θ m R2 Add this to Eq. but it is enough to change everything. Fx − ma0 = m d2 x dt2 This says that a mass m sitting on the Earth or in its oceans feels an inertial force ma0 down. In this system a0 behaves like an extra. Uinertial = ma0 h = ma0 r cos θ = m GM r cos θ. Fig. (That’s up to you to do.4).) δ= 4 M RE M R3 3 1 cos2 θ − 2 2 N θ δ Moon (5.5 = 43 m. and here “down” means away from the Moon.

This means that when the Sun and Moon are roughly lined up near new Moon and full Moon. then the eﬀects add.22=0.5—Non-Inertial Systems 190 This is positive at θ = 0 and θ = π — toward and away from the Moon. and if the bulge stays aligned with the Moon. though at 21. Is this the whole story of tides? Far from it. The high tide when they are adding is then 1. the low tides. To see why. We have barely started. Then friction. hence 1/r3 . so the change in the force over the diameter of the Earth varies as the derivative of this with respect to distance. in which the Moon rises in the East. and meanwhile the Moon is applying a periodic force with its period of forcing. Eq. bringing it down to a size comparable to what you see at the shore. Then the Moon’s orbit is not above the equator nor is its orbital distance constant.43) 4 (M /M )(RE /R3 ) solar tide M R3 2. (5. The most important of these is the fact that the oceans are not in static equilibrium. That’s because the gravitational force from the Moon varies as 1/r2 . Depending on latitude.36 m it seems a bit too small. It is a dynamical system in which the periodic tidal force from the Moon (and Sun) are acting on a system that is already a sort of harmonic oscillator. .54 m. Does the sun have an eﬀect? It’s much farther away. The Bay of Fundy.42). The ratio of the highest high tide to lowest high tide is then about 1. the Earth’s surface rotates underneath the bulge to give you the two daily tides.36 = 0. (5.44 times the Moon’s eﬀect alone. but it is also much more massive. Let M be the sun’s mass and R the Earth-sun distance.) The tidal range (low to high tide) is 1. The wave would try to go around the Earth with its own natural period. The trigonometric factor in Eq.78 = 1.44/0. it is smaller by a factor RE /R = 6400/380000 = 0. (Keep going. (5.4 × 1022 kg (M /M )(RE 380 000 km 1.g. There’s more to come.44 The solar tide is almost half as large as the lunar tide. A simple point: The Moon goes around the Earth in a month. from Eq.85. And don’t forget continents. ignore the continents for a start and think of a long wave moving West across the ocean. There’s the Earth’s rotation.17 = 0. they try to cancel. Why West? We’re in an Earth-centered system.43) is +1 at θ = 0 and −1/2 at θ = 90◦ . The high tide when the are subtracting is a factor of 1−0.017. It is negative halfway between. which has a tidal range of 15 to 20 meters). Why are there daily tides? The Earth rotates.0 × 1030 kg = = = 4 /R3 ) lunar tide M R3 7. How big is it? As compared to the previous result. Notice that the tidal eﬀect varies as the inverse cube of the distance to the Moon.78.5 × 108 km 3 = 0. And maybe resonant interactions with natural ocean sloshing (e.5 × 0. and when they are at right angles as seen from Earth. Nor is the Earth’s orbital distance from the Sun constant and the Earth’s rotational axis is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit. then the ratio of the tidal eﬀects is.5 × 0.

as degrees of longitude and degrees of phase shift diﬀer from each other by a factor of about two because there are almost two high tides per day. In the more realistic cases. you see that the high tides are not exactly at moon.5 4. so one lunar tidal bulge can be north of the equator and one south of it.4 sunrise sunset 6:25 AM 8:21 PM moonrise moonset 6:03 AM 8:26 PM In this sample from tide tables. you may move through the middle of a bulge at one time and then about 12 hours later you move through the edge of the bulge. In the morning they’re about midway between high and low tides. Watch out for a point of confusion here. * www.saltwatertides. high tide would occur when the Moon is on the horizon. while the Moon’s forcing period is just a little over half a day. When the forcing function has a frequency higher than the natural frequency of the oscillator.or sunrise. This forced oscillator (the ocean) will have a steady-state response that follows the frequency of the Moon’s tidal force. At the extreme case. while in the evening they’re a lot closer to the high tides. 2011 (New Moon) high /low Low High Low High 3:03 8:52 2:57 9:14 tide time AM AM PM PM height feet 0. but by less than 90◦ of longitude. Notice especially the graph of δ . Augustine. FL) June 1.5—Non-Inertial Systems 191 the natural period of such a long wave trying to go around the Earth can be more than a day. You experience a higher high tide and then a lower high tide. the response of the oscillator is between 90◦ and 180◦ out of phase with the force.3 5. The period of the Moon’s tidal force is just over 12 hours. They aren’t the same. and the phase diﬀerence between force and response puts them as much as 180◦ out of phase. That’s what happens with the tides. but the natural period for the tidal sloshing is substantially longer. The Moon does not orbit above the equator. As your point on the Earth moves around. the tidal bulge is ahead the point under the Moon’s position. Sample Tide Table* for the Eastern Atlantic (St. for which there is a 180◦ phase shift.3 0. That is a six hour diﬀerence. Look back at the material on forced harmonic oscillators in chapter three. showing the phase diﬀerence between the forcing function and the response function. This implies that the high tides will not occur when the Moon is overhead (or even on the opposite side of the Earth). and the graphs on page 108. and if you are far enough north you may experience only one high tide in a day.com .

Now the mass remains at rest with respect to this coordinate system. The tides on the Earth cause the Moon to recede gradually from the Earth. You can see this another way: The tidal friction slows the Earth’s rotation. In particular. so it pushes the water ahead. As you are carried around by the Earth’s surface. gradually increasing the length of a day. v Fig. The tidal bulge also applies a torque to the Moon: The leading bulge applies a component of force forward. The actual computation of this eﬀect can’t be done separately from the resonance phenomenon discussed two paragraphs back. This too simple model is overwhelmed by the dynamic processes described in the last few paragraphs. parallel to the Moon’s velocity vector. and that puts it into a higher orbit. the way friction usually does. what does friction do to the water? A simplistic model would say that the Earth is rotating underneath the tidal bulge.5—Non-Inertial Systems 192 Qualitatively. but the system starts to rotate at constant . the Earth’s rotation pushes the bulge a few degrees ahead of the Moon’s position. It acts as a brake. There you will ﬁnd a more detailed analysis about the relationship between the position of the Moon and the position of high tide. causing it to lose some of its rotational kinetic energy (Iω 2 /2).12.9 This torque on the Moon tries to accelerate the Moon. This means that as the Moon orbits the Earth. There is more discussion of the tides in section 7. how fast can it be moving to go from the right lane into the right lane if the lanes are 12 feet wide? 2 A mass is at rest in a coordinate system that is also at rest. Where does that energy go? Part of it goes into heating. you will pass under the Moon’s position and a little later you will pass through the center of the tidal bulge. Notice that this forward force on the Moon causes the Moon to slow down. in chapter seven on waves. and the trailing bulge applies a smaller component backwards — the trailing bulge is farther away. This recession rate is a few centimeters per year. but one aspect of it does apply: The tidal friction aﬀects the Earth. why does low tide happen when the Moon is more-or-less overhead? Exercises 1 When a car turns a corner with a radial acceleration of magnitude no more than g . but a signiﬁcant part of it puts the Moon into a gradually higher energy orbit (farther away). 5.

how far from the origin would you have to be so that the gravitational ﬁeld on your head and on your feet diﬀer by 10 m/s2 (the onset of spaghettiﬁcation)? This is just an extreme version of a tide.10) tell you about the mass.5—Non-Inertial Systems 193 angular acceleration. (5. a black hole. and you are falling into it feet ﬁrst. so ω = αt. Just as the rotation starts. what does Eq. and what force does it take to hold it at rest in this system? 3 If a vector is stationary in an inertial system. what is its time derivative in a rotating system? 4 If the Sun is compressed to a point. [about 3700 km] .

2 If you are in a car that’s accelerating at a0 . What is the trajectory of the bullet in your coordinate system? Express it in polar coordinates as an equation for r in terms of φ.4 A mass is hanging at the end of a one-meter length of light string. (5. 5. Are you in trouble? If so. Write x and y ˆ x φ ˆ ˆ in terms of x and y . A cord is hanging down from the roof inside the car. ﬁred almost horizontally — all combinations. you have basis vectors x and y . North or South pole. A vector r is expressed in the rotating system ˆ y ˆ ˆ as x (t)x + y (t)y . (5. Now take two y ˆ ˆ other unit vectors that are rotating so that φ = ωt. Express the rotating unit vectors in terms of the ˆ x ˆ ˆ stationary x and y and from this compute dr/dt.5 Fill in the missing steps in Eqs. You notice that the period of the pendulum is 3 seconds. but this time you are standing by the side of the road in an inertial coordinate system. How are velocity and acceleration transformed? 5. Turn oﬀ gravity for a moment to make this a two-dimensional problem.6˙ In two dimensions.24) what result do you get if you aim south instead of north? What happens in the southern hemisphere at 55◦ south latitude? 5.g. ˆ ˆ ˆ 5.5—Non-Inertial Systems 194 Problems 5.13)–(5. assuming that you use the accelerated coordinate system in which you are at rest. ﬁred vertically. e.8˙ Stand in the center of a rotating platform and ﬁre a bullet horizontally. equator.9 Analyze Eq. you can then transform the result into the rotating one and determine if your results satisfy the equations of motion in that system.1 Generalize the equations (5. What angle does it make with the vertical in this case? 5. When is it zero? . (5.24). Now ﬁgure out all the forces and deduce what angle the cord makes with the vertical.3) to arbitrary straight-line motion: x = x − f (t) where f is any function. 5. use Eqs. Apply this to the particular example for which x (t) = x0 and y (t) = v0 t.4) to describe the total forces that you perceive. Compare this to the general result in the text. (5. how much? 5. This problem is much easier to solve in an inertial system. and it’s suspended from the roof of the elevator that you are taking. drawing enough pictures to be sure that you understand what is happening.3 As in the preceding problem the cord is hanging down from the roof inside the car.24) for various special cases. 5.7 For the golf ball and the artillery shell from Eq.

What eﬀect does it have? . (5.17). 5.13˙ Assume that Coriolis is the only force present. 5.16 If you didn’t do problem 5. 56 minutes (and 4. but that would be cruel. how does the answer to part (a) help? 5.15 (a) In the analysis of the trajectory of an object that you throw straight up from the equator.5—Non-Inertial Systems 195 ˆ ˆ 5.18 In the equation (5.21).) The magnetic force on a charged particle is F1 = qv × B .11˙ You can include air resistance in the calculations that started at Eq.22) derive algebraically how the size of the deﬂection depends on the initial speed of the golf ball. (5.14): add a term −bv . with ω straight up and a ﬂat Earth. A mass m under this force will move rapidly away from the neighborhood of the origin. and in analyzing the motion of the Trojan asteroids the problem is quite similar to this problem (but with more algebra).23. show that a suﬃciently strong magnetic ﬁeld will stabilize the motion of the (charged) mass. (5. Fire a riﬂe horizontally and get the trajectory. The solution for r0 is already done starting at Eq. leading to Eq.4 it says that a rotation of the Earth occurs every 23 hours.10¨There is a force in the x-y plane F0 = kr⊥ = k (xx + y y ) where k > 0. (5.25).19). 5.18) and (5. 5. If B is along the z -axis. Use rectangular coordinates to solve this problem. (Show this. and you can use that result here in order to improve the calculation leading to Eqs. No gravity. and that the motion of this mass will then be conﬁned to some region around the origin.5. Then continue the process to ﬁnd the next iteration. 5.17 At the start of section 5. and don’t throw away any roots just because you expect them to be unimportant.14˙ Add centrifugal force to the preceding problem and now ﬁnd the trajectory. Assume that the projectile is ﬁred straight up with the same initial speed 300 m/s and that the terminal speed is 100 m/s. (2. no centrifugal. Now where will it land? A still better calculation would be to use the added force ∝ v 2 as in problem 2. what is the horizontal velocity of the projectile when it returns to the ground? (b) In trying to understand why the eﬀect of the up and down motion gives a net result to the West of the starting point. (5.1 seconds). then at least ﬁll in the steps leading to Eq. Why not 24 hours? And are these numbers close to right? 5. The Coriolis force has the same structure as this magnetic force.27) there is a z -component in the last term and it was very conveniently ignored. 5.12 In the example #2 starting at Eq.

Eqs. Show why this is false (with two exceptions). Pick your favorite bird and latitude and evaluate the size of this force.24) be zero? For a reasonable choice of α. What is the phase of q and what does that have to do with interpreting the results? .19 Drop a mass from a height h. Where do you land? You are at latitude λ.26 The diﬀerential equation for a charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld and an electric ﬁeld is m d2 r dr =q E+ ×B 2 dt dt as in section 4.30).27 Leave the results for the Foucault pendulum. Reaching terminal speed quickly — take it to mean that all the forces except Coriolis balance. λ = 30◦ . (5. Where does it land? You are at latitude λ.21 using the methods of this chapter. at least if you neglect terms proportional to B 2 . Neglect air resistance. At what point will it start to slip? 5. 5. and h = 2 km. (5. in terms of q = x + iy as in the equation preceding it.3. where is this? 5. how much force must the bird exert to do so? Do this for a ﬂight north and for ﬂight west. Show that if B is a constant you can pick ω so as to eliminate B . What is the diﬀerential equation to solve now? You may use components to solve this problem only if you want to do a lot of extra algebra and then get results that are diﬃcult to interpret.23 If a bird is ﬂying in level ﬂight at speed v and desires to ﬂy in a straight line despite a horizontal component of Coriolis force. Find the force (magnitude and direction) that the turntable must exert on the insect. initially at rest.22 Under what circumstances will the deviation of a golf ball as found in Eq.24 Repeat problem 4.21 An insect is trying to walk on a rotating turntable. With respect to the inertial frame. Assume that you Jump from height h and reach terminal speed vt quickly (and there’s no wind). 5. 5. The coeﬃcient of static friction is µs . Take terminal speed to be 60 m/s. what is the rotation rate of the plane of oscillation? 5. 5. 5. Write this equation in a coordinate system rotating with constant angular velocity ω .5—Non-Inertial Systems 196 5. and with respect to the turntable its motion is a constant speed v0 directly away from the center.25 In some oversimpliﬁed explanations of the Foucault pendulum you will read the statement that with respect to the inertial system the plane in which the pendulum oscillates does not rotate.20 Jump from a great height and you quickly reach terminal speed because of air resistance.

Note that you will need all the terms in Eq.34˙ For the stable equilibria in the preceding problem.30 For the problem 4. 5.36 In a carnival ride you go inside a cylindrical room and stand against the wall. and with respect to the turntable its motion is a constant speed v0 around a circle of radius R and centered at the origin. 5. For what speed v0 will it slip? Assume that the insect is moving around the circle in the same direction that the turntable is rotating.11). Don’t try to solve the equations (or if you succeed. Let ω = αt2 /2 about ˙ the z -axis. Ffr = µk FN . The room spins up and then the ﬂoor drops out from under you while you remain against ω g θ . x = x0 .35). Then show that this satisﬁes the equations. but is doing so with non-constant ω . You don’t have to include the Earth’s rotation for this one. including the one that hasn’t been used in this chapter at all. Find the equation of motion for m then ﬁnd all points of equilibrium for M and determine their stability for various ω .31 You tie a mass to the end of a string and whirl it around your head in a circle. Does it matter if the motion is clockwise or counterclockwise? (b) Now you are standing at the center of a platform rotating with angular speed ω . Now the modiﬁed F = ma has all the extra terms in it including the ω term that we don’t normally use. the speed of the mass and the tension in the string. Repeat the problem of part (a). y = v0 t. Also draw some vectors to explain the signs. 5.35¨A particle with no forces on it will move in a straight line at constant velocity — at least in an inertial coordinate system. The coeﬃcient of static friction is µs .21. 5. (5. Find the force (magnitude and direction) that the turntable exerts on the insect. (5. 5. The wire is rotating about a vertical axis with ﬁxed angular velocity ω . and transform it to the rotating system. 5. assume now that there is dry friction. ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation.33˙ A mass m is free to slide on a circular wire of radius R.32˙ An insect is on a trying to walk on a rotating turntable.29˙ Fill in the missing steps (and explain the steps that are there) for Eqs. Instead write the known solution in the inertial frame. 5. 5. Now analyze this problem in a coordinate system that is not only rotating.5—Non-Inertial Systems 197 5. tell me how).28˙ Find the equation of motion for a pendulum in a coordinate system where the pendulum is stationary. It does not have the “real” force term.31) through (5. (a) Ignore gravity and ﬁnd the relation between the radius of the circle.

but at some angle to the horizontal. Ans: ∆α = gL/c2 5.22) by a couple of methods. showing the answer is the same as for the case that it entered horizontally. and of course sketch all the paths. 5. 5. Of course extrapolation from one point to the whole ocean is dicey. 5. (a) What curve does it follow according to you? (b) At what angle will it be deﬂected by the time it hits the wall? The width of the ship is L. Return to the magnetic ﬁeld problem and solve it using complex algebra this time.44 You are in a space ship accelerating at g so that it feels like home.3 you saw the solution of the equations (4. Find the relation between your coeﬃcient of friction with the wall and the rotation rate and anything else you need in order that you stay pinned against the wall and oﬀ the ﬂoor. an equipotential.41 Use the data from the tide table on page 191 to sketch the positions of the Earth and Moon and the shape of the ocean surface at moonrise and at moonset. is the mean sea level really at δ = 0? What is the av2π 2 π erage of this equation over the surface of the Earth? δ dA = RE 0 sin θ dθ 0 dφ δ 5.37¨In the preceding problem.43) predicts for the daily range from high tide to low tide? (b) Now add the solar tide and get the range from highest high tide to lowest low tide. In the inertial system it travels in a straight line.29).42 In section 4. Now compute the deﬂection angle when it hits the far wall. a method for constructing very large mirrors for astronomical telescopes. Use Eq. but in your system it doesn’t. but do what you can. (5. what is the numerical value the equation (5.45˙ Same as the preceding problem. A light beam enters horizontally through a window on one side of the ship and hits the far wall.39 With the result of Eq.43). .37) plus the gravitational potential to solve for the shape of this surface. (5. 5. What direction must you throw it in order to hit your target? What is the path in the inertial system? What is the path in the rotating system? For this purpose. In the rotating system this is an equilibrium surface. but not by using complex algebra as in Eq. This result is the basis of spin casting. only now the light doesn’t enter horizontally. 5.40 (a) Considering just the lunar tides. 5. ignore gravity.38 Estimate the equatorial bulge that the planet Jupiter should have.43 If you half ﬁll a bucket with water and set it spinning about its vertical axis. (5. you decide to throw a ball to someone on the other side of the cylinder directly across the diameter.5—Non-Inertial Systems 198 the vertical wall. 5. you see that after a while the water comes to a stable position where its surface curves up at toward the outside.

then you can deduce the angle by which light is deﬂected as it passes by the sun.46.47 In problem 5.5—Non-Inertial Systems 199 5. Note: the real answer is twice as big as this one because the correct calculation uses general relativity theory. This must of course be done at the equator.46¨If you assume that light will behave the same way in a gravitational ﬁeld that it does in an accelerated system.05 mg for someone moving at one meter per second in any direction. and g0 is the gravitational ﬁeld strength at its surface (g = g0 R2 /r2 ). If L is long enough. You get lucky. get an approximate value for the result by assuming that the Sun’s gravitational ﬁeld is constant and equal to its value at the surface. Then ﬁnd the corresponding deﬂection angle. 5.49¨A “skyhook” has been proposed as an economical way to get cargo into space. Ans: 2GM/c2 R ≈ 0. To a ﬁrst approximation light travels on a straight line. so as it moves a distance ∆x you can think of it as passing through a little space ship that is accelerating at GM/r2 in a radial direction. Hang a very long cable straight down from a point in a high orbit so that the cable’s bottom end touches the surface of the Earth and so that its far end is a distance L straight up. Ans: L = 140 000 km . Then ﬁgure out the width of the ship in terms of the ∆x and the angle it enters the ship. The centrifugal force there is to be mg and the maximum Coriolis force is to be less than 0.87 5. What radius and angular speed must the cylinder have (inequalities)? And would you like to be a juggler on such a space station? 5.. the whole system will orbit in equilibrium with the cable remaining straight. Then picture the ship as one large box of width 2R.46. How long must L be so that this cable will stay up? Assume that its linear mass density is constant. Then get an integral to ﬁnd the total deﬂection angle of light passing the sun. The Earth’s radius is R. What is the deﬂection in this crude approximation? Ans: Same as the exact answer to problem 5. At each point it is in a gravitational ﬁeld GM/r2 .48 You are to design a space station in the form of a cylinder that spins along its axis to provide an artiﬁcial gravity for people standing on the inside surface. its angular speed is ω .

z (t) = A3 cos ω3 t + δ3 (6. 6. such as complex exponentials. and you can comfortably assume that only the Earth is moving and that the Sun is ﬁxed. It’s easier to draw pictures in two dimensions.1) x(t) = A1 cos ω1 t + δ1 . In section 6. I can pick the starting time so that δ1 = 0. 2 dt m and you know the solutions to these. Also. For the Earth going around the Sun. and in the ﬁrst form everything is symmetric about the origin. and that changes nothing. setting z = 0. and it is unusual in the way you have to solve it. or with less symmetry Fig. F = −kr. y (t) = A2 cos ωt + δ (6. Simply apply F = ma to get k1 d2 x = − x. then the frequencies are all the same. d2 y k2 = − y. ﬁnding along the way that there are cases where the correction is important.1 ˆ ˆ ˆ F = −k1 xx − k2 y y − k3 z z In the second form the constants can be diﬀerent in three diﬀerent direction. or even the Earth and the Sun. but there’s one example that doesn’t. but the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator is better done in a rectangular system. such as two stars in a binary system.3) . y (t) = A2 cos ω2 t + δ2 . start with the symmetric case so there is only one k . Most of these problems are best attacked in spherical or cylindrical coordinates. 6.7 you will see the fairly easy way to correct this simpliﬁcation. Now the equations are x(t) = A1 cos ωt .2) or any of the other convenient forms. this is a very good approximation.Orbits When two objects are orbiting each other. or the Earth and Moon. so stay with that case for now. I’m going to pretend that’s not happening for the moment. Both represent oscillations about a stable equilibrium. If you’re dealing with the symmetric case. so both are harmonic oscillators. you have to take into account that fact that each is pulled by the other and that both are accelerating. You can picture this as a mass held in place by a set of springs. or as an atom sitting in a crystal lattice and held in place by neighboring atoms. 2 dt m d2 z k3 =− z 2 dt m (6.1 Harmonic Oscillator Most of the problems involving orbits will involve stars and planets or sometimes colliding nuclei.

y (t) = −A2 sin ωt You can eliminate the time parameter with the identity cos2 ωt + sin2 ωt = 1.6—Orbits 201 A couple of special cases ﬁrst. but only for the ﬁnite domain −A1 ≤ x ≤ A1 . but just over the values speciﬁed by the cosine. y = A2 sin 2ωt (6. Take ω2 = 2ω1 as an example. so this is a straight line. x(t) = A1 cos ω1 t. 1 2 If δ = π/2 the equation for y is a (negative) sine. y = A2 (2x2 /A2 − 1) 1 It is an arc of a parabola. Now y is a constant times x. If δ = π/2 this is x = A1 cos ωt. (6. If δ = 0 this is y (t) = A2 cos(2ω1 t + δ ) x = A1 cos ωt. A1 δ=0 A2 δ = 90◦ δ = 60◦ Fig. 6. It is a line segment with slope y/x = A2 /A1 and length 2 A2 + A2 .2) simply has ω1 = ω2 . With this simple-looking change. x(t) = A1 cos ωt . y2 x2 + 2 =1 A2 A2 1 and this is the equation for an ellipse. y = A2 (2 cos2 ωt − 1).2 Any other value of δ will produce an ellipse oriented at some angle to the axes. the orbits get complicated. Take δ = 0. as in the third ﬁgure. Lissajous Figures What if the k ’s aren’t equal? Eq.4) .

where T is the period.2) when you examine one aspect of the gravitational three body problem. He published his results in 1687. so in each increment of time the new velocity vector will remain with no z -component. including a Java Applet.2 Planetary Orbits In the early 1600’s Kepler wrote a series of books on the structure of the solar system. Planets move along orbits that are ellipses. These general curves are Lissajous ﬁgures. and they get complicated √ rapidly. φ dv = a dt has no z -component. There are three exceptions.ac. The torque is r × f (r)r = 0. so the angular momentum L = r × p = r × mv remains constant. Is there a more elegant way to show this? Always. and k is an empirical constant. in the process inventing what we now call mathematical physics. Newton’s problem is one mass m in motion near a center of force such that ˆ F = f (r)r. yes. The line from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. That’s all it means to say that the motion remains in the x-y plane. τ = r × F = dL/dt. a is the semi-major axis of the ellipse. 2. The periods of the planets are related as T = ka3/2 . (6. There are a couple of ways to see this. you can show that z the trajectory of the planet lies in a single plane. now simply called Kepler’s laws. For Newton’s theory of gravity that is f (r) = −GM m/r2 . speciﬁcally the Trojan asteroids. can you deduce all of Kepler’s empirical laws from one basic idea? If you’re Newton. and the Sun is at one focus of the ellipse. Very quickly you ﬁnd that a computer graphics program is a useful adjunct to your tool kit. but until I need to I will simply leave this as f (r). and for more details.6—Orbits 202 It is a ﬁgure eight. and the simplest is to think of the r problem in rectangular coordinates. Start the planet at time zero in the x-y plane with a velocity that is also in that plane. 3.html Do such complicated curves show up in real situations? Yes. For the next major step. Just let ω2 = ω1 2 for this example. see Wikipedia and www-groups. Most of his ideas are forgotten by all but specialists in the history of science.14). The angular momentum obeys ˆ equation (1. They were right and they were important. A variation of these equations appear in the full three-dimensional form much like Eq. 6. 1. if you can ﬁgure out what that means.dcs. This says that the velocity is always .uk/˜history/Curves/Lissajous. and the setup will apply to any central force. ˆ Starting from F = f (r)r = ma. a change to δ = π/4 results in a curve that’s halfway between these two.st-and.

v . ˙ˆ ˙ˆ ˆ ˙ˆ ˙ˆ ˆ L = r × mv = mrr × rr + rφφ = mr2 φ r × φ = mr2 φ z ˙ Now use the expression φ = /r2 from Eq. but it’s hard to see a straight line coming out of Eq. (0. here you need Eq. except for its being purely radial.5) The components provide two diﬀerential equations. L = Lz z in the coordinate system of the preceding paragraph.8) This looks like (and is) a one-dimensional problem with a force that is a combination ˙ of the real force f and something extra that came from the rφ2 term in the original equations. ˙ ¨ m(r − rφ2 ) = f (r) and ¨ ˙˙ r φ + 2r φ = 0 (6. Call it ˙ = r2 φ (6.6—Orbits 203 perpendicular to the constant angular momentum vector. so it should not be too much of a surprise that it shows up somewhere in the solution for the motion.30). The factor in this case is r. It is the angular momentum per mass. For example if the force f is zero. . Write the vectors r . In this system the equation of motion is. you know that the motion will be a straight line. one of which does not even depend on the nature of the force.7) in the ﬁrst of the diﬀerential equations (6. (6. and that deﬁnes the plane in ˆ which the planet moves.6) You can solve the second of these independently of the ﬁrst.31) ¨ ˙ ˆ ¨ ˆ ˆ¨ ˙˙ f (r)r = mr = m r(r − rφ2 ) + φ(rφ + 2rφ) (6.6). (0. You know that angular momentum is conserved in this system. 2 ¨ r−r r2 = 1 m f or ¨ r= 1 2 m f (r ) + r3 (6. (6. with the z -axis perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.7) This expression has a simple interpretation. That means that I want to ﬁnd something that I can multiply the equation by so that the result is a derivative of something else — then integrate it. and the trick is to ﬁnd an integrating factor. using the acceleration from Eq.” That it is one dimensional doesn’t necessarily make it easy. and L in the same cylindrical coordinate system used for the force equation. d ˙ ¨ ˙˙ r 2 φ + 2r r φ = r 2 φ = 0 dt ˙ That means that r2 φ is a constant.8). This combination is referred to as an “eﬀective force. Use cylindrical coordinates to describe the motion.

showing that the polar form and the rectangular form describe the same curve. Kepler’s analysis of the orbits of planets shows that there are some simple-looking results. You can do the changes one at a time in either order. That you know the shape of the orbit doesn’t tell you anything about how the planet moves as a function of time.6—Orbits 204 6.8) directly. This polar equation for an ellipse doesn’t have any obvious properties that I might recognize in a diﬀerential equation. . Working backwards from the experimental results then suggests two changes of variables. An ellipse take two points and looks for the set of points so that the sum of the distances to the two points is a constant. as in the picture on the next page.9) as Br + Cr cos φ = A. one of which is that the orbits are shaped as ellipses. There * What about diﬀerence. It provides no clue about solving (6. but what about 1/r? That’s proportional to B + C cos φ and we spent a whole chapter on functions such as that — harmonic oscillators.* The two points are the foci of the ellipse. a2 b 2 (x − x0 )2 a2 + (y − y 0 )2 b2 =1 t→φ and r → u = 1/r Now it’s a lot of application of the chain rule. Another way to deﬁne an ellipse parallels the deﬁnition of a circle. but there’s a clue leading to a method that does work. but probably not polar.3. product. A straightforward attack on equation (6. (6.9) A more familiar rectangular equation for an ellipse is (6. or more generally. This works.3 Kepler Problem Now pick a speciﬁc f that varies as 1/r2 .10) Write Eq.8) is diﬃcult. and you can ﬁnish it easily in problem 6. A circle is the set of points all at a constant distance from one ﬁxed point. x2 y 2 + = 1 centered at the origin. both the independent and the dependent ones. but once you’ve done this you will ask if there’s an easier way. or quotient of distances? Also the sum or difference of squares of distances? They’re fun too. write r and r cos φ in terms of x and y . Now how many people know enough analytic geometry to write the polar equation for an ellipse? Rectangular coordinates maybe. If I can solve for the function r(φ) perhaps I’ll recognize it as the equation for an ellipse. and the other independent variable to use is φ. The clue is that you may get a simple result if you eliminate the time variable in favor of another. The answer is r(φ) = A B + C cos φ (6.

6—Orbits is: Do both at once. the corresponding names are perigee and apogee. or 1 d2 u 1 + u = − 2 2f 2 dφ m u u (6. (More on that later. For objects orbiting the Earth. and the generic terms are periapsis and apoapsis.9. the angle φ0 is the direction in which the denominator is largest. section 6. section 6. I may as well assume that ≥ 0 because if not. then you can do it without diﬃculty. C was an arbitrary constant so . That changes the sign in front of the cosine back to positive again. Equation (6. and it’s dimensionless. This is the ellipse as stated in Kepler’s laws. because though the results are amusing they’re not very important. With this convention on . otherwise it’s hard.8. When you’re talking about planets going around the Sun.13) is a length. Recall: ˙ = r2 φ. and φ0 is an angle. (6. What happens with the Kepler problem? f (r ) = − GM GM m d2 u 1 =⇒ + u = − 2 2 − GM mu2 = + 2 2 2 r dφ m u (6. at least as long as the parameter has magnitude less than one. Can you solve it? That depends on f . the orbital point nearest the Sun is the perihelion. then I can redeﬁne the parameter φ0 by adding π to it.8) to get − 2 u2 1 d2 u 1 = f + 2 dφ m u 2 3 u. (What f would that be?) Most of the rest of this chapter will concern the exact solutions to the Kepler problem and approximate solutions to all the others.13) = C 2 /GM is too. and for which functions f is it easy? If the right side is a constant or if it’s proportional to u. and the one farthest away is the aphelion. It points toward the smallest r in the orbit. u= GM 2 + C cos(φ − φ0 ).) The numerator of (6.12) Leave the other easy case for later. so ˙ u2 = φ 205 dr dr du dφ 1 du 2 du = =− 2 u =− dt du dφ dt u dφ dφ 2u 2r 2 u dφ d d d =− = − 2 u2 2 2 2 dt dt dφ dφ Put this change into Eq. or 1 u =r= 2 /GM 1 + cos(φ − φ0 ) (6.12) is easy.11) This is starting to look like a harmonic oscillator.

The ellipse in the drawing has a fairly large eccentricity.66 This ﬁgure summarizes many properties of the ellipse. That’s where the Sun is. .017.25) has been dethroned.13) and if you know something about complex variables and contour integration you can do the integral fairly easily. and the perihelion distance c. Other values that can be derived in terms of these start with the semi-minor axis b.* On the scale of this drawing. Only Venus has a lower eccentricity than Earth’s: 0. see the exercises on page 229 How much time does it take a planet to orbit the sun? There are enough relations ˙ here to ﬁgure that out. Tycho’s observational data. taken before 1600 and before the invention of the telescope. Despite this.14) = 0. and .21. were so accurate that Kepler was able to use them to discover his laws. (If you don’t you * Now that Pluto (0. Earth’s orbit is so non-eccentric that the Sun’s position would be almost in the center of the ellipse — just on the edge of the darkened part of the vertical axis in the picture.66. and even Mercury has an eccentricity of only 0. the largest of all the planets. (6. The error in drawing Earth’s orbit as a perfect circle is about the thickness of the line representing the orbit. = 0. and the sum of the distances from the two foci (r + r ) is a constant. For the derivations of these properties of the ellipse. the semi-major axis. Start with = r2 φ. Solve it for r dφ dt = r2 dφ 1 r At this point you can substitute Eq. which is far larger than the eccentricity of any planet. Earth’s is 0. The other focus is symmetrically placed on the other side of the ellipse. the distance from the center to a focus f . The two governing parameters are a. the eccentricity. The origin of the polar coordinate system is at the right hand focus.6—Orbits 206 foci r f b r c φ a a(1 − 2 ) 1 + cos φ f =a r= b=a 1− 2 a2 − b 2 = f 2 r + r = 2a A = πab c = a − f = a(1 − ) (6.0068.

(6. What about energy? That should have some signiﬁcance too.18) This looks like a one-dimensional problem again. 1 2 2 r2 1 m 2 ˙ + U = mr2 + + U (r ) 2 2r 2 (6. with the x-coordinate replaced by r.13) and (6.14) Solve the last expression for 1− 2 1− to get =√ GM a then T= 2πa2 . and the other properties in Eq. count ˙ the number of times that = r2 φ has been used so far.15) Notice that this equation is Kepler’s second law as in section 6. Combine this with the known area of an ellipse.2! Integrate this over the whole ellipse. this is 1 2 where − dU = f (r ) dr ˙ˆ ˙ ˙ˆ ˙ E = m rr + rφφ + U = m r2 + r2 φ2 + U 1 2 2 1 2 (6. to eliminate the φ variable. . T ∝ r3/2 . In the same cylindrical coordinates. πab. It is twice the area of a triangle with vertex at the origin. When the eccentricity is zero the semi-major axis is the radius of the circle. √ GM a =√ 2π GM a3/2 (6.13). The role of potential energy is played by the ﬁnal combination in the last equation. (6. Eq. E = mv 2 + U (r).14). r dφ 1 2 so dt = dA 2 (6. you have the period T = 2A/ . (6.6—Orbits 207 should learn. 0 < φ < 2π .17) Combine this equation with angular momentum. and you can derive this special case by elementary methods.16) and this is another of Kepler’s laws. The factor r2 dφ is an area.) There’s an easier trick here anyway. Energy Angular momentum conservation has played an important role in this analysis. ˙ E = m r2 + ˙ = r2 φ. √ 2πab 2πa2 1 − 2 T= = 2 Now use GM √ = a(1 − 2 2 ) from Eqs. dA = r . but that’s another story.

In this eﬀectively onedimensional problem the total energy determines the qualitative behavior of the solution.14). If E = E2 . . The boundary between the elliptic and the hyperbolic cases is the line E = 0. The mass comes in from far away. The value of the energy in this case is focus E=− = 0. the single allowed energy lies at the bottom of the curve and that says that r is a constant in time — a circle. like the hyperbola. The energy depends solely on the semi-major axis of the ellipse. though you can’t tell from just this simple energy analysis that it is an ellipse. There are more relationships among these parameters. . .32. (6.33. This is just the elliptical orbit described in the preceding section.3 applies here too. and some of them are even useful.8).20) The same sort of analysis done in section 2. (6. a.9. See problem 6.” Ueﬀ = U (r) + m 2 2r 2 (6.66. If E = E3 the motion is unbounded. This orbit is unbounded.. That is a hyperbolic orbit.99 m 2a2 (1 2 − 2) =− GM m 2a (6. but combined with another term called the “centrifugal potential” energy. . They are all easy to derive from the other equations in the last couple of pages. The combination is called the “eﬀective potential energy.19) Compare this equation to Eq. and for the Kepler problem Eq. the allowed motion is back and forth between the two stopping points where the line E2 intersects the eﬀective potential energy curve. The set of ellipses drawn here all have the same energy and a common focus. stops at the intersection of E3 with Ueﬀ and returns to inﬁnity.19) is U eﬀ Ueﬀ (r) = − GM m m 2 + r 2r 2 ∝ 1/r2 E r 3 E2 ∝ −1/r E1 (6. That focus is at the center of the leftmost ellipse (the circle) and less that the line thickness from the leftmost point in the narrowest ellipse.21) You can derive this by ﬁnding the stopping point for E2 and then expressing it in terms of the minimum (or maximum) value of r from Eq. (6. If E = E1 . but its shape is a parabola instead.6—Orbits 208 not U alone. discussed in section 6.

where = vr.23) * The term intensity is sometimes used here. but that word is also used for power per area per solid angle. power per area. what should this be for a circular orbit.10 there is a lot of manipulation that will require several of them.6—Orbits 209 and in section 6. = GM a(1 − 2 ). P P R2 (1 + cos φ)2 = 4πr2 4 a2 (1 − 2 )2 where R is the Earth’s radius. . (That’s radiance. and does it agree with this result? It is worth looking at the result expressed in terms of other variables.017. The irradiance*. with = 0.14). It spreads out radially and at a distance r is spread over a sphere of area 4πr2 . πR2 . The ratio at perihelion (φ = 0) to that at aphelion is.) It’s better to use the technical term and avoid confusion.4 Insolation Notice the spelling. not what you put in your attic. so P πR2 2 =P πR2 2 GM a(1 − 2 ) (6. (1 + )2 = 1. at that distance is P /4πr2 . leaving only the dependence on angular momentum. Let c denote the orbital distance at perihelion.07 (1 − )2 The perihelion is in January and the aphelion is in July. How does the power hitting the Earth vary with the season? From Eq. The power radiated by the sun is P = 2 × 1030 Watts. As a check. this refers to the power received from the sun. (6. then c = a − f = a(1 − ) E=− m 1− 2 c2 1 + 2 2 f= c 1− b=c = GM c(1 + ) 1+ 1− c(1 + ) r= 1 + cos φ (6.22) 6. The annual energy received from the sun is the integral P πR2 dt 1 4πr2 = P πR2 = P πR2 dt 1 dφ 4πr2 2π πR2 r2 1 = P πR2 =P dφ 4πr2 4π 2 dφ and in this equation the eccentricity cancels.

r = r0 . (6. but I can quote some results. and they will aﬀect the orbit. A detailed analysis of the interactions of the planets does lead to important consequences however. the semi-major axis. There are two sorts of questions I want to examine about orbits: What is their shape? What is the time dependence of the object in orbit? There are two starting points for this analysis. One thing that does not change on this time scale is a.24) . That takes you far beyond this text. The solar system consists of the Sun and Jupiter plus some detritus. but working it out is well beyond the scope of this book.8) and (6. (4) The gravitational pull by the other planets. 3 then 0= 1 2 m f (r0 ) + 3 r0 (6. but that’s about it. especially Jupiter. so the material to this point will not work. The question is: what is the eﬀect of Jupiter on Earth’s orbit. it’s not clear that there are any implications to be drawn from these equations.11).5 Approximate Solutions There are few orbit problems that can be solved exactly in terms of familiar functions. The second is concerned with only the shape of the orbit and the ﬁrst can do either. This is by far the largest of all these eﬀects. Maybe you can include Saturn too. ¨ r= 1 2 m f (r ) + r . This is apparent in the last form in Eq.6—Orbits 210 Without further information about the parameters. but not as easily. then its gravitational ﬁeld isn’t exactly the same as a point mass at its center. Eqs. and you can search for information relating to it under the heading of “Milankovitch cycles. This is a suﬃciently complicated problem that it is still not fully understood. The methods of Hamilton and Jacobi are called for.” There you will see that I’ve barely started on the subject. (6. as will the direction of the perihelion with respect to the distant stars. First Method Start with Eq. Some examples of force laws that can really happen: (1) Is our sun exactly spherical? If it is slightly oblate the way that the Earth is. and even then it’s diﬃcult. (2) If the solar system is embedded in a background of a uniformly dense material (dark matter? dust?) how does that aﬀect orbits? (3) There are relativistic corrections to the equations. then which gives more insight. And if there are others that can be solved in terms of unfamiliar functions.23). an exact complicated solution or an approximate simple solution? Usually the latter. It will have a small part that drops oﬀ as 1/r4 added to the usual 1/r2 . (6.8). The shape of Earth’s orbit changes over time so that the eccentricity will vary slightly. contribute. and the time scale for these changes is the order of 100 000 years. First write the equation deﬁning a circular orbit. The immediate consequence of this is that the annual energy reaching the Earth will vary over time as varies. 6. It is not a central force.

Is this a harmonic oscillator? That depends on the sign of the last factor: Is it negative? Try the Kepler case. As with the sort of expansions you did so many of in chapter three. (6. GM m f (r ) = − 2 .25) for x is then a harmonic oscillator equation. The angular coordinate will come from Eq.26) If x = x0 cos ω0 t. Next do a series expansion to determine the properties of x. ˙ φ= r2 = (r0 + x )2 −→ then 2 r0 1− 2x r0 = ω0 1 − 2 x0 2x r0 (6. come back and see what it does. r(t) = r0 + x0 cos ω0 t . r will be nearly r0 . At the end. That means that I can write r = r0 + x and assume that x is small compared to r0 . r0 where 2 ω0 = 2 GM = 4 3 r0 r0 This tells only the way that r oscillates.25) m f (r0 ) − 3 4 r0 x= 1 m f (r0 ) + r0 I used Eq. φ(t) = ω0 t − r0 sin ω0 t If all you want is the shape of the orbit.7) for angular momentum per mass. It doesn’t by itself describe the orbit because it is just one of the two coordinates you need. you already know the exact answer there. r f (r0 ) + 3 − GM m + r3 r2 2 r0 r r0 f (r0 ) = 2 3 GM m GM m GM m − =− 3 2 3 r0 r0 r0 r0 The diﬀerential equation (6. then to rearrange the coeﬃcient of x. ﬁrst to eliminate the constant term.24) twice in the last line. (6. ¨ ¨ r=x= 1 2 m 1 f (r0 + x) + (r0 + x)3 = 1 2 m 2 3 r0 f (r0 ) + xf (r0 ) + · · · + 1−3 3 3 r0 (1 + x/r0 )3 = ¨ x= m 1 f (r0 ) + xf (r0 ) + · · · + 2 x r0 f (r0 ) x (6. so it’s a good laboratory. the second (small) term in φ(t) isn’t important. φ(t) = ω0 t. this will turn out to be a harmonic oscillator. ¨ x=− GM 3 x =⇒ r (t) = r0 + x = r0 + x0 cos(ω0 t + δ ).6—Orbits 211 For a nearly circular orbit. so I will start by ignoring it.

the planet is farther away. and that is nothing more than conservation ˙ of angular momentum. ˙ the positions match. How about the sign? Take φ0 = π and it’s the same. At time zero. mr2 φ. In that same period.26)? φ = ω0 t − (2x0 /r0 ) sin ω0 t. r = r0 + cos(5ω0 t) . (6. the angular speed is less. r 0 − x0 φ r 0 + x0 r0 Fig. r= Is 2 /GM 2 /GM 1 + cos(φ − φ0 ) ≈ r0 1 − cos(φ − φ0 ) equal to r0 ? Yes. and then returns to its starting point. It is a closed orbit. To see what another shape of orbit can look like. x0 = r0 .6—Orbits 212 As t increases from 0 to 2π/ω0 . (6. so its kinetic energy is a little less. Farther away from the sun. Now what about the linear speed? ˙ v = (r0 + x0 )φ = (r0 + x0 )ω0 (1 − 2x0 /r0 ) = r0 ω0 (1 − x0 /r0 ) It is a little less than the r0 ω0 that you have for the original circle. decreases to r0 − x0 . the angle φ goes from zero to 2π . but φ is a little smaller than it was without this extra term. 6. On the other side of the orbit the speed is correspondingly larger than rω0 so it catches up. what about that extra term in Eq. The planet orbits once.3 Compare this to the exact result from Eq. suppose that the rate of radial oscillation is exactly ﬁve times the revolution rate. and then look at the ﬁrst term in its series expansion. go back and check it out. r starts at r0 + x0 . φ = ω0 t. The shape of the approximate orbit matches the shape of the exact orbit.13). That makes sense. It has climbed up the potential well. Now.

(6.27). without following the time dependence. If and when I have to come back and solve it I will.27) u0 = − 2 2 f m u0 u0 This may be a hard equation to solve or it may be easy. so you look for a solution in the form u(φ) = u0 + x(φ). With u = 1/r. If x is small ( u0 ) do a series expansion on everything d2 x 1 1 + u0 + x = − f 2 2 u2 (1 + x/u )2 dφ m 0 u0 (1 + x/u0 ) 0 =− =− =− 1 m m (1 2 u2 0 (1 2 u2 0 − 2x/u0 )f − 2x/u0 ) f 1 1 u0 (1 − x/u0 ) −f 1 1 1 m 2 u2 0 f u0 x u0 u0 u2 0 1 1 1 2x x + f + f u0 u0 u2 u0 m 2 u2 0 0 1 d2 x 1 1 2 1 1 +x=+ 2 2 f + f dφ2 u0 u0 u2 u0 m u0 0 x (6. To determine the shape of an orbit that is almost circular. but leave it alone for now because it isn’t yet clear just how much of the equation needs to be solved.6—Orbits 213 Second Method Start with Eq. Does this provide a solution for r(φ)? Just one more step. assume that u is almost constant. 1 1 d2 u + u = − 2 2f dφ2 m u u A circular orbit is r(φ) = r0 = constant.29) . so u0 = 1/r0 satisﬁes 1 1 (6. For this case the term d2 u/dφ2 is zero. so that d2 x 1 1 + u0 + x = − 2 f 2 2 dφ m (u0 + x) u0 + x When x ≡ 0 this of course satisﬁes the immediately preceding equation for the circle. This is now a simple equation for x(φ). r= 1 u = 1 1 x = 1− r0 + x u0 u0 2 = r0 − r0 x (6. The aim again will be to examine some almost circular orbits. because all the coeﬃcients are constants.11) to examine the orbit alone.28) The last simpliﬁcation used the equation for a circular orbit. (6.

but with the caution that it has a minor pitfall near the start of the problem. dφ2 x(φ) = A cos( 3φ + δ ) √ √ 2 The orbit is r(φ) = r0 + r1 cos( 3φ + δ ).14). The orbit is closed. but it was measured by about 1800 and (most of) the explanation was worked out by Laplace as due to the pulls by the other planets. then d2 x + x 1 + 2f0 /m 2 u3 = 0 0 dφ2 u0 = + 1 m f. In the Kepler problem. That is 0. When φ goes around √ 2π . remember that the calculations for the Kepler problem assumed that the single thing aﬀecting the motions of a planet is the sun. Example Suppose the radial force is constant. so no integer multiple of it will be an integer.16◦ per century. What about the pull by the other planets? When you take them into account the problem is of course far more diﬃcult. go way back. a little less that 1 3/4 cycles. In contrast you have this example. . The equation (6. where the force varies as 1/r2 . but one consequence is that the elliptical orbits are only a (very good) ﬁrst approximation and the orbits don’t quite close. Can this happen? Yes. 3 is not a rational number. It doesn’t sound like much. you’re never back to exactly the same position and velocity. the oscillation in radius will have by gone through a phase of 2π 3. when the planet has gone around once. 2 u2 0 0 or u3 = f0 /m 0 2 The equation for the perturbation x is now d2 x + x 1 + 2 = 0. f = −f0 .6—Orbits 214 You already know the exact solution for the Kepler problem. where r1 = −Ar0 is another form for the arbitrary constant representing the small deviation from a circular orbit. the planet is back where it started and with the same velocity. so if you get a result that fails to agree with the exact one. it can’t be expressed as the quotient of two integers. The perihelion of Mercury precesses around the Sun at the rate of about 574 seconds of arc per century. in which no matter how many times you go √ around.28) is then 2 d2 x 1 f x +x= 2 u2 u dφ2 m 0 0 I still need the equation for r0 . I’ll leave this to the problem (6. so the ﬁrst question to ask should be whether this approximate equation predicts correct results when you know the answer. φ = 2π .

but that doesn’t require you to leave Earth to check its validity. using the result stated in Eq. The other term has r × φ = −θ. and this is a perfectly workable method. which does have a z -component. The velocity in spherical coordinates is easy: z dr θ r r dθ r sin θ dφ y θ m φ Fig.32). giving T = 2π cos θ/g .6 Spherical Pendulum This is an example of a problem that involves all the apparatus of perturbed orbits. ˆ-direction is r dθ. Put these together and v= dr ˙ˆ ˙ˆ ˙ˆ = r r + rθ θ + r sin θ φ φ dt Set the z -coordinate to be positive downward and the energy is E = mv 2 + U = 1 2 m 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ r2 + r2 θ2 + r2 sin2 θ φ2 − mgr cos θ (6. Change Change the θ-coordinate by dθ and the displacement in the θ ˆ the φ-coordinate by dφ and the displacement in the φ-direction is r sin θ dθ — note that as φ changes you are moving around a small circle of radius r sin θ. that you can use conservation laws to ﬁnd the equations of motion. What if the orbit of the pendulum is not exactly circular? The coordinate system to describe this is of course spherical. (0.6—Orbits 215 6. where is the length of the cord. Compute it ˙ˆ ˙ˆ ˙ˆ ˙ˆ ˆ ˙ˆ ˆ r × mv = mrr × r r + rθ θ + r sin θφ φ = mrr × rθ θ + r sin θφ φ ˆ ˆ ˆ The product r × θ is in the φ-direction. 6. This problem is still suﬃciently simple however. You can use F = ma directly. Finding the period of this motion is an elementary exercise. Hang a heavy mass from the ceiling and start it moving around a circle parallel to the ﬂoor.30) The z -component of angular momentum is also conserved because there is no torque about that axis. .4 ˆ z x φ ˆ Change the r-coordinate by dr and that is the displacement in the r-direction. and that is perpendicular to the z -axis so it ˆ ˆ ˆ doesn’t contribute.

combining (6. L = z .31).8). θ a constant. so that the orbit is a circle. φ ˆ is in the direction of increasing φ. What if the angular momentum is zero? That is. ˙ φ0 is the angular speed for the circular orbit. If the pendulum is swinging in an almost circular orbit that is almost parallel to the ﬂoor. g L2 cos θ0 =0 sin θ0 − 2z 4 3 r m r sin θ0 then sin4 θ0 = r L2 z cos θ0 g m2 r4 (6. The equation is then ¨ g θ + sin θ = 0 r and this is Eq.6—Orbits 216 ˆ ˆ (Remember the deﬁnitions of the unit vectors: r is in the direction of increasing r.32) with the second of the equations (6. there’s a simple special case to check. You get ˙ φ0 = g/r cos θ0 (6. precisely as required. Start with the exact. Simplify the expression for the energy by eliminating ˙ from E .) ˙ˆ ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ ˆ ˆ ˆ z . mrr × r sin θ φ φ = z . θ is in the direction of increasing θ.24). which were analyzed starting in Eq.31) These have the same structure as the equations (6. But ﬁrst. mrr sin θ φ (−θ) = mr2 sin2 θ φ ˙ That is Lz = mr2 sin2 θφ.32) ˙ Eliminate Lz in favor of φ0 .7) and (6. the pendulum is going back and forth in a single plane. (6. use a series expansion about this orbit. φ E= m 2 ˙ ˙ r2 + r2 θ2 + r2 sin2 θ L2 z − mgr cos θ m2 r4 sin4 θ ˙ For the spherical pendulum the length of the cord is constant so r = 0 and the equation for conservation of energy is dE/dt = 0 dE d m 2 ˙2 L2 = r θ + 2 2 z 2 − mgr cos θ = 0 dt dt 2 m r sin θ 2 − cos θ L ˙ ˙ ˙¨ θ + mgr sin θ θ = mr2 θθ + z2 mr sin3 θ ˙ Cancel the common factor θ and rearrange the terms to get ¨ θ+ L2 cos θ g sin θ − 2z 4 3 = 0 r m r sin θ with ˙ φ= Lz mr2 sin2 θ (6. simple solution. (3.24).33) .

Then the binomial expansion.31) about θ0 . g L2 cos θ0 − δ sin θ0 sin θ0 + δ cos θ0 − 2z 4 3 =0 r m r sin θ0 + 3δ sin2 θ0 cos θ0 g sin4 θ0 cos θ0 sin θ0 cos θ cos θ0 ¨ g − δ− 3 03 δ =0 δ + sin θ0 + δ cos θ0 − 3 3 r r cos θ0 sin θ0 sin θ0 sin θ0 sin θ0 g sin2 θ0 ¨ δ + δ cos θ0 + + 3 cos θ0 = 0 r cos θ0 2 ¨ g 1 + 3 cos θ0 δ = 0 δ+ r cos θ0 ¨ δ+ This manipulation used the general form of Taylor’s series. Now everything is set up to solve and analyze.7. Now expand the diﬀerential equation (6. ¨ δ+ g 1 + 3 cos2 θ0 δ=0 r cos θ0 and ˙ φ0 = g r cos θ0 (6.34) The simplest case ﬁrst. so that the pendulum is hanging almost vertically. Let θ = θ0 + δ . Then the relation for Lz in Eq.35) θ = θ0 + δ0 .32). problem 6.4). (0. always.6—Orbits 217 This is an equation that you can also (and should) derive by elementary methods. Eq. then ¨ δ+ L2 cos θ0 + δ g =0 sin θ0 + δ − 2z 4 r m r sin3 θ + δ Expand in powers of δ up to the ﬁrst. Then some routine manipulation. Suppose that the angle θ0 is small. then ¨ δ+ 4g r δ=0 and ˙ φ0 = g r The rate of oscillation about the circular orbit is governed by δ : θ = θ0 − δ0 θ(t) θ(t) = θ0 + δ (t) = θ0 + δ0 cos ωt ˙ φ(t) = φ0 t with ˙ ω = 2φ0 (6. (6.

such as the Sun and Jupiter or Earth and the Moon.6—Orbits 218 This is a closed orbit.34). This gives Fon 1 ext + Fon 2. See problem 6. 6.8 What if the mean angle θ0 is small but not negligible? The key parameter that determines the result is the ratio of the two angular frequencies in Eq. Fon 1 = Fon 1 Fon 2 = Fon 2 by 2 by 1 + Fon 1 + Fon 2 external external = m1 d2 r1 /dt2 = m2 d2 r2 /dt2 (6. Is there an easy way to see that this is the form the solution must take? Yes. 4π = 2π 1 + 3θ0 /8 φ0 t = 0 ωt = 2 ω 2 1 − 3θ0 /8 2 The apex of the ellipse has precessed forward by an angle 3πθ0 /4 in one orbit. and when that has oscillated twice what had φ done? When ωt = 4π. Does it go clockwise or counterclockwise? That depends on how you start it out.37) . and is approximately an ellipse. and this is something that you can check experimentally. This is not a simple ratio of integers. then angle φ changes by ˙ 1 φ 2 ˙ . solve it in rectangular coordinates.7 Center of Mass Transformation When two bodies. This can quickly become unmanageable. What happens to the position of the farthest point on the orbit as m goes around once and returns to the farthest point? The radial oscillation is governed by ωt. so the orbit doesn’t close — it precesses.36) Add these equations and use the property that the two mutual forces add to zero by Newton’s third law: Fon 1 by 2 = −Fon 2 by 1 . ext = m1 d2 r2 d2 d2 r 1 + m2 2 = (m1 + m2 ) 2 dt2 dt dt m1 r1 + m2 r2 m1 + m2 (6. the argument of the cosine goes from 0 to π and all the way to 2π . (6. When the angle φ goes from 0 to π . 1 + 3 cos2 θ0 / cos θ0 ω2 2 = = 1 + 3 cos2 θ0 = 1 + 3 1 − θ0 /2 + · · · ˙ 1/ cos θ0 φ2 0 2 2 = 4 − 3θ0 2 2 ˙ The ratio of the frequencies is ω/φ0 = 2 1 − 3θ0 /4 = 2 1 − 3θ0 /8 . interact you have six coordinates to contend with. giving two points of maximum excursion. so it’s fortunate that there’s a trick to transform these to two independent sets of three coordinates each.

and at this distance the Sun’s gravitational ﬁeld at the Earth’s position is nearly the same as that at the Moon’s position. though the masses in the two cases are neither m1 nor m2 . The center of mass rcm obeys equation (6. 1 1 d2 Fon 2 by 1 + Fon 2 by 1 = 2 r2 − r1 m2 m1 dt Rearrange the last equation: multiply by m1 m2 .37) involving the total external force. Also you can have a case in which the external gravitational ﬁeld is fairly uniform. Fon 1 ext = m1 gext . Instead of eliminating the internal forces by adding the two equations (6. That now cancels the external force terms. Each of these has the appearance of a single mass under a single force. Fon 2 by 1 = m1 m2 d2 r m1 + m2 dt2 where r = r2 − r1 (6.39) This process took the six coordinates and separated them into three plus three.) m1 r1 rcm r r2 m2 r = r2 − r1 m r + m2 r2 rcm = 1 1 m1 + m2 (6.36) by m1 and m2 respectively and subtract. the forces are proportional to the masses of the object being aﬀected.38) Divide the equations (6.36). and the internal forces are related because of Newton’s third law. In the case of gravity. divide by (m1 + m2 ). you can sometimes eliminate the external forces. The relative coordinate r obeys the equation (6. 1 m2 Fon 2 by 1 + 1 m2 Fon 2 ext − 1 m1 Fon 1 by 2 − 1 m1 Fon 1 ext = d2 r2 /dt2 − d2 r1 /dt2 The external forces are gone. The Sun acts on the Earth and the Moon. Fon 2 ext = m2 gext with nearly the same external g for both. but mtotal = m1 + m2 and mreduced = µ = m1 m2 m1 + m2 . and it is aﬀected by the internal force alone. (Not exactly. and reﬁned calculations have to treat this as a three-body problem.6—Orbits 219 The last parenthesis presents the deﬁnition of the center of mass of two objects — of N objects if you extend the sums in the numerator and the denominator. Not here though.39).

These two equations are Ftot. If you replace the proton by a deuteron (twice the mass) the energies will change but slightly. and the ﬁrst method that bore fruit in this search was an extension of this analysis of the center of mass. this reduced mass is close to m2 and the correction from treating m1 as ﬁxed is small. and in the hydrogen gas the distance to neighboring atoms is typically large enough that the interactions are negligible. Extrasolar Planets It is now possible to ﬁnd planets around other stars. You can however detect the motion of the star itself. There are still other circumstances in which the external forces are not gravitational. The center of mass is about 1000 km below the Earth’s surface. then the reduced mass is µ = m2 /2m = m/2. What is that? Solve for rst and rpl .16) becomes 2π T= a3/2 (6. In a binary star system.6—Orbits 220 The “reduced mass” is the combination that takes the place of the ordinary mass in the transformed equation. (6. two stars orbit each other. and only this year (2008) was there an instance of this. For the Earth-Moon system. though still enough to be detected. If their masses are the same. Eq. For example the hydrogen atom has a nucleus and an electron. Some people use mr . All the action is in the relative coordinate. mst rst + mpl rpl mst + mpl mpl =⇒ rst = rcm − r mst + mpl rcm = and and r = rpl − rst rpl = rcm + mst r mst + mpl .40) where µ is a common notation for the reduced mass. so the reduced mass µ = (81/82)mMoon .ext = Mtot d2 rcm dt2 and Fon 2 by 1 =µ d2 r dt2 (6. but are negligible anyway. When you study some quantum theory. All the mathematics done in solving the gravitational orbit problem is now the same except for some changes in the symbols. Then you still have the center of mass transformation to the relative coordinate r .41) G(M + m) As this transformation to center of mass and relative coordinates applies only under the assumption that the external force is uniform. the one for the acceleration of the center of mass. For example. the reduced mass of the nucleus and the electron is what appears in the energy calculations. If the mass m1 is much larger than m2 . enough to be able to work out the structure of the hydrogen atom. It is a small correction because the proton’s mass is 1836 times that of the electron. the ﬁrst equation. mEarth = 81mMoon . is trivial. To see a planet of another star directly you have to be very lucky.

at least to within 5−10%. mpl mst How do you detect the motion of the star? The Doppler Eﬀect.44) mpl mpl rω = mst + mpl mst + mpl G(mst + mpl ) = mpl r G λ c If you can measure this shift over time.42) you have the distance r between the star and the planet. As a ﬁrst attack on the problem. It is small and diﬃcult to measure.43) The component of the star’s velocity in the direction of the Earth is v1 cos ωt sin α. the star’s velocity is r st = −r mpl /(mst + mpl ). if you are examining a particular star then you already know its spectral classiﬁcation and so you have a decent estimate of its mass mst . the small mass mpl moves on a big ellipse. Equation (6. The star in turn moves on an orbit scaled down by a factor mpl /mst from the planet’s orbit. start with the simplifying assumption that the orbit is circular.42) r(mst + mpl ) (6. and even for a planet as large as Jupiter this is 1/1050. because you know only vst sin α. Next. The equation for the motion is then Gmst mpl /r2 = µrω 2 −→ G(mst + mpl ) = r3 ω 2 The speed of the star in its own circular orbit is then ˙ vst = |rst | = (6. The Doppler equation then says that the wavelength of the light received is related to that emitted as v1 ∆λ = cos ωt sin α (6. (6.43) isn’t enough to tell you the mass m2 of the planet. not vst . As the planet ˙ ˙ orbits its star. Multiply this equation by sin α and you see that you can determine mpl sin α and that determines a lower bound on the planetary mass. and the techniques to measure it were developed in the 1980’s. so from Eq. This mass is much larger than a planetary mass. what information can you dig out of it? The orbital frequency ω of course and the product vst sin α. but not with enough . What can go wrong? ∆λ/λ is the tough part.6—Orbits 221 When mst mpl . where α is the angle the normal to the orbit makes with the direction to Earth.

(6. The inverse cube force make this diﬀerential equation easy.67 × 10−11 = 1.0 × 1030 ∆λ/λ is still smaller by a factor sin α. but the solution is interesting anyway.11) is u= .3. There’s another case for which the orbital equation is just as easy. though interpreting the solutions is more eﬀort. (6. The Kepler problem has the force f (r) = −GM m/r2 . How big is v/c? Calculate it ﬁrst for our sun and Jupiter: mst = 1. d2 u 1 α d2 u α + u = + 2 2 αmu3 = 2 u −→ + 1− 2 u=0 2 2 dφ m u dφ (6.45) . Their masses were several times more and their orbital radius was much less than that of Jupiter. so this is an impressively diﬃcult quantity to measure. What if the orbit isn’t circular? It’s an ellipse. −→ mpl = 1.8 Another Orbit In section 6. d2 u 1 1 + u = − 2 2f 2 dφ m u u Take the attractive force f (r) = −mα/r 3 . and it’s not surprising that the ﬁrst planets found were larger than Jupiter. the planet has varying speed so that the Doppler shift is not simply a cosine as in Eq.6—Orbits 222 precision to believe the results.3 × 10−6 7. Eq.9 × 1027 = c 3 × 108 6. 6. r 1 ˙ = r2 φ.11) you ﬁnd the equation for the shape of an orbit in a general central force. leading to an easily solved equation. There is enough information in this time dependence to determine the eccentricity of the orbit.99 × 1030 kg. This is not a physically relevant example. Equation (6.78 × 108 km vst 1.44).9 × 1027 kg. a combination that very much surprised astronomers. though it’s more of a curiosity than anything else. Only as recently as 1995 did anyone develop suﬃciently reliable techniques to produce measurements that are widely believed. 2.78 × 108 . but I will leave that to other references. r = 7.

so you can’t say anything about r0 . Sometimes the value of one of the parameters β or γ makes a signiﬁcant change in the shape. 1. but these forms makes the solutions easier to interpret. Here are a set of plots of these orbits. 2. but with various forms of solution. depending on the parameters. α 2 <1 =1 1 u 1 α 2 u 1 α 2 >1 u r0 cos β (φ − φ0 ) r0 =r(φ) = φ − φ0 r0 =r(φ) = cosh γ (φ − φ0 ) r0 r(φ) = sinh γ (φ − φ0 ) =r(φ) = β= 1 − α/ 2 γ= −1 + α/ 2 r(φ) = r0 e±γφ The arbitrary constants can be written in several ways. There’s no similar (real) transformation for the hyperbolic functions. 6. 5. The parameter φ0 = 0 in all cases. and the scales are not necessarily the same from one sketch to the next. so there are more plots than there are separate functions. Why no 1/sine? That’s the same as 1/cosine with a diﬀerent phase angle φ0 . 4.6—Orbits 223 This is sometimes another harmonic oscillator. . 3. It is up to you to ﬁgure out which plot goes with which function and very roughly what parameter values are involved.

you can parametrize it by x = a − a cosh α. but only one applies to the orbit. 6.6—Orbits 224 7. r= a( 2 − 1) 1 + cos φ Now when > 1 the denominator can vanish.6 The hyperbola has two branches. The other branch is the dashed curve. 8. though it needs a sign change when > 1. In order to draw the curve easily. 6.13).9 Hyperbolic Orbits In the analysis of the Kepler orbits. That is for φ = cos−1 (−1/ ) = ± cos−1 (−1/ ). What if it isn’t? The polar equation for the ellipse from Eq. the eccentricity was less than one.5 6. put it in the more familiar rectangular form. These angles have φ > π/2 and φ < −π/2 at the symmetric positions. Fig. To verify that this is a hyperbola.12) and (6. equations (6. y=a 2 − 1 sinh α . r + r cos φ = a( 2 − 1) −→ 2 x2 + y 2 + x = a( 2 − 1) x2 + y 2 = a( 2 − 1) − x = a2 ( 2 − 1)2 − 2a ( 2 − 1)x + 2 x2 x2 (1 − 2 ) − 2a (1 − 2 )x + (1 − 2 )a2 2 − (1 − 2 )a2 2 + y 2 = a2 ( 2 − 1)2 (1 − 2 )(x − a )2 + y 2 = a2 ( 2 − 1)2 + a2 (1 − 2 ) 2 = −a2 ( 2 − 1) (x − a)2 y2 − 2 2 =1 2 a a ( − 1) Fig.14) becomes the equation for a hyperbola. (6.

so that they will return every 76 or 10000 years as the case may be.46) and not the manipulated and separated form that is the second half. (6.10 Time Dependence All the calculations concerning the Kepler problem resulted in the shape of the orbit. Sundman showed that this is not so. and such a comet will then appear only once and then leave forever. demonstrating that it is possible to ﬁnd a series solution in powers of t1/3 . Their orbits can also be hyperbolic ones such as these. (6. .47) γ2 2γ γ * It is sometimes said that the general solution for the time dependence of three mutually orbiting masses is impossible. If you proceed along this route the integral to do to ﬁnd t(r) would be ˙ E = mr2 + 1 2 m 2 GM m − −→ dt = 2r 2 r m 2 dr E− m 2 GM m + 2r2 r (6. φ.3. 6. dt r E= m γ2 r 2 r2 2 then −→ dr dr ds γ dr γ = = = r dt ds dt r ds r 1 m r 2 2 − GM m m 2 + 2 r 2r − GM m m 2 E r + 2 = 2 r2 (6. Doing this. Change variables from t to s.46) To do the integral you can multiply the numerator and denominator of the dr integral by r.7 — which is which? The orbits of comets can be ellipses with very large eccentricity. The energy integral is Eq. You then complete the square on that polynomial and integrate. See problem 6.18).51 to ﬁnd what the dashed curves represent. and you can’t invert the resulting expression to get r explicitly. This procedure will not produce equations for r and φ as functions of t. Instead you will get three equations that give you r. where ds γ = . making the big square root a quadratic polynomial.15. 1.20). These orbits correspond to the energy E3 at Eq. The procedure here is close to that. but with a ˙ twist. change the sign in front of the cosh α in this expression for x. 1. and after solving for r it is separable. The clever thing to do (Sundman)* is to re-deﬁne the independent variable t. The orbits drawn here have eccentricities 1. but they didn’t give the position as a function of time. just as in Eq. it is easier to work with the energy equation from the ﬁrst half of Eq. The reason I’ve put that question oﬀ is that there is no neat.8) is to get the energy integral and then to use separation of variables. (6. and t as functions of a fourth parameter. The typical way to solve for r(t) from Eq. (2. explicit solution to the equations in terms of time. not r(t).19). (6. The calculation is a little intricate.6—Orbits 225 For the other branch. There is however a solution. just not an explicit one. That will give you t(r). but no single step is too bad.

2 ω 2 = k/m. kA2 /2 = E0 With this you can read the frequency ( k/m). and for convenience choose s0 = 0. •t ds γ 1 f = −→ γdt = r ds = (a − f cos ωs) ds −→ t(s) = as − sin ωs dt r γ ω (6.6—Orbits 226 and the prime is d/ds.14). Translate this into the language of a harmonic oscillator and that says x0 → a and A → f . just complete the square (remember. the center (x0 ) and the amplitude of oscillation (A = 2E0 /k ). The parameter γ is still arbitrary and I can choose it for convenience.49) ω2 = (6. x0 → a = − .51) . The translation table for the present case is then x(t) → r(s). E0 → − m 2 G2 M 2 m2 − 2γ 2 4Eγ 2 x0 → −GM m/2E. 2 m mγ 2E 2E0 m 2 G2 M 2 m2 A2 = → f2 = − 2 2 − 2 − 2E/γ 2 k 2γ 4Eγ 2 m 2 (GM m)2 = + 2E 4E 2 r(s) = a−f cos ω (s−s0 ) (6. Two plausible choices are γ = 1 √ and γ = GM .50) What about t? Take s = 0 when t = 0. m → m. but I will let the choice hang for now because it’s just as easy to carry the γ along until you are forced to decide. The value of r varies from a maximum of a + f down to a minimum of a − f .48) This is in the same form as the energy conservation equation that you’ve seen for a mass on a spring: 2 1 2 mv + 1 k (x − x0 )2 = E0 =⇒ x(t) = x0 + A cos(ωt + φ). E < 0). The equation for r(s) is then •r Translate further: 2E GM m k →− . Look back again at the picture of an ellipse at Eq. (6. This is a harmonic oscillator (at least if E < 0). 1 m r 2 2 − GM m E r+ 2 γ 2E 2 =− m 2 G2 M 2 m2 − 2γ 2 4Eγ 2 (6. k → −2E/γ 2 . Is this really a harmonic oscillator? Yes.

at perihelion. so you have to use some care in evaluating it. you ˙ can again look at the slopes and see that φ is smallest there. If you use any of the ﬁrst three versions you . the aphelion in the middle. The arctangent is multiple valued. and t as functions of s for an orbit with eccentricity 0. The planet doesn’t spend much time near the perihelion either. s is zero — the left end of the graph. Why are there so many diﬀerent versions of the result for φ(s)? The answer is that when solving a complicated problem you don’t immediately know which form of the result will be most useful. (6. For example. To read and interpret these graphs. b2 = a2 − f 2 and f = a and cos 2α = .6—Orbits 227 •φ dφ dφ ds dφ γ = = = −→ φ = dt ds dt ds r r2 γr s 1 2 b ds = tan−1 tan(ωs/2) φ(s) = γ 0 a − f cos ωs γ ωb a(1 − ) ˙ r2 φ = . What is dφ/dt at that point? dφ dφ ds dφ = = dt ds dt ds dt ds You can see that at the left (or right) ends of the graph the slope of the t-curve ˙ is at its smallest and the slope of the φ-curve is at its largest. r φ t s→ r =a+f r =a−f =c Fig. φ.52) = 2 tan−1 = 2 sin−1 1+ tan(ωs/2) 1− = 2 tan−1 cot(α) tan(ωs/2) cos(α) sin(ωs/2) sin2 (α) cos2 (ωs/2) + cos2 (α) sin2 (ωs/2) Here b is the usual semi-minor axis of the ellipse. there’s a minor technical diﬃculty when plotting the graph of φ if you use the ﬁrst form. At the other extreme.7 φ=0 φ = 2π t=0 t = 1 yr These three graphs show r. This gives φ its largest value there.66 as at Eq. take as an example a speciﬁc part of the orbit: the perihelion.14). just as Kepler’s law says. so (6. 6. For minimum r = a − f . It is prudent to write it in several diﬀerent ways until you get a better idea of the route to take.

φ(s) = 2 γ ωa tan−1 tan(ωs/2) = γa s The statement that A = 0 (no variation in r) determines . Does this complicated looking set of equations reduce to the correct results when the orbit is a circle? = 0. so r (s ) = − GM m = a. How far are they from the Earth’s center and from the Earth’s surface? 5 A mass is in orbit about a ﬁxed center. 2 What is the ratio of the solar power reaching Earth at its perihelion (January) to that at its aphelion (July)? Now what about Mercury and Mars? 3 What ﬁgure do you get if the sum of the squares of the distances from two points add to a constant? 4 Communications satellites are placed in orbits above the Earth’s equator so that relative to the Earth. so that the mass orbits in a nearly circular orbit and the radius oscillates about the circle with frequency 3ω0 /2. The angular speed is φ0 = ω0 . they stay in a ﬁxed position. . Draw the resulting orbit and explain the reasons that your drawing appears as it does. and the attractive force law is such that it can ˙ orbit in a circle at radius r0 from that center. The third version however will have advantages when you are start to look at unbound (E > 0) orbits. That will let you keep track of which quadrant you are in. b = a. The fourth version doesn’t have this diﬃculty. 2E t(s) = 1 γ as. Exercises 1 Sketch a Lissajous ﬁgure for the case ω2 = 10ω1 . f = 0.6—Orbits 228 may need to write the tangent as (sine over cosine) and then to treat the arctangent as a function of two variables. A2 = m 2 (GM m)2 + = 0 −→ 2E 4E 2 2 =− G2 M 2 m −→ 2E = GM −2E/m dφ ( /γa)ds = 2 = dt a (a/γ )ds ˙ and that is (r2 φ/r2 ) as it should be. The orbit is slightly perturbed.

and compute their center of mass.14) is just slightly more involved. To relate the lengths. (6. what is the perihelion distance for the most eccentric of these orbits? And what is its semi-minor axis? In the same picture. what is the angular momentum? Is it constant? 7 In the set of ellipses at Eq. 12 The ﬁfth equation in Eq.6—Orbits 229 6 For the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator of Eqs. but you don’t remember the constant. 10 The third equation in Eq. see the ﬁrst equation in Eq. (6.1) and (6. For the answer. (6.14). now would be a good time. measured from the origin. Use the same ﬁgure as with the four preceding exercises. 9 Where does the second of the equations in Eq. If you haven’t done it. (6.2).43. if the circle represents Earth’s orbit. but now express everything in terms of vectors.(F − r ) and eliminate r cos φ by using the preceding exercises.14) come from? Imagine two equal point masses at the two ends of the major axis. π . evaluate this expression at the two ends of the major axis. radius 150 × 106 km. r F r 13 The sixth equation is problem 0. where is the orbit of Mars? not All About Ellipses 8 If you remember that the polar equation for an ellipse is something like r = K/(1 + cos φ). (6. . and add the results to solve for K . r = (F − r ) . so maximize y = r sin φ by taking dy/dφ = 0.14) follows from the two preceding exercises. (6. use r . and F = 2f . Use the equation from the immediately preceding exercise. 11 The fourth equation in Eq.21).14) tells you b. How so? The length of the semi-minor axis is the maximum y -coordinate on the ellipse. at φ = 0. r = r + F . (6.

8). Find the conditions on A.30) can be written in the form U = A + B (x2 + y 2 ) for appropriate A and B . and C so that it is an ellipse. and derive the period of a conical pendulum.4 For a planet in circular orbit around the sun.9) into the form Eq. let the force be zero.11). the motion should somehow represent a straight line. (6.6 If r1 and r2 are the distances of perihelion and aphelion.4) can be expressed as a polynomial equation in x and y . Now F = ma gives two separate equations for x and y .7 Use elementary methods of the sort that you’ve seen in a previous course (a = v 2 /r and the like). 6. What shapes do you get if these conditions are violated? Catalog and sketch the possibilities.10) to show that this is the polar form of an ellipse. Rearrange into radial and tangential components to derive the equation for ˆ ˆ acceleration in terms of r and φ. 6.2 The Lissajous curve in Eq. 6.1 In Eq.9˙ Start from r(t) = xr(t) cos φ(t) + y r(t) sin φ(t) and diﬀerentiate once and twice. 6. This is another name for the spherical pendulum in the simple special case that the mass moves on a circle parallel to the ﬂoor.6—Orbits 230 Problems 6. Not really. (6. if the force f is zero. what are their arithmetic and their geometric means? 6.3 Transform Eq. Do so. what is the planet’s speed as a function of distance from the sun? 6. (6. (6.5 In Eq. Then ﬁnd the force from this potential energy as Fx = −∂U/∂x and similarly for y . 6. and show what the shape of the orbit is. Take the case as represented in rectangular coordinates by x = x0 and y = v0 t. (6. Solve them and show that the solution agrees with Eq. Solve.8 ˙ For the spherical pendulum that is oscillating through small angles.35) ˆ ˆ 6.10˙ For the spherical pendulum with an almost circular orbit. (6. translate it into an expression for r(t). and show that it works. (6. what is the shape of the orbit if you have set it moving so fast that the cord holding the mass is almost horizontal? . show that the potential energy in Eq. including B = C . 6. B .

ˆ 6. Plot the polar coordinate orbit r(φ) and compare the result to the exact solution. and the value of G to deduce the mass of the Sun. F2 = −γv where sech is the hyperbolic secant and K3 is the Bessel function of the third kind with imaginary argument. Unless you’re clever with integrals. The angular momentum about the origin is given at time t = 0 to be L0 . ˆ 6.28) and examine the case of the Kepler problem. but β can have either sign. it will miss the center of the repulsive force by a distance b (the impact parameter). expect to look up this integral in a table. go back to the exercise #4 on page 193 to ﬁnd how much time it takes from the onset of spaghettiﬁcation.11 The Earth-Sun distance is 150 Gm. . how much time would it take to fall into the sun? Set up the equation of motion for straight line radial motion.15 The force on an orbiting planet of mass m is given as the sum of two terms: One is a central force. φ(t). i. Evaluate the eﬀect on the planet’s orbit caused by the dust.e. Find the force that does this. ˆ F1 = −F0 sech3 (αr)K3 (βr)r. How many days? And since you’ve done the work already. get the conservation of energy equation and rearrange to get dt in terms of dr.6—Orbits 231 6. then evaluate it. And sketch this orbit.19 A particle in a central force moves in a spiral orbit given by r = a/φ.12 If the solar system is embedded in a uniform dust cloud of density ρ. (a) Assume that the orbit is almost circular and ﬁnd the values of β for which the orbit is stable. 6. 6.17 ˙ If the Earth stopped still with respect to the sun. The mass is given an initial speed v0 and is aimed so that in the absence of forces. (b) Find the values of β for which the orbit is closed — at least in the perturbation approximation used in this chapter. . 6.13 A particle in a central force moves in a spiral orbit given by r = aφ.18˙ A central attractive force is given by the equation F = −αr β r. (6. Find the distance of closest approach to the origin and what is its speed when it reaches that point? (Don’t solve for the orbit unless you need the extra work.16 The force on a mass m is given to be F = k r/r 3 . Find the angular momentum at later times.14 Start from Eq. Start from elementary principles. 6. ﬁnd the force on a planet as a function of r. the other is a velocity dependent friction term. 6. known data. Here α > 0. 6. Set up a well-deﬁned deﬁnite integral for the ﬁnal answer. Find the force and ﬁnd the time dependence of φ.

and its speed when far away is v0 relative to the Earth. One solution is of course the mass is at rest at its initial radius and angle.23 For the same force as the preceding problem. (6. It is aimed so that in the absence of gravity it would pass the Earth at a distance b from its center.21 Derive Eq. Do you believe it? 6.6—Orbits 232 6. Expand the equations about this to ﬁrst order and get linear diﬀerential equations in r − r0 = δ and in φ. ﬁred west. In its subsequent orbit it reaches a maximum distance 5R/2 from the center of the planet.27 Imagine a spherical. 6. Ignore the atmosphere. In the presence of gravity how far from .26 Two particles of mass m1 and m2 are repelled from each other by a force of magnitude k/r 2 .41).25˙ Assume for the moment that the Earth and Moon are stationary. Find the force on it for small distances from that equilibrium position and then solve the equations of motion for its position.20˙ Two masses m1 and m2 are attracted to each other by a force directly proportional to their distance apart. 6. For a circular orbit.28 An asteroid is headed in the general direction of Earth. (b) Now assume that the planet is rotating with angular speed ω and the satellite is ﬁred from the equator. What is v0 now? Two cases: ﬁred east. They start at rest. 6. (a) Find v0 . and in particular what is the ratio of the energies required to launch the satellite? Also compare the smaller of these to the energy required to launch from the North Pole. 6. For small δ and φ plot the orbit. say r = r0 and φ = 0. non-rotating planet of mass M and radius R. A small mass is placed at a point between the Earth and Moon where the total gravitational force on it is zero. what is the frequency (or period) of the orbit as a function of the orbit’s radius? 6. ﬁnd the shape of an almost circular orbit and explain why it comes out as it does. (b) Like (a) but it is displaced along a line perpendicular to the line joining the Earth and Moon. Find this point and then (a) The mass is displaced slightly along the line joining the Earth and Moon and released from rest.22 A mass m is moving in the central force F = −kr. What is this eﬀect for the Earth.24¨For the force of problem 6.22 transform to a system rotating with the frequency that you found in that problem. Transform to the center of mass coordinate system and solve the problem of their motion as a function of time. ﬁnd the speed of each as a function of the distance travelled. 6. 6. A satellite is ﬁred from the surface of the planet with a speed v0 at angle 30◦ from the local vertical.

because most debris will be moving at about r1 the same speed in about the same direction. 6. you can solve for the orbit without approximation.33 What is the minimum energy E1 from Eq. the Moon’s orbit is always concave toward the Sun. Plot the orbit for both positive and negative small δ .21). If you are in a ship in such an orbit. and δ .35˙ Space debris is a problem in near-Earth orbit. Just get the relation for r(φ) instead of the coordinates as functions of time. this added term will cause a small precession of the planet’s orbit. he concluded that the sun is not exactly spherical but has a slight bulge toward the equator. 6.) For a planet in an almost circular orbit. 6.21).32 Derive Eq. Find this precession by doing a perturbation analysis about a circular orbit.34 Find the force law for a central force that allows a mass to move in a spiral orbit r = kφ2 where k is a constant. (6. The key word is “about. (6.” Is this true? 6. the fact that you’re moving at several kilometers per r2 second is not the problem.20) and interpret this result in terms of Eq.30˙ If the gravitational ﬁeld has a small inverse cube part in addition to the usual one. . 6. or the hard way using all the apparatus of this chapter.” Assume that your orbit is circular with radius r1 and that someone once lost a ball-peen hammer that wound up in a orbit with perigee r1 and apogee r2 = r1 + δ . F r (r ) = − GM mR GM m −δ 2 r r3 Go back to the orbital diﬀerential equation for a general force and apply it to this.31 “As the Earth and Moon move around the Sun together. 6. If it hits your ship. 6. and express the result in terms of r1 .6—Orbits 233 the center will it pass? You can do this simply using conservation laws. This will cause an alteration in the gravitational potential energy to U (r) = − GM m GM mR2 −η r r3 where η 1. g . (6. (This form for the correction applies only for the case that the planet is in the plane of the sun’s equator. how fast will it be moving relative to you? Do this for small δ .29˙ In a noted experiment by Dicke.

) 6. g= GM GM GM = = 2 r2 (R + y )2 R (1 + y/R)2 Expand this to ﬁrst order in y/R and use the resulting force to ﬁnd the motion of a mass thrown straight up at initial speed v0 .41 Return to the analysis of section 6. For a coordinate y measured from the Earth’s surface. the center of the ﬁeld is on the circumference of the circle. its radius is 1740 km. then loose rocks lying on the surface of the moon will be lifted oﬀ.39 A small moon of mass m and radius a orbits a planet of mass M while keeping the same face toward the planet. The parameters β and γ can make a big change in the shapes. and of course it isn’t.8. There is one pair that is too close to call.37 When you toss an object straight up at the surface of the Earth you usually assume that g is constant. in turn controls these — how? 6. if δ = 100 km. Figure out which ones go with which equations. and the angular momentum per mass.38˙ The Hohmann transfer orbit between planets (assume circular planetary orbits) puts the spacecraft in an elliptical orbit that is tangent to the orbit of the starting planet and tangent to the orbit of the destination planet. This circular orbit passes through the center of the force. almost 50 meters 6. 6. . What is this distance.40 In section 6. and what is it for the Earth-moon system? The moon’s mass is 1/81 of the Earth’s. (It is something like r−n for some n. Show that if the moon is too close to the planet. but now make the force repulsive instead of attractive and analyze the solutions. For low orbit. How much time would this orbit take getting from Earth to Mars? This neglects the acceleration time at the start and the acceleration time at the end. but in that case you can at least determine which pair of equations are the candidates. What directions are these two accelerations? 6. What is the maximum height in this case? Compare the result to the simple case that assumes g remains at the same value it had at the surface.36˙ A mass is moving in a central potential in a circular orbit.6—Orbits 234 Here g is the Earth’s gravitational ﬁeld at this height. This type of motion is possible for exactly one form of central force. How big is the eﬀect if the simpler version gave a result of 10 km? 100 km? 6. That is. what is this speed? This speed corresponds to a fall from what height at the Earth’s surface? Ans: δ g/r1 /4. Find that form. neglecting air resistance and rotation of the Earth. .8 there are plots of many orbits.

Find the relation between its speed and the height of the circle above the vertex of the cone. Eliminate φ and solve for the almost circular radial motion as a function ˙ of time. Combine this with φ to determine the shape of the orbit. 6. (b) What is their total kinetic energy in terms of CM variables.38). in addition to the usual GM m/r2 gravitational force. eliminate z .42¨For the elliptical orbits of Eq. so from that you can construct the polar solution for r(t). 6. ﬁnd the eﬀect on the orbit in the approximation that the orbit diﬀers little from a circle. (b) What is the eﬀective potential energy for this system? (c) You have the solution to this problem in rectangular coordinates from section 6. assuming that it is only almost horizontal. (6. If there is. Write the z -component of angular momentum. (b) For the general case in . Assume that there is no friction anywhere and that the mass m1 is moving on a circle. what is the semi-major axis for arbitrary δ ? 6.45 A planet is orbiting a star in an almost circular orbit of mean radius r0 . (a) Write the diﬀerential equations for r(t) and for u(φ). (d) Why is the solution expressed in problem 3. Assume no friction and that the mass is sliding in a horizontal circle.3. 6.48˙ Set up the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates as in sections 6. ω for this motion. r. and write down the total energy of the mass.1. (c) What is their total angular momentum in terms of CM variables. Do so. r-φ-z . Because r and z are not independent variables in this situation. what is the total momentum in terms of coordinates r and rcm (and their derivatives) as in Eq. held at a constant radius by the tension in the string. a small harmonic oscillator force F1 = −kr. (6. Use cylindrical coordinates.44˙ Now take the physical system of the preceding problem and ﬁnd the shape of the orbit.6—Orbits 235 6. 6. In all three cases you should have no cross terms between the relative and the CM coordinates. (a) Find v .47 (a) For two masses m1 and m2 .49¨Two masses are tied to the two ends of a light string. using three or four lines of algebra and Kepler’s laws. which is conserved.61 correct and do the results there agree with what you get from the calculation here? 6.2 and 6.17 can be done with no integration. and one of them is suspended through a hole in a table. 6.46 The problem 6.3).43 A mass is sliding around the inside of a cone that has vertex angle 2α.

c is the speed of light. dr/dt? If you make the implausible assumption that the frictional force is a constant all the way down to the Earth’s surface. Choose the z -axis along the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. . the General Theory of relativity. What orbits are there if it is negative? Sketch the possible orbits. assuming that all the spring constants are equal. 6. especially for weak ﬁelds. What is its total (kinetic plus potential) energy? If the orbit is low enough (say 200-300 km or so) there will be some very small friction with the atmosphere.1).6—Orbits 236 which m1 has arbitrary motion in r and φ. (6. how much time will it be before the satellite hits the ground? How does the speed of the satellite vary over time because of this frictional force? 6.8 the parameter α was positive.11). write the total energy and the angular momentum and use that to ﬁnd the orbit of m1 if it is almost circular.51 The hyperbolic orbits in section 6. Use the methods starting with equation (6. Look up the orbital parameters for the planet Mercury to get the numerical value for this result and then convert it into the conventionally reported value of the precession per Earth century.55¨Add a uniform magnetic ﬁeld to the spring force of Eq. The other half (the dashed lines) didn’t seem to correspond to anything.13). what will be the change in r? What then is the change in r per time for the satellite. Does this even have correct dimensions? This is the orbital equation derived from Einstein’s theory of gravity. the usual Newtonian gravity plus a 1/r4 term.52¨Start from dt = r2 dφ/ and (6. applying force of magnitude Ffr to the satellite. 0 6. (43’’ per century) 6.16). f (r ) = − GM m GM m −3 r2 c2 r 4 2 Here. 6. 6.9 led to a picture in which only one half the hyperbola was the orbit. In one orbit. what is the change in energy of the satellite? In that orbit.53 For the orbits in section 6.27) to ﬁnd the angle by which the elliptical orbit described by the ﬁrst term alone will precess in each orbit. and that the mass has a charge q . (6. 2 ˙ Ans: φ2 /ω0 = (m1 + m2 )/3m1 .54 For the orbital equation (6.50˙ A satellite is in a circular orbit of radius r0 above the Earth. and use contour integration to derive Kepler’s law Eq. Solve for the motion of the mass and sketch some solutions. Show that they represent the solution if the inverse square force is repulsive instead of attractive. what is the equation if the force has two terms.

39).56 The carbon monoxide molecule.57 What is the period for the close orbit of a pebble around a rock? Some asteroids have been observed with such satellites. Solve for the oscillations of this molecule. Compare your result to what appears in section 6. 6.6—Orbits 237 6. CO.7. (6. especially Eq. . can be modeled as two masses on the ends of a spring. assuming that the motion is along the single long axis between the atoms. the normal modes.

it wasn’t when the subject was invented. If you’ve ever looked at a guitar or any other stringed instrument being played. The key trick in setting up the equations of motion is to imagine slicing the string apart and examining the segment between x and x + ∆x. this becomes simple only when the displacements are small. representing the displacement of the string from the axis at point x and time t. There will also be the forces by gravity and by the surrounding air. but the basic analysis is the same and it starts from F = ma. y x x + ∆x As with most other problems involving oscillations. The linear mass density is µ = dm/dx and the tension in the string is T (x). you know that the motion of the string is very tiny and so this small motion approximation will be a very good one. The shape of the string is then deﬁned by the equation y = f (x. so the mass in the interval is ∆m = µ(x)∆x. the force that one part of the string exerts on the part it’s connected to. looks fairly plausible and maybe even commonplace. This segment will then have forces acting on it caused by the part of the string (< x) pulling in one direction and part of the string (> x + ∆x) pulling in another. and I’ll assume that it’s oscillations occur in a single plane so that the y -coordinate says how far the string is from this equilibrium position. Instead. this chapter contains a few of the ideas and some of the simplest applications chosen because they appear in so many contexts. Assume that the string is stretched straight along the x-axis. 7. . If this sort of division. and the same is true of the mass density. It can be a guitar string or a bullwhip. using an imaginary cut in the string. t). This tension. Without that assumption the resulting diﬀerential equations will be extraordinarily diﬃcult. need not be a constant.1 A String The prototype wave is a wave on a string. That you can imagine slicing the string (without really doing it) was the subject of great debate and worry by those who did it the ﬁrst time. The interval ∆x is small (eventually → 0). I won’t do that.Waves The general subject of waves is so large that it would take several books just to get some idea of the extent of the subject.

That means that I can use a small angle approximation for the sine. try it. For the t-derivative. The reason for this is that the tangent is simply the derivative of y with respect to x. The angle that the string makes with the x-axis depends on x. Fy = −T (x) sin θ(x) + T (x + ∆x) sin θ(x + ∆x) − ∆m g − b∆x vy (7. I switched to partial derivative notation because there are two independent variables. linear viscosity. but it won’t matter in the end.7—Waves 239 θ (x + ∆ x ) θ (x ) x x + ∆x Fig. I’ve just been very careful in expressing the forces.1) Here I’m taking the simplest model for the air resistance. and from the surrounding air. Instead you must ﬁrst divide by ∆x . position is ﬁxed. You can then verify that it won’t matter. t) + T (x + ∆x) (x + ∆x. 0 = 0. If I now take the limit as ∆x → 0. For the ma side of the equation. Not very helpful. and for the x-derivative time is ﬁxed. Now for a trick.2) I took the last term at the center point of the interval. I get the most uninformative equation.1 The forces on this ∆m come from the two adjacent parts of the string. Up to here the presentation is straight-forward. This string is horizontal. with a proportionality factor b. approximate it by the tangent of theta. t) ∂t2 If you think that this ought to be evaluated at x + ∆x/2 instead. The displacement of the string is small and the angle that it makes with the axis is small. so to get the y -component of the force I needed to indicate that explicitly. from gravity. so that tells you the gravitational term. Not the usual one though. t) − µ(x)∆x g − b∆x (x + ∆x/2. t) ∂x ∂x ∂t (7. 7.1) now becomes Fy = −T (x) ∂f ∂f ∂f (x. small angle =⇒ sin θ ≈ θ ≈ tan θ Instead of approximating the sine by theta. Equation (7. you have Fy = ∆m ay = µ(x)∆x ∂ 2f (x.

1) for the shape of the string is now T ∂ 2f − µg = 0 ∂x2 (7.4) This is easy to integrate. not because it’s needed for this problem with the string but because it’s harmless. and it −→ 0/0. The equation (7. Fx = −T (x) cos θ(x) + T (x + ∆x) cos θ(x + ∆x) In this example. t) ∆x ∂x ∂x ∂t = µ (x ) ∂ 2f (x. Also there are plenty of wave problems where something analogous to this factor will show up and you may as well get used to it here. t) + T (x + ∆x) (x + ∆x. 240 1 ∂f ∂f ∂f −T (x) (x. t) −µ(x)g − b (x + ∆x/2. What about Fx on the mass ∆m? Go back to the equation (7.9.2 Static case Start with the simplest case. [something(x + ∆x) − something(x) divided by ∆x] The limit is ∂ ∂f ∂f ∂ 2f T − µg − b =µ 2 ∂x ∂x ∂t ∂t (7.1) and the picture that accompanies it. In most cases where I’m really solving something it will be constant.) f (x) = µgx2 /2T + Ax + B . not causing any extra work. It’s stiﬀ and I’ve ignored this property. I will leave the T factor as is anyway. because the string is horizontal there is no component from gravity. Let the tension and the mass density be constant here. A string is stretched taut between two posts and it sags. Is that important? It is if you are a professional piano tuner and have a demanding client. For small angles and for motion in the y -direction. t) ∂t2 Now take the limit. The ﬁrst term is diﬀerent however. Nothing is moving. Of course if it’s vertical there is a term in ∆m g in this equation but it’s not in the Fy equation.7—Waves and then take the limit. 7. One aspect of this problem will appear in section 7. It is nothing more than the deﬁnition of a derivative. allowing that it may vary with x. Fx = ∆m ax is zero and the tension is constant.3) Have I left out any physics? Yes. and in most of the terms the limit simply evaluates the function at x. but a thicker one resists deformation. t). A thin string is easy to bend. (Drop the t from f (x.

How do you solve the wave equation? There are many ways. t) = A cos(kx − ωt + δ ) and see what happens.8) * The static case can be solved without the small angle approximation. The bigger the tension.3). the simplest case that exhibits waves comes by assuming that the mass density and the tension are constant and that gravity and air resistance are negligible. (7. try a cosine. though one direct approach to the solution appears in problem 7.5) The shape of the wires hung between telephone poles in this small angle approximation* is a parabola. and that’s easy to see because f is the same in the numerator in both terms of the equation. starting with inspired guesswork and carrying on through separation of variables and on into the world of characteristics. The parameter v has dimensions of speed.6) This is called “the” wave equation. v is the propagation speed of the wave. The heavier it is the more it sags. as if there were no others.3 The Wave Equation In Eq. f (x. or v2 = ω2 T = k2 µ (7.7) The cosine isn’t identically zero and A better not be or there’s nothing there. and the result is a catenary — a hyperbolic cosine . What’s left determines the relation between k and ω . the less it sags. For now. 1 ∂ 2f 1 ∂ 2f − 2 2 = −Ak 2 cos(kx − ωt + δ ) + Aω 2 2 cos(kx − ωt + δ ) 2 ∂x v ∂t v = −A cos(kx − ωt + δ ) k 2 − ω 2 /v 2 = 0 (7.7—Waves Apply the boundary conditions that the string is tied at the two ends 241 f (0) = f (L) = 0 =⇒ B = 0 The curve is then and µgL2 /2T + AL = 0 f (x) = − µg x (L − x ) 2T (7. It is the most important wave equation. I’ll mostly stay with the ﬁrst method. and it fully deserves the deﬁnite article. so the denominators. k 2 − ω 2 /v 2 = 0. x2 and v 2 t2 must have the same dimensions.4. 7. T ∂ 2f ∂ 2f =µ 2 ∂x2 ∂t or ∂ 2f 1 ∂ 2f − 2 2 =0 ∂x2 v ∂t where v2 = T µ (7.

the wave equation has two arbitrary functions! y = f (x. either to the right or left depending on the sign of ω/k . where there are exactly two independent solutions and one frequency for the system.6) is linear. and you know that sound waves can carry enormously complex information. whether in music or in words. Sound obeys the same wave equation as the one I’m describing.9) k k The position of the maximum moves at precisely the value of v . not an inﬁnite number. That means that the sum of two solutions is a solution. A cos ωt + B sin ωt. This richness of solutions here is typical of partial diﬀerential equations such as (7.10) * This is called the “phase velocity ” to distinguish it from other deﬁnitions of velocity that will show up later. The equation (7.6).. A1 cos(k1 x − ω1 t + δ1 ) + A2 cos(k2 x − ω2 t + δ1 ) + A3 cos(k3 x − ω3 t + δ3 ) + · · · This is a picture of such a combination formed by picking a set of random values of the A’s. thereby determining the direction of the wave’s travel as right or left as k is positive or negative. . Pick one such: ω δ t + = ±vt + a constant (7. That deﬁne the equation for the position of a peak. Are there any other solutions besides the cosines (or sines for that matter)? Just as the ordinary diﬀerential equation md2 x/dt2 = −kx has two arbitrary constants in its solution. t) = f1 (x − vt) + f2 (x + vt) (7. vt kx − ωt + δ = 0 Fig. Compare the harmonic oscillator. The name comes from the fact that you are following a point of constant phase (kx − ωt + δ ) on the wave. and where do you ﬁnd its peak? A peak will occur wherever the argument of the cosine is zero or a multiple of 2π . All you need is that ω1 /k1 = ω2 /k2 = . .2 Is v really a speed? Draw a picture of the function y versus x. 7. and that implies that you can create arbitrarily complicated waves by adding waves of diﬀerent frequencies. and as long as k has the corresponding value ±ω/v this works. k ’s. . and δ ’s (at t = 0).7—Waves 242 This is already an inﬁnite number of independent solutions because I can make ω anything that I want.* Conventionally omega is taken as positive and k kx − ωt + δ = 0 implies x= can have either sign.

You have constants of integration. Any function (well. and that is why waves can carry so much information.7—Waves 243 The demonstration of this fact is no more than plugging in to the equation and using the chain rule. 0) = F (x). any function with two derivatives) will provide a solution. These are all functions of a single variable. (7.4. Specify the initial position and initial velocity at each point on the string. All that you have to do is to get it started. so that sin = cos. and − vf1 (x)+ vf2 (x) = G(x) 1 f2 (x) = 2 F (x) + 1 2v G(x) And now do two integrals.12) . (7. ∂f (x. ∂x ∂ 2 f1 = f1 (x − vt). To ﬁnd the behavior of a single mass. t) = F (x − vt) − x−vt 1 1 1 1 G(x ) dx + F (x + vt) + 2 2v 0 2 2v x+vt 1 1 = F (x − vt) + F (x + vt) + G(x ) dx 2 2v x−vt x+vt G(x ) dx 0 (7. ∂f1 = f1 (x − vt). The proof is not diﬃcult.11) Apply Eq. Eq. This means that any wave form will move along the string. (7. ∂x2 ∂f1 = −vf1 (x − vt). ∂t ∂ 2 f1 = (−v )2 f1 (x − vt) ∂t2 Substitute these into Eq. Solve for f1 and f2 . The same calculation works for f2 (x + vt).6) and it works.10) is the most general solution for the wave equation. not the derivative with respect to x. so nothing unusual happens. but they’re easy to handle. 0) = G(x) ∂t (7. and essentially the same thing happens here.10) for the general solution. f 1 (x ) = F (x ) − 1 2 1 2v x G(x ) dx 0 f 2 (x ) = F (x ) + 1 2 1 2v x G(x ) dx 0 y = f (x. Note: the “prime” notation is the derivative of f with respect to its argument. 1 f 1 (x ) = 2 F (x ) − 1 2v G(x). And yes. See problem 7. you need to specify its initial position and velocity. involving only a change of variables. then f1 (x)+ f2 (x) = F (x) −→ f1 (x)+ f2 (x) = F (x). The cosine solution that I started with is simply a special case of this general solution. Assume f (x.

and the disturbance goes equally in both directions. See problem 7. so dK 1 = µ − Aω sin(kx − ωt) dx 2 f 2 1 = µA2 sin2 (kx − ωt) 2 dK/dx Fig.4 Energy and Power Waves can transport energy. The v that appears in the expression for kinetic energy is the speed of the mass m. leading to the ideas of kinetic energy density and potential energy density. The v that shows up in the wave equation is the speed with which the disturbance moves along the string. (7. then f (x. The latter is the speed with which a shape moves. 1 ∆K = µ∆x 2 ∂f ∂t 2 so ∆K dK 1 → = µ ∆x dx 2 ∂f ∂t 2 (7.7—Waves 244 You should of course directly verify that this expression satisﬁes the initial conditions. And is there anything special about taking the limits as zero? Take F (x) = A(L2 − x2 ) for −L < x < +L and zero elsewhere. t) = 1 F (x − vt) + F (x + vt) 2 (7. Eq.12. Watch out! v is not v .13) This is a plucked string. not the speed with which a mass moves. 7. Certainly ocean waves do. Let G ≡ 0. what is this? f (x. 7. and sound waves that are loud enough can carry enough energy to damage your ears. and you can see that the kinetic energy density is zero when the magnitude of the wave is at its maximum . There’s nothing in this derivation that requires µ to be a constant. t) = A cos(kx − ωt).3 This shows the two functions f and dK/dx on the same graph. Do the same thing that I did to get the wave equation in the ﬁrst place: look at a small piece of the string in the interval for x to x + ∆x.3). it’s easier. They are not at all the same thing. ∂f /∂t. T /µ. Start with the kinetic energy. the analysis is pretty straight-forward.14) This is the kinetic energy density (Joules per meter). That one occurs at a ﬁxed value of x so it is a partial derivative. On a string. It’s kinetic energy is then given by the usual mv 2 /2 formula. the cosine. It applies just as well to the general equation. It has a mass ∆m = µ(x)∆x. For the ﬁrst solution.

The length of the string when it’s deformed can’t stay exactly the same though. it has stopped and has not yet turned around — that’s zero speed.2. for which T can be a function of position. ∆W = T ∆ − ∆x To evaluate this. As before.7—Waves 245 and vice versa.) Subtract the original length ∆x and ∆W = T ∆x 1 (∆y )2 2 (∆x)2 so ∆W dW 1 → = T ∆x dx 2 ∂y ∂x 2 (7. What is the power transmitted? There are a couple of ways to do this and I’ll do one here. use the binomial expansion. or T (x). The total energy density is the sum of these. The total energy within the interval a < x < b is the integral over the energy density. and the work that I do in changing the length of this string segment is this force times the stretch. The potential energy is a little trickier. When you use the equation ∆m = µ∆x.15) This is the potential energy density. leaving the other. When the string is at its peak. ∆ = ∆x 1+ (∆y )2 1 (∆y )2 = ∆x 1 + + ··· (∆x)2 2 (∆x)2 (The slope is small.16) . dE 1 ∂f 2 1 ∂f 2 = µ + T dx 2 ∂t 2 ∂x How does energy ﬂow down the string? One part of the string pulls on its neighbor and does work on it. It’s length is ∆ = (∆x)2 + (∆y )2 ∆x ∆y It takes some work to stretch this string. the mass is what occurred along the axis in the interval ∆x. this derivation applies to the general equation. b E (t) = a dx dE = dx b dx a 1 µ 2 ∂f ∂t 2 1 + T 2 ∂f ∂x 2 (7. easier method to you. The tension in the string is T . because the y -coordinates at its ends aren’t the same as when it was at rest. All that I have to do is to compute this work and that will give me the potential energy in this piece of stretched string. problem 7.

7—Waves

246

Note that this is a function of time as the wave moves past. The time variable does not appear in the limits of the integral; they’re ﬁxed. It remains in the wave function f itself, because it is just the x-variable that you are integrating. The t-variable is just sitting inside the integral waiting to be diﬀerentiated. From conservation of energy, the total power ﬂowing into this region is the time-derivative of E .

dE d = dt dt

b

dx

a

dE dx

The limits a and b are not functions of time, so I can simply move the derivative under the integral, make it partial, and do the diﬀerentiation on the two terms.

dE = dt

b

dx µ

a

∂f ∂ 2 f ∂f ∂ 2 f +T ∂t ∂t2 ∂x ∂x∂t

(7.17)

Now what? I haven’t used that fact that y = f (x, t) satisﬁes the wave equation, and I’ll have to do that or I can’t get anywhere. The only obvious place that I can apply the equation is on the ﬁrst term. It becomes

b

dx µ

a

∂f ∂ 2 f ∂f 2 ∂ 2 f v +T ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂x∂t

(7.18)

Now integrate by parts. You can do it on either term; I’ll pick the ﬁrst. I’m assuming that T is independent of x, though the more general case is no diﬀerent: problem 7.18

b

dx µ

a

∂f 2 ∂ 2 f ∂f ∂f v = µ v2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x

b

b

−

a a

dx µ

∂ 2 f 2 ∂f v ∂t∂x ∂x

(7.19)

Put this back into the equation (7.18) and the two integral terms cancel. Do they? You’d better check. All that’s left is

dE ∂f ∂f = µ v2 dt ∂t ∂x

b

=T

a

∂f ∂f ∂t ∂x

b

= T ( b)

a

∂f ∂f ∂f ∂f (b, t) (b, t) − T (a) (a, t) (a, t) ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x (7.20)

This says that the rate of change of the total energy in this interval comes from two terms: one at the right end and one at the left end. This is what I ought to have expected. The energy can come only from something happening at the ends; it can’t jump over and appear at some distant point. I can then interpret the expression

P = −T

∂f ∂f ∂t ∂x

(7.21)

7—Waves

247

as the power moving (to the right) past the point x. Why the minus sign? Look at the term in Eq. (7.20) at the point a. If that term (with its minus sign) is positive, it represents energy coming into the interval from the left. Having gone through this, you will better appreciate the simplicity of problem 7.2.

Example Take the cosine wave solution from Eq. (7.7), setting δ = 0 for convenience (f = A cos(kx − ωt)), and see what the total energy in an interval is.

dE 1 ∂f = µ dx 2 ∂t

b

2

1 + T 2

∂f ∂x

2

,

and

f (x, t) = A cos(kx − ωt)

b a

E=

a

**dx A2 µω 2 sin2 () + T k 2 sin2 () = A2 T k 2
**

b

1 2

dx sin2 (kx − ωt)

= A2 T k 2

dx 1 − cos 2(kx − ωt)

a

= A2 T k 2 (b − a) −

1 sin(2(kb − ωt)) − sin(2(ka − ωt)) 2k

(7.22)

(Remember Eq. (7.8).) The ﬁrst term in the result represents the average energy in the interval, and the other terms represent the ﬂuctuations in total energy as the wave enters at a and leaves at b. The power itself in this example is

P = −T

∂f ∂f = −T + Aω sin(kx − ωt) − Ak sin(kx − ωt) ∂t ∂x = +A2 T kω sin2 (kx − ωt) = A2 µω 2 v sin2 (kx − ωt)

(7.23)

Notice that the power is zero where the wave is a maximum and vice versa. Or is it? And what is the time derivative of the energy computed in Eq. (7.22) and do you believe it?

7.5 Reﬂections Waves often meet barriers. Light waves hit glass. Ocean waves hit a reef. Sound waves hit a wall. The analysis of all these is similar, so spending some time looking at reﬂections on a string will not be wasted. Construct an example that typiﬁes the process by tying two strings together, one thicker and heavier than the other. You know that light is partially reﬂected when it hits glass (just look in a window), so it is not surprising when the same thing happens here. Let the mass density be µ1 to the left of the origin and µ2 to the right. A wave comes in from the left and some of it gets through the boundary, but not all. Some is reﬂected. What equation do you have to solve? The same equation that started this

7—Waves

248

chapter, Eq. (7.3). After dropping the µg term, I assumed that T and µ were constant in order to produce “the” wave equation. Now µ isn’t constant, but I will assume that T is. ∂ 2f ∂ 2f 1 ∂ 2f ∂ 2f = 2 (7.24) T 2 = µ(x) 2 −→ ∂x ∂t ∂x2 v (x) ∂t2 The mass density is constant in two domains, µ = µ1 for x < 0 and µ2 for x > 0. In each region there are the corresponding (constant) wave speeds.

v (x ) = v 1 =

T /µ1 , (x < 0)

and

= v2 =

T /µ2 , (x > 0)

This equation is exactly the same equation that you have to solve when light hits a sheet of glass. The speed of the light wave in air decreases in glass by a factor of n, the index of refraction. The function f is an electric ﬁeld instead of the lateral displacement of a string. The mathematics is the same. If you look only at the left part of the string or only at the right part, you already know the solutions. They are waves such as A cos(kx − ωt) or B cos(kx + ωt), and all you need is that the functions satisfy the wave equation, which means ω/k = v1 or = v2 in the two halves. If they have the same frequency then*

k1 = ω/v1 k2 = ω/v2

f (x, t) =

A cos(k1 x − ωt) + B cos(k1 x + ωt) (x < 0) (7.25) C cos(k2 x − ωt) + D cos(k2 x + ωt) (x > 0)

There’s something missing. This works for x < 0 and for x > 0, but what about x = 0? It does not work there, at least not automatically, and this leads to the subject of boundary conditions. You do not have a solution to the diﬀerential equation if you don’t have it everywhere. If it misses a point, then it’s not a solution.

Boundary Conditions For the particular problem of a string with two mass densities, the boundary conditions are f is continuous, ∂f /∂x is continuous (7.26)

and where do these come from? I will show two diﬀerent ways to get the answer. One by physical reasoning, the other mathematical. Fortunately they give the same answer. The string hasn’t broken. That is the ﬁrst condition, the continuity of f . Next, look at the point of attachment; did you tie a knot to attach the strings together? If so that knot has a mass and you must apply F = ma to it. In specifying the mass density µ(x) I tacitly assumed that there is no knot at x = 0, just some sort of massless attachment. The force Fy on that zero-mass connection must be zero: * Do they have the same frequency? This is addressed at the end of this section.

7—Waves

249

ay = Fy /m = Fy /0. Let the point − be a little left of zero and + a little to the right of zero. The equation (7.2) then says

Fy (at zero) = − T (− )

∂f ∂f (− , t) + T (+ ) (+ , t) ∂x ∂x ∂f ∂f −→ − T (0−, t) + T (0+, t) = 0 ∂x ∂x

This says that the derivative is continuous. The slope just to the right of the origin is the same as the slope just to the left. What if the knot tying the two parts of the string together isn’t massless? Then there is a diﬀerent condition on the slope, a constraint on the discontinuity itself because the right side of this equation isn’t zero in those circumstances. See problem 7.9. For a straight mathematical treatment of the boundary conditions, remember that you are trying to solve the diﬀerential equation (7.24) everywhere, not just to the left and to the right of the origin, but also at the origin. The method to ﬁnd the boundary conditions is a typical math trick: assume the opposite and show that you get a contradiction. Assume that f does have a discontinuity at x = 0. Then diﬀerentiate it with respect to x in order to plug it into the diﬀerential equation. You can’t easily diﬀerentiate a discontinuous function, so draw a graph assuming that it rises in a very short interval. Draw graphs of f , ∂f /∂x, and ∂ 2 f /∂x2 . The ﬁrst graph has a step (almost), so the second has a spike. The third (f ) has a positive then a negative spike. The density µ(x) has a step too (almost).

If

then

and

x f f

x f

x µ

x

In Eq. (7.24) the time derivatives do not change the shape of the curve; only the x-derivatives and the factor µ(x) can do that. What is the graph of the terms in the

7—Waves diﬀerential equation?

250

T

∂ 2f ∂ 2f = µ (x ) 2 ∂x2 ∂t

is graphically

f

? =

µ

×

f

There is no way that the product of two steps can equal the double spike on the left of the equation. This is a contradiction, so f must be continuous. Can it have a discontinuous derivative? No, and the reasoning is the same. Assume the slope of f changes abruptly at x = 0, and the graphs of the derivatives of f are

If

then

and

x f f

x f

x

Again, try to insert these functions into the diﬀerential equation to see if it works.

T

∂ 2f ∂ 2f = µ (x ) 2 ∂x2 ∂t

has the graph

f

? =

µ

×

f

As before, this does not match. The right side has a step, but no spike. This assumed discontinuous slope doesn’t work, to the slope must be continuous. Why go through all this extra manipulation when the physical derivation was so simple and clear? The reason is that this sort of analysis appears in many other places where the physical intuition is not clear. For example, it lets you ﬁnd the boundary conditions that occur when you solve Maxwell’s equations. I’ve even used it in the somewhat esoteric subject of singular Sturm-Liouville equations, and I don’t know anyone who can do that intuitively.

Back to the Problem This started with a wave coming along a cord on which there is a discontinuous mass density. Now the boundary conditions are well-settled, it is time to attack the original problem. When a wave comes in from the left and hits the discontinuity, some part of the wave will continue forward and some part will be reﬂected. If the incoming wave

7—Waves

251

has a frequency ω then the transmitted and the reﬂected waves will have that frequency too. A cos(kx − ωt) + B cos(kx + ωt) (x < 0) (7.27) f (x, t) = C cos(k x − ωt) (x > 0) The boundary conditions are

f (0−, t) = f (0+, t) =⇒ A cos(−ωt) + B cos(ωt) = C cos(−ωt) =⇒ A + B = C f (0−, t) = f (0+, t) =⇒ −kA sin(−ωt)−kB sin ωt = −k C sin(−ωt) =⇒ kA−kB =

µ1

µ2

λ1 λ2 Solve the equations for B and C in terms of A because you can control the incoming wave amplitude (A) and you want to know where the wave goes. A + B = C, kA − kB = k C −→ B = k−k A k+k

and

Fig. 7.4

C=

2k A k+k (7.28)

What happens to the energy in the wave? The incoming wave (A) carries energy and the two outgoing waves (B and C ) carry energy. You may then expect conservation of energy to say that A = B + C , or maybe A2 = B 2 + C 2 . Neither is correct; compute them and ﬁnd out. Why not? Simply that these coeﬃcients don’t represent the power. To get that you must use Eq. (7.21) applied to the wave Eq. (7.27). On the left, x < 0 this is

P = −T

∂f ∂f ∂t ∂x = −T Aω sin(kx − ωt) − Bω sin(kx + ωt) . − Ak sin(kx − ωt) − Bk sin(kx + ωt) B2 = T ωkA2 sin2 (kx − ωt) − 2 sin2 (kx + ωt) (x < 0) A

Notice how nicely this exhibits two terms that you can easily interpret as ﬂow right minus ﬂow left. Next, on the right the power ﬂow is

**P = −T Cω sin(k x − ωt) − Ck sin(k x − ωt) = T C 2 ωk sin2 (k x − ωt) k C2 2 sin (k x − ωt) (x > 0) = T ωkA2 k A2
**

The last manipulation makes it easier to compare the various expressions. Now all of them have the factor T ωkA2 . Except for this factor and the sin2 factors, the power

7—Waves ﬂow is 1 (incoming from the left),

252

**B2 k−k 2 (outgoing to the left), = A2 k+k 2 k C2 k 2k = (outgoing to the right) k A2 k k+k (7.29)
**

2k k+k

2

The two outgoing power factors add to

k−k k+k

2

+

k k

=

k 2 − 2kk + k 2 + 4kk =1 (k + k )2

and energy is conserved. When you try to understand why light is reﬂected at a window, you are solving Maxwell’s equations involving electric and magnetic ﬁelds. The details of the solution are diﬀerent, but for the case that the light is coming in perpendicular to the surface, the resulting equations (7.29) are identical. If the light hits the glass at an angle other than along the normal, then the equations are more complicated and depend on the polarization of the light. (Look up the Fresnel equations.) For light you usually see the equations (7.29) expressed in terms of the index of refraction, so that the reﬂected and transmitted intensities for light going from vacuum or air to glass with index n = c/v = k /k are 1 (incoming to the surface), 1−n 2 B2 = (reﬂected from the glass), A2 1+n 2 k C2 2 =n (transmitted into the glass) k A2 1+n (7.30)

Conservation of Frequency In the equations (7.25) I assumed that the frequency is the same on both sides of the boundary. It’s easy to believe, but shouldn’t it be possible to prove it? Assume that they are not the same and discover the consequences:

k1 = ω1 /v1 k2 = ω2 /v2

f (x, t) =

A cos(k1 x − ω1 t) + B cos(k1 x + ω1 t) (x < 0) C cos(k2 x − ω2 t) + D cos(k2 x + ω2 t) (x > 0)

What happens at the boundary? The wave is supposed to be continuous, so this is

f (0−, t) = f (0+, t) A cos(−ω1 t) + B cos(ω1 t) = C cos(−ω2 t) + D cos(ω2 t) (A + B ) cos(ω1 t) = (C + D) cos(ω2 t)

That means that if I can ﬁnd all the solutions that are products then I can add them and get all the other solutions that aren’t. To see if it works.8 about the separation of ordinary diﬀerential equations. so I need diﬀerent kinds of solutions for this case. I can change x any way that I want without changing t. This nails down the intuitively plausible statement that the transmitted frequency is the same as for incoming frequency. Assume a solution in the form of a product of functions. as I did in Eq.6 Standing Waves A guitar string doesn’t have a wave moving toward plus or minus inﬁnity. Eq. plug in. this is a contradiction. 1 d2 F (x) 1 d2 G(t) = 2 F (x) dx2 v G(t) dt2 The left side depends solely on the independent variable x.6). but the important result is that all solutions are sums of solutions like this. (7. (7.7—Waves 253 If either one of (A + B ) or (C + D) is non-zero. F (x) dx2 1 d2 G(t) = Cv 2 G(t) dt2 (7. t) = F (x)G(t) Not all solutions will be like this. They have to vanish also and that makes the whole solution identically zero. Speciﬁcally. The wave stops at the end of the string. but this method is almost as easy and it is of great general utility. and they’re the same equation that I spent a whole chapter on: the harmonic oscillator. What else is needed? Don’t forget that the slope is continuous too. The two cosines are linearly independent.31) These are ordinary diﬀerential equations. and in doing so the right side stays constant. one of x and one of t. A similar argument holds for the right side. allowing t to vary. The right side depends solely on the independent variable t. 7. I will consider the case for which T and µ are constants. 1 d2 F (x) = C. ∂ 2f 1 ∂ 2f d2 F (x) 1 d2 G(t) − 2 2 =0= G(t) − 2 F (x) 2 2 2 ∂x v ∂t dx v dt Now move one term to the other side of the equation and divide by the product F G. That gives still another equation involving k1 (A − B ) and k2 (C − D). f (x. That means that the left side must be constant. take the case t = 0 then take the case t = π/(2ω2 ) for which the right side is zero but not the left. And the constants have to be the same. I could simply guess the solution. Or are they? Harmonic motion requires that .7). It is in an extension of the ideas in section 0. but I’ll use a method for solving it that is common in these contexts: separation of variables.

and it provides a valid solution to the wave equation. t) = A sin nπx sin(ωn t + δn ) L where ωn = nπv . such as π or −9π . 2. L n = 1. Next the other end of the string: f (L. If C is negative you have sinusoidal solutions.33) You don’t need negative n here because they would just reproduce the same functions as does the positive n. y = f (0. Pick the coordinate x to be zero at the left and L at the right. Now put them together. t) = F (L)G(t) = 0 =⇒ F (L) = A sin kL = 0 for integer n. The equation that F satisﬁes is F = CF . A hyperbolic sine vanishes at one point. (7. t) = F (0)G(t) = 0. The equation doesn’t know that the string is tied down at its ends — that fact presents you with a set of boundary conditions that will determine the details of the solution. but that just changes everything by an overall minus sign and you can absorb that into A. so F (0) = A sin δ = 0 and δ=0 You can pick another δ . . then d 2 F (x ) = −k 2 F =⇒ F (x) = A sin(kx + δ ) dx2 You have to use the same constant for the G equation. If C is negative. but only at one point. f (0. t) = 0 and y = f (L. denote it by C = −k 2 . ¨ G = Cv 2 G = −k 2 v 2 G =⇒ G(t) = B sin(ωt + δ ) where ω 2 = k 2 v 2 (7. allowing the possibility of matching the boundary conditions at both places. so you can’t make it match these boundary conditions at both ends. .7—Waves 254 C is negative and how do I know that? At this point you don’t. and these vanish at many places. even complex. and if C is a positive number its solutions are real exponentials. . .32) Now apply the boundary conditions. 3. t) = 0 Apply this to the separated solution F (x)G(t) and it says that F (0) = 0 and F (L) = 0. C can be anything. so kL = nπ f (x. In order to represent a system that’s tied at the two ends I have to specify the function at those points. The y -value is zero where the string is at rest.

The respective frequencies are ω1 = πv/L. and that is sin x sin y = 1 2 cos(x + y ) − cos(x − y ) . An expert musician can use this technique to good eﬀect.e. the peak displacement for each mode. i. You will hear the upper harmonic (n = 2) because your ﬁnger damped out the n = 1 motion without aﬀecting the n = 2 component. and they are the sequence of harmonics that you hear when you pluck the string on a musical instrument. but it will later. n = 1.e. the fundamental. Orthogonality These standing wave solutions have a special property that won’t appear particularly important now. 3. when sin(ωn t + δn ) = 1: n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 Fig. The same happens if the mass density of the string is less.33) provides a mode of oscillation shaped as un (x) = sin nπx/L).7—Waves 255 Some pictures of these waves at maximum displacement. For each positive integer n. the higher the frequency. B = 0. . etc. The former have much higher linear mass density. Look inside a piano and compare the strings for low frequencies and those for high frequencies. Touch the tip of your ﬁnger to the midpoint of the string and pluck the string with your thumb.5 Stroboscopic pictures of the motion The ﬁrst set of graphs show the waves at one instant.34) You simply need the right trigonometric identity. 7.. Take two diﬀerent such modes and evaluate this integral L I= 0 dx sin nπx mπx sin L L for n = m (7. is ω1 = π T /µ L. The lowest frequency. i. There is a similar concept for waves. 2. equally spaced in time from peak positive to peak negative amplitude. immediately releasing contact from your ﬁnger. You can hear the separate harmonics from a guitar string if you pluck it properly. It says that the greater the tension in the string. ω2 = 2πv/L. over half a period of oscillation. Similarly place your ﬁnger at the 1/3 or 1/4 point to hear still higher harmonics. Tuning such a musical instrument means adjusting the tension. The idea of orthogonal vectors is one that you’re familiar with: A . the equation (7. The second set shows the waves at eleven instants. Could you change the mass density instead? Actually yes. . .

essentially the same idea will appear in the equations (8. one that closely parallels what I will do for the wave equation. Just notice that 0. multiplying out the square and cube of the parenthesized expressions and carefully getting all the terms with like powers of . but not this way.01 be the expansion parameter. x − 1 − x3 = 0. What follows is a diﬀerent approach to the same problem. Then use the equation you’re solving to determine those coeﬃcients.34) is like a sum over a continuous index that runs from zero to L.01 1. x0 + x1 + 2 x2 + · · · − 1 − x 0 + x1 + 2 x 2 + · · · − 1 − x0 + x1 + 2 x2 + · · · 2 3 =0 x 3 + 3 x 2 x1 + 2 x 2 + · · · + 3 x 0 x1 + · · · 0 0 + x1 + · · · 3 =0 Expand everything and collect terms in powers of . x 0 + x1 + 2 x 2 + · · · − 1 − x 3 + 3 x2 x 1 + 3 2 x 2 x 2 + 3 2 x 0 x 2 + · · · = 0 0 0 0 1 . (7. but plug the assumed solution into the equation anyway. and x = x0 + x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 + · · · (7. There is a solution near x = 1. In what will probably seem like very diﬀerent sorts of problems. Let = 0. and I can use the equation itself to ﬁnd a series expansion for the root near that point.15). The integral Eq.) That depends on the cubic. you can compute the common three-dimensional scalar product as Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz .7—Waves L 256 (n − m)πx I= 0 dx 1 cos 2 (n + m)πx L L − cos − L L (n − m)πx sin (n − m)π L L 0 = 1 L sin 2 (n + m)π (n + m)πx =0 These functions un and um are said to be orthogonal to each other because of this integration.37) and (10. a sum over three indices running from x to z . For an analogy.7 An Algebraic Aside How do you solve a cubic equation? (And what does this have to do with waves? Patience. The idea is that you assume the form of the series even though you do not know any of its coeﬃcients.01x3 = 0 If you’ve solved problem 4. Try to solve x − 1 − 0.5 you may think that you have done this before and you have.35) You don’t know any of the coeﬃcients x0 or x1 . 7.

010312 Put this into the original cubic and the value is x − 1 − . x1 = 1.61 × 10−7 . 0 1 2 3 257 must : : : : x0 − 1 = 0 x1 − x3 = 0 0 x2 − 3x2 x1 = 0 0 x3 − 3x2 x2 − 3x0 x2 = 0 0 1 (7. The same is true if the tension isn’t constant throughout. so this eﬀect is not important. all the like coeﬃcients of powers of match. There are other examples of physical systems where the same equation appears and for which the eﬀects of variable T (or its analog) are important. . To get non-constant tension. 3 + .8 Perturbation Theory If the mass density of the string isn’t constant. (7. For comparison. 12 + · · · = 1. the subject of numerical analysis and of perturbation theory is well-developed and you will ﬁnd many variations on this theme.01031257881011 as a better approximation to the exact solution.36) Solve these equations in sequence and you get x0 = 1. How can this happen? The non-uniform density is easy: place a wad of chewing gum on the string.013 . “perturbation theory. The technique. but if the string is not under great tension then this will alter the harmonic structure substantially.3) is more complicated than the simple wave equation. Eq.01 + .012 .01x3 = −5. The part of the string at the top has to support everything below. There are a few special cases for which you can solve the equations exactly when T or µ are not constant. Are there ways other then series expansions to do this? Yes. The next term in the series for x is 4 x4 = 10−8 x4 . 7. but instead of spending time on those.” parallels the series solution for the cubic equation in the preceding section. The spirit of this approximation is that you start with an easy solution to a simpliﬁed form of the problem and then you improve the solution by using the complicated part to generate the correction. I’ll show a general procedure that’s valid for any T or µ as long as they are almost constant. Continuing this to higher orders in produces 1. x3 = 12. . Will this be a big eﬀect in a musical instrument? No. x2 = 3. simply hold the string vertically. This example shows the essential idea of perturbation theory. the solution . which brings me to. · · · The value of the root is x = 1 + . so the tension at the top will be greater than that at the bottom. The tension in that case is always far greater than the weight of the string. the error is 10−2 .7—Waves For this to be a valid series expansion in . and it starts from what you already know. if you put x = 1 into the equation. Or maybe use a bullwhip for the string.

38) . but with T = a constant and no gravity and no friction. with all the x’s on one side and all the t’s on the other. T ∂ 2f ∂ 2f = µ (x ) 2 ∂x2 ∂t The technique of separation of variables still works. | µ1 | µ0 If µ1 is absent. µ(x) = µ0 + µ1 (x).7—Waves 258 for the uniform string. I said that the idea is to expand everything in power series. cosine. so that the string is tied down. so the solution is the familiar sine. but in the end it turned out to be proportional to ω 2 . (7. I take the same boundary conditions as before. 1 d2 G(t) T d2 F = −ω 2 . but what is the variable to use? I’ll make one up. or exponential: eiωt or sin(ωt+δ ). f (x. F (0) = F (L) = 0. even when µ (or T ) depends on x.37) 2 2 G dt µF dx The time equation is unchanged.3). The diﬀerence is in the equation for F .31) I called it C .33). In this case the solution for the non-uniform case should be very close to the known. = −ω 2 (7. then T d2 G(t) d 2 F (x ) G(t) = µ(x)F (x) dx2 dt2 To separate variables now you have to divide by F Gµ. that’s section 7. This allows me to keep track of the terms easily. I will return to the original wave equation (7. Back in Eq. They must therefore be (the same) constant. and that’s where the action occurs. so I’ll use that notation from the outset. I know how to solve the problem for which the string is tied down at two ends.6 and Eq. Take the case for which T is constant and µ is almost constant. T d2 F = −µω 2 F dx2 (7. t) = F (x)G(t). To be certain that I’m not missing anything. (7. Change the preceding equation to µ (x ) = µ 0 + µ1 (x ) and use as a dimensionless parameter for the series. T d2 F 1 d2 G(t) = µF dx2 G dt2 and again the equation is separated. simple solution.

The coeﬃcient of 0 . (ω 2 )1 . The right side is a power series in . F . so it hardly warrants the name power series. The density µ of course has only two terms. F2 will have to ﬁnd itself. But. 2 2. etc. some reassurance: I’m going to go just as far as the ﬁrst two of these equations. Rearrange them. . Now I have an inﬁnite number of unknowns. The left side is a power series in . 2 T F 0 = −µ0 ω 0 F 0 2 2 2 T F 1 = −µ0 ω 0 F 1 − µ1 ω 0 F 0 − µ0 ω 1 F 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 T F2 = −µ0 ω0 F2 − µ2 ω0 F0 − µ0 ω2 F0 − µ1 ω1 F0 − µ1 ω0 F1 − µ0 ω1 F1 (7. First. etc. are unknowns to be determined.41) The systematic procedure to solve these: 1. not ω itself. Use the F0 from step one to ﬁnd the frequency correction ω1 from the 2nd equation. ω2 . The expansion for ω may look a little odd. Solve the 2nd equation for F1 . but that is being unnecessarily fussy and it is too clumsy. the coeﬃcient of 1 . but it’s ω 2 that shows up as the natural parameter. 2 2 2 T F0 + F1 + 2 F2 +· · · = − µ0 + µ1 ω0 + ω1 + 2 ω2 +· · · F0 + F1 + 2 F2 +· · · This looks like I’m taking a diﬃcult problem and turning it into an impossible one. though they should be close to the unperturbed case. It doesn’t look promising. 2 T F0 + µ0 ω0 F0 = 0 2 2 2 T F1 + µ0 ω0 F1 = −µ1 ω0 F0 − µ0 ω1 F0 2 2 2 2 2 2 T F2 + µ0 ω0 F2 = −µ2 ω0 F0 − µ0 ω2 F0 − µ1 ω1 F0 − µ1 ω0 F1 − µ0 ω1 F1 (a) (b) (c) (7. . and ω 2 are diﬀerent.40) This is now an inﬁnite number of equations for an inﬁnite number of unknowns. . . easy equation. so this is the way to write it. . Write all of them in terms of a power series in . F1 . µ = µ 0 + µ1 F = F0 + F1 + 2 F2 + 3 F3 + · · · 2 2 2 ω 2 = ω0 + ω1 + 2 ω2 + · · · (7. It would probably be more consistent notation to call the coeﬃcients (ω 2 )0 .7—Waves 259 Now however µ. They’re supposed to agree no matter what is. 3. Solve the 1st .39) 2 The coeﬃcients F0 . so I won’t. Now plug in. For that to happen all the coeﬃcients of like powers have to match.

41)(a).32). Solve for F2 etc. and the ones I choose are the same ones that I used before. L with T n2 π 2 2 = µ0 ω0 2 L Now comes the key observation that breaks open this complicated looking set of equations. This says that f (0.43) Work on the ﬁrst term by itself. unperturbed equation (7. t) = f (L. The proof of this involves nothing more than a couple of partial integrations. Eq. and that is precisely what appears in brackets as the coeﬃcient of . Eq.7—Waves 260 2 4.43). (7. you get zero. I have to set down the boundary conditions. multiply the left-hand side of the equation (7. 2 F0 is orthogonal to T F1 + µ0 ω0 F1 (7.41)(b) by F0 .41)(a) is the same as Eq. L 0 2 ? dx F0 (x) T F1 + µ0 ω0 F1 = 0 (7.44) This last integral is zero because by assumption F0 satisﬁes the original.33). 2 T F0 + µ0 ω0 F0 −→ F0 (x) = A sin nπx . F0 (x).(I’m not going past step three anyway. 5. t) = 0 as before. I have to compute the following integral. so it has the same solution. and integrate from 0 to L with respect to x. showing that it is zero. Tie the string down at two ends.) I haven’t been very speciﬁc about the problem that I want to solve. trying to leave the setup general. Stated in the language of vectors. If you take the unperturbed solution. L dx F0 (x) T F1 = T F0 (x)F1 (x) 0 L 0 L −T 0 dx F0 (x)F1 (x) L 0 = T F0 (x)F1 (x) Put this into the integral (7.42) whatever F1 is (as long as it satisﬁes the same boundary conditions and vanishes at 0 and L). Use the F1 from step two to ﬁnd the frequency correction ω2 from the 3nd equation. recalling that T and µ0 are constants. (7. Now to be speciﬁc. (7. L 0 L − T F0 (x)F1 (x) +T 0 dx F0 (x)F1 (x) T F0 (x)F1 (x) − T F0 (x)F1 (x) + 0 0 0 L L L 2 dx T F0 (x)+ F0 (x)µ0 ω0 F1 (x) = 0 (7.

46) The denominator is easy. make this zero because F0 and F1 will vanish at these points. I didn’t have to solve any complicated diﬀerential equations to get this result. And what about the frequency itself. not just the squared frequency? See problem 7. (7. and the numerator’s complexity depends on µ1 . 2 2 ω1 = − ω0 0 L dx µ1 (x)F0 (x)2 L µ0 0 dx F0 (x)2 (7. This result parallels those in Eqs.47) The correction to the frequency is then to this order 2 ω1 = − 2 ω0 αL2 /4 2 αL = −ω0 2 µ0 µ0 L/2 so that 2 ω 2 = ω0 1 − αL 2 µ0 (7. (8.48) right? . Now multiply Eq. the ﬁrst correction for the frequency-squared.48) Is this plausible? If α is positive this is a decrease in the frequency. 0 and L. Are the dimensions of (7.19. and the density appears in the denominator of T /µ.45) 2 The single unknown here is ω1 .14). As an example. and the boundary conditions that I placed on the problem.35) and (10. making the string slightly thicker toward x = L. F0 (x) = sin(nπx/L).41)(b) by F0 and integrate the whole equation from 0 to L. L 0 and L 0 dx x sin2 (nπx/L) = dx (x − L/2) + L/2 sin2 (nπx/L) = L2 /4 (7. L 0 2 dx F0 (x) T F1 + µ0 ω0 F1 = 0 = 0 L 2 2 2 2 dx − µ1 ω0 F0 − µ0 ω1 F0 (7. what if the string is tapered slightly. The left side is now zero.7—Waves 261 F1 inside the integral. that F (0) = 0 = F (L). and that’s just what you should expect because it represents an increase in the linear mass density over the µ0 that I started with. so that the mass density varies linearly from one end to the other? Take µ1 (x) = αx. The other terms are evaluated at the boundaries. The integrals are L 0 and 2 ω0 = n2 π 2 T /µ0 L2 dx sin2 (nπx/L) = L/2. I have only to do two integrals.

This is an inhomogeneous linear diﬀerential equation for F1 .41)(b) and (7. But what about the wave itself? Sometimes you need more than the frequency. Why would you need F1 ? One reason is that the equation for the second order correction to ω 2 uses it. It is negative.45) and suddenly you have ω2 . d+ ≈ d− 2 2 dx µ1 (x)F0 (d) = m F0 (d) = m sin2 (nπd/L) The denominator in the frequency correction is µ0 L/2. Finding F1 All the preceding calculation did was to get the lowest order correction for the frequency. L 0 dx µ1 (x)F0 (x)2 = d+ d− 2 dx µ1 (x)F0 (x) where 2 is the tiny width of the mass. There are two humps on either side and a node at the center.10 were devoted to it. This makes sense 2 2 ω1 = −ω0 because the center point on the string isn’t moving anyway. it has the correct dimensions.41)(b). In the same n = 2 mode. You do the same thing as in equations 2 (7. L/2. As F0 is a smooth function it won’t change signiﬁcantly over this small range of x and I can approximate the integral by evaluating F0 at x = d. then sin2 (2πL/2L) = 0 and there is no shift in the frequency.7—Waves 262 How is the frequency altered if a small mass is added at one point along the string? Perhaps a tenacious ﬂy lands on it. and you have seen examples of exactly this equation in chapter three. Take the case n = 2 for example. and that’s often all that you want. If the mass is placed exactly at the node. but precisely this sort of calculation appears in quantum mechanics and the higher order corrections can be important in that context. if you put the extra mass at L/4 or 3L/4 then the eﬀect is maximum. The independent variable was t instead of x. In the numerator of Eq. The only diﬀerence between this calculation and those is the extra use of boundary conditions. . In this case the perturbing mass density µ1 is zero every place except very near the one point. That is in the third of the equations (7. and you need F1 to determine the right side of that equation. it is not worth pursuing this matter. (7.5 and 3.46) the integrand is then zero everywhere except very close to the point d. (7. Now you know the right side 2 2 of the equation because you’ve found ω1 and you already knew ω0 and F0 . The sections 3. Speciﬁcally a small mass m is added at the point x = d. so the whole correction is m sin2 (nπd/L) µ0 L/2 Notice how this varies with d.41). so it doesn’t matter if there is a extra mass there or not. That’s Eq. but that makes no diﬀerence because the equations are the same. For here and now.

40). T d2 F 0 2 + µω0 F0 = 0 dx2 d2 F 1 d4 F 0 2 2 T + µω0 F1 = αY S 2 − µω1 F0 dx2 dx4 T The ﬁrst of these gives the same standing wave as before. µ ∂ 2f ∂ 2f ∂ 4f =T − αY S 2 4 ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x I won’t attempt to derive this here. Does it at least have the correct dimensions? What does this do to the frequency of standing waves? You can solve this particular problem without using approximations. (7. F0 (x) = A sin nπx .9 Stiﬀness In the ﬁrst section of this chapter I mentioned that I had left out some physics.7—Waves 263 7. no µ1 . I will simply use it. the stiﬀness of the string. (7.33) and introduce a dimensionless expansion parameter in front of the new term: . How does this aﬀect the frequencies you hear when the piano is played? The tools in the preceding section on perturbation theory apply here too.37).49) 1. The ﬁrst question. how do you describe stiﬀness mathematically? For a wire of circular cross section the extra force comes from a combination of Young’s modulus (Y ). I won’t go beyond d2 F 0 2 = −µω0 F0 dx2 d4 F 0 d2 F 1 2 2 T − αY S 2 = −µω0 F1 − µω1 F0 dx2 dx4 Rearrange this to put it in the form of Eqs. (7. but treating the added term as a perturbation is enough for many circumstances. and a dimensionless factor (α = 1/4π ). L with T n2 π 2 2 = µω0 L2 .38) is d2 F d4 F − αY S 2 4 = −µω 2 F dx2 dx Use Eqs.39) for F and ω 2 . (7. the cross-sectional area (S ).39) though now there is no change in the mass density. (7. and collect the terms in 0 and T this. wire-wound strings and they are stiﬀ and hard to bend. Start from the same solution as Eq. (7. If you look inside a piano you will see that the low pitched notes have heavy. so that the equation (7. Use the same sort of expansion as in Eq. The x and t variables separate just as in Eq.

That you can listen to music at all tells you that for sound within the range of human hearing this dependence of the speed on wavelength must be very slight. L dx F0 (x) T 0 d2 F 1 2 + µω0 F1 = 0 = dx2 L 0 dx F0 (x) αY S 2 d4 F 0 2 − µω1 F0 dx4 2 This determines the correction ω1 for the frequency. A little ripple in a pond can travel at walking speed or less. For example. Multiply the second of these equations by F0 and integrate from 0 to L. Can you hear this? I can’t. but as soon as you encounter matter they become complicated. People saw these long before anyone knew that sound is a wave. these ocean waves are some of the more complicated sorts of waves to analyze mathematically. but a good piano tuner can. much less that light is. its speed in vacuum. A tsunami can travel at hundreds of kilometers per hour. Studying this is like studying electromagnetic waves in a vacuum. optical activity). surface waves on the ocean. This means that long wavelength waves travel much faster than short wavelength waves. but are stretched to slightly higher values. The speed does change at ultrasonic frequencies because at those very short wavelengths heat can ﬂow quickly from a compression region .10 Other Waves The structure of waves on a string with constant tension and constant mass density is so simple that is is misleading. Oddly enough. The speed of light is a function of the wavelength (rainbows).7—Waves 264 Now you are set to use the same equation (7. the speed of light depends on the polarization of the wave (birefringence. What about the most commonly observed wave in nature. the speed of the wave by the deﬁnition of speed that you’ve seen in this chapter so far can be greater than c. 7. In other words it is a lot more complicated than you may think. They are important. ω ∝ n. 2 ω1 = αY S 2 µ L 0 dx F0 (x)F0 (x) L 0 dx F0 (x)2 = αY S 2 n4 π 4 µ L4 The total frequency squared to this order is then ω2 = T n2 π 2 αY S 2 n4 π 4 + µ L2 µ L4 This says that the overtones of the string are not quite in a simple harmonic sequence. the wave speed is v = gλ/2π for deep water.43) as before.

that’s all there is.9). but I will take an easier route and analyze the simplest possible case to show how the concept of group velocity arises. The most visible example is that of light when it is passing through a medium such as water or glass or even air. They were described by Sommerfeld and Brillouin. v = ω/k . It also allows them to determine the distance to an earthquake that occurs a thousand kilometers away — without receiving a phone call from someone in the middle of the quake itself. and contains a mixture of frequencies.7—Waves 265 to a rarefaction region and make the process nearly isothermal. and * Leon Brillouin: Wave Propagation and Group Velocity. group velocity. and this is the reason that there are rainbows. This is “dispersion. What happens when you have two waves moving in the same direction. It can in some circumstances have some truly odd behavior. Earthquake waves have speeds that depend on whether they are longitudinally or transversely polarized. That is called the phase velocity because it describes the motion of a point having constant phase.* If a wave has the property that its phase velocity ω/k is itself independent of frequency. still a standard reference. energy velocity The ﬁrst two are all that I will describe here. where γ is the ratio of speciﬁc heats discussed so thoroughly in thermodynamics. as the other two get very technical very fast. The more interesting case is the one for which the phase velocity is not independent of frequency. the wave cannot maintain the exact same shape that it did at the beginning. (7. There are at least four diﬀerent deﬁnitions for the velocity of a wave: phase velocity.11 Other Velocities I have alluded to that fact that the deﬁnition of the velocity of a wave is more complicated than what you saw in Eq. because in those cases the index of refraction. 7. n = c/vphase .” Any real wave has a beginning and an end. And then there are torsional waves in which the rocks are twisted instead of being pushed forward and backward or side to side. A light wave in a vacuum is like this. depends on the frequency of the light. It will deform. At low frequencies and long wavelengths the distance is too great for this process to occur in the short time between wave crests. typically spreading its width. In that case the process is nearly adiabatic and the speed changes √ by a factor γ between the two cases. . and the simplest case to deal with is two. It’s the end of the subject because all these four sorts of wave velocity are then identical. This diﬀerence in the speed of diﬀerent types of earthquake waves allows geologists to get information about what’s under the ground. information (or signal) velocity. but it is not the whole story. If these frequencies travel at diﬀerent speeds. Academic Press 1960. Analyzing this in detail takes Fourier analysis. Any real wave is a mixture of many frequencies.

so the wave numbers k and k are close also. When this envelope drops to zero. 2 2 k−k ω−ω cos x− t 2 2 cos k+k x− ω+ω t has phase velocity has phase velocity ω+ω k+k ω−ω k−k . so examine the two factors in Eq. cos x + cos y = 2 cos (7. but you cannot simply say that “the velocity” of the wave is the average of these two numbers. cos kx cos k x Fig. Follow the dotted line.50. The total wave is f (x. Notice that the wave numbers k and k aren’t the same either. and assume that the frequencies are close. and that of the other wave is ω /k = vk .7—Waves 266 one has a frequency slightly diﬀerent from the other? Assume that they have the same amplitude and have frequencies ω and ω . problem 0. t) = A cos(kx − ωt) + A cos(k x − ω t) You need a trig identity here. in order to add these two cosines. and that is shown with the lighter lines. The combined wave does not have a single velocity. 0) = 2A cos (k + k )x/2 cos (k − k )x/2 . you can see that the two component waves in the upper two graphs are 180◦ out of phase.51) Picture this wave at time zero. The velocity of one of these waves alone is ω/k = vk . 7. Each factor has its own phase velocity. That means that the (k − k ) in the second factor is much smaller than the (k + k ) in the ﬁrst. t) = 2A cos k+k 2 x− ω+ω 2 t cos k−k 2 x− ω−ω 2 t (7. The two waves will then have (phase) velocities v = ω/k and v = ω /k . so the ﬁrst cosine factor oscillates in space much more rapidly than the second.50) x+y 2 cos x−y 2 f (x.51). (7. The whole function at this instant is the product of two spatial oscillations: one with a short wavelength and one with a long wavelength: f (x.6 cos kx + cos k x The outline of the sum follows the ± cos (k − k )x/2 factor.

7—Waves 267 Unless the ratios ω/k and ω /k are the same. so the basic equation is F = ma and that in turn implies the wave equation Eq. To simplify the problem. (5. It is the velocity of the dashed curve above. That would be like saying that the slope of a function.52) This is called the group velocity. the ﬁrst of these velocities is near to both vk and vk . A simpliﬁed model that shows the phenomena uses a wave on a string. In particular. The shorter waves within the outline moves at the diﬀerent velocity (ω + ω )/(k + k ). is the same as f (x)/x.29 7.edu/nearing/mathmethods/groupvelocity. The second equation however has a velocity that is essentially a derivative. f (x). and the only tension in the rope is there because it is spinning.43)? In describing the phenomena involved I did a lot of hand-waving and made many qualitative statements. The rope forms a circle and is rotating about the central axis perpendicular to the plane of the circle. how is it that a high tide can occur when the Moon is near the horizon? Shouldn’t the high tide be more-or-less underneath the Moon (or at the antipode) as in the picture of Eq. wrap the string around in a circle and set it spinning they way some people can spin a lasso. let it be rotating in empty space. these two velocities can be quite diﬀerent even if the two frequencies are very close! If the two frequencies are close. The envelope of the wave (the dashed line) moves at the group velocity while the individual peaks of the wave move at the phase velocity.miami. k 2m while vgroup = dω ¯ k h = dk m This group velocity is twice the phase velocity.html How diﬀerent can these velocities be? In quantum mechanics you will see a relation between ω and k that follows ω = hk 2 /2m. For ocean waves.physics. This time however. ω−ω dω −→ = vgroup k−k dk (7.12 Waves and Tides In chapter ﬁve there was a discussion about ocean tides and some of the probably confusing and certainly counter-intuitive aspects of the subject. Here I propose to present some quantitative analysis to back up the previous work. The still image on the previous page is animated at the link www. all three are about the same. . and there’s no reason to expect this to be close to any of the other velocities. (7.3) but without the µg or b∂f /∂t terms. see problem 7. so ¯ vphase = ω h ¯k = . The rope is still a rope.

because of the Earth’s acceleration toward the Moon. Now to get back to tides: The ocean tides on Earth will correspond to the waves moving around this circular string. but what is v0 the tension? Look at the arc of the rope having length R∆φ. so that the waves will go in either direction at speed v0 . look at the rope in the rotating system. behaves as if there are two pulls that tug on opposite sides of the Earth and its oceans. as in section 5. Not so fast.7. so its component 1 toward the center is T sin(∆φ/2) ≈ 2 T ∆φ and the total force is on the arc is 2T sin(∆φ/2) ≈ T ∆φ. In this simpliﬁed model with a rope the function that does this is an added radial force that varies as cos 2φ. and the only ∆φ component of that force that survives is the one pointing toward the center of the circle.1.39. Now what will correspond to the tidal force from the Moon? That force. The mass of this segment is µR∆φ and its acceleration is toward the center with 2 2 magnitude v0 /R = Rω0 . was the one in which you were standing next to the rope and the rope wasn’t going anywhere. do problem 7. Combine these: 2 T ∆φ = µR∆φ . Here v0 is the speed at which the rope is moving around. It says that the wave speed is the same as the speed at which the rope itself is moving: v0 . To make the parallel more realistic. the average total force (vector) over the whole surface is zero as in problem 5.35. In which coordinate system is the speed of the wave T /µ? Not the one where you are standing on the side watching the rope spinning around. . At the two ends the rest of the rope pull on it with the tension T . that is the system rotating with angular speed ω0 = v0 /R. Here. In that system. v0 /R −→ T 2 = v0 µ From Eq. back in section 7. The vector tangent to the circle rotates by ∆φ/2 as it goes from the midpoint of the arc to its end. as cos 2(φ − Ωt) . What do these waves look like to the stationary bystander? In one direction the wave will move at speed 2v0 and in the other direction it is a standing wave. or at least study its answer. or because the Moon is orbiting the Earth. The wave equation will then govern the motion of waves around the loop in either direction. For the Earth-Moon system Ω is a little less than 2π/day. (7. In that system the waves will move clockwise and counterclockwise with speed v0 . To see in more persuasive detail what happens when you try to run after a wave. this is the familiar relation for the speed at which a wave will move along the string.6). The coordinate system in which the wave equation ﬁrst appeared.7—Waves 268 The linear mass density is no diﬀerent from before.

then add them.53) 2 2 ) − Ω2 4 (T /µR 4 ω0 − Ω2 Ω < ω0 Ω > ω0 Fig. Two derivatives of a cosine takes you back to a cosine. ? f = A cos 2(φ − Ωt) T ? −→ 2 (−4A) cos 2(φ − Ωt) + α cos 2(φ − Ωt) = µ − 4AΩ2 cos 2(φ − Ωt) R T α = µ − 4AΩ2 − 2 (−4A) R α/µ α/µ −→ A = = (7.7—Waves 269 Translate the equation (7. but that is familiar from the previous study of resonance in chapter three. You need to put in the damping eﬀects to make it ﬁnite. and you can solve it the same way that you solve inhomogeneous ordinary diﬀerential equations.43) only without the complication of friction. This is an inhomogeneous partial diﬀerential equation. That adds reality and complexity to the problem. First. α is just a constant for the maximum strength of the tidal force. (3. and when the forcing frequency Ω is less than this. In the case of the Earth-Moon system. This is just like the results in Eq. Exercises . Of course if Ω = ω0 this solution doesn’t work. 7.7 The natural frequency of the wave around the rope is ω0 = v0 /R. the factor is negative.3) into angular variables and add the tidal force. ﬁnd some one solution to the inhomogeneous part. the factor in Eq. (7. there is friction and there are continents and there are enough other interesting features to make a profession of the subject.53) is positive. When it is greater. x −→ Rφ ∂f ∂f ∂ 2f ∂ 2f ∂ 2f ∂ T − µg − b = µ 2 −→ T =µ 2 ∂x ∂x ∂t ∂t ∂x2 ∂t 2f 2f T ∂ ∂ −→ + α cos 2(φ − Ωt) = µ 2 2 ∂φ2 R ∂t Here. so try that. then ﬁnd the general solution to the homogeneous part.

01x4 = 0 to ±10−4 . and in the visible part of the spectrum. T .30) and determine the fraction of the light power reﬂected from ordinary window glass. 270 3 What is f if f (x) = f (x)/x? And what does this have to do with group velocity? 4 Apply the equations for reﬂection (7.47) I used the manipulation x = (x − L/2) + L/2 . (7. Here the constant α is close to c and the other term is small over the visible range. 2 Solve x − 1 + . I tacitly assumed that the tension. Why does this help you to do the problem in your head? 7 In deriving Eq. Why is that correct? .26) by physical reasoning. is continuous.28). to a good approximation ω = αk + βk 2 . The index of refraction for blue light is larger than that for red light. the relation between ω and k is. (7.7—Waves 1 Do the algebra to get the equations Eq. 5 For light travelling through a dilute gas such as air. (7. Is β positive or negative? 6 In Eq.

When you are done. ∂y ∂y = ∂x t ∂z ∂z ∂y ∂w + ∂w z ∂x w ∂x t t where the sub-w or -t etc.1 For the wave on a uniform string. showing that you get the same result Eq. A cos(kx−ωt). Does this work for the more general function f (x − vt)? 7. (7. 7. compute the kinetic and potential energy densities and show that they are the same. v for power in a simple mechanical system.5 In the footnote to Eq.3 A string can be tapered.21) directly from the expression F . replace z and w by their values in terms of x and t. Stretch it between two posts and determine how much it sags. assuming the static case.7—Waves 271 Problems 7. 4 ∂ ∂z ∂ y=0 w ∂w z Now do two integrals to get the answer for y in terms of z and w. .21) this way too.6) you can solve for the most general solution directly if you make the right change of variables. Show that the wave equation in the variables z -w is 4 ∂ 2y =0 ∂z∂w or with more explicit notation. indicate which variable is held constant. Do so. Let z = x − vt and w = x + vt. (7. and C be in order to match the approximate solution? 7. (7.4 ˙ In the wave equation (7. Does it matter if A = 0? And does your result reduce to the original case for which the density is constant? Where is the lowest point and where is the center of mass of the string? For computing the center of mass. When you integrate a partial derivative. you will have actually solved the wave equation by straight integration instead of just guessing the answer. but an arbitrary function of the other variable. B .18) again and do the partial integration on the second term instead.5) it says that the static case has an exact solution has an exact solution as a hyperbolic cosine: f (x) = A cosh B (x + C ) .2 You can derive Eq. assume that the string is almost straight. as with a bullwhip. For example. note that you don’t get an arbitrary constant. What is the shape of the string in this case? Assume that the linear mass density is µ(x) = A + Bx for x < x < L. (7. What must A. 7.6 Start from Eq. 7. Use the chain rule four times to evaluate the derivatives ∂ 2 y/∂x2 and ∂ 2 y/∂t2 in terms of derivatives with respect to z and w.

you assumed that the string was horizontal. (a) Use dimensional analysis to determine the only possible form for the wave speed in terms of these. ρ. For the simple initial pulse in the example of Eq.21) are also valid in this case.12 (a) Verify that the solution presented in Eq. (b) For shallow water or long wavelength the speed depends on ρ. (7. ∂f ∂f ∂ 2f T (0+.7—Waves 272 7. Now hang it vertically and ﬁnd the boundary conditions. λ. Notice that the tension in the string is not continuous in this case. t). Then show that the equations for power. 7.e. (7. of a wave pulse moving up the cord. (b) What is the speed of a wave as a function of position on the cord? (c) Compute the acceleration. and the depth d.20) and (7. (7. t) − (0−.11 A cord is hanging vertically.13). (b) What happens if the two limits of integration were not taken to be 0 and 0. (b) Assume that the two parts of the string have the same mass density and tension and ﬁnd the reﬂection and transmission amplitudes in terms of the incoming amplitude.14) and (7.10˙ In the immediately preceding problem.9 ˙ (a) When two parts of a string are tied together with a knot of mass M at coordinate x = 0. t) = f (0+. (7. and g .13 What initial conditions on the wave function will guarantee that the wave is moving to the right only. (7.12) does satisfy both of the initial conditions on f as given by Eq. the wavelength. i. f (0−. (a) Find the tension in the cord as a function of the distance from the bottom.14 What would the resulting wave be if in the example at Eq. dv/dt.8 The wave speed for water waves in very deep water depends at most on the density. Show that this reproduces the ﬁrst two results. 7.26) are replaced by f is continuous.11).. What is the form for the speed now? 1/2 (c) A general expression for wave speed is v = (gλ/2π ) tanh(2πd/λ) . . t) = M 2 (0. show that the boundary conditions Eq. 7. (7.15) remain valid even if T and µ are functions of x. sketch and interpret the F and G that do this.13) you have F ≡ 0 and G(x) = A(L2 − x2 ) for −L < x < L? Sketches please.7 Show that the two equations (7. Is energy conserved? And what happens to the result when M → 0 or M → ∞? 7. g . I suggest that you don’t start with the ﬁnal formula to answer this. but two other numbers: either the same as each other or diﬀerent? 7. 7. 7. t) ∂x ∂x ∂t The derivative is not continuous in this case.

16) and then diﬀerentiate the result with respect to time. Are the frequencies still integer multiples of a fundamental frequency to this approximation? 7. explicitly evaluate the integral Eq. Recompute ω0 and ω1 using these deﬁnitions. You should get the same answer. (7. (7.19 In the perturbation calculation for standing waves. there is another way to arrange the calculation. 7. Find the eﬀect on the frequencies of the oscillation modes of the string assuming that µA µ0 . Find the ﬁrst order correction to the frequencies of these modes. 7. Write the solutions for the normal modes of this system. Put the resulting number into the original equation and examine the accuracy of the total. 7.48). Show that the ﬁnal answer agrees with the old one. interpreting the result.15 For the wave f = A cos(kx − ωt). as if T and µ are independent of x.19) the factor v 2 was treated as a constant. you may have to do a power series expansion to see if they agree.35). (7. (b) What is the total kinetic and total potential energy and is the sum constant? 7. 7. Let the original µ0 be 2 2 replaced by µ0 + αL/2 with µ1 = α(x − L/2). How does the eﬀect of this perturbation depend on which mode of oscillation you are dealing with? Sketch a plot of the size of the correction versus n. at least to ﬁrst order in α. but allowing T and µ to depend on x. .18 In Eq. the correction to the frequency produces ω= 2 ω0 1 + 2 ω1 2 + ··· 2 ω0 7.20 Starting from the modes of oscillation of a string of uniform tension and mass density held at points x = 0 and x = L. where N is a given integer. the mode number. That is.22 In the calculation leading up to Eq. Show that to ﬁrst order in .16 (a) Find the kinetic energy density and the potential energy density in a standing wave between two ﬁxed points. change the mass density by the small amount µ1 (x) = µA sin(N πx/L). Now the part of the string L/2 < x < L has mass density µ0 + µ1 for a small constant µ1 . the linear mass density is a constant µ0 and the tension is the constant T .7—Waves 273 7.17 Find the 4 term for the solution of the cubic equation (7.21¨For a string stretched between the points x = 0 and x = L. in which the string is tapered slightly by µ1 = αx. Go back to the calculation and repeat it. it was not the frequency that was easy to calculate but the square of the frequency.

what is the motion of the string? Explain the singularities you (should) ﬁnd. .26˙ A uniform string is stretched between two walls and allowed to oscillate. Find the lowest frequency normal mode.50) and (7.7—Waves 274 7.27 ˙ Three strings are attached to walls as shown and they vibrate only perpendicular to the plane of equilibrium (in and out in the drawing). ﬁnd the eﬀect on the frequency of oscillation. 7.28 In the equations (7. After the string has settled into its steady-state motion so that it too is oscillating with a frequency ω . then compute the group velocity and compare it to the phase velocity. evenly spaced masses to the string and to lowest order. at xk = kL/N .29 The phase velocity of deep water ocean waves is vphase = gλ/2π . Find the modes and frequencies of oscillation of the string. In this case the two velocities ω/k and ω /k are the same.13) when the two parts have moved only partway from each other.30 A string is tied down at one end. In this simpler case. Express this as a relation between ω and k . (7. Take the mass of the ring to be zero and ﬁnd the boundary conditions that must be satisﬁed at the two ends of the string.23 Follow the method of problem 7. Under which circumstances is the eﬀect biggest and when is it smallest? 7. 7. ﬁnd the eﬀect on the frequency2 for each mode when you add a set of N − 1 small masses equally spaced between 0 and L. and the other end is attached to a very light ring that is free to move without friction on a rod.21 agree. 7. The strings are initially horizontal and are tied at the middle with a massless knot. vt = L/4 perhaps.25 Sketch the wave Eq.22 and apply it to problem 7. The string has length L. Show that to this order the two solutions to 7. grab hold of it and force it to move as y = A cos ωt. 7. How large is this phase velocity for wavelengths of 1 cm and 1 km? 7. 7. The N − 1 masses m are placed a distance a apart so that N a = L. determine what these equations and the following graphs tell you about what you will hear. suppose that they describe sound within the frequency range of human hearing. 7. but instead of letting the ring slide up and down freely. They are at 120◦ from each other.31˙ Take the system deﬁned in the preceding problem.51). Now attach a set of small.24 For a uniform string tied between two ﬁxed walls.21.

10). The string is ﬁxed at x = 0 and x = L. (7. look at vibrations perpendicular to the plane of equilibrium. if either. is now the sum of the two terms y (x . what happens if the mass density µ2 = 0 or if µ2 → ∞? 7. the frequency. may be right. and the respective mass densities. show that the change from variables (x. . 7.34¨A string of length L is made of two parts: mass density µ1 for 0 < x < L and density µ2 for L/2 < x < L. 7. t) = F (x)G(t). will have the form F (x) = A sin k1 x (0 < x < L/2). getting the ﬁnal solution to be y (x . but now do it exactly. Eq.33¨Return to problem 7. t) where x = x − ut changes the wave equation from ∂ 2f 1 ∂ 2f − 2 2 =0 ∂x2 v ∂t to ∂ 2f ∂ 2f 1 ∂ 2f ∂ 2f − 2 − 2u + u2 =0 ∂x 2 v ∂t2 ∂x ∂t ∂x 2 (b) Show that the general solution to the original equation. Use the fact that F and F are continuous to get equations to determine the mode. (c ) Describe the solutions in the special case that u = v .49) and ﬁxed at the ends. what is the wave equation as seen by someone who is moving parallel to the x-axis with velocity u? That is. t) to variables (x .37˙ Solve for the modes of a string governed by Eq. (7. Again. F (x) = B sin k2 (L − x) (L/2 < x < L) where k1 and k2 can.7—Waves 275 7. Expand your answer for small corrections and compare it to the approximate result in the text. 7. Check this by showing that it gives the right result when the two mass densities happen to be equal. when needed.36 (b ) Someone else got a diﬀerent answer for the preceding equation. Show that a mode of oscillation. and ﬁnd the condition for a non-trivial solution to exist (a mode of oscillation). t) = f (x − ct) where c=u±v Analyze the proposed solutions to explain what they look like to the moving observer and decide which. be expressed in terms of the tension.32˙ Modify the preceding problem so that the other end of the string (at x = 0) is also attached to a zero mass ring that is free to slide up and down. t) = f (x − ct) where c = −u ± v 7.35¨(a) For those who want to demonstrate their mastery of the multivariable chain rule.27 and ﬁnd the next lowest frequency mode of oscillation. Also. y = f (x.

but in that context I was trying to introduce a change of variables to simplify an orbit problem. When you describe rotations. but I want to state them explicitly. it’s a useful approximation to say that the Earth is rigid. See the end of section 8.Rigid Body Motion There’s no such thing as a rigid body of course. so I’ll repeat the calculation in a form that is more useful here. where the r ’s are coordinates of diﬀerent atoms. . F = ma applies to a point mass. Unless you live on the Paciﬁc Rim. and the total force on it is the sum of all the forces on the individual pieces. These are basically geometric theorems and their proofs aren’t very enlightening.1 Center of Mass Newton’s equation. The point masses are {mk . Fk = mk dvk =⇒ dt Fk = k k mk dvk dt . Any real object is made of many others — atoms at least. and the force on one such mass is Fk . The purpose now is diﬀerent. so I can move masses inside and outside of derivatives at will. Except maybe for an electron. it wasn’t quite rigid enough. there are a couple of ideas that may seem fairly intuitive. Any motion of a rigid body is a translation of the center of mass plus rotation about the center of mass. The tire of a car ﬂexes under the car’s weight. . To a good approximation a lot of objects are reasonably rigid. A satellite in orbit around the Earth and having only electronic components is a rigid body — or is it? At least one early Earth-orbital satellite was lost by making this approximation. . 2. meaning that in the course of their motions the distances between all the points in the body are nearly constant. No matter. 2. The idea of the center of mass came up in section 6. I will assume that each mass remains constant. it isn’t if you’re discussing the weather. so how is it that you can get away with treating things as if they are? Is the Earth a point mass? It is if you’re discussing stellar astronomy.}. so I won’t go through them. but you can still treat it as rigid for many purposes. there are no point masses. 1. because everything is at least slightly ﬂexible.7.6. k = 1. d|ri − rj |/dt = 0. 8. In this calculation. Any motion (except pure translation) of a rigid body is a pure rotation about some axis.

You just have to interpret them as describing the motion of the center of mass of your object. the total mass.1). Fk = Fk. one from interactions with the other parts of the body and one from outside.2) The ﬁnal parenthesized expression deﬁnes the center of mass. external + k =k Fk by k (8. Similarly on the Earth from the Moon and the Sun. Fk by k = −Fk by k implies Fk = k k Fk.3) This is F = ma for real masses. Mtotal = k mk . What it says is that all the calculations you’ve done while pretending that you’re dealing with a point mass are correct. external + Fk by k k k k k =k Newton’s third law says that the force on k by k is the opposite of the force on k by k . and I’ll switch to the integral notation for the sum as it is more convenient to manipulate. Add all the forces in Eq. (8. but that will be the case for most of this chapter. external = k mk dvk = dt mk k d2 r k d2 = 2 dt2 dt mk rk k Now manipulate the last equation. then d2 dt2 mk rk = Mtotal k d2 dt2 k mk r k Mtotal (8. ext = Mtot d2 rcm dt2 (8. the force on the Moon is the sum of the forces from Earth and the Sun.8—Rigid Body Motion 277 Each Fk has two parts. so in this last sum over all the possible pairs of masses k and k . treating the Sun as an external force on the Earth-Moon system. not ﬁctional point masses. Examples Where is the center of mass of the Earth-Moon system? Treat each as a point mass . There is nothing in this calculation that requires the masses to form a rigid body.1) If the Earth the Moon are a system of two particles. every term is canceled by another. Handle these separately Fk = Fk. Multiply and divide by the same factor. rcm = 1 Mtot dm r and Ftot.

Here you can divide the region into small volumes and ﬁnd how much mass is in each volume. k mk rk . I treated the Earth and Moon as point masses.8—Rigid Body Motion and use a single coordinate to describe their position. so this is 1400 km below the surface. 278 xcm = = mE x1 + mM x2 x2 = mE + mM 1 + mE /mM 400 000 km = 5000 km 1 + 80 E M x1 = 0 x2 The Earth’s radius is 6400 km.2) doesn’t involve an integral but a sum. and then you improve the approximation.3) you see the notation r dm. they aren’t. Is it correct to do this? Can you compute the center of mass of an object by treating portions of it as if they are themselves point masses? Yes.64R In the ﬁrst of these examples. Mtot rcm = dm r = ﬁrst mass dm r + second mass dm r = m1 rcm 1 + m2 rcm 2 (8. so an approximate value for the sum is r ∆M . What does that mean? In Eq. Eq. (8. The concept of an integral is that you divide a complicated thing into pieces in order to get an approximate result for a sum. The coordinate vector to the center of each volume is r . How do you integrate position with respect to mass? The answer involves looking back to where that expression came from and then combining that with the concept of an integral. but it requires at least a little proof.4) Now divide by the total mass and this is the desired result. Call the volumes ∆V and the masses ∆M . (8. The last I saw. Where is the center of mass of a uniform wire bent into a semicircle? M rcm = = 0 ˆ ˆ dm (x x + y y ) = π ˆ ˆ dm (xR cos φ + y R sin φ) dφ y R x φ M 2R dφ ˆ ˆ (xR cos φ + y R sin φ) π ˆ rcm = y π ˆ = y 0.

. For a rigid body.2 Angular Momentum The ﬁrst step in describing the dynamics of a rigid body is to start with a point mass and to apply a force to it. the only change in Eq. Then realize that the term that you added was zero anyway because v and p are in the same direction. The index says that now you have many masses and you simply sum over the masses * For a full-blown mathematical treatment of this way to look at an integral. If it doesn’t. you call it the mass density and move on. This notation.5) is to add an index to the factors. For the regions where the limit ∆M /∆V approaches a limit. Who says that a particular mass ∆M6 will go to zero? It may not. look up Riemann-Stieltjes integrals. (8.5) Torque is the time derivative of angular momentum (for a point mass).8—Rigid Body Motion 279 That doesn’t look any diﬀerent from the original sum but it is diﬀerent. because there is a big point mass there. separate term in the sum. M r. The idea of an integral is that you improve the approximation by taking smaller volumes and in the ideal case you take a limit. r×F =r× dp dt dp dr dr =r× + ×p− ×p dt dt dt dr d r×p − ×p = dt dt d = r×p dt The ﬁrst step is to add and subtract a term. is simply a shorthand for what you would probably do anyway if you’re confronted with a mixture of continuous and discrete distributions of mass. the coordinate vector for the point mass. Then use the product rule for derivatives to combine the ﬁrst pair.* 8. This is τ =r×F = d dL r×p = dt dt (8. F = dp/dt Pick an origin and take the cross product of this equation with r. r dm. you are simply left with a discrete. The ﬁnal limit is then an ordinary volume integral plus some separate terms that come from point masses. because each of these smaller number of terms represents a group of point masses.

step is to organize the bookkeeping for this sum describing the angular momentum. giving L= k rk × mk vk = k rk × mk (ω × rk ) This shows how the angular momentum depends on the angular velocity and it is the deﬁning equation for the function called the tensor of inertia. Examples A straight. and most important. A more appropriate notation for both cases is ω dm r I (ω ) = dm r × (ω × r ) (8. uniform rigid rod rotating about an axis through one end. 280 τ= k rk × Fk = d dt rk × pk k = dL dt (8. length a. When you deal with rigid bodies you will most often think of it as a continuous distribution of mass and not some discrete masses. Place it along the x-axis with one end at the origin.7) Either way that you write it.8—Rigid Body Motion to get the total torque and total angular momentum. you are computing the properties of the rigid body with respect to a point — the origin. and it is the core of the rest of this chapter.6) The next. use the equation (5. Mass M . L= k rk × pk To describe rotation about an axis.7). and make the axis of . v = ω × r . L = I (ω ) = k rk × mk (ω × rk ) The function I is a vector-valued function of a vector variable.

and the total angular momentum is the sum of two terms. then ˆ ˆ ˆ ω × r = ω z × x x = ωx y ˆ ˆ ˆ r × (this) = x x × ωx y = ωx2 z a M M x3 ˆ ˆ dm (that) = dx ωx2 z = ωz a a 3 0 ω a 0 1 ˆ = M a2 ω z 3 ˆ ˆ z (y in) ˆ x dm x In this example the angular momentum is parallel to the angular velocity. The same is true for the second mass. The element of mass is dm = M dx/a between x and x + dx. 8. It says that the tensor of inertia about a point P equals the tensor of inertia about the center of mass plus another term that is the tensor of inertia of a point mass place at the center of mass and using the original P . Treat the two masses as points and compute the sum for L. r1 × v1 points to the upper left. perpendicular to the line between the masses. Calling them “theorems” is stretching the word a bit. so in this second simple-looking example L = Iω is not true. and I = M a2 /3 is the moment of inertia of the rod about this axis through its end. 2 2 L = m1 r1 + m2 r2 ω cos α to the upper left Parallel Axis Theorem There are a couple of useful relations for computing these tensors. The same for r2 × v2 . Neither is parallel to ω . In the second picture however.8—Rigid Body Motion 281 rotation the z -axis. ω m1 v1 out r1 r2 m2 v2 in v1 out Lα r1 m1 ω m2 v2 in r2 Fig. v2 = ω × r2 → v2 = ωr2 cos α then 2 r2 × v2 = ω r2 cos α to the upper left 2 Similarly r1 × v1 = ω r1 cos α. r1 × v1 is up along the same direction as ω . but they are useful. the parallel axis theorem and the perpendicular axis theorem. A dumbbell is spinning about an axis as shown. and the proportionality factor is called the moment of inertia: L = Iω . life is not always so simple. It’s still easy to ﬁgure out L though. As you will quickly see. The ﬁrst relates a tensor for a body to its tensor when the center of mass is the origin.1 In the ﬁrst picture.

Tensors have components. (8. vector-valued function of a vector variable is a tensor. For vectors you can use the tool of components to do calculations. Before going into the deﬁnition and computation of the components of tensors. The proof is easy: add and subtract a term. The deﬁnition of the center of mass is 1 rcm = r dm Mtotal so that makes the integral in the cross term vanish. dm r − rcm × ω × rcm = dm r − rcm × ω × rcm c. but for today this is good enough.9) What happened to the cross terms? They’re zero.8) are now precisely the statement of the parallel axis theorem because in the ﬁrst integral r − rcm is the coordinate of the mass dm with respect to the center of mass.m. I’ll present the key deﬁning property of a tensor.25). The last parentheses formed a constant inside the integral.2 (8.10) The perpendicular axis theorem is even easier. so you can pull it outside (on the right).3 Tensor Components Computing with tensors is like computing with vectors — the geometry gets out of hand quickly.8—Rigid Body Motion as the origin. but it refers to the components of the tensor.8) dm rcm × ω × rcm dm r rcm Fig. 8. 8. and in the second integral the entire integrand is a constant.11) * There are generalizations of this statement for more complicated kinds of tensors. That a function f is linear means f (v1 + v2 ) = f (v1 ) + f (v2 ) and f (cv ) = c f (v ) or in a single line: f (av1 + bv2 ) = a f (v1 ) + b f (v2 ) (8. The two terms in Eq. you have nine* for tensors. but instead of the usual three components for vectors. (8. 282 dm r × (ω × r ) = = dm (r − rcm ) + rcm × ω × (r − rcm ) + rcm dm r − rcm × ω × r − rcm + (8. It can wait until Eq. not to the tensor itself. and the same thing is true here. I (ω ) = Icm (ω ) + M rcm × ω × rcm (8. . A linear.

is not a function but a vector. a tensor is not necessarily just a vector-valued function of a vector variable. but it covers the case at hand. you get the same answer. the angular momentum vector.11). This distinction between a function and the value of the function for some particular argument sounds trivial and pedantic. Other names for this function are “linear transformation” and “linear operator. A common example is a rotation. and for a general deﬁnition to cover the other cases. b. This deﬁnes a tensor f . x and don’t you commonly refer to f (x) as a function? It’s not really. but if the springs . Here however if you don’t pay attention to this distinction it will cause needless diﬃculties.” This doesn’t completely deﬁne the subject of tensors. Notice: I did not refer to “the function I (ω ). c are scalars.12) = I (ω1 ) + I (ω2 ) And I (cω ) = c I (ω ) just as easily. then d will be in the Fig. and that output is L. f f (x ) I (ω ). it’s the value of the function at the point x. I (ω1 + ω2 ) = = dm r × (ω1 + ω2 ) × r = dm r × (ω1 × r ) + dm r × ω1 × r + ω2 × r dm r × (ω2 × r ) (8.8—Rigid Body Motion 283 where a. (8. It has a vector input and a vector output. At the end of section 0. In the picture here.” This object. The preceding deﬁnition doesn’t work in reverse. 8. It is a linear function. If the springs are all the same. Rotate all vectors by 30◦ about the z -axis.10 I brieﬂy raised this issue in a footnote but it was not important then. You have a vector in and a vector out. The function I in the equation L = I (ω ) satisﬁes the deﬁnition (8. see chapter 12 of Mathematical Tools.7) are linear. so the combination is too. Does this matter? When you’re talking about the function f and the number f (x) for common real-valued functions of real variables. it probably makes no diﬀerence and it seldom causes confusion. so watch the use of language in this chapter. It is the output of the function f I when you feed the vector ω to it. If you add two vectors and rotate the result or if you rotate the two vectors and then add them. and it is a linear function of that applied force. and this deﬁnes a function. F where d = f (F ). “f ” is the whole graph and “f (x)” is the value of f at the point x. The displacement is a function of the applied force. Now apply a small force to the mass and look at its displacement. Another example: Suspend a mass with springs and let it come d to equilibrium.3 same direction as F and it is as simple as d = F /k . The cross product and the integral in Eq.

3 once you get used to it). and (8. and the order of the indices is carefully chosen for later convenience. y . with the index i running over the set x. Now for the components of the tensor: Start with the vectors ω and L. L = I (ω ) is ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lx x + Ly y + Lz z = I (ωx x + ωy y + ωz z ) (8.13) Use the linearity property of Eq.13) to get ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lx x + Ly y + Lz z = ωx Ixx x + Iyx y + Izx z ˆ ˆ ˆ +ωy Ixy x + Iyy y + Izy z ˆ ˆ ˆ +ωz Ixz x + Iyz y + Izz z For these vectors to be equal. Insert equations (8.16) into equation (8. Match the ˆ coeﬃcient of x on the left to the similar coeﬃcient on the right. Denote these as ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I (x) = Ixx x + Iyx y + Izx z (8. z (or more often 1. (8. (8.14) ˆ The expression I (x) is a vector. the other terms are ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I (y ) = Ixy x + Iyy y + Izy z and ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I (z ) = Ixz x + Iyz y + Izz z (8.8—Rigid Body Motion 284 on the left and right are weaker than the others then this displacement won’t even be in the same direction as F .11). which is the deﬁning property of a tensor. 2. ei . Push in a direction between the springs and the displacement will be more toward the weaker springs then the stronger.15) In the same way.14). which have components with respect to a basis you’ve chosen ˆ ˆ ˆ ω = ωx x + ωy y + ωz z and ˆ ˆ ˆ L = Lx x + Ly y + Lz z Now relate them with the function I . These nine numbers are the components of the tensor I . Now repeat the .16) An abbreviated form for these equations is easier to write if you use a uniﬁed notation for the basis vectors.17) j The indices denote which output basis vector and which input basis vector you are referring to.15). ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I (ωx x + ωy y + ωz z ) = ωx I (x) + ωy I (y ) + ωz I (z ) (8. I (ei ) = Iji ej (8. As such it has three components. their respective components must match.

Lx = Ixx ωx + Ixy ωy + Ixz ωz Ly = Iyx ωx + Iyy ωy + Iyz ωz Lz = Izx ωx + Izy ωy + Izz ωz In matrix notation this is (8. r ) . B ) − C (A .16). To compute these components.18). The notation is designed to come out in the way conventionally used with matrices.17).18) Lx Ixx Ixy Ixz ωx Ly = Iyx Iyy Iyz ωy Lz Izx Izy Izz ωz (8.20) The basis vectors ei are independent. That is.18) and in Eq.13) through (8. (8. B ) =⇒ I (ω ) = dm r × (ω × r ) = dm r2 ω − r (ω . so the coeﬃcients of ei must agree on the two sides of the equation.17). You need a vector identity to manipulate this: A × (B × C ) = B (A .19) become far more compact if you use the notation of Eq. The manipulations that took you from equation (8.19) and this is the reason for the peculiar-looking way that you are told to multiply matrices. go back to the deﬁnition of the inertia tensor. deﬁning the components of a tensor.7). The meaning of the expression (8. It all comes from the equation (8. (8. (8. This expresses the components of L in terms of the components of ω . (8.19) is the set of equations (8. (which column) . Compare the placement of the indices in Eq. L= i Li ei = I (ω ) = I j ωj ej = j ωj I (ej ) = j ωj i Iij ei (8.8—Rigid Body Motion 285 ˆ ˆ process for y and z . Li = Iij ωj (8. The matrix indices are arranged as I(which row). Eq. across the row of the ﬁrst factor and down the columns of the second.21) j These two lines are so much more compact that you should compare their content line-by-line with the preceding equations to verify that they are what they claim to be.

as Ixy = Iyx etc. ˆ I (x ) = ˆ ˆ dm r2 x − r (x . then apply the summation convention as in Eq. and the other components are called the products of inertia. Izx = − dm zx The calculations for the other six components are identical.22). Use x1 . are the moments of inertia. (0. dm (x2 + z 2 ). and z to get the ﬁrst column of the matrix of components. Ixx = dm (y 2 + z 2 ). and Li ei = I (ω ) = Li = dm xj xj ωi ei − xi ei ωj xj dm xj xj δik − xi xk ωk ω dm xj xj ωi − xi ωj xj = . giving the next two columns of the matrix. This is a special property of the inertia tensor. and z . There’s some symmetry among the nine components. Ixz = − Iyz = − Izz = dm xz dm yz dm (x2 + y 2 ) The three diagonal components. dm zy. Iyy .19) symmetric. x2 . making the matrix in Eq.8—Rigid Body Motion ˆ Now compute I (x). r ) = ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dm (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )x − (xx + y y + z z )x ˆ ˆ ˆ dm (y 2 + z 2 )x − yxy − zxz 286 = ˆ ˆ ˆ = Ixx x + Iyx y + Izx z The last line is the deﬁning equation (8.15).20) can these calculations of the components of the inertia tensor be made compact? Yes. Now all that you have to do is to read oﬀ ˆ ˆ ˆ the coeﬃcients of x. Ixx . and Izz . You can write this matrix as 2 y + z2 −xy −xz (I ) = dm −xy x2 + z 2 −yz (8. (8. and it is not true for all tensors. Iyx = − dm yx. Ixy = − Iyy = Izy = − dm xy. (8. and x3 for the coordinates instead of x. y .22) −xz −yz x2 + y 2 In the spirit of Eq. y .

ˆ ˆ If the angular velocity is along the axis of the rod. This behavior is typical. The integral is just a sum over two terms this time.8—Rigid Body Motion Repeat a previous example. ﬁgure 8. because it is only in the case of a symmetrical rotating body or in cases of a special ω that these two vectors will line up. perpendicular to the axis between the masses. then compute L as 1 0 2 2 (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) 0 sin2 α 0 − cos α sin α 0 0 − cos α sin α ω cos α = 0 cos2 α ω sin α 0 0 ˆˆ zy ω . Two point masses are at the ends of a light rod lying in the y -z plane as shown on the right. For both masses the value of x is zero.24) The angular momentum is pointing toward the upper left. ω = y sin α + z cos α. 2 2 Ixx = m1 r1 + m2 r2 2 2 2 2 = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) sin2 α. Izz = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) cos2 α 2 2 Ixy = Ixz = 0. and not in the direction of ω . The impression that you may have gotten in your ﬁrst introduction to this subject was no doubt restricted to such select examples. 2 2 and when you evaluate this sum. Iyz = −(m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) sin α cos α 287 Iyy As a matrix this is 1 0 2 2 sin2 α (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) 0 0 − cos α sin α 0 (8. only now express it in a new language.1. the y 2 + z 2 factor is just r1 or r2 depending on which mass you’re dealing with. the angular momentum components are 0 1 0 0 Lx 2 2 Ly = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) 0 sin2 α − cos α sin α 0 ω 0 − cos α sin α cos2 α Lz 0 2 2 = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 )ω − cos α sin α cos2 α 2 2 ˆ ˆ =⇒ L = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) ω cos α(−y sin α + z cos α) (8.23) − cos α sin α cos2 α If the angular velocity is along the z -axis.

all the mass is on the axis. you see that both of these are . and because the symmetry of the disk implies that Ixx = Iyy . with the same proportionality factor.25) Ixx = Iyy = because z = 0. Perpendicular Axis Theorem This is a special result about the components of the inertia tensor. compute the angular momentum: 1 0 0 0 2 2 (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) 0 sin2 α − cos α sin α −ω sin α 2α 0 − cos α sin α cos ω cos α 0 2 2 =(m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) −ω sin α ω cos α ˆ This L is in the same direction as ω . so there’s no angular momentum. ˆ ˆ If the axis of rotation is in the direction (−y sin α + z cos α).22): Izz = but and dm (x2 + y 2 ). at least in this approximation that these are point masses. and that’s all there is to it. Compute the inertia components: z y x R Fig. and it’s occasionally useful. the direction perpendicular to the axis between the masses. then Izz = Ixx + Iyy . so that it is essentially twodimensional.8—Rigid Body Motion 288 Around this line of rotation. The proof involves nothing more than writing the values of the components from Eq.4 Izz = dm (x2 + y 2 ) = 0 R 2πr dr M 2 M R2 r = πR2 2 Use the perpendicular axis theorem. Make that the x-y plane. Example A thin disk of mass M and radius R has its center at the origin and has z = 0. 8. 2 2 you get a similar result. dm (y 2 + z 2 ) = dm (x2 + z 2 ) = dm y 2 dm x2 (8. and if you start with ω = ω x (out of the page). (8. Along these directions the vectors ω and L are aligned. (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ). It applies when a mass is distributed in a plane.

so its time derivative is perpendicular to itself. 8. dL/dt = ω × L = τ The magnitude of this torque is ωL sin β . Then L = M R ˆ a direction closer to z than does ω . and that means that you need to apply a time-varying torque to do this: τ = dL/dt. If I keep turning the disk about this ω direction. The vector L is spinning about a ﬁxed line deﬁned by ω . The products of inertia are all zero because they all involve integrating an a odd function over a symmetric domain: −a x dx = 0. and you can get the magnitude L from the vector L in the preceding paragraph.8—Rigid Body Motion 289 M R2 /4. It points in ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ tions: ω = ω (z cos α + y sin α). the angular momentum will rotate around it. sin β = cos α sin α/ 3 cos2 α + 1 (8. that will just get in the way now.22). The length of L is constant. and that’s all I need. It is also perpendicular to ω .27) z α L β ω L y ω x Fig. ωL sin β = 1 ωM R2 ω 4 cos2 α + sin2 α 4 1 = M 2 ω 2 cos α sin α 4 1/2 cos α sin α 3 cos2 α + 1 .26) ˆ ˆ Suppose that at some instant the angular velocity is between the z and y direc2 ω (2z cos α + y sin α)/4. L will trace out a cone around ω . The angle between the two vectors is (problem 8.5 How much torque does it take to keep this disk rotating about the line ω ? Forget the coordinate system. M R2 1 0 0 (I ) = 0 1 0 4 0 0 2 (8. All the components of the inertia tensor are now time dependent. but don’t worry about it because I’ve already found the relation between L and ω .

Perhaps not. r ) = − dm (ω × r ) (ω . calling for a wheel balancing.16 you will compute the moment of inertia of a uniform ball about an axis through its center.8—Rigid Body Motion 290 There was so much cancellation of the complicated factors in this calculation that you should suspect that there’s an easier way. There is. so why not evaluate the magnitude of the product at the initial time? ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ω × L = ω (z cos α + y sin α) × M R2 ω (2z cos α + y sin α)/4 = M R2 ω 2 x cos α sin α 1 4 Can you do this calculation of the torque without referring to a speciﬁc coordinate system. This calculation has a very practical application. It is a multiple of the unit matrix. What is the tensor of inertia of a ball about a point on its surface? In the problem 8. and it will certainly need adjustment when you then feel strong vibrations in the car’s steering wheel as you drive it. Once you know this. The magnitudes and angles are constant. You may prefer to ask about a wheel alignment. you immediately know all the components of its inertia tensor because of the ball’s symmetry: this same moment of inertia appears all along the diagonal and all the oﬀ-diagonal elements are zero. You then take the car in to the shop and ask a mechanic to adjust the wheels so that their angular velocity vectors and angular momentum vectors are parallel. Ignoring the last equation. r ) If you can ﬁnd a use for this equation. A related problem will occur if the axis of rotation does not pass through the center of mass of the wheel. you’re welcome to it. It is then out of balance and will also cause vibrations. What are the components when the origin is a point on the surface of the ball? Choose the coordinate system so that the z -axis passes through . The result is 2M R2 /5. When you have driven your car for a long time it may need adjustment. just manipulating the original form for I (ω )? Yes. hoping thereby to eliminate the torque ω × L. but I think you will agree that it’s not much help: ω × L = ω × I (ω ) = ω × =ω× dm r × (ω × r ) dm r2 ω − r (ω . If you hit a curb with the wheel of your car you can knock the wheel out of alignment.

again adding all the pieces of kinetic energy in the body. ω × rcm 2 2 dm r (8. 1 2 = mv0 + ω I ω + mv0 . Let v0 be the velocity of the origin and ω describes the rotation about that origin. B × C = A × B . then the velocity of a mass dm is v0 + ω × r : K= 1 1 2 dm v 2 = dm v0 + ω × r 2 2 1 1 2 2 = dm v0 + dm ω × r + v0 . The calculation is similar.28) dm ω .8—Rigid Body Motion the center and you have 291 I (ω ) = Icm (ω ) + M rcm × ω × rcm 1 0 −→ (I ) = 5 0 1 2M R2 = 0 5 0 2M R2 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 y + z2 −xy −xz 0 x2 + z 2 −yz 0 + M −xy 2 + y2 −xz −yz x 1 at 0 1 0 0 M R2 7 0 0 + M R2 0 1 0 = 0 7 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 center 0 0 2 Kinetic Energy When a rigid body is rotating. I (ω ) = ω .(ω × r ) 1 2 (8. In the same spirit. ω × 2 2 1 . K= 1 2 1 = 2 v 2 dm = 1 2 dm (ω × r )2 = 1 2 1 2 dm (ω × r ) . 1 If L and ω are aligned. so that L = Iω . what is the angular momentum for an object that is both moving and rotating? L= dm r × v = dm r × v0 + ω × r = dm r × v0 + dm r × ω × r (8. what is its kinetic energy? It’s a straight-forward calculation. L The sole vector identity that you need for this is that you can interchange the dot and the cross product in the triple scalar product: A .30) = rcm × mv0 + I ω . r × (ω × r ) = ω . C . then this kinetic energy is 2 Iω 2 .29) If the origin for computing the inertia tensor is the center of mass. then the ﬁnal term is zero. What if a body is both rotating and moving? For example rolling motion.

Can you do this? Yes. The matrix is symmetric. (8. If there is a direction such that ω and L are parallel. there are other reasons to be interested in lining up the angular velocity and the angular momentum. the torque is independent of the origin. Then L = I (ω ) and I (e1 ) = (a multiple of)e1 = I11 e1 . but the matrix of inertia components would have been diagonal. It makes calculations easier. . then the coordinate of dm is rnew = r + R so τnew = rnew × dF = r + R × dF = τold + R × dF If the total force is zero. so that the position of the old origin is R with respect to the new origin. Eq. the deﬁnition is I (ei ) = j Iji ej . then you have a complete basis and the matrix is diagonal. choose e1 along that direction. If you can ﬁnd other directions along which ω is parallel to L. The ﬁrst column of the matrix has exactly one non-zero entry in the upper left corner of the matrix. 2 2 Izz = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) ˆ z ˆ y All other components zero The equation L = I (ω ) translates into components Lx 1 0 2 2 Ly = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) 0 0 Lz 0 0 2 2 ˆ =⇒ L = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 )z ω cos α as 0 0 0 ω sin α 1 ω cos α This agrees exactly with Eq. If there are three such directions.23). being a sum of two terms. When you compute the components of I . If you choose a diﬀerent origin. When calculating the components of the inertia tensor for the example of two point masses. what about torque? The torque on a piece of mass dm is r × dF . so the upper row has only a single entry as well. the matrix would have been diagonal if you had chosen the coordinate ˆ system diﬀerently. you can use those directions for basis vectors too.4 Principal Axes Aside from spinning with zero torque. (8. If y is along the line connecting the masses then ω would have had two non-zero components.8—Rigid Body Motion 292 Having looked at kinetic energy and angular momentum from diﬀerent origins. 8. Look and see.24). ω The integral for the inertia components is the same as before. but this time the sum is easier. L α 2 2 Ixx = m1 r1 + m2 r2 .

It doesn’t sound promising. 3. Ixx Ixy Ixz 1 0 0 ωx 0 Iyx Iyy Iyz − λ 0 1 0 ωy = 0 Izx Izy Izz 0 0 1 ωz 0 Further rewrite it as ωx 0 Ixx − λ Ixy Ixz Iyx Iyy − λ Iyz ωy = 0 Izx Izy Izz − λ ωz 0 (8.31) If this is satisﬁed.10. ω = 0. 2. At least not for arbitrary λ. That is not a very interesting solution though. is it orthogonal? inertia tensor ↓ yes yes yes all tensors ↓ yes no no Translate the problem into components. 1.31) becomes Iyx ωx ωx Ixx Ixy Ixz Iyy Iyz ωy = λ ωy ωz ωz Izx Izy Izz Assuming that you’ve already done the integrals to know the components of I . There is at least one solution. Now would be a good idea to review section 0.8—Rigid Body Motion 293 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues The statement that ω is parallel to L means that one vector is a multiple of the other: L = λω . Are there any non-zero solutions? No. Rewrite this set of equations by moving everything to one side.19) the last equation (8.” Several questions arise. This is the equation I (ω ) = λω (8. so all three components of this vector are zero and λ is arbitrary.32) . But. 4. then ω is an “eigenvector” of I . and you can’t start to construct a basis out of it.56). (8. especially the material on simultaneous equations. there are always certain values of λ for which there is a non-zero solution for ω . In the notation of Eq. Also re-read the material leading to equation (3. and λ is an “eigenvalue. there are four unknowns in these three equations: λ and the three components of ω . How do you ﬁnd them? Do they always exist? Can you always make a basis out of them? If you can make a basis.

(0.32) is 2ma2 − λ −ma2 0 ωx 0 2−λ −ma2 ωy = 0 2ma 0 0 0 4ma2 − λ ωz 0 Before setting the determinant of this matrix to zero. 3. so the deﬁning equation (8. Under almost all circumstances that requires ω to be zero. dm y 2 = 2ma2 . The mass is conﬁned to a plane. are at the four corners of a square: y (0. make a change of variables: λ = ma2 λ . and the cubic equation will be easy to solve.8—Rigid Body Motion 294 This matrix acting on the components of ω gives the zero vector. 0). 2−λ −1 0 det ma2 −1 2−λ 0 = 0 = (ma2 )3 (4 − λ ) (2 − λ )2 − 1 0 0 4−λ with roots λ = 4. That is an algebraic equation for λ. expressed in components as (8. This saves a lot of writing. the tensor of inertia. compute the eigenvector. (a. there is a corresponding ω (an eigenvector). but there can be an exception. −2ωx − ωy = 0 −2 −1 0 ωx 0 −1 −2 0 ωy = 0 −→ −ωx − 2ωy = 0 λ = 4 −→ 0 0 0 ωz 0 0=0 . (a. That is that the matrix be singular — it’s determinant is zero. If you want a non-zero solution (and you do). a). 0). all the same. one that doesn’t entail as much algebra as the general case. Now to compute the nine a components of the inertia tensor. For each solution λ (an eigenvalue). then the determinant of the coeﬃcients of the three linear equations must be zero. Four masses. For each of these eigenvalues. and − dm xy = −ma2 z out a x Any term involving z gives zero. all at z = 0. In the case at hand. dm x2 = 2ma2 . a cubic equation. 1. there are really just three integrals. and it will always have a solution. a).22) produces the components 2ma2 −ma2 0 (I ) = −ma2 2ma2 0 0 0 4ma2 The eigenvector equation I (ω ) − λω = 0. but ﬁrst I’ll carry through the solution in a special case. and that will deﬁne the x-y coordinates. it will always have three real solutions. There are a few general results to prove about this process.

This is a suﬃciently non-symmetric case with moment 2ma that it is not immediately obvious that the angular momentum is in the same direction as ω . Again. What if I pick . perpendicular to the preceding one. 1 −1 λ = 1 −→ −1 1 0 0 ωx − ωy = 0 0 ωx 0 ωy = 0 −→ −ωx + ωy = 0 0 3 ωz 0 3ωz = 0 ˆ ˆ This time the eigenvector is any multiple of x + y . so ωz is arbitrary and the eigenvector is ωz z . y ω ω x y y x λ =3 ω out λ = 4 x Fig. but it’s true. the eigenvector is along z . and again three masses are in motion. and the rotational √ 2 √ 2 inertia about this axis is 2m a/ 2 + m a 2 = 3ma2 as promised. Only two masses are moving and √ they are symmetrically placed with respect to the rotation axis at a distance r⊥ = a/ 2. That’s precisely the eigenvalue λ for this case.6 λ =1 ˆ ˆ ˆ The basis x. the rotation is about the line from the origin to the far corner of the square. the eigenvalue λ = 4ma2 is this moment of inertia about the z -axis. z . This direction still has enough symmetry that it’s easy to believe that L is in the same direction as ω . and ωx = −ωy . ˆ ˆ For the λ = 3 case. The eigenvector is then ω = x − y or any multiple of it. For the λ = 1 case. the last equation oﬀers no ˆ ˆ constraint. ˆ For λ = 4.8—Rigid Body Motion 295 The ﬁrst pair have the unique solution ωx = ωy = 0. I picked them for their obvious convenience in computing the answer. −1 −1 λ = 3 −→ −1 −1 0 0 −ωx − ωy = 0 0 ωx 0 ωy = 0 −→ −ωx − ωy = 0 0 1 ωz 0 ωz = 0 ˆ ˆ This has zero z -component for ω . any multiple of z . The angular momentum is obviously in the same direction. Now three masses are moving. the rotation axis is still in the x-y plane. and the moment of inertia about √ 2 this axis is 2m a/ 2 = ma2 . but along y − x. Picture these motions. √ 2 + m a 2 2 = 4ma2 . y . That is. in which I computed the components of I were arbitrary. 8.

5 Properties of Eigenvectors There are some general results to be proved about these eigenvectors and eigenvalues. First an identity about the inertia tensor. √ √ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e1 = x + y / 2.34) = * * * dm r2 ω1 . (8. it is not typical. r ) * * ω1 . e2 .33). r ) (8. e 2 = y − x / 2.8—Rigid Body Motion 296 another basis. I (e2 ) = j Ij 2 ej = I12 e1 + I22 e2 + I32 e3 = λ2 e2 Ij 3 ej = I13 e1 + I23 e2 + I33 e3 = λ3 e3 j I (e3 ) = The matrix for I is now λ1 0 (I ) = 0 0 λ2 0 ma2 0 0 = 0 0 λ3 0 3ma2 0 0 0 4ma2 and you see that in this basis the matrix is diagonal.33) Does it matter that these are unit vectors? No. dm r2 ω2 − r(ω2 . y . one consisting of these three orthogonal eigenvectors? I’ll call them e1 . as long as they are independent that √ is good enough. You could drop the 2 and compute the matrix for I . That can provide signiﬁcant advantages in manipulation for further calculations. ω2 . e3 = z (8. Is it always easy to ﬁnd the eigenvectors? No. ω2 − ω1 . I (ω2 ) = ω1 . 8. and the methods of proof used here will show up in several other important contexts. but for other manipulations you should be consistent. r ) = I (ω1 ) . Alas. and e3 as a common notation used for basis vectors. I (ω ) = dm r × (ω × r ) = dm r2 ω − r(ω . r(ω2 . this example is very easy and you didn’t really have to confront a cubic equation to solve for the eigenvalues. 3 instead of x. 2. so they are worth learning. In keeping with the change I will use subscripts 1. The other columns are found the same way. z on the components I (e1 ) = j Ij 1 ej = I11 e1 + I21 e2 + I31 e3 = λ1 e1 This determines the ﬁrst column of the matrix for I in this basis. Notice that you would get the √ same matrix even if you do not put in the 2 factors in Eq.

so necessarily the two eigenvalues are the same also * 0 = λ1 − λ* ω 1 . just allow the components to be complex numbers. It parallels the results in the equations (7. and there they will lead to results much like the ones here. (8. You won’t represent it by a single arrow any more. I (ω2 ) = I (ω1 ) . the eigenvalues (roots of a cubic) were real and the eigenvectors are orthogonal. (8.35) plays a key role in much of this analysis. but that’s not a requirement.8—Rigid Body Motion 297 What is a complex conjugation doing here when all these vectors are supposed to be real? And what does it mean anyway? Here I am allowing for the possibility that these may be complex in order to prove that they aren’t. ω 1 1 . ω2 2 Subtract this from the ﬁrst of the preceding equations. * * * ω2 . I (ω2 ) = λ2 ω1 . ω2 Take the complex conjugate of the second equation: * * ω1 . I (ω2 ) = (λ1 − λ* )ω1 . ω 1 (8.36) 2 Now take the special case that ω1 = ω2 .44). * * ω1 . I (ω1 ) − ω1 .42) to (7. A tensor satisfying this equation is called “Hermitian” or “symmetric” depending on whether a physicist or a mathematician respectively is talking. Is that a general property? For tensors that satisfy the identity derived in Eq. I (ω1 ) = λ1 ω2 . ω1 and * * ω1 . ω2 (8. and the right side is * 0 = λ1 − λ* ω 2 . Very similar identities appear in very diﬀerentlooking contexts such as diﬀerential equations. This symmetry property of the inertia tensor. * * ω2 . How can a vector be complex? In the usual basis.35) says that the left side of this equation is zero.35) it is. I (ω2 ) = λ* ω1 . In the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the example of the preceding section. ω2 2 The identity Eq. These two vectors are the same vector. To prove this the manipulations are simple but not obvious. Assume that you have two eigenvectors: I (ω1 ) = λ1 ω1 and I (ω2 ) = λ2 ω2 * * Take the scalar product of the ﬁrst with ω2 and the second with ω1 .

6 Dynamics The basic equation for rotating objects is τ = dL/dt. Now Eq. With real λ and real components of the inertia tensor. the corresponding ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ eigenvectors are orthogonal. and this implies that the ﬁrst factor must be.dot convention ˙ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ τ = I ω + xωx +y ωy + z ωz × Ixx xωx + Iyy y ωy + Izz z ωz ˙ τx = Ixx ωx + ωy ωz (Izz − Iyy ) ˙ τy = Iyy ωy + ωz ωx (Ixx − Izz ) ˙ τz = Izz ωz + ωx ωy (Iyy − Ixx ) (8.8—Rigid Body Motion 298 The second factor is not zero. ω )2 = ω 2 2 dm r⊥ where r⊥ is the perpendicular distance from dm to the axis deﬁned by ω . That in turn says that λ is real. In all other cases it is positive. These eigenvalues are the moments of inertia about the axis deﬁned by the eigenvector. all the components of ω are real too. (8. ω 1 (8. 8. i.e.38) . you can pick the coordinates so that the components of I are a diagonal matrix — the basis using eigenvectors of I . λ1 = λ2 . Of course? For an eigenvector. Now L is nothing more than a tensor expression involving ω . and that’s not a fruitful approach. This integral will be zero only in the special case that all the mass is on the axis — when the body is a line. I (ω ) = dm r2 ω 2 − (r . τ= d I (ω ) = I dt dω dt + dI (ω ) dt Written this way all the components of the inertia tensor are time-dependent. From the equation (5. The trick is to transform to the rotating coordinate system in which the body is at rest. as exempliﬁed in the preceding example: z ⊥ (y − x) ⊥ (x + ˆ y ). In this rotating system.37) and this implies that for two diﬀerent eigenvalues. Then I is a constant.36) is 0 = λ1 − λ2 ω 2 . and they are of course non-negative. λω 2 = ω . τ= dL ˙ ˙ = L + ω × L = I ω + ω × I (ω ) dt and this again uses the chapter ﬁve convention that the dot now refers to the time derivative in the rotating system.5).

As you look straight ahead you can see it ﬁxed in front of you on the near ˙ side of ω . so why does it cause the wheel to shake? This is the rotating system remember.) And where is L? ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L = I (ω ) = I (ω z cos α − ω x sin α) = ω Izz z cos α − Ixx x sin α This points in a direction closer to the z -axis than the ω vector does. and the size of this torque varies as the square of ω .38) are now τx = ωy ωz (Izz − Iyy ). How can you picture this? Imagine yourself standing on this disk (tire?) and hanging on to the z -axis as hard as you can. But if you look in the distance you may get dizzy from watching the world spinning around. τy y . Eqs. (5. If you look down and to your right you will see the torque vector at your feet. If you look straight ahead you see the angular velocity vector standing still in front ˙ of you (ω = 0). τy = ωz ωx (Ixx − Izz ). Call the z -axis the symmetry axis of the tire. L = 0.39) and this means that it is constant in the rotating system too. its axis of rotation doesn’t line up with its axis of symmetry. Remember. Your feet are straddling the x-axis. then Ixx = Iyy . τz = 0 If the misalignment between ω and the axis of the tire is the angle α then pick the x-y ˆ ˆ coordinates (rotating) so that ω = ω z cos α − ω x sin α. In the inertial system (the driver) this torque ˆ vector.12): x-axis z -axis α ω τ dω ˙ ˙ =ω+ω×ω =ω =0 dt (8. As you drive at constant velocity what torque does this cause on your tire? In the inertial system ω is a constant because it is deﬁned by the axle of the car. What happens to ω in the rotating system? Again. (Notice that Izz > Ixx . .) If your automobile tire is misaligned. which is stationary between your legs.8—Rigid Body Motion 299 These are the Euler equations. τy = ω 2 cos α sin α(Izz − Ixx ). pointing along the y -axis. (As if he didn’t have enough things named for him.5) and (5. is spinning about the axle at a rate ω . The equations (8. τx = 0. τz = 0 This is a constant torque about the y -axis.

You know how to solve those: eαt . 2 2 Ixx α2 + ωz (Izz − Ixx )2 = 0 −→ α = ±i ωz Izz − Ixx = ±i ω Ixx (8. For that reason pick Ixx = Iyy . ωy (0) = 0 ωx (t) = ω0 cos ω t. The equatorial bulge makes Izz > Ixx = Iyy . That in turn makes the ﬁrst two equations linear equations for ωx and ωy . then An example: Earth.41) Put these back into one of the equations for A and B to get 0 = Ixx A ±i ωz A solution is now Izz − Ixx Ixx + ωz (Izz − Ixx )B −→ ±iA + B = 0 ωx = Aeiω t + A e−iω t . It’s freely spinning in space and it is slightly ellipsoidal so that the moments of inertia aren’t the same about all axes. Chose some initial conditions: ωy = −iAeiω t + iA e−iω t ωy (t) = ω0 sin ω t (8. (8. and the object is free to rotate in space. ωx (t) = Aeαt . ˙ 0 = Ixx ωx + ωy ωz (Izz − Ixx ) ˙ 0 = Ixx ωy + ωz ωx (Ixx − Izz ) ˙ 0 = Izz ωz + 0 (8. If the angular velocity of the planet exactly lined up with its axis of symmetry. . The equations (8. but except for the case of a symmetric rigid body the solution is non-linear and tough. It would be too much of a ωx (0) = ω0 .42) would be zero.38) (with τ = 0) are diﬀerential equations for ω . They can be solved. the constant ω0 in Eq.8—Rigid Body Motion 300 Free Rotation What if there is no torque.42) The rotation axis precesses about the z -axis at an angular velocity ω . ωy (t) = Beαt 0 = Ixx αA + ωz (Izz − Ixx )B 0 = Ixx αB − ωz (Izz − Ixx )A A non-zero solution for A and B requires that the determinant vanish.40) The last line says that ωz is a constant.

8—Rigid Body Motion

301

coincidence for the alignment to be perfect and it isn’t. It misses by an amount such that if you go to the North pole and look for the angular velocity vector you will ﬁnd it several meters away. Then it wanders around the pole at a rate ω ≈ 2π/400 days. Its motion is not as regular as this rigid body analysis would lead you to believe, but the Earth isn’t perfectly rigid either. That the Earth isn’t rigid should lead to damping of this oscillation within years or centuries, but it’s still here. It has been a puzzle what keeps this “Chandler Wobble” going, but recent analysis points to ﬂuctuating pressure on the bottom of the ocean as the largest source of the excitation. This precession can give geologists information about the interior of the planet. Equation (8.41) tells you about Izz − Ixx and that gives some constraints on the distribution of mass within the Earth. And not just Earth; Mars too. One of the measuring devices sent to Mars looked at that planet’s wobble, and that says something about the interior structure of Mars. Why hasn’t the wobble been completely damped in the case of Mars? After all, it has no oceans to excite the oscillation. Unknown. You will have to do a search of the current literature on the subject to get some ideas of the complexity of the problem.

Stability of Rotations What happens when you toss a hammer or a tennis racket up and set it spinning? The answer depends very much on how you do it, and the motion can be very smooth or very wild. If you don’t have either a hammer or a racket handy, perhaps you have a heavy rubber band. Then you can wrap it around a book so that the pages don’t open up when you toss it up and spinning. Depending on the axis about which it’s spinning you will get very diﬀerent results. To analyze this, start again from Euler’s equations (8.38). This time assume that the three moments of inertia are diﬀerent from each other, but assume that the angular velocity vector is almost along one of the principle axes. This will be a perturbation expansion and a linearization. Assume that the rotation is almost along the z -axis. The torque is zero because you have tossed the object up and it is then free to rotate as it will. ˆ ω (t) = ω0 z + (t), with ω0

Start from the equations (8.38) with τ = 0, and as usual with these expansions, keep only the ﬁrst order terms in . 0 = Ixx ˙x + y ω0 (Izz − Iyy ) 0 = Iyy ˙y + x ω0 (Ixx − Izz ) 0 = Izz ˙z Every place that an 2 appeared I dropped it, and the resulting equations are linear. In the third equation, both ωx and ωy are ﬁrst order in so that killed its ﬁnal term.

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302

The third equation says that z is a constant, and I may as well take it to be zero because a non-zero value would just be a redeﬁnition of the original rotation rate ω0 about the z -axis. The other two equations are linear diﬀerential equations for x and y . You know how to handle those: an exponential.

x

= Aeαt ,

y

= Beαt

then

0 0

=

Ixx α ω0 (Izz − Iyy ) ω0 (Ixx − Izz ) Iyy α

A B

**To get a non-zero solution the determinant must vanish.
**

2 Ixx Iyy α2 − ω0 (Ixx − Izz )(Izz − Iyy ) = 0

(8.43)

The nature of these solutions depends on the sign of α2 . If it’s negative then α is ˆ imaginary and you have oscillations about the z direction; if α2 is positive then α ˆ is real and you have exponential movement away from there the z -axis: an unstable rotation. α2 ∝ (Ixx − Izz )(Izz − Iyy ) If z has the largest moment, Izz > Ixx and Izz > Iyy , then

α2 < 0

and this says that α is imaginary and that the motion is stable. If Izz is the smallest of the three moments you have the same result: α is imaginary and the motion is stable. It is only in the third case, when Izz is intermediate between the other two moments of inertia, that α comes out to be real. That motion is unstable. Take a book and wrap a heavy rubber band about it. Now toss it in the air, spinning about one of the three axes of symmetry. Do it for each axis, and the diﬀerence in the results will be very obvious. There is more to learn about the stability of these rotations. What is the kinetic energy of rotation about each axis? Use Eq. (8.28) about each axis: K = 1 ω . L. 2

2 ˆ ω = ω0 x −→ K = Ixx ω0 ,

1 2

ˆ ω0 y −→

1 2 Iyy ω0 , 2

ˆ ω0 z −→

1 2 Izz ω0 2

The angular momentum in each case is easy because these are eigenvectors of the inertia tensor and are respectively

Lx = Ixx ω0 ,

Ly = Iyy ω0 ,

Lz = Izz ω0

**Write the energy in terms of these angular momenta.
**

ˆ ω = ω0 x −→ K =

L2 , 2Ixx

ˆ ω0 y −→

L2 , 2Iyy

ˆ ω0 z −→

L2 2Izz

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303

This assumes the same angular momentum for every case, and these equations say that for a given angular momentum the rotation about the axis with the largest moment of inertia has the smallest kinetic energy. Whether this object is a rigid body or not, if there are no torques on it the angular momentum is conserved. If you have a truly rigid body, then both angular momentum and mechanical energy are conserved, but completely rigid bodies are a mathematical ﬁction. Any real object will ﬂex slightly, and this has an important consequence. If a satellite is set to rotating about one of its principle axes and if that is one of the two stable axes then you might expect the rotation to remain about that axis forever. But. . . A tiny ﬂexibility will cause a tiny friction — a way to dissipate energy. The only truly stable rotation in this case will be about the axis with the largest moment of inertia and so the smallest kinetic energy for the given angular momentum.

ω

Early in the space program the satellite Explorer-1 was placed in orbit around Earth and set spinning about the axis having the smallest moment, supposedly a stable rotation. The satellite however, had whip antennas and they had more than enough ﬂexibility to destabilize this rotation and to set it to tumbling about its really stable axis — end over end — much to the embarrassment of the engineers and physicists involved. If you have seen the motion pictures 2001 and its sequel 2010, a space ship was left in orbit around Jupiter’s moon Io at the end of the ﬁrst picture, and when they returned in the sequel it was tumbling end-over-end. They made no comment in the movie, but they got the physics right.

Exercises 1 Three equal point masses m are at the corners of the right triangle (x, y ) = (0, 0), (a, 0), (0, b). Where is the center of mass? 2 Remove the masses from the preceding triangle and replace the sides with thin rods of constant linear mass density λ. Where is the center of mass? 3 Remove the rods from the preceding triangle and replace the area with a uniform sheet of constant area mass density σ . Where is the center of mass? 4 A vector-valued function F acts on vectors in the plane, reversing the direction of each. Compute the components of this function, a 2 × 2 matrix.

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5 With respect to the origin, what are the components of the tensor of inertia for a point mass m at the point (x, y, z ) = (a, 0, 0)? 6 With respect to the origin, what are the components of the tensor of inertia for a point mass m at the point (x, y, z ) = (a, a, 0)? and what if its coordinates are (a, a, a)? 7 Use the summation convention and notation of Eq. (0.45) to write the equations (8.17), (8.20), (8.21). 8 For the springs that appear just before Eq. (8.13), call them k1 left and right and k2 top and bottom. What are the components of the f in d = f (F )? ˆ 9 What are the dimensions of I (x)?

√ 10 Starting at Eq. (8.33), drop the denominators 2 from the basis vectors, so that ˆ ˆ e1 = x + y etc. Now compute the components of the same inertia tensor as done there.

11 Compute the moment of inertia of a thin spherical shell, mass m and radius R, about an axis through its center. Note: you must do this in your head! No complicated integrals allowed. 12 If a rigid body is both spinning and moving with no external forces, you expect its kinetic energy to stay constant. In Eq. (8.29) however the ﬁrst two terms are constant, but the center of mass is moving, so the last term is always changing. What’s wrong?

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Problems 8.1 Explicitly write out the derivation leading to Eqs. (8.2) and (8.3) for the case of two masses. 8.2 Compute the volume of a solid hemisphere of radius R. (a) cylindrical coordinates. (b) spherical coordinates. (c) Find the center of mass of a solid hemisphere with uniform mass density. 8.3 Write out the proof in Eq. (8.4) for the special case of 4 = 2 + 2 masses to verify the calculation. 8.4 Find the center of mass of the parabolic-shaped plane object in problem 2.43. 8.5 Does f (v ) = v + c deﬁne a tensor f , where c is a constant vector? What about f (v ) = c . v ? ˆ What about f (v ) = z × v ? What about f (v ) = c v ? ˆˆ What about f (v ) = x x . v ? ˆˆ What about f (v ) = y x . v ? What about f (v ) = v 2 v ? In each case, draw pictures that explain what the function does. 8.6 The force on a charge moving in a magnetic ﬁeld depends on its velocity as F = q v ×B . Show that this function of velocity, f (v ) = v ×B , deﬁnes a tensor and compute its components in terms of the components of B . Write the result as a matrix. 8.7 In two dimensions rotating vectors by a ﬁxed angle α deﬁnes a tensor. Use the ˆ ˆ usual x-y basis to compute the components of this tensor: u = f (v ). Ans: in part, f21 = + sin α. 8.8 If an object is pivoted about some point and the only other forces on it are from a uniform gravitational ﬁeld, show that the torque about the pivot is the same as if all the mass were concentrated at the center of mass. If the gravitational ﬁeld is not uniform, show by a counterexample that this is false. 8.9 A meter stick is pivoted about its end, and you start it at rest horizontally. Find the initial angular acceleration and ﬁnd the initial linear acceleration of the end of the stick. ˆ 8.10˙ From the identity derived in Eq. (8.34), examine the special case that ω1 = x ˆ and ω2 = y . Generalize and determine what it says about all the components of the tensor of inertia.

**8—Rigid Body Motion
**

8.11 Derive all the components in the equation (8.23).

306

8.12˙ For a uniform rigid rod rotating about an axis perpendicular to the rod, compute the rotational kinetic energy. The rotation axis can intersect the rod anywhere. For ﬁxed ω , ﬁnd the position of this axis for which this kinetic energy is a minimum. 8.13˙ Generalize the preceding problem to an arbitrary body rotating about an arbitrary axis. Among the set of all axes parallel to the given one, derive the axis that presents the smallest kinetic energy for a ﬁxed ω . 8.14 Derive the component Ixx =

dm y 2 in Eq. (8.26) by direct integration.

8.15 For the functions in problem 8.5 that do deﬁne tensors, which ones are symmetric ∗ ∗ as deﬁned in Eq. (8.34)? I.e. v1 . f (v2 ) = f (v1 ) . v2 . 8.16 Compute the moment of inertia of a ball of uniform volume mass density about an axis through its center. Mass = M and radius = R. Do this two ways. 2 (a) Straight-forward integration of dm r⊥ = dm (x2 + y 2 ) in your choice of coordinates, probably cylindrical but maybe rectangular or spherical. (b) Compute dm r2 , where this r is the spherical coordinate. Then use this result to get the moment of inertia of part (a). 8.17˙ A uniform sphere is rolling downhill without slipping. (a) Compute its kinetic energy by using the result of Eq. (8.29). (b) Compute its kinetic energy by noting that the point of contact is not moving, so that it is at any instant moving with pure rotation about that point. Find the moment of inertia about this new axis of rotation in order to get the kinetic energy this way. 8.18 At what point in the development from Eq. (8.13) to (8.19) did I use the fact ˆ that x, etc. are orthonormal? 8.19 Two equal masses are placed at coordinates (a, 0, a) and (0, a, a). Find the ˆ ˆ ˆ components of the tensor of inertia about the origin in terms of the basis x, y , z in this coordinate system.

8—Rigid Body Motion

307

8.20 Find the components of the inertia tensor for a triangular plate as a shown in the sketch. The plate is in the x-y plane. Find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the tensor.

y x a

8.21˙ Evaluate the components of the tensor of inertia of a uniform cube z of mass m and side . The origin is at one corner. What is L if ω is through the origin and along the main diagonal of the cube? What is the moment of inertia of the cube about the main diagonal? 8.22 Derive the angle between L and ω for the spinning disk, Eq. (8.27). The picture there implies that L is closer to the z -axis than ω . Show that this equation agrees with that statement. 8.23˙ A solid, uniform, rectangular block of mass m has sides a, b, c. Find its moment of inertia about the longest axis from one corner to the opposite. 8.24¨A disk is tossed into the air, spinning about its axis as it ﬂies. Not exactly on axis though because you see that it wobbles. Find the rate of wobbling and compare it to the rate of rotation of the disk itself. First, what is the relationship between ωz and ω ? Which rotates faster, the plate or the wobble? That is, interpret the equations and describe exactly what you will see when you watch such a thin plate tossed into the air and wobbling about its axis. Perhaps even try it. 8.25 Generalize the parallel axis theorem to ﬁnd a relationship between two inertia tensors, neither of which is about the center of mass. This theorem is not so useful. 8.26˙ This ﬁgure is a plane sheet of metal of mass M and dimensions as shown. A coordinate system is set up in the lower left corner. (a) Compute the components of the tensor of inertia in this coordinate system. Find the eigenvectors of this tensor. (b) By how much would the coordinate system as given have to be rotated in order that the matrix of components be in diagonal form? Ans: Izz = 2 M b3 + ba2 − a3 /(2b − a) 3

a b a b

8.27 Find the components of the inertia tensor for a thin rod of mass m and length . One end is at the origin and the other is at the point ( , θ, φ) of the spherical coordinate system. 8.28 A thin, uniform rectangular plate has mass m, sides 2a and 2b. Take the origin at the center of the plate. (a) Find the components of the inertia tensor of the plate.

(c) Having found one eigenvector and eigenvalue. z in this coordinate system. 8.33 In the picture at Eq. y . This answer assumes the Earth is a uniform ball. (a. In fact.30˙ A cylinder has mass M . At worst. Now factor it and then get the others. The origin is at one corner of the cube and the x. put some words in anyway. you can try to ﬁnd a more clever way. and z axes run along edges of the cube. 8. what would it do to sea level? Ans: 5 T m/M ≈ 0.34 The ice in Antarctica is up to a few kilometers thick in spots.6 km. so what direction does that fact change the answer? Don’t plug in any numbers . 8. Also.29˙ Three equal masses m are placed at coordinates (0. (a) Compute the components of the tensor of inertia in this coordinate system. and (a. what is the angular momentum? Draw a picture of the vectors ω and L in this system. while you are holding on to the z -axis where will you look to see the angular momentum vector? 8. (b) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this tensor. The coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between the wall and the cylinder is the same as that between the ﬂoor and the cylinder (µ) Find the angular deceleration of the cylinder. a). If it’s hard to do the drawing. y . Any special cases to check the validity of your solution? 8. 0). The plate is in the x-y plane. a. You may either derive it by computing it or you may guess an answer and demonstrate that it is correct. ﬁnd the other two.32 Eight point masses m are placed at the eight corners of a cube of side a. (b) What is the moment of inertia about the long diagonal of the cube? 8. If it melts and spreads out over the surface of the Earth. Or. averaging about 1. (8. you have started with a cubic equation and know one root. (a) Find the components of the inertia tensor about the origin. estimate its eﬀect on the number of seconds in a day and the cumulative eﬀect for a year. (b) If the system is rotating as a rigid body about the z -axis through the origin.31¨A plane homogeneous plate of surface mass density σ is bounded by the logarithmic spiral r = keαφ and the radii φ = 0 and φ = π .39) and assuming that disk is thin. It 3 isn’t. radius R. then add some words to say what the directions are. (c) Find any one eigenvector of I . a). (a) Find the components of the tensor of inertia about the origin in terms of the basis ˆ ˆ ˆ x.7 s/day or so. 0. a. and its corresponding eigenvalue. It is set spinning clockwise about its axis with an angular speed ω0 and placed on the ﬂoor next to a wall as shown.8—Rigid Body Motion 308 (b) If the rectangular plate is rotating about a diagonal with an angular speed ω ﬁnd the angular momentum and the kinetic energy of the system. and moment of inertia I .

the remnant of an explosive stellar collapse. what is its angular velocity vector? Note: The line of contact with the table is instantaneously at rest. What would the speed of a point on its equator be? What would the collapsed star’s density be? And of course not just a number. (b) What is its kinetic energy? . 8. What is its kinetic energy if it is rotating about its axis of symmetry with angular speed ω ? 8. so that deﬁnes the axis of rotation. Mass: M . (a) It takes a time T to roll all the way around. R. its vertex stays ﬁxed. Find something to compare it to.37˙ The cone in the preceding problem is lying on a table and free to roll. 8. The origin is the vertex.35 The Sun rotates once in a little less that one Earth month. If the Sun collapses to a radius of 10 km. what would its rotation period be? This is about the size of a neutron star.8—Rigid Body Motion 309 until you’ve simpliﬁed all the algebra and so that you aren’t subtracting two large numbers to get a small number. radius of base. height: h.36 Compute the components of the inertia tensor for a solid cone of uniform mass density.

(5. you can’t tell how fast you’re moving.Special Relativity The history of special relativity is fascinating: ﬁlled with partial answers. Newton’s equations remain the same when switching to a moving observer. y = y. so long as the motion is uniform and not ﬂuctuating this way and that. z = z. That is where I will start. He cut through the complexities that had slowed or stalled other work and he found the underlying simplicity. t =t Eq. Einstein got there ﬁrst. as long as forces depend on at most the relative velocity of interacting objects. F = dp/dt no matter how fast you move. intellectual barriers.. which is the mathematical codiﬁcation of the change to a moving coordinate system. and some smart people who.. nor could you tell from any of them whether the ship was moving or standing still.have the ship proceed with any speed you like. Only relative velocities are measurable.* Put in modern terms. You will discover not the least change in all the eﬀects named. ﬁrst when it is standing still. or 3.) Chapter ﬁve started with the Galilean transformation. given enough additional time. and then when you . or 2. 1. (And the third one is also Galileo’s phrasing — surprisingly modern. false starts. The Results of Measurement depend only upon the relative velocity of observer and observed and not upon their absolute velocities. would have ﬁgured it all out. clever ideas. Galileo was really the ﬁrst to articulate one of the foundational concepts. x = x − v0 t. The problem is that Newtonian Mechanics is not all. not absolute velocities. In his Dialog on the Two Chief World Systems he made the idea concrete by describing what you would see if you are in the main cabin below decks on some large ship. Maxwell has a set of equations that describe electromagnetism extraordinarily * Translation: Stillman Drake . and he did it three and a half centuries before Einstein was born. Without looking outside the room.1) As you saw there.

9—Special Relativity 311 well. A matter of notation: Most of the time I have tried to be careful about it. The simplicity of the theory of special relativity is that you start from two assumptions: 1. and that is the most startling and perplexing aspect of this theory. In particular the fourth one. Not speed relative to something. but not the transformation equations written above. Only relative velocities are measurable 2. .1)? The answer is x = x − v0 t . The most famous approach was to say that Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations are valid in only one coordinate system and no other: the “ether” theory. while forcing Newton to change. (9. The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for everyone. That means that something has to give: Newton. and all the way up to Einstein’s. It was just wrong. What is it about Maxwell’s theory that caused a problem? The simple and most profound fact is that it produces a unique value for the speed of light in a vacuum. this equation stating that time is the same for everyone was so obvious that it wasn’t even stated. It all sounds so simple doesn’t it? When one choice doesn’t work. t = t. That didn’t work. 2 1 − v0 /c2 y = y. The concepts “simultaneity. keeping Newton and Galileo. When these diﬃculties arose in the late 1800’s the natural response was to go with the familiar.” or “now” will become puzzles to be sorted out. but modifying Maxwell. concluding at Eq. but developing them will take some eﬀort. (5. and Einstein’s approach kept Galileo and Maxwell. In Galileo’s day.9). just speed. or Maxwell’s. and they do not transform properly under the Galilean transformation. t = t − v0 x/c2 2 1 − v0 /c2 These are called the Lorentz transformation. This caricature of the history as I’ve sketched it in these few paragraphs has ﬁlled. In this chapter there are so many velocities that I won’t bother with the distinctions such as those between v and vx . and will further ﬁll. otherwise there would be too many sub-x’s ﬁlling the pages. z = z. will be sacriﬁced. sometimes probably to the point of being annoying. I will leave it to you to ﬁgure out which is which from context. What will replace the Galilean transformation of Eq. or Maxwell.” or “at the same time. try another. This assumes that Maxwell is right and that Galileo’s verbal statement of the principle of relativity is right. Galileo. whole books putting ﬂesh on the details.

which means that measurements of time must be handled very carefully. so T0 = L0 /c is the time for the light to go bottom to top or back. and that bouncing is the ticking of the clock. the light source starts a pulse of light moving straight up the tube until it hits the (perfect) mirror at the top. according to your friend. Any real clock will have imperfections of course. Build an evacuated box with mirrors at the top and bottom and a source of light inside. In the ﬁrst picture the light pulse is moving at speed . When the light left the bottom mirror. when it hit the top one. It bounces (straight) back down and hits the bottom (also perfect). As you observe the light pulse repeatedly hit the bottom and the top mirrors. and ﬁnally when it returns to the bottom. the clock itself has travelled some distance. a friend of yours is driving toward the left at (very) high speed v . The light keeps bouncing up and down as long as you want it to. It involves using a special kind of clock to analyze the eﬀects of velocity. Because light in a vacuum is at the center of one of the assumptions of the theory.9—Special Relativity 312 9. one that is fairly standard in texts on relativity. this clock is built precisely from light in a vacuum. but says that the clock is moving right at high speed. Length Contraction The ﬁrst step is to show that an immediate implication of the assumptions of special relativity is that moving clocks run slow. He has no doubt that the light is hitting the mirrors. If you see that he is moving left then he will say that the clock is moving right. but the analysis of this idealized version is where to start. be travelling along a diagonal path up and another diagonal path down. L0 = cT0 cT your view vT your friend’s view In the sketch on the left. this would be easy to analyze. The second drawing shows three images of the clock as it moves right. That in turn implies that the light pulse will.1 Time Dilation. What is the time between ticks? The length is L0 and the speed of light is c = 299792458 m/s. and Maxwell hadn’t been born yet. If this were a discussion of Newtonian mechanics. so that during the time that the light pulse went from the bottom to the top. There is a simple way to do this.

so the total √ speed of the light according to your friend is c2 + v 2 . you see that it takes a longer-thanexpected time between his ticks. Lengths If clocks run slow so that you have to be careful how you measure time. Instead. then what . The moving clock runs slow. After the whole Lorentz Transformation is available in a few more pages. If you see two events that occur 10 seconds apart. Remember the second assumption of the theory: light moves at the speed of light.9—Special Relativity 313 c. then I hope this question and answer will be clearer. (vT )2 + L2 = (cT )2 −→ (vT )2 + (cT0 )2 = (cT )2 −→ 0 2 c2 T0 = (c2 − v 2 )T 2 −→ T 2 = 2 c2 T0 −→ c2 − v 2 vT T= T0 = γT0 1 − v 2 /c2 (9. including your friend. and you can apply the Pythagorean Theorem to solve L0 for T . then the answer is 5 s. who says that the clock is moving right at speed v. does he say that they occurred 5 s apart or 20 s? If these are the two choices. The previous paragraph tacitly assumed that both people measured velocities by the same methods and that the clocks each used to measure the time-of-ﬂight of the light behaved the same way. For the other person looking at the clock you can’t assume that the time to tick is the same. not c2 + v 2 . Wait a minute. What changes is the time measurements themselves. In the original calculation of the ticking of the clock. That assumption has to go. All very simple. The moving clock takes longer to tick. the clock and the light are moving right at with a horizontal component of velocity v . the clock moves a distance vT horizontally. Isn’t it your friend who’s moving? Not the clock? Remember the ﬁrst assumption of the theory: Galileo’s idea that only relative velocities are measurable. In the time of one tick. it’s the rest of the universe that is moving. This is the ﬁrst indication that these two innocuous-sounding assumptions can lead to surprising and puzzling consequences.1) This is time dilation. and the light moves a distance cT along the diagonal. The light has a vertical component of velocity c. T0 = L0 /c.” “I am not moving. but that’s not the way the universe is built. There’s a right cT triangle in this picture.” Everyone is right. one of the assumptions√ special relativity is that of everyone ﬁnds the same speed for light in a vacuum: c. In the second picture. When time has become slippery can space be far behind? Point of Confusion If your friend’s clock is running slow by a factor 2. call it T instead (to be determined). That means that everyone is entitled to claim “I am standing still.

See problem 9.2) L = L0 1 − v 2 /c2 = L0 /γ I see the train as shorter than the passenger does. I can measure the time it takes to move past and multiply it by the speed: L = vT0 . . If mine recorded T0 . The idea is simply to take the light clock of the previous two pages and turn it on its side. but that reverses these two diﬃculties.7 for some suggestions about how to do this calculation (or try it on your own ﬁrst). This derivation of length contraction involves only the simplest algebra. The calibration factor between the clocks is 1 − v 2 /c2 . There is another way to get to this result. but it requires careful attention to the details of who’s looking at what and when. It should read the same time as it did when it was upright. To measure the length of the train. (T0 is the time that I read on my clock. is the length of the train according to you the same as the length of the train according to a passenger on the train? No. This concepts are easy. but the algebra is more involved. This length contraction is a second peculiar feature of special relativity.) The question is now to ﬁnd the length as measured by a passenger. (Re-read the above Point of Confusion.) The passenger doesn’t need another clock to measure T . (L0 is the length the passenger observes for the [to him. It is T0 / 1 − v 2 /c2 . and according to the passenger I’m moving at speed v . and that will let you ﬁgure out what its length is. Call the length and the time that the passenger measures L0 and T instead of L and T . then (again according to the passenger) my clock is running slow. all that’s needed is to be able to read my clock.) v v your view T0 T0 passenger’s view me: passenger: length change: L = vT0 L0 = vT = vT0 1 − v 2 /c2 = L 1 − v 2 /c2 (9.9—Special Relativity 314 about lengths? If you have stopped at a train crossing and a long train passes in front of you. This is the passenger’s T and the length as measured by the passenger is L0 = vT . stationary] train. so that the light is going left-to-right and right-to-left as the clock moves right. so the passenger says that the time for me to go from one end to the other is longer than the T0 I read on my slow clock. The passenger then says that the time T for me to have moved from one end of the train to the other is longer than my measured T0 .

The qualitative analysis should come ﬁrst. I assumed that both you and your friend used the same value for that number.1) or (9. For “proper acceleration” see equation (9. There is no universal convention about how you place subscripts here. So. that only relative velocities can be measured. The trouble is that paint leaves a permanent mark on the clock. then he was moving. A moving clock runs slow. Either way you have violated the ﬁrst axiom of the theory.2) you should think about the qualitative behavior of the time and distance measurements. You and your friend can get together over a beer after the experiment in order to compare data. L0 is the proper length of the train. If your clock has only one paint mark. but interchanging who is moving. The calibration factor between clocks is 1 − v 2 /c2 . If it has two paint marks that are not at the ends.21). it’s an important one. (9. Start with the length used in the calculation of time dilation: L0 . so before applying either of Eqs. If the clock shrinks because of its motion then the paint brush on one end of the ruler will mark the clock while the other end misses. set so that they will mark the ends of the clock as it passes. but now you have to test it to be certain. Is that valid? The answer is yes.* If length contracts. Your friend wants to measure it to see if it remains L0 even when it moves past. This means that you can’t simply plug into formulas. What if lateral lengths expanded instead of contracting? You get into exactly the same contradiction. Take the light clock. and T0 is the proper time on my clock. does the factor go in the numerator or in the denominator? Terminology: “Proper length” is the length of an object as measured by someone who says it is not moving. Assume it’s false and show that it doesn’t work. The proof is by contradiction. * What would “proper velocity” be? . its owner will think that someone just did the 100 yard dash in ﬁve seconds. If a clock takes two seconds to mark oﬀ a second. To be certain of his measurement he attaches a pair of paint brushes to the two tips of the ruler. so don’t assume and a sub-0 will always be proper.1) be a variable too? No. supposedly length L0 . That factor is less than one. then there is a lateral length contraction and you were moving. shouldn’t the L0 in the original clock contract? Should the L0 in Eq. but it’s not only a legitimate question. “Proper time” is the time interval between two events as measured by someone who says the occurred at the same place — the clock is standing still. so he uses a ruler of length L0 and holds it up so the ruler and the clock just miss each other. For the train example. (9.9—Special Relativity 315 It’s easy to mix up the applications of these dilation and contraction equations.

If you drive a long car and have a short garage. either the train engineer or the person who built the tunnel. what will happen when the train is moving rapidly? If there is either a lateral contraction or expansion because of the speed then someone. that you can’t tell which of you is moving. only it’s now even shorter than it was before.e.66 km . You’re never going to ﬁt inside now. i. electrons. so it now ﬁts inside. If the ﬁrst assumption of relativity is correct. If the moving train contracts. before you started to study relativity.2 Examples Before going into some more analytical problems with relativity. the answer 4 24 will not be 3 c. You. When one collides with an oxygen or nitrogen nucleus it is so energetic that it simply blasts the nucleus apart and in the process creates many thousands or millions of other new particles. Paradoxes Under normal circumstances. Your friend. would think that your watch is running fast. They can’t both be right. you may have an occasion to think that your watch keeps good time and that your friend’s is running slow.2 µs) = (300 m/µs)(2. Who’s right? 3 If two people are approaching each other. a passenger on that train can look out and say that another train you think to be standing still has shrunk.1) says that your friend’s clock runs slow because it’s moving. These are particles that are basically heavy. and the mean lifetime of these particles is 2. can you ﬁt your car within the garage by driving extra fast? Someone standing outside and watching you try to do this would say yes. (9.2 microseconds.9—Special Relativity 316 Another way to picture this: If a railroad train is entering a tunnel through a mountain. The calculation of time dilation leading to Eq. A major component of the resulting debris is the muon. but 25 c. then both of you will believe that the other’s clock is running slow — and be right. mµ = 207me . (9. and if the tunnel is just barely large enough to accommodate the width of the train when the train is moving slowly. Cosmic rays are (mostly) very high energy protons that come from outer space and hit the Earth’s atmosphere. even moving at nearly the speed of light. How can both be true? Resolving both of these problems will wait a few pages until the Lorentz transformation is worked out. a few elementary examples are useful. will think that the train will still ﬁt while the other will expect a crash. who thinks just as highly of his timepiece. your car has shrunk. and you ask one of them how fast the other is moving. but unstable. the mean distance such a particle goes before decaying is about cτ = (3 × 108 m/s)(2. 2 9. see the garage approaching you.2 µs) = 660 m = 0. as the driver. In this short time. How can that be? The same paradox applies to lengths. A derivation of this will appear in Eq.13). one at 4 c from the left and the other at 3 c from the right.

66km = 7 × 10−14 to e−20/6. let dN be the change in this number in time dt. The Global Positioning System is so commonly used that it is standard equipment in some cars. giving a combined drift that. The mean time to decay is then a sum over all these times divided by the total number of particles: 1 N0 t (−dN ) = 1 ∞ N0 −t 0 dN dt = dt ∞ 0 1 τ te−t/τ dt = τ Starting from an altitude of 20 km. 2c2 with v2 1 = 2 2c 2 3. the fraction of these particles that would reach the Earth’s surface is e−20/0. so they won’t all have the same time dilation factor. but because of time dilation.8 km/s. the clock error would be 86 400 s×8×10−11 = 7µs.05 That is a factor of about 1012 . How do you handle that? See problem 9. This is not because there are so many cosmic rays that hit the Earth.66 ≈ 10−13 . And not all muons will have the same speed. If no correction had been made for this eﬀect the GPS would have been worthless. Despite this. The muons are moving so fast that the time dilation eﬀect is large.9—Special Relativity 317 What does “mean life” mean? Radioactive decay follows statistical laws. and the orbital speed is about 3. 300 000 km/s = 2 km. so that −dN is the number that decayed between time t and t + dt.693 τ . This is a major part of the background radiation that you live with all the time. A factor of 1/ 1 − v 2 /c2 = 10 is typical. or expressed in terms of the total population. and starting with a population of particles at time zero. the fraction of them left at time t is e−t/τ . and their lifetime is far longer than the two microseconds that they have when at rest. At this speed the time dilation eﬀect is γ= 1 1 − v 2 /c2 ≈1+ v2 .11.6 = 0. N (t) = N0 e−t/τ . At the speed of light. and that changes the fraction hitting the surface from e−ct/cτ = e−20km/0.” They are proportional. so many reach the surface that you will have thousands of them passing through you each minute. the distance error from this is then 7µs .3 to understand the relation between these two ideas: t1/2 = 0. See problem 9. It depends on precisely measuring the signals from several satellites in orbit at a radius of 26600 km (measured from the Earth’s center). and is available for personal use everywhere. To ﬁnd the average value of the decay time. The orbital period is about half a day.8 300 000 2 = 8 × 10−11 In one day = 86 400 s. I used the “mean lifetime” to describe this and you may be more familiar with the “half-life. The eﬀects from general relativity have the opposite sign but are even larger. . if uncorrected for these relativistic eﬀects. would be about 10 km/day.

suggests a diﬀerent coordinate system with x along the incline of the hill and y perpendicular to it. For now. The t and x coordinate axes have equations that are respectively x = 0 and t = 0.3 Space-Time Diagrams As with almost about everything else in physics. v < c The second represents a set of events that occur at the same time.9—Special Relativity 318 9. pick the units so that c has the numerical value one. sometimes you need to switch to a rotated coordinate system. drive on the left. the ability to draw a sketch of your problem is invaluable. one of them with v = 0 and the other with v = 300 m/4µs = c/4. v = c. Here. or you may not. When you describe the motion of a particle. the equation is t = t0 . The speed of light is 3 × 108 m/s = 300 m/µs. The third is a graph of the motion of a photon.5. What it the relationship between these coordinates? Just express * Why is time up and space left and right? For the same reason that people in the U. perhaps a hill. Dealing with objects that move near or at the speed of light makes it necessary to choose convenient units.K. µs. 2. The ﬁrst and fourth graphs present constant velocity motion of a particle.k. the goal is to turn conceptually diﬃcult questions about measurements with clocks and rulers into conceptually simpler problems in analytic geometry. Perhaps some other aspect of the problem. Choose the time axis up* and the x-axis left and right and the pictures will look like these: t t t t x = x0 x stationary t = t0 x simultaneous x x = ct x x = vt. The trick to make this easy is to measure time in microseconds and measure space in units of 300 meters. too.5) and (1. that’s o. drive on the right and those in the U. Sometimes it’s a drawing and sometimes it’s a graph.5) in the units of 300 m.5.S. one dimension of space (x) will be enough. But First: When you are dealing with ordinary two-dimensional rectangular coordinate x and y . t) = (2. . That’s the way it is. If you prefer light-years/year. 0. If you’re doing an elementary mechanics problem and g is down. The two points in the third graph represent events at (x. you may choose x horizontal and y vertical. In other words. The y and z coordinates will come along later. you can give its position as a function of time and graph that.

half in each direction.3) x = r cos(φ − α) y = r sin(φ − α) (9. The total travel time of the pulse is t2 − t1 . You’ve already seen that times and lengths are no longer such simple concepts.9—Special Relativity each pair of coordinates in terms of r and the angles.] The reason for looking at these rotated coordinate systems is that something very much like this can be done with space-time coordinate systems. [Look at the exercises at the end of this chapter.5) x . the key step is to realize that you have to provide a precise statement of what these coordinates mean. so that it is a straight line in the picture t2 x = −c(t − t2 ) x = c(t − t1 ) t1 t E c xE = 2 (t2 − t1 ) tE = 1 (t2 + t1 ) 2 (9. For space and time. telling how far away the object is. so the time at which the pulse hits the object is t1 + (t2 − t1 ) = 1 (t1 + t2 ). 2 1 2 and the distance to it is c 2 (t2 − t1 ) Translate this into the analytic geometry of space-time diagrams.4) =⇒ x = r cos φ cos α + r sin φ sin α = x cos α + y sin α y = r sin φ cos α − r cos φ sin α = −x sin α + y cos α These equations show how to relate the coordinates that two diﬀerent people use to describe the same point. 319 y y r φ P x α x x = r cos φ y = r sin φ (9. Let t1 be the time the radar pulse is sent and t2 the time it returns. One method to deﬁne these coordinates uses tools that are conceptually very simple: a clock and a radar set. The radar set sends out electromagnetic pulses that can bounce from a distance object and a clock times the reﬂected signal. so the coordinates that build on them have to be deﬁned with care. The light travels at constant velocity. but they will have many properties analogous to them. The transformations will not be rotations.

The times at which that happens are ta and tb . so the actual times that the moving person sees the radar pulse pass by are t1 and t2 : t1 = ta 1 − v 2 /c2 = t2 = tb 1 − v 2 /c2 t1 (1 − v/c) 1 − v 2 /c2 (9. by a factor 1 − v 2 /c2 . The new coordinates of the event are c xE = 2 (t2 − t1 ) 1 tE = 2 (t2 + t1 ) and solving Eqs. Now comes the interesting part: Using the same deﬁnitions to do the computation. simply use the same set for both.7) 1− t2 = (1 + v/c) v 2 /c2 Now all that’s left is algebra. Instead of having a separate radar and clock. the moving observer will have constant velocity because it makes the mathematics far easier. In any case. Then it’s a question of computing what measurements the moving person would get. Perhaps it is a police radar hitting a speeding car. That clock is running slow. solving two simultaneous equations. Call the points at which the outgoing and the returning radar pulses pass a and b. Computing each of those times is ﬁnding the intersection of two lines.9—Special Relativity 320 The event at which the radar pulse hits the object is labeled E. what coordinates does a moving observer ﬁnd for this same event? For now.6) These times are when I think the radar pulse passed the moving observer going out and returning. Again the motion will be a straight line in the picture.5) for t1 and t2 −→ t1 = tE − xE /c t2 = tE + xE /c (9. remember. b: x = −c(t − t2 ) x = vt a: x = c(t − t1 ) x = vt t tb ta a x = vt b E tb = ct2 /(c + v ) = t2 /(1 + v/c) ta = ct1 /(c − v ) = t1 /(1 − v/c) x (9. (9. x = vt.8) . the space-time coordinates of the event are deﬁned by the two measurements of time back at the radar set. They are not the times his clock would read. which would have to be calibrated.

Why then did I choose such an involved way to get to a result that another author may choose to do in a few lines? The ﬁrst reason is that this method may be algebraically more complex. As with the coordinate change Eq. and if you look at other introductory texts on relativity you will ﬁnd other. (9. far less complicated derivations of the same two equations. the picture of this transformation is important. (9. if an observer can’t make measurements while undergoing an acceleration of even g . This was a fair amount of algebra to arrive at two rather simple-looking equations.9—Special Relativity 321 xE = 1 − v 2 /c2 − 2 (1 + v/c) (1 − v/c) c tE + xE /c tE − xE /c √ = − 2 1 + v/c 1 − v/c 1 (ctE + xE )(1 − v/c) (ctE − xE )(1 + v/c) √ − = 2 1 − v 2 /c2 1 − v 2 /c2 xE − vtE = 1 − v 2 /c2 c t2 t1 tE = t2 t1 1 + 1 − v 2 /c2 2 (1 + v/c) (1 − v/c) 1 tE + xE /c tE − xE /c √ + = 2 1 + v/c 1 − v/c 1 (tE + xE /c)(1 − v/c) (tE − xE /c)(1 + v/c) √ = − 2 1 − v 2 /c2 1 − v 2 /c2 tE − vxE /c2 = 1 − v 2 /c2 Just as Eq. .4) referred to the point P without writing the letter. and the new axes don’t look like those on page 319. these look neater as x = x − vt = γ (x − vt) 1 − v 2 /c2 and t = t − vx/c2 = γ (t − vx/c2 ) (9. then it’s an awfully limited theory. γ = 1/ 1 − v 2 /c2 is a standard abbreviation. There’s no conceptual change in having an accelerated reference frame. it is not a rotation. as is β = v/c. just a change in the quantity of mathematics.9) 1 − v 2 /c2 These Lorentz transformation equations are an algebraic codiﬁcation of the two axioms written on the ﬁrst page of this chapter. but it uses only the simple concept of determining how you measure x and t. As you can easily see. after all. A second reason is that this method is not restricted to motion at constant velocity.4) and the accompanying diagram.

The current in an ordinary electric wire consists of electrons in motion.9—Special Relativity 322 x-axis: t = 0 t-axis: x = 0 x -axis: t = γ (t − vx/c2 ) = 0 t -axis: x = γ (x − vt) = 0 t t x x simultaneous The dashed lines ﬁll in the coordinates as deﬁned by the equations x = constant and t = constant. 4 lt-yr/c2 7 . It’s a consistency check. and it better give the same answer as before. The average drift velocity of those electrons is surprisingly small. π × 10 s = 4 10 yr 1 yr = 12000 s ≈ 3. This is 10−4 c. the dashed lines parallel to the x -axis in the above drawing.1 millimeters per second. Notice: He says that it isn’t moving. −4 . The picture has v = c/2. The moving observer however uses diﬀerent coordinates. That simultaneity depends on the motion of the observer is the central radical departure in special relativity. the Earth orbits the sun at a speed of about 30 km/s. What are the algebraic equations describing the front and back end of this object? x = 0.5 hr This appears insigniﬁcant. −→ t = vx/c2 = 10−4 c . but under some circumstances a much smaller speed can produce a very large eﬀect.10) . How can such a small speed account for a large electric current? There are a lot of electrons. At the distance of the star nearest the sun. Someone is moving past at a speed v and he claims to have an object of length L0 . look more at simultaneity and use the Lorentz transformation to re-derive length contraction. so “at the same time” refers to the same values of t . How big is the eﬀect? For an astronomical example. First. so he gets to say that its proper length is L0 . Simultaneity The phrase “at the same time” refers to events that occurred at the same value of t. about four light-years. and in home wiring its magnitude is commonly less than 0. Come back to the question of current in a moment. It is this departure from common intuition that allows the paradoxes in the theory to be resolved. how big a discrepancy does this make? t = 0 = t − vx/c2 . x = L0 for all t — what could be simpler? (9.

9—Special Relativity 323 I took the left end at zero to save algebra. * It wasn’t until 1879 when Edwin Hall discovered the Hall eﬀect that it was possible to tell the diﬀerence.) The equation for the right-hand end of your ruler is x = L. There are cases such as ﬂuorescent lights where both types of charge move. Again. and the electron itself wasn’t discovered until 1897. (9.* Just to simplify the explanations I’ll assume that it is the positive charges moving right and the negative charges are stationary. It matters not which. The two lines of constant x produce two parallel lines in the x-t coordinate system. but the symbol L0 is already taken. What is the value of x at the time t = 0? What do you expect it to be? That is the dot in this picture. Both represent a current to the right. vL/c2 ) = L 1 − v 2 /c2 and the Lorentz contraction appears again! Each person says that the other’s rulers have shrunk. Current An ordinary copper wire carrying a I has two parts: the stationary positive charges and the moving negative ones. Eq. That is the dot in the ﬁgure. In fact it doesn’t matter whether the positive charges are moving right or the negative charges are moving left. Simply combine the Lorentz equations. . t t x x x = L0 x=L t =0 x=L and t = γ (t − vx/c2 ) x = γ (x − vt) Eliminate x and t to get x = γ (L − v . If you happen to have a ruler that is exactly this length L = L0 1 − v 2 /c2 then what does your moving friend see? (You would call this L a proper length. the dashed line in the next picture.9) with the equation x = L0 and ﬁnd the intersection of that line with the line t = 0. the Lorentz transformation appears. but that’s an unneeded complication. x = L0 t=0 x = γ (x − vt) L0 = γx −→ t t x x x = L0 x = L0 1 − v 2 /c2 The direct application of the transformation equations then reproduce the length contraction equation correctly.

whose size increases with his velocity. The q and the v part . t = 0. so what are the equations for these charges in that frame? Your time t is still useful as a parameter to describe the other coordinates. where k is some integer. Give this new force a name. There is a net negative charge density on the wire even though you (the stationary observer) know that you observe no such thing. Call it magnetism. so positive charges move with a mean velocity u > 0 and the equation for a typical one (the k th one) is then x = ut + k . The size of the force depends on his velocity. The (−) and (+) charges have coordinates respectively x = k −→ x = γ (k − vt) t = γ t − vk /c2 x = ut+k −→ x = γ (ut + k − vt) t = γ (t − v (ut + k )/c2 Draw a space-time graph showing just three of the positive and three of the negative charges. the x-axis. This is what you see. Call it and assume that all the charges lie along a single line. The corresponding equation for a negative charge is x = k with no motion. You see him being accelerated. This moving observer will see a net negative charge density on the wire. t k=0 − + x = ut x = vt ± t k=2 x x = ut + 2 − + − + x 2 Without solving a single equation. the distance between the + charges is clearly greater than the distance between the − ones. Look along the x -axis at the points where the + charges are. and the direction of the force is perpendicular to that velocity. so linear charge densities: + e and − e total: zero Take the current to be to the right. so that can’t be the reason. The charges are ±e. If your friend is charged he will experience an electrical force.9—Special Relativity 324 If the wire carries no net charge then the mean distance between the plus charges and between the minus charges is the same. and conclude that the force is qv × B . Your friend is moving right at speed v . At this time. so you agree that he is feeling a force but you also say that there is no electric ﬁeld. you can look at this picture and see that the moving observer concludes that the positive charges are farther apart than the negative ones.

and that intersects each of the k = 1 lines. where e is the magnitude of the elementary charge (proton or electron). the factor being 1/(1 − uv/c2 ). so the only problem is to ﬁgure out just how big this new thing called B is.9—Special Relativity 325 are clear. If your friend has a charge q . It’s another derivation of the Lorentz contraction.11) The ﬁrst of these is familiar.) The results are respectively (−) x = γ ( − v 2 /c2 ) = (+) x = γ 1− 1 − v 2 /c2 uv/c2 −v v /c2 1 − uv/c2 = 1 − v 2 /c2 1 − uv/c2 (9. To compute this charge density seen by your moving friend. Take just two pairs of charges. What is the charge density measured by the moving observer? The stationary person (you) says that the linear charge density is (e/ ) − (e/ ) = 0. According to your moving friend the answer is λ= e(1 − uv/c2 ) − 1 − v 2 /c2 e 1− v 2 /c2 = −γ e uv c2 A wire that carries a linear charge density λ produces a radial electric ﬁeld E = ˆ rλ/2π 0 r. and the next pair over. ﬁnd what the distance is between the charges as he must measure them. (You already know t = 0. plug in to the transformation equations x = γ (x − vt). saying that the proper length becomes shortened according to the moving observer. he will experience a force F = qE = ˆ ˆ qλ e uv q r v qr ˆ r = −γ 2 = −γI 2 2π 0 r c 2π 0 r c 2π 0 r . The second equation says that the distance between the positive charges is larger than that between the negative charges. This seemingly insigniﬁcant eﬀect that modiﬁes the meaning of simultaneity suddenly assumes a huge importance even at the tiny speeds of electrons in a wire. You can derive this from Gauss’s law. In the picture and the algebra I’m assuming that u and v are in the same direction. the (primed) coordinates of the charges are (−) t = γ (t − vx/c2 ) = 0 x=1 t = v /c2 x= and (+) t = γ (t − vx/c2 ) = 0 x = ut + 1 Solve each of these pairs of simultaneous equations: (−) and (+) t = (v /c2 )/(1 − uv/c2 ) x = /(1 − uv/c2 ) To get the two values of x . Along the x -axis you have t = 0. x = 0 t = 0. the one at the origin.

What is their relative velocity? This question will have diﬀerent answers depending on just how you deﬁne the phrase “relative velocity. This magnetic force on q depends on the velocity of q . x = vt There’s another way to deﬁne the relative velocity. The object goes a distance u∆t. x and t are functions of x and t (the Lorentz transformation) x is a function of t (x = ut) so. and that must be because of a force.9—Special Relativity 326 where the original current that the stationary observer (you) measures is I = eu/ . You can’t apply a Lorentz transformation to them. That’s because forces don’t behave themselves well in this context. x and t are functions of t. There is a slick and easy way to derive the equation for relative velocity using this deﬁnition. in x-t coordinates x so that you can represent the moving observer by the equation x = vt and you can represent the moving object by x = ut. (0.27) to ﬁnd dx /dt . Use Eq. . The γ is not really there when it’s fully worked out. a moving observer with velocity v . some other object has velocity u. In your time interval ∆t the moving observer goes a distance v ∆t. That will x = ut give a diﬀerent answer. Use x the Lorentz transformation to ﬁnd what the x -t coordinates of the object are. Picture it graphically. The equation that you will write is F = qv × B where. You call it magnetism. there is another person.4 Relative Velocity You are at rest. Your charged friend experiences this force and ascribes it to an electric ﬁeld. you read from the preceding equations ˆ B = φ[γ ] I 2 π 0 c2 r If you remember what the magnetic force is supposed to be and you then look closely at this equation you should wonder what that extra γ factor is doing here. 9. You say that there is no electric ﬁeld but you agree that he is accelerating.” For one possible deﬁnition you can ask how you would measure their distance apart and how fast that distance is changing. You then say that the relative velocity is u∆t − v ∆t =u−v ∆t What could be simpler? This is exactly what you get if you know nothing about relativity. and analyzing this will take more work. Ask t t the moving observer what velocity the other object has. The distance between those two has changed by the amount u∆t − v ∆t.

so the expression to examine is not x2 + y 2 . OP. What depends on t are x.9—Special Relativity 327 dx dx /dt .3). Eq.9). If instead.13) dt 1 − vu γ (1 − v (dx/dt)/c2 c2 x = γ (x − vt) t = γ (t − vx/c2 ) =⇒ Pay attention to this derivation. (9. Instead of the sum of squares. x 2 − c2 t 2 = γ (x − vt) 2 − c2 γ (t − vx/c2 ) 2 = x2 − c2 t2 (9. and of course t itself. A probable point of confusion here: v is a number. and c−v c−v = c=c c−v 1 − vc/c2 (9.4) directly. whichever coordinate system you choose. If the object is a photon then u = c. x 2 + y 2 = (x cos α + y sin α)2 + (−x sin α + y cos α)2 = x2 + y 2 Multiply all the factors and collect the terms. such as in computing acceleration.12) γ dx/dt − v ) u−v dx = = u = (9.20). there is an invariant of the transformation: the distance to the origin. Instead of rotational transformations. but x2 − c2 t2 . 3 4c Space-Time Intervals In the Euclidean geometry expressed in the picture and equations (9. use the Lorentz transformation Eq. = dt dt /dt then divide: dx /dt = γ dx/dt − v dt /dt = γ 1 − v (dx/dt) c2 (9. 3 3 + 4c 24 2c u = 3 2 2 = 9 = 25 c 1 + ( 4 c) /c 1 + 16 3 and this is not the 2 c expected from a non-relativistic analysis.14) Everyone agrees about the vacuum speed of light. It is the square root of x2 + y 2 or of x 2 + y 2 . say u positive and v negative. You can verify this algebraically by using the equations (9. the observer and object 3 are moving toward each other. not a function of time.15) . x . (9. at 4 c. It carries through with little change in more complicated cases. t . You also need factors of c in order to keep the dimensions straight. There is a similar relation for the geometry described by the Lorentz transformation. you use the diﬀerence of squares. but it is not a geometry that Euclid would have recognized.

The preceding calculation assumes however that your friend who went from (xa . You know the calibration factor.17).16) and (9. Even better. moving three times as fast and in the other direction. In other words. he gives you an answer. You can look at this and say that the time interval is ∆t. use calculus. so of course it’s the same for everyone — an invariant. This proper time interval has the same value for everyone. it is better to interchange the terms and to examine t2 − x2 /c2 . and all that you need to know is his speed. (9.15) and (9. That’s easy. If someone else. ta ) and (xb . What if that’s not the case? You do the same thing that you do whenever you have a complex problem: break it into little pieces and do successive approximations. so that he was at coordinate xa at time ta and in the time interval ∆t = tb − ta he moved to the point xb . His own clock then reads an interval (the proper time interval) that is smaller than ∆t by the standard calibration factor. When you look at it from a reversed perspective. . remembering that it’s running slow according to you.16) x Let this line interval represent your friend’s motion. If you ask your friend what the time interval was between these two events. ta ) ∆t = tb − ta −→ ∆x = xb − xa ∆t 2 − ∆x /c2 = ∆τ 2 2 (9. it’s v = ∆x/∆t. In order to interpret what this means. this proper time interval must be an invariant and must have the same value according to all observers.16) now has a simple interpretation: It is the proper time interval between two events. with the intervals t (xb . ta ) to (xb . Non-constant Velocity The proper time interval between two events is ∆τ .17) This invariant interval that appeared in Eqs. and everyone can compute its value by the same algorithm that you used in Eqs. (9. tb ) ∆τ (xa . asks him the same question he will give the same answer. tb ) moved at constant velocity.9—Special Relativity 328 Again. Take the events to have coordinates (xa . tb ). ∆t 1 − v2 (∆x/∆t)2 = ∆t 1 − = 2 c c2 (∆t)2 − (∆x)2 /c2 = ∆τ (9. just multiply all the factors and collect terms. look at the interval between two events instead of the distance to the origin. but how much time has elapsed on your friend’s clock.

) If v = 0. At some time he turns around and returns at the same speed. that’s the way the universe is built. < tN −1 < tN = tb . compare your elapsed proper time to his elapsed proper time. Twins will not be the same age. The straight line approximation to the curve in the interval tk < t < tk+1 has a proper time ∆τk = (∆tk )2 − (∆xk )2 /c2 329 t tb tN −1 The total proper time from the start of the path to its end is the limit of the sum N −1 ∆tk →0 b t2 t1 ta x tb tb lim ∆τk = 0 a dτ = ta (dt)2 − (dx)2 /c2 = ta dt 1 − v 2 /c2 and v = dx/dt.9—Special Relativity Let the starting time for the curve be ta and the ending time tb as before. If the space-time path is not straight. This eﬀect seems to upset many people — “that can’t be” or “there must be some mistake.* That path is a parabola. and one travelling identical twin can be 43 years younger than the other who stayed behind. How do your ages compare? That is. * Watch out for a distinction here: this is not proper acceleration. The Twin Eﬀect The simplest example applying this integral uses paths that are straight line segments. You stay home at x = 0 and your friend leaves at high speed v . That will appear in section 9.992 = 7 years. the calculation is the same. . Take a path with constant acceleration. . T You: Him: dτ = 0 dt = T T /2 T T dt 1 − v 2 /c2 T /2 x = −v (t − T ) x = vt dτ = 0 dt 1 − v 2 /c2 + =T 1 − v 2 /c2 (Hardly worthy of calculus. . Pick N − 1 points along the curved path shown. but curved.99c and T = 50 yr your friend returns having aged √ 50 1 − .” No.6. d2 x/dt2 = −g . dividing the curve into N parts: ta = t0 < t1 < .

The geometry has taken a step up.9. what can go wrong with this answer? Did you notice that this path is along the ±x-direction only. the answer is tb − ta . implying that the straight line has the shortest length. Then the straight line path has length yb d = ya yb dy = yb − ya but another path has yb y 2 d = ya (dx)2 + (dy )2 = ya dy 1 + dx dy x and this square root is always greater than or equal to one. so its motion is along a straight line.9—Special Relativity 330 x = A + Bt − gt2 /2. . the ﬁnal step is to analyze this carefully. Now let u = sin θ. and this is x = gt(T − t)/2. In particular. but in this (pseudo-Euclidean) space-time geometry the straight line produces the longest interval between two events. That’s easy to see because this integral. In the corresponding Euclidean calculation of the distance between two points you can choose your x-y coordinates so that both ends of the path have the same x-coordinate. Adjust the parameters so that you start from the origin and return at time T . See problem 9.18) c c θ + 1 sin 2θ = θ + sin θ cos θ 2 2g 2g c −1 gT gT sin + g 2c 2c 1− = gT 2c 2 x Naturally. tb tb dτ = ta dt = tb − ta but any other path has dτ = ta dt 1 − v2 c2 and that ﬁnal square root is always less than or equal to one. then c 1 c cos2 θ dθ = 1 + cos 2θ τtotal = g g 2 = T t=T t=0 t (9. dτ . Yet it’s called a curved path because the picture is in space-time and not in space alone. and for the observer (your friend again) who says that the positions at ta and at tb are the same. Now the proper time on the journey is T t=T τtotal = dτ = 0 dt 1 − g 2 (T − 2t)2 /4c2 = t=0 c du 1 − u2 g where u = (2t − T )g/2c. is the same for all observers. In Euclidean geometry you are accustomed to the fact that the shortest distance between two points lies along a straight line.

Other examples of this sort of analysis appear in problems 9.17 and 9.5 Superluminal Speeds Jets of high energy gas can be emitted from quasars or from violent objects in our own galaxy. and it is moving at some speed v radially away from the source. d vt sin θ /dt dy dy/dt = vapparent = = dtarrival dtarrival /dt d t + (L − vt cos θ)/c /dt v sin θ v sin θ = v cos θ = 1 − β cos θ 1− c (9. Take t = 0 as the time it was ejected. 9.95c and θ = 0.18.9—Special Relativity 331 9. then the x and y -coordinates of the ball as a function of time are x = vt cos θ.1 = 6◦ then this apparent speed is 1. You can easily verify that the maximum (over all theta) apparent speed is vγ and that this is greater than √ c if β = v > 1/ 2. There you . Under the right circumstances the jet can appear to be moving at a speed greater than light. The source is trying to catch up to the light. y r = vt θ x L US A ball of intensely hot gas is ejected at an angle θ to our line of sight. For example. In Eq. Notice that the only aspect of relativity that shows up in this c calculation is the statement that we all agree on the same speed for light and that its speed is independent of the motion of the source of the light. (5. coming from the y -coordinate y = vt sin θ The derivative of the y -coordinate with respect to the arrival time is its apparent lateral velocity. but the analysis is interesting. this can be larger than c.2) everyone agreed on the value of the acceleration.73 c.19) If v is close to c and the angle is small. It’s an illusion. y = vt sin θ The center of the system is at some distance L away from us. and the light emitted at time t will reach us at time tarrival = t + (L − vt cos θ)/c. and the light emitted at time t will have less distance to travel than did the light that was emitted at the start (t = 0).6 Acceleration How does acceleration behave when you switch to a moving observer? In chapter ﬁve it was simple. if v = 0.

For an important special case of this equation. Here u = du/dt: du /dt du = dt dt /dt ˙ ˙ du u u−v d u−v . This is a diﬀerential equation. In that case. you’re right. as it must. It’s acceleration must be small and that is exactly what this equation says.20) ˙ At least if v = 0 then this reduces to u. Understand it there and the following will be just some more algebra. and for a constant proper a. −v u = − = 2 2 2 2 )2 dt dt 1 − uv/c c 1 − uv/c (1 − uv/c dt d = γ (t − vx/c2 ) = γ (1 − vu/c2 ) dt dt 2 ˙ ˙ u 1 − v 2 /c2 ) 1 − uv/c2 u 1 − v 2 /c2 )3/2 du = = 3 2 dt γ 1 − uv/c 1 − uv/c2 ˙ =u 1 − v 2 /c2 (1 − uv/c2 )2 (9.21) If you are taking an interstellar journey in a ship accelerating at what you perceive to be a constant a. du /dt . but without any new conceptual complications. That is the deﬁnition of proper acceleration. The numerator is (1 − v 2 /c2 )3/2 . is being computed by the person who says that the object is (momentarily) at rest.9—Special Relativity 332 had d2 x /dt 2 = d2 x/dt2 . so it can’t speed up much. what replaces at2 /2? For a more realistic example. the moving observer says that the object is already moving at very close to the speed of light. That means that the new acceleration. Also look at what happens as v becomes close to +c. aproper = ˙ u 1 − u2 /c2 )3/2 1− 3 uu/c2 = ˙ u 1 − u2 /c2 3/2 (9. take v = u. but that no longer holds because the equation relating times for the two observers is no longer t = t. As in that ˙ previous derivation v is a constant. unless u is also close to +c. the acceleration of a charged particle in a uniform electric ﬁeld will be described by constant proper acceleration. what is the equation to describe constant proper acceleration.2 and problem 0. If you think that’s not obvious.12). and recalling section 0. then what does someone remaining behind on Earth say about your motion? In other words. (9. When an object has an acceleration that is d2 x/dt2 = du/dt according to you.16 a= 1− ˙ u 3/2 u2 /c2 −→ a dt = 1− du 3/2 u2 /c2 u −→ at = 0 du 1 − u2 /c2 3/2 . what is it according to someone moving at velocity v ? Look back carefully at the derivation of relative velocity in Eq.

23) a cosh ω c2 (cosh ω − 1) a You get a particularly nice expression if you choose the initial value of x to be x0 = c2 /a.24) This is an equation for a hyperbola. and make the same change of variable from v to ω . Eq.25) If you’re skeptical.26) = x cosh ω − ct sinh ω (9. do a series expansion to check it. replacing the non-relativistic parabola.22). 9. v/c = tanh ω. 1 − v 2 /c2 = 1 − tanh2 ω = sech ω. (9. Go back to the Lorentz transformation itself. Then t x c2 c cosh ω and t = sinh ω a a c4 c4 x2 − c2 t2 = 2 cosh2 ω − sinh2 ω = 2 a a x= (9.9).9—Special Relativity Let u = c tanh ω then (with ω = 0 being t = 0) 333 at = c sech2 ω dω 1 − tanh2 ω 3/2 =c cosh ω dω = c sinh ω (9. is really much more than that. γ = 1/ sech ω = cosh ω (9. (9.27) = t cosh ω − (x/c) sinh ω .7 Rapidity The parameter ω that showed up as a change of variables in Eq. x = γ (x − vt) = cosh ω (x − ct tanh ω ) t = γ (t − vx/c2 ) = cosh ω (t − (x/c) tanh ω ) This variable is called the rapidity. Another way to say this is x = x0 + at2 2 becomes x= c4 c2 + c2 t2 + x0 − a2 a (9.22) What is x now (starting at x = x0 )? t x − x0 = = 0 c2 u dt = t=t c tanh ω dt = c = t=0 tanh ω c c2 cosh ω dω = a a sinh ω dω (9. appearing simply as a way to do an integral.

and the derivation can wait until section 9. but it now includes mass as another form of energy. than does the previous way of writing the Lorentz transformation in terms of v . and mass. the momentum is small. It is a natural and far more convenient way to work. cover-all-cases equations relating energy. This energy E is not the kinetic energy. 9. multiply numerator and denominator by cosh ω1 cosh ω2 and refer to section 0.15.28) If you’re not sure about this identity for the hyperbolic tangent of a sum.9—Special Relativity What does velocity addition look like in terms of this variable? 334 tanh v1 + v2 tanh ω1 + tanh ω2 =c = c tanh(ω1 + ω2 ) 2 1 + tanh ω1 tanh ω2 1 + v1 v2 /c −→ ωtotal = ω1 + ω2 (9. the results. look at what happens for zero velocity. K = E − E0 = = mc2 p2 c2 + m2 c4 − mc2 = mc2 1 + p2 /m2 c2 1 p2 p2 + · · · − mc2 = + ··· 1+ 2 m2 c2 2m 1/2 − mc2 (9. To see this. For small speeds.27) look much more like the equations for rotations.2 and problem 0.4). momentum. (9. no approximation.29) These are the exact. after you’ve used them for a while. p= E v c2 (9. These equations (9. The rapidity variable behaves the same way that the angle variable does in rotations. v = 0 −→ p = 0 −→ E 2 = 02 c2 + m2 c4 −→ E0 = mc2 Here E0 is a common notation for the value of the energy when the velocity is zero — the rest energy. so this lets you do a series expansion.8 Energy and Momentum It should be no surprise that energy and momentum do not behave the same way that you remember from Newtonian mechanics. Rearrange the terms into the form (1 + small)n .11. mc2 . Now what about the kinetic energy? That’s the diﬀerence between the energy E and the rest energy E0 = mc2 . E 2 = p2 c2 + m2 c4 .30) . Anything else is either a special case or an approximation. Eq. so the momentum is p≈ mc2 v = mv c2 and this reduces to the ordinary classical result. First. Instead. what if the speed is small? In this case E is still close to the rest value.

29).32) As in Eq.) That the mass of a particle is zero does not imply that its energy or momentum is zero. Light from the sun pushes electrons and ions and even particles of dust outward. (Well. (9.10. These manipulations assumed that the mass is non-zero.30) you can expand this energy expression to get 1 2 What are energy and momentum expressed in terms of rapidity? As with the Lorentz transformation and the velocity addition formula.31) E cp v v = 2v = p 2 c c c The magnitude of this equation is |p | = p = pv/c. v p = mc γ = mc tanh ω cosh ω = mc sinh ω (9.26) you have E = mc2 + mv 2 + · · · E = mc2 γ = mc2 cosh ω. carries energy is clear enough — just step outside and into the sunshine.9—Special Relativity 335 In this small speed approximation. (9.29) is then E 2 = p2 c2 + 0 −→ E = cp That in turn makes the second of those equations (9. the energy and momentum become especially simple in terms of ω . p = mv . with release of enough energy to create a commercially feasible source of power. (For example. and it does not apply here. Eliminate p between the two equations and for m = 0 you get E= mc2 = mc2 γ.) You’ve usually seen kinetic energy and momentum expressed in terms of velocity. and on a human scale that’s not much. This has been used in the hope that it can lead to controlled nuclear fusion. and you can do that here simply by algebraic manipulation of the equations (9. For an electron however it can be a lot. Radiation can even measurably aﬀect the motion of small asteroids — the Yarkovsky eﬀect. discussed in section 9. What happens if m = 0? The ﬁrst of the equations (9.33) c . and that implies v = c. A p= mass zero particle must move at the speed of light. then p2 /2m = (mv )2 /2m = mv 2 /2 and you have the familiar result. (9. That it carries momentum is not so obvious because from Eq. maybe someday. At high intensity the force exerted by light can be used to compress matter by huge factors.31) the momentum is p = E/c. a particle of zero mass. and the force light exerts on that scale can be signiﬁcant. From Eq. That light. and that in turn is equivalent to v c. That’s a misconception carried over from Newtonian mechanics. 1 − v 2 /c2 p= mv = mvγ 1 − v 2 /c2 (9. You also see what the word “small” means in order to allow this approximation: p mc. light.

24. electrons. That’s a particle that didn’t exist before the radiative process occurred. An electron can collide with another electron. Such processes still must obey other conservation laws: energy. How much energy does it take to create a positron-electron pair when a high energy photon collides with an electron? Before the collision the photon has momentum * Other modes are possible too. . Not that simple. momentum. When you add conservation of momentum to the mix. What energy do these have? If the positronium formed at rest then conservation of momentum implies that the two photons must have opposite momenta.29) is now a trigonometric identity. Protons. Simply look at the mass-energy before and after the creation process: You have 2mc2 before the collision and 4mc2 after the collision. It’s like a hydrogen atom but replacing the proton by a positron. with three or more photons. If the collision occurs at high enough energy the result can be the creation of other particles. called positronium. the equations become a little more involved and you will in the end. but mass is not one of the conserved quantities. and it will recoil by carrying momentum opposite in direction to the emitted photon. For the electron. In a short time. or about 0. about 10−10 s. When a positron comes near to an electron they attract each other and will often form a sort of atom. The most obvious example of this is radiation. The photon carries energy and momentum (E = pc). 336 E 2 − p2 c2 = (mc2 )2 cosh2 ω − (mc2 )2 sinh2 ω = m2 c4 What identity is the second energy-momentum equation? 9. and a few others. The atom’s mass is less than before it emitted the photon. the particles can annihilate each other and emit two* photons. problem 9. p1 = −p2 . angular momentum. so the atom will have lower energy than it did before. You might think that the incoming electron would then need 2mc2 worth of kinetic energy in order for there to be enough total energy to create two new particles having rest energy mc2 each. and after the collision you have three electrons and a positron (an anti-electron with the same mass as the electron but opposite charge). This pair creation process can happen only if the incoming electron has high enough energy. For comparison the photons in a medical X-ray are about 50 000 eV and in visible light the photon energy is about 2 eV. and of course photons can be created where there were none before. need 6mc2 of kinetic energy to create an electron-positron pair. Their energies are then the same and must each be one half the original energy: 2mc2 /2 = mc2 . An atom in an excited state in a vacuum with no other atoms around can emit a photon.9 Applications At the atomic level particles are not conserved. and the two electrons then go oﬀ in diﬀerent directions. mc2 = 511 000 eV.9—Special Relativity The ﬁrst energy-momentum equation of (9.5 MeV. You can start with two electrons.

The minimum ﬁnal state is three particles all having the same momentum and moving together. Look at the simplest case. How much energy does it . where the anti-proton is a negatively charged version of a proton. 4 mc2 = 4mc2 ≈ 2 MeV 3 (9. Call the momentum of each p with energy E . (9.34) These are four equations in four unknowns. solve for the initial energy. but this time it is the proton’s mass. you do not want to have the three particles moving very fast with respect to each other — in fact you don’t want them moving at all.29)) E = pc (Eq. The electron has zero momentum and energy mc2 . energy) (9. ¯ The minimum energy that the photon must have is again 4mc2 . The calculation doesn’t change if you switch from electrons and positrons to protons and anti-protons. (9. E .36) A proton moving at high speed can collide with another proton and create more particles. ¯ where two new particles are created: p + p → p + p + p + p.9—Special Relativity 337 of magnitude p and energy E = pc. The standard equations to represent these two reactions are γ + e− → e− + e− + e+ p-¯ collisions p and γ+p→p+p+p ¯ (9. To ﬁnd the minimum energy possible. E = 3p c −→ 3p c + mc2 = 3E −→ (3p c + mc2 )2 = (3E )2 = 9E 2 = 9p 2 c2 + 9m2 c4 −→ 6p mc3 + m2 c4 = 9m2 c4 4 −→ p = 3 mc −→ E = 3 . The same concepts apply. momentum) E 2 = p 2 c2 + m2 c4 (Eq. almost 2000 times that of the electron.35) This is far more than the 2mc2 needed simply to account for the created mass-energy of the new positron and electron because much (half) the original kinetic energy of the photon goes into the kinetic energy of the ﬁnal particles and not just into their masses.31)) E + mc2 = 3E (cons. After the collision there are to be two electrons and one positron moving oﬀ in various directions and carrying various amounts of energy. Cosmic rays are the high energy protons described brieﬂy on page 316. and their collisions with atmospheric nuclei produce showers of new particles. A photon can hit a proton and create a p-p pair. p p pp p = 3p (cons.

9—Special Relativity 338 take to allow this? The same ideas of energy and momentum conservation apply here too. so the required initial kinetic energy is 6mc2 . (9. 2. following the same procedure. m − m1 Eγ = (m + m1 )(m − m1 )c2 (2m)(∆m)c2 ≈ = ∆mc2 2m 2m This case is typical of the emission of light from an atom. mc2 = Ef + Eγ 0 = −pf + pγ −→ 2 2 2 Ef − c pf = m2 c4 1 Eγ = cpγ Ef2 − cpγ = m2 c4 1 2 2 Ef − Eγ = m2 c4 1 mc2 − Eγ 2 2 − Eγ = m2 c4 1 2 −→ Eγ = (m2 − m2 )c2 1 2m m2 c4 − 2mc2 Eγ = m2 c4 1 m. The ﬁrst equation. and the recoil energy of the atom is usually negligible. Is the photon’s energy given by this mass diﬀerence times c2 ? No. the same applies. then If the mass change is very small. In the case of photon emission from nuclei — gamma rays — the same approximation is still very good. but it is . I leave the algebra to you. Write out the details assuming that the initial system is at rest. p = −pf + pγ Write the conservation equations together with the general energy-momentum relations. except sometimes pretty nearly yes. E = pc. except for the addition of one more particle of momentum p on the right and the fact that the photon on the left is now proton of momentum p. The energy of gamma rays can be a million times the typical light radiation from atoms. again at the minimum possible energy is like the one in the preceding two paragraphs. What changes in the equations (9. The picture of this process. When a nucleus emits a photon.29). The initial state is an object of mass m and it emits a photon resulting in an object of smaller mass m1 . the result is E = 7mc2 . is replaced by Eq. In the second and third equations “3” becomes “4. both energy and momentum are conserved.24. p=0 ﬁnal state: E = Ef + Eγ . problem 9. photon emission When an atom emits a photon. The emitted photon has the energy determined solely by the mass diﬀerence between the initial and the ﬁnal state.” When you solve the equations. Use f for the ﬁnal state of the atom and γ for the photon initial state: E = mc2 .34)? 1. The diﬀerence is that in the ﬁrst case it’s called light and in the second case a gamma-ray.

9—Special Relativity 339 still small compared to the mc2 of the nucleus. If you have a hot surface.67 × 10−8 Wm−2 K−4 . Sunlight carries momentum. so the hot part of an asteroid will be emitting more momentum than the other parts of its surface. to think of it. Surely that is negligibly small! No. only another photon. but in any given direction the amount received by a detector will vary with the angle at which it sees the emitting area. so it will apply a force directly on any object in its path. For an ideal black-body surface. The eﬀect that I want to talk about is a diﬀerent. Conservation of momentum implies that this provides a net force on the asteroid in the direction away from the hot part of the surface. Light can aﬀect the motion of small asteroids.10 Yarkovsky Eﬀect The concept of this phenomenon is simple. It’s been measured for some asteroids. ε = 1. Radiation carries momentum (p = E/c). but most surfaces fall short of that. 9. Once you know that mass zero particles (photons) carry momentum. it becomes a signiﬁcant eﬀect. σ = 5. This power is radiated in all directions above the surface. it is unceasing. and a hotter object radiates more. or even decades. m1 = 0 and Eγ = m2 c2 1 2 = mc 2m 2 In this case there is no ﬁnal atom. its will be heated during its day and cooled during its night. cool sun hot All objects radiate. and the important point is that even though it’s small. how much momentum is emitted from it? The power per area of the radiation emitted from a hot surface is dP dE = = εσT 4 dA dt dA Here. but it took a clever civil engineer. As an asteroid orbits the sun and rotates on its axis. more surprising one. working in his spare time. the amount of light that enters you eye from . At the opposite extreme for which you start with positronium and end with two photons. you pretty much expect it. If you look at a piece of white paper straight on and then hold it at an angle so that it is almost edge on. σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and ε is the emissivity of the surface. Over millenia. so the recoil carries half the energy.

and thorough analysis of this question and of many closely related questions. so ˆ dFn = n . rigorous. 9. dAsource cos θ .11 Conservation Laws How to derive the equations for energy and momentum? There is a famous paper by Eugene Wigner (more often cited than read) that provides the most complete. It keeps cooling until it gets all the way around to face the sun again. The vector sum of all the dp is along the normal to the area. there is a momentum of magnitude dp = dE/c. v−u =v (1 − vu/c2 ) * See Mathematical Tools. (9. so it pushes the asteroid sideways in its orbit. Instead of trying to demonstrate a general solution to the question. It is also way beyond anything I’m prepared to do here. What constraints does relativity place on them. so it radiates and cools. To do this. the whole transformation apparatus won’t be needed. This is one of the many eﬀects that makes the tracking of near-Earth asteroids complicated. dp = dt = 1 c dP cos θ 1 θ=π/2 θ=0 πc εσT 4 cos2 θ sin θ dθ dφ dAsource = 2 εσT 4 dAsource 3c The part of the asteroid facing the sun gets hot.13) . I will stay in one dimension and try to address the question of what sort of conservation laws are even possible. ˆ n dP = 1 π dAdetector = sin θ dθ dφ dΩ = r2 εσT 4 . That hot region then rotates so that the side at right angles to the sun is still hot. dΩ dAdetector r θ dAsource How much momentum does this element of area (dAsource ) emit? For each chunk of energy dE that it emits.13 Eq. It is proportional to the solid angle* that the paper subtends at your eye. That hot part radiates.9—Special Relativity 340 the paper will be very diﬀerent. only the velocity addition law. section 8. That in turn is proportional to the cosine of the angle from the normal to the surface.

new particles can be created. this will be m1 f (v1 − u) + m2 f (v2 − u) = m3 f (v3 − u) + m4 f (v4 − u) Now diﬀerentiate with respect to u and then set u = 0. −m1 f (v1 ) − m2 f (v2 ) = −m3 f (v3 ) − m4 f (v4 ) (9. Instead of the Lorentz transformation it will be the Galilean transformation.9—Special Relativity 341 Look back at the derivation leading to Eq. v3 m4 . and the right picture is after the collision. and in the collisions of elementary particles. After the collision they have masses m3 and m4 and velocities v3 and v4 . but don’t assume that. That in turn says that mf (v ) is conserved. Non-relativistic Conservation Before attacking the relativistic problem. v1 m2 . In a hard impact a piece of m1 can chip oﬀ and get stuck to the other mass. Does this mean that you will have an inﬁnite . chasing with velocity u after the particles. v2 m3 . .37) where f is some function yet to be determined.38) This immediately tells you that if mf (v ) is conserved. A conservation law for this collision will be of the form m1 f (v1 ) + m2 f (v2 ) = m3 f (v3 ) + m4 f (v4 ) (9. those coordinates are x = x − ut −→ dx dx = − u −→ v = v − u dt dt This is the ordinary equation for relative velocity that you are most familiar with. Can masses change? Of course. v4 In the left picture two particles are about to collide. m1 . go back to classical Newtonian mechanics and see what happens there. then so is mf (v ). the ﬁrst equation in this chapter and the ﬁrst equation in chapter ﬁve. The basic question will be: What sort of conservation equation will work for both a stationary and a moving observer? Examine the collision of two masses m1 and m2 with velocities v1 and v2 .15) for the idea behind this analysis. If someone is moving at velocity u with respect to you. You expect it to describe energy and momentum. When someone is trying to catch up with the motion. . . (1.

v3 . If you have four unknowns (or fewer) on the right. the sequence repeats.) If this happens then you’re in trouble because the sole solution to this system of many equations in four unknowns (m3 . Then every new derivative gives you a new function. m4 .37) must identically match the left side. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 m1 e−v1 /v0 + m2 e−v2 /v0 = m3 e−v3 /v0 + m4 e−v4 /v0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 −→ m1 v1 e−v1 /v0 + m2 v2 e−v2 /v0 = m3 v3 e−v3 /v0 + m4 v4 e−v4 /v0 2 2 2 2 2 −→ m1 v1 e−v1 /v0 + m2 v2 e−v2 /v0 = m3 v3 e−v3 /v0 + m4 v4 e−v4 /v0 etc. 3. and the right side of Eq.38) trivial. and the masses of the ﬁnal state would be determined a priori. (9. you can have only four or fewer independent equations for them. so there are at most three conservation laws in one dimension.9—Special Relativity 342 2 2 number of conservation laws? Perhaps start with f (v ) = e−v /v0 . (I simpliﬁed the third line by using the ﬁrst line. you would have four equations for four unknowns. Nothing happens. Of course in a particular instance not all of . (Look familiar?) Could there be a v 3 or v 4 ? f = 1 −→ m1 + m2 = m3 + m4 f = v −→ m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m3 v3 + m4 v4 2 2 2 2 f = v 2 −→ m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m3 v3 + m4 v4 3 3 3 3 f = v 3 −→ m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m3 v3 + m4 v4 The ﬁrst is conservation of mass though it does not require that m3 = m1 or m4 = m2 . Case 1: The last “f ” in the sequence is a constant. the masses are zero. There are various ways that can happen. The second and third are the familiar conservation of momentum and kinetic energy. Either 1. the sequence terminates in a constant so that the next step gives zero. If all four of these held. making Eq. With a modest amount of algebra you can construct an explicit counterexample. That means that this method of generating new conservation laws by diﬀerentiation must come to a stop. Make it f ≡ 1. m1 + m2 1 v4 = 2m1 v m1 + m2 1 You can check that the fourth (v 3 ) equation above is violated. or 2. The fourth is an impossibility. The one just before that is v and the one before that is v 2 . The completely elastic collision of two unequal masses with m2 initially at rest has v3 = m1 − m2 v. (9. v4 ) is that no collision can occur.

If conservation laws hold. That implies that all the mathematics that follows is the same too. pp → e and f . because experimentally you can ¯ have anything from a totally elastic collision to something such as the e− e+ → pp − e+ . (9.. Could you have a diﬀerential equation such as f = f + f ? No. this becomes m1 f (ω1 − ω ) + m2 f (ω2 − ω ) = m3 f (ω3 − ω ) + m4 f (ω4 − ω ) (9.28) that describes velocity addition. Use rapidity instead. you will ﬁll the page(s) with algebra. 1. The proposed conservation law is in the form m1 f (ω1 ) + m2 f (ω2 ) = m3 f (ω3 ) + m4 f (ω4 ) If someone chases after these particles with a rapidity ω (no subscript). . In the same way that there can be no more than three conservation laws in the non-relativistic case. which brings us to Relativistic Conservation. This time the ﬁrst case is not possible because we know that mass is not conserved. or zero mass. You can have an inelastic collision and then only two things are conserved. so you can’t have such a conservation law. because there is a built-in speed parameter — c. But wait! The expression ev makes no sense dimensionally. Case 2. What is the exponential of 5 m/s? To make this work you would need an additional constant to handle the units. You have an equation such as f = αf or f = αf or f = αf or maybe even f = α1 f + α2 f . something such as ev/v0 . The procedure for the relativistic case is the same. but you may get involved with a lot more algebra if you don’t plan ahead. From conservation laws alone you can’t determine anything about the ﬁnal masses. The second case is now possible however. then its precursors ω and ω 2 can’t be valid either. If f ≡ 1 is disallowed. or the sort of exponentials that result from solving equations such as f = f . and remember the equation (9. then they should hold just as well if you reversed the coordinate system.39) This looks exactly like Eq. etc. You can have a high energy reaction such as ¯ e− + e+ −→ p + p in which a positron hits an electron and converts to a proton and an anti-proton. Classical Newtonian mechanics has no such built-in speed parameter. ω .9—Special Relativity 343 these laws may hold. These have familiar exponential solutions such as ev or the like. there can be no more than two here. If you use the variables v1 . There are then three possible types of conservation laws with possible forms for f being either ω 2 . v2 . This means that f is not independent of f ¯ reaction above to its reverse.38) except for changing the symbols. which does.

and some claim even tighter bounds. The experimental upper limit on its mass is something like 10−20 electron masses. moving at the speed of light (ω → ∞). this says that E = cp. because in the non-relativistic limit that is what you have. accomplishing nothing. If p = A sinh ω and E = B cosh ω . second order diﬀerential equation that works is f = ±α2 f for some α. In the former instance ω was a change of variable in an integral. The only linear. The quotient of these equations relates E to p without m: p mc sinh ω 1 = = tanh ω 2 cosh ω E mc c For a photon. This is sort of like choosing to work in radians when you use circular functions. f (ω ) = α sinh αω f (ω ) = α sin αω The circular functions are unexpected. look at the other equations. are they possible? They would have the feature that as one increases the other decreases. On that basis alone. then for small ω ≈ v/c. it’s completely arbitrary and I can make it anything that I want. In the second instance a change of ω to αω would just be carried through the next few equations intact. it’s an experimental question whether the photon has zero mass or not. but why carry along the extra factor of π/180? One constraint is the non-relativistic limit. You could work in degrees. The f term behaves oppositely from the other two. So. This diﬀerential equation doesn’t satisfy that criterion.33). Why not ﬁrst order? You expect two conservation laws not one. and in the non-relativistic limit nothing like that occurs. Of course. Are there any restrictions on α? No.23) and (9. Back when the rapidity ω appeared in the equations (9.26) it could just as easily have been v/c = tanh 2ω and nothing would have changed. (−) f (ω ) = cos αω. and that is just that third allowed way to have a consistent conservation law. The solutions are then respectively even and odd. p ≈ Aω = Av/c These should match mv and mv 2 /2. and the result of an integration can’t depend on your choice how you do it. There is no mass in the equation. so and E ≈ B 1 + ω 2 /2 A/c = m and m = B/c2 −→ p = mc sinh ω.9—Special Relativity 344 changing every ω to −ω . just make it α = 1 and be done with it. constant coeﬃcient. . f = ±α2 f −→ (+) f (ω ) = cosh αω. E = mc2 cosh ω These are precisely the equations (9.

y and z behave just as py and pz do.9—Special Relativity 345 Does this analysis show that anything is conserved? No. It does show that you don’t have very much choice in the form of conservation laws if they do exist. (9.40) 2 − x2 /c2 from Eqs. There are other ways to obtain these results. (Good luck!) Energy-Momentum transformations What happens to energy and momentum when you switch to a moving observer? Answer: They transform using the Lorentz transformation. (9. cp = cp cosh ω − E sinh ω E = E cosh ω − pc sinh ω (9.39). (9.29).16) is precisely reﬂected The invariant interval t in the equation E 2 − p2 c2 = m2 c4 from Eq.11).27). You can show this using the same method as in Eq.3). so its energy and momentum are E = mc2 cosh ω1 . A mass m has rapidity ω1 . so that person will see that the mass has rapidity ω1 − ω and that the energy is (problem 0.15) E = mc2 cosh(ω1 − ω ) = mc2 cosh ω1 cosh ω − sinh ω1 sinh ω = E cosh ω − pc sinh ω Similarly he sees that its momentum is p = mc sinh(ω1 − ω ) = mc sinh ω1 cosh ω − cosh ω1 sinh ω = p cosh ω − 1 E sinh ω c These are identical to the Lorentz transformation equations (9. x = x cosh ω − ct sinh ω ct = ct cosh ω − x sinh ω x ←→ cp ct ←→ E . the derivation that nails it down so it is inescapable. With more coordinates. and you should compare this derivation to the derivation of coordinate rotations in Eq. (9. (0.15) and (9. (They’re unchanged by a Lorentz transformation along x. p = mc sinh ω1 Someone is chasing it with rapidity ω . changing the rapidity and using the trigonometric identities in Eq. just as x and t do. but the real one. is the 1939 paper by Wigner.

5 Two events occur at the space-time coordinates x1 = 0. what was v/c? (assume no acceleration). Then express the equation in terms of x and y . Hence. ±π/4. t1 = 0 and x2 = 2400 m. showing that they have no solution. 6 Can positronium decay by emitting a single photon? e− e+ → γ .4) and taking α = 45◦ . t 2 = 5 µs Use the Lorentz transformation to determine a speed v such that either (a) the two events are simultaneous or (b) the two events occurred at the same position. If its mean life at rest is 80 millisec. Assuming the atom can be treated nonrelativistically. compute the recoil velocity of the atom. Recall: the speed of light is c = 300 m/µs. Write the equations for conservation of energy and of momentum and verify that this is impossible. solve for x and y . lives on the average. graph the curve x y = 1. an unstable particle. does the particle move before decaying? 8 A photon of energy E is emitted by an atom of mass m. . 3 Using the picture above Eqs. 2 In Eqs. Solve for v in each case and show that one solution is possible and the other is not. Various points.6 × 10−8 s (measured in its own frame of reference) before decaying.4). Express it in the units light-years/year2 . ±π/2. (9. (a) If such a particle is moving with respect to the laboratory with a speed of 0. (9. show that the recoil speed is much smaller than c whenever E is much smaller than the rest energy mc2 of the atom. 4 The Earth’s gravitational ﬁeld is g .8c. 9 At what speed is the momentum of a particle twice as great as the result obtained from the nonrelativistic expression mv ? 10 A particle is observed to go (on average) 6.4) to verify they they work: 0. π . what lifetime is measured in the laboratory? (b) What average distance. measured in the laboratory. 7 The π + meson. which recoils in the opposite direction. about 2. (9.000 meters in 100 µs before decaying.9—Special Relativity 346 Exercises 1 Check special cases of Eqs.

32) from Eqs.20).9—Special Relativity 11 At what speed is the rest energy of a particle equal to its kinetic energy? 347 12 In Eq. what does the equation say if u is close to +c and to −c? (Four cases) 13 Expand Eqs. (9. (9. look more closely at the case for which the moving observer “v ” has velocity very close to +c and then again when it is close to −c. (9. Eliminate ω between them to get x(t) for small times.29). For both of these.22) and (9. (9. . 14 Derive Eqs.23) to get t and x for small times.

who of course says that you are the one moving to the left. so draw the picture of your motion in the same diagram. the number of muons as a function of time is N (t) = N0 e−t/τ . and the half life. and t = t2 . show that the angle between the x and x axes is tan−1 v . you may assume that one of the crests has coordinate x = 0 at time t = 0. (9.1 In the picture of the Lorentz transformation. Perhaps you are more familiar with the half life. (9.6 Starting at Eq. You are moving to the right with velocity v . That means that starting with N0 muons. Now follow the same technique and show how each can observe that the other’s clock runs slow.10) you see how two people can each observe that the other’s rulers have shrunk. The same for the angle between the t and t axes. What does your friend conclude about the total charge density that you see? 9. then approximately what is your result and compare it to the Doppler shift equations you’ve seen before. (Notice that it takes the light less time to return than to go. and what is the muon’s (proper) half life? Ans: 1.5˙ A light source at x = 0 is emitting light to the right at frequency f = 1/T where T is the period of the wave.9—Special Relativity 348 Problems 9. If v c.27).3 In section 9.2 Solve the Lorentz transformation equations as expressed in Eq. What is the relation between the mean life. Find the time interval according to you at which two successive wave crest move past you. and the unknown length of the clock is L. t1/2 .4 Draw the space-time ﬁgure on page 324 as seen by your friend. It will keep the same time.2 the mean lifetime of a muon was stated to be τ = 2. τ . and that fact will determine its length. 9. so that N (t) = N0 2−t/t1/2 .5 µs 9. You know that the time for the light to return. Draw a space-time diagram showing several wave crests. and in the units for which c = 1. You will have to ﬁnd some intersections of lines and apply the Lorentz transformation. 9. the time in which one-half of the muons decay. t = t1 . The action this time will be along the t and t axes instead of x and x .7 ˙ Another way to ﬁnd the length contraction factor: just turn the light clock on its side.) The dashed line is the coordinate x = 0. .2 µs. For convenience. 9. for x and t. The picture shows the clock at times t = 0. 9.

and at that earlier time it was farther away. And how does t1 compare to t2 and is that plausible? 9. and you have done the preliminary exercise 4 haven’t you? Is τtotal really less than T ? And when does the whole calculation go wrong? And if g is the gravitational ﬁeld at the Earth’s surface. (9. Now eliminate t1 and solve for L.12 The expressions Eq. so that N pairs are created.11 ˙ The muons that come from high energy cosmic ray collisions with the upper atmosphere do not all have the same energy. Let f (γ ) = dN/dγ describe this spread as a function of γ .4) in terms of the variable s instead of α: tan α = s α s 1 .9—Special Relativity 349 t2 . There are many things to explore. but it will probably help to draw all the paths involved. that they all hit the atmosphere at the same height (h = 20 km) and have the mean life at rest so that cτ = h0 = 0. express the rotation equations Eq. assume that f (γ ) = A/γ 2 where A is a constant. when you look at it your eye registers the light that hits your eye at one instant. And did you verify that your result is ok for N = 1? 9. But.66 km. what are the largest values that T and τ can have? What is the smallest possible ratio of τ /T over all possible accelerations and times? 9.27) look much neater than the original Lorentz equations.8 When an object of proper length L moves toward you. is 2T0 / 1 − v 2 /c2 = 2(L0 /c)/ 1 − v 2 /c2 . Suppose that Eq. What minimum kinetic energy must the incoming photon have? Show that for large enough energy the number of pairs that can be created varies approximately as the square root of the photon energy. What is the x-coordinate of the light at t1 (computed two ways)? The same question when it returns. To reach your eye at a single speciﬁed time (perhaps t = 0 or some other T0 ) the light from the far end of the object must have left earlier than the light from the near end. its length as measured by you will be only L = L 1 − v 2 /c2 .18) thoroughly. (1 < γ < ∞ and E = γmc2 ).9 Analyze the results in Eq. (9. both object and light. 9. First.36) is γ + e− → e− + N e− + N e+ . (9. Make the same assumption as in the text. (9. what is A for a total of N0 muons? What is the result if f is proportional to 1/γ 3 instead? Ans: 3. For an analogy in the opposite direction.10 A very high energy photon can create many more than one electron-positron pair during a collision. How long does the object appear to be to your eye? You do not have to use a space-time diagram to do this. This introduces an apparent stretching of the length.3% 9. What fraction of the incident particles reach the ground? Now to evaluate the integral.

but now according to you. say v = 0. The star explodes.5c or 0. dA. (a) Who was right? Draw careful space-time diagrams of everything. say that the proper length of the car is 5 meters.6c.5. 9. (b) For what angle does this maximum occur if β is close to one? Ans: θ ≈ 2(1 − β ) 9. 9. We view this from a large distance. take the case for which the star’s speed is v c and plot y versus tarrival where the coordinates are as in section 9. the proper length of the garage is 4 meters. (a) First. just as mass is.9—Special Relativity 350 9. (b) At the time (according to your friend) at which the front of the car is hitting the back of the garage. (b) Now what does the plot look like if the star’s speed is much larger. Instead.16 An unstable star is surrounded by a spherical shell of dust at a large distance R from the center of the star. To be speciﬁc when crafting your picture. After a time R/c the light reaches the shell of dust and illuminates it. what would a binary star system look like? Look at the same case as in the preceding problem where a star is in a circular orbit around another (taken to be ﬁxed) and we see its orbit on edge. he had major repair bills. You don’t have to assume that the star’s speed is such a large fraction of c in order to . what does the star’s orbit look like to us? Assume that the orbit is a circle and that we view it edge on.19).18¨If the speed of light depended on the motion of its source the way the velocity of a ball thrown from a moving car depends on the velocity of the car. then he certainly didn’t ﬁt while the garage was shorter. but later complains that you were wrong — the garage shrank and since he didn’t ﬁt in before. Assume that the current is in the x-direction and show that for someone moving in the x-direction at velocity v . so you suggest that he drive it very fast so that it shrinks and then it will ﬁt within the length of the garage.15 (a) Find the maximum apparent speed described by Eq. it is a scalar. the charge and current densities that observer will measure are ρ = γ ρ − jx v/c2 and jx = γ jx − ρv Charge density is deﬁned by the relation ρ = dq/dV and current density by dI = j .17˙ If a star is orbiting a black hole so that the star’s speed is a substantial fraction of the speed of light. where is the door to the garage (according to him)? (c) Same questions.14˙ Your friends automobile is too long to ﬁt inside a garage. and a uniform current density j .9c? 9. you recommend that he drive at v = 0. with the light scattering in all directions. so what will we see? Which light do we see ﬁrst? What is the apparent transverse velocity of the phenomenon as viewed from Earth? 9.13¨There is a uniform charge density ρ. (9. He does this. Charge is itself independent of any change of velocity.

22 From Eq. (b) In quantum mechanics you ﬁnd that the energy of a photon is proportional to the frequency of the corresponding wave. 9.24) you can compute dx/dt = (dx/dω ) (dt/dω ). how does the answer behave when you push toward the limits? 9. 9. (9. (9. (9. a graph can help. but what happens to the energy and to the momentum of a photon when you chase it? (Or when it chases you?) If you work this out in terms of ω . At what point on your graph does the non-relativistic expression exceed the speed of light? 9.24)? The ω variable makes the integration easier. 9. (9. 9. measured vertically for large time? 9. 9. What then is the relation between the two frequencies? This is another derivation of the Doppler eﬀect. Take x0 = c2 /a.25) on the same graph and to the same scale.19 Derive Eqs.32).21 In the graph at Eq. translate the result to v and vice versa. Show that this is v = c tanh ω .24). what is the proper acceleration for this motion? (b) For the case of constant proper acceleration as in Eq.23˙ (a) What is the proper time as integrated along the path of constant proper acceleration in Eq. 9. What is the energy of one as viewed from the other? 9.29 (a) What happens when you try to catch up to a photon? Part of the answer is Eq.20 Use a series expansion to show the relation between the two expressions for x(t) in Eq.26˙ (a) The equation (9. (9.24) what is the distance (a time really) between the hyperbola and the “x = ct” line. you are). (9.18) represents constant acceleration d2 x/dt2 .19) is vγ .36).24˙ Complete the setup and do the algebra to ﬁnd the minimum kinetic energy required ¯ for the pair production reaction p + p → p + p + p + p as in the discussion immediately after Eq. each of mass m are headed toward each other at the same speed v . what is the distance travelled in a proper time of 1 year? 5 years? 24 years? (c) What is a in units m/s2 ? Ans: τ = cω/a.28 Plot the two graphs in Eq. Remember that when you want to solve an equation. . (9. only that you are viewing it from astronomical distances (which of course. (9. (9.14).25 Two particles. √ Also that this maximum is greater than c if v > c/ 2. (9. x = (c2 /a) cosh ω −→ x = (c2 /a) cosh(aτ /c). but what acceleration will the person taking this journey feel? That is. (b) For an acceleration of a = 1 light-year/year2 . what is the acceleration d2 x/dt2 ? In both cases. 9.9—Special Relativity 351 discover something interesting.25).27 Verify that the maximum apparent speed (over all theta) in Eq.

2) . will you have correspondingly many modes of oscillation? (Yes. Take the coordinates to be measured from their points of equilibrium. letting the system move freely in space and you have nine coordinates: a water molecule is an example of such a system. if you place these gently on the table to stay at rest then you measure r1 .) This last example is important in understanding the quantum theory of the speciﬁc heat of solids.54).1) Another example has three masses that are allowed to move in the plane. and r3 from these initial positions ¨ m1 r1 = −k12 r1 − r2 − k13 r1 − r3 ¨ m2 r2 = −k12 r2 − r1 − k23 r2 − r3 ¨ m3 r3 = −k13 r3 − r1 − k23 r3 − r2 These have six components altogether. If you have three masses in a line you get three frequencies. The result was that two diﬀerent frequencies appeared in the same system along with two correspondingly diﬀerent modes of oscillation. but the basic picture and much of the mathematics is the same. Self-inductance plays a role like mass.Coupled Oscillators In section 3.8 you saw what happened when two harmonic oscillators are coupled to each other. The ﬁrst example above led to equations (3. Mutual inductance has no analog in mass. Change this to three dimensions. so you could have up to six frequencies. it would be something like a term where the acceleration of one mass directly aﬀects the acceleration of another without springs or capacitors in between. Self. 3 × 1023 . but that’s a special circumstance. There will actually be fewer in this case. r2 . d2 I1 I1 d2 I2 + + M12 2 = 0 dt2 C1 dt 2I d I d2 I L2 22 + 2 + M21 21 = 0 dt C2 dt L1 (10. If you have 1023 atoms bound together in a crystal and oscillating together in three dimensions. The forces between the atoms don’t come from springs. That is.and mutual-capacitances play the role of (reciprocal) spring constants. The currents in various parts of the circuits are the coordinates. ¨ m1 x1 = −k1 x1 − k2 (x1 − x2 ) and ¨ m2 x2 = −k3 x2 − k2 (x2 − x1 ) (10. Electric circuits provide even more complex possibilities.

M¨ = −Kx. If α comes out to be real or ω turns out imaginary. What all of these have in common is a linear combination of the coordinates and of their derivatives adding to zero. Use x1 . (10.2) they are M= L1 M12 M21 L2 .10—Coupled Oscillators 353 L1 is the self inductance of coil one. (10. x2 . you know either that you’ve made a mistake or that you have a surprise and the system is unstable. The particular example (10. then M¨ = −Kx x is Mx0 α2 = −Kx0 =⇒ α2 M + K x0 = 0 The last form says that this matrix on a non-zero vector gives zero. x = x0 eαt . for the coordinates and write these as a column matrix with N elements.56) or (0.3) For Eq. M11 M12 M21 M22 ¨ x1 ¨ x2 =− K11 K12 K21 K22 x1 x2 (10. etc. That implies that the matrix is singular. its determinant is zero.1) is. x for N = 2.3) compactly represents a set of linear constant coeﬃcient diﬀerential equations. and the capacitances are C1 and C2 . You can use eαt or eiωt as you prefer because you expect this to oscillate. as in Eq.1) these are M= m1 0 0 m2 . so that the ﬁrst equation has an added I2 term and the second equation an I1 term. (10. in this notation α2 m1 0 0 m2 + k1 + k2 −k2 −k2 k2 + k3 x10 x20 = 0 0 (10.1) follow the same pattern. The solutions of the general case or of such a speciﬁc case as Eq.44). The use of matrices provides a compact and powerful notation to do all of these problems at once. That provides the algebraic equation with which to determine the α’s. K= 1/C1 0 0 1/C2 The equation (10. You can also include mutual capacitance. M12 = M21 is the mutual inductance of the two coils. and you solve them the same way that you would if there were no matrices involved: use an exponential solution.5) .4) and for Eq. (3. K= k1 + k2 −k2 −k2 k2 + k3 (10. This works because diﬀerentiating an exponential leaves the same exponential and you can then cancel it from the equations.

Unless there’s some special symmetry that allows you to simplify the system. there often are such symmetries. that instability is exactly what you expect and it isn’t wrong. and normal means that the scalar product of one mode of oscillation with another mode will be zero. use Mij or (M)ij for the single number sitting in the i-j position.* M Mij = Mji . Of course if you’re trying to stand a pencil on its tip. Fortunately. There are some general theorems about these equations that will apply to any such system. What’s normal about them and are other oscillations abnormal? Here. these problems rapidly becomes intractable. It involves only some matrix manipulation. The “positive deﬁnite” requirement is needed to be sure that both the kinetic energy and the potential energy are positive.1) that the symmetry properties are satisﬁed.10 for a running start. The diﬀerent oscillations are normal to each other. but it’s messy. .1 Normal Modes The diﬀerent frequencies of oscillation corresponding to diﬀerent shapes for the way that the masses move. Which scalar product? Probably not the one you are thinking of. ∗ Kij = Kji is the transpose of M. 10. The basic results come without solving a single diﬀerential equation or algebraic equation. you will get a cubic equation instead. These are called “normal modes” of oscillation. M and K are positive deﬁnite: ˜ Mx > 0 and ˜∗ Kx > 0 x x M and K are real and symmetric.10—Coupled Oscillators 354 This is the same as the equations (3. normal means perpendicular.59). First though I’ll require that the matrices M and K satisfy certain properties: for all non-zero x (10. You can see that if you have three masses instead of two.7) You can check in the special case coming from Eq. If you don’t have this. (M)ij = Mji M= a b c d =⇒ M = a c b d * Use M for the whole matrix. even if they’re oscillating along a straight line as these are. and they provide a guide about where to look for a solution. then the oscillator is unstable. (10. and the statement that the determinant is zero is 2 det α2 M + K = α2 m1 + k1 + k2 α2 m2 + k2 + k3 − k2 = 0 (10. Look back at section 0. Just don’t expect to use the results of this chapter without modiﬁcation.6) This is a quadratic equation in α2 . so ﬁrst a quick review of the notation and the pertinent parts of the subject.

13) Now subtract these equations and the K terms cancel. MN ij = k Mik Nkj Mjk Nki = k and the transpose of this interchanges i and j .11) Both of these are numbers. (10.10—Coupled Oscillators M∗ 355 ∗ is the complex conjugate of each element.8). let x1 and x2 be two non-zero solutions for two values of α.10) How do you derive these equations? The same way as in Eq.12) 1 2 Recall the assumption that both M and K are real and symmetric. Take the complex conjugate of the second one and use Eq. 2 ∗2 α1 − α2 x† Mx1 = 0 2 (10. If x = and x† My x1 x2 .8) The corresponding equation for the adjoint adds some complex conjugations among Eqs. For now I don’t need the values of the roots α. ∗ 2 ∗2 x† α2 M + K x2 = x† α2 M† + K† x1 = 0 (10. For the equation α2 M + K x = 0.11) and (10. so Nki Mjk = k k MN ij = N ik M kj = NM ij (10. just that they exist. (10. (10. 1 2 2 x† α1 M + K x1 = 0 2 2 x† α2 M + K x2 = 0 1 (10.10).14) .9) is a number whose complex conjugate is y† M† x (10. That means that I can write Eqs.8). so M† = M and K† = K.12) as 2 x† α1 M + K x1 = 0 2 and ∗2 x† α2 M + K x1 = 0 2 (10. and M = M† MN = NM is the adjoint and (MN)† = N† M† To prove the ﬁrst of these equations just write out the meaning of each side. 2 α1 M + K x1 = 0 2 α2 M + K x2 = 0 Multiply the ﬁrst of these by x† and the second by x† . (10. Now to derive the basic theorem about normal modes. then x† = ( x∗ 1 x∗ ) 2 Mx † = x† M† (10.

M is 1 positive deﬁnite.10—Coupled Oscillators 356 This is the result I was aiming for. v1 )∗ . 10. This is the sense in which the modes are “normal. v3 ) 2.15) The α2 ’s are real now so I can drop a complex conjugation. Now go back to the general case 2 2 α1 − α2 x† Mx1 = 0 2 (10. This number can’t vanish unless the x itself is zero. but at least it’s not complex. In those equations you used partial integration. then x† Mx1 = 0 (10. f (v1 . it’s necessary to understand what a scalar product is. f (v1 . From this equation I can deduce two useful consequences. If the two α2 ’s are diﬀerent then this time the ﬁrst factor cannot be zero and that means that the second factor must be zero. The mass matrix deﬁnes a way to multiply the two vectors. but there are close parallels. Here you used matrix transposition. α2 is real. and it is by using this particular deﬁnition of scalar product that you get the nice theorem. 2 2 If α1 = α2 .16) 2 This is a scalar product. Go back to the material on waves and look closely at the equations (7. f (v1 . To see why.42)(7. The fundamental deﬁnition of a scalar product is that it is a scalar-valued function of two vector variables and that it must satisfy a certain set of requirements. v2 + v3 ) = f (v1 . v2 ) + f (v1 . In a seeming distant context you are doing essentially the same manipulations there as here. v2 ) 3. x1 and x2 . 2 ∗2 α1 − α1 x† Mx1 = 0 1 One of my assumptions (and here’s why) was that the product x† Mx1 > 0.44). v2 ) = f (v2 . so f (v1 . v2 ) is a scalar and it must have these four properties: 1.” Their scalar product vanishes. It doesn’t say if it’s positive or negative. This implies that the other factor 2 ∗2 α1 − α1 = 0 That is. all without solving a complicated polynomial equation. The only way that the product of two numbers can be zero is if one of the two numbers is itself zero. x1 = x2 and α1 = α2 . For the ﬁrst result take the special case in which the two solutions are the same solution. αv2 ) = α f (v1 .2 Scalar Products Can you do this with a scalar product? Is it legitimate to call x† Mx1 a scalar product? 2 Yes. Call the function f for now.

A . but let the masses be diﬀerent.7). That (10. (10.17) . so that r1 = x1 x + y1 y and similarly for r2 .16) is like this. Does the familiar dot product satisfy them? f (A. Draw the picture of A . r2 = x1 x2 + y1 y2 . 2 det α2 M + K = α2 m1 + k1 + k2 α2 m2 + k2 + k1 − k2 = 0 2 m1 m2 α4 + (m1 + m2 )(k1 + k2 )α2 + (k1 + k2 )2 − k2 = 0 ? A. B + C = A. That one is not so hard to prove — simply write out the meaning of each term. If you are using only real numbers then the complex conjugation in the third requirement is unnecessary. B ) . This is the only part that takes any eﬀort.B + A.A 3.10—Coupled Oscillators 357 4.(B + C ) assuming that everything is in a single plane. A . B = AB cos θ is certainly a scalar. I’ll take k1 = k3 . v ) = 0 if and only if the vector v is itself the zero vector. Just to keep the algebra from getting completely out of hand. Suppose however that you decide to measure x in meters and r1 y in centimeters. B ) = A .C B + C cos θ3 = B cos θ1 + C cos θ2 (10. where k = 10−4 m2 /cm2 . although the mass matrix came naturally out of the computation instead of being an artiﬁce of changing units. This product would have to be modiﬁed to account for this. If you express displacement vectors in the plane in terms of rectangular coorˆ ˆ dinates. 10. C B A B cos θ1 C cos θ2 The projections of B and of C on A add to the projection of B + C on A. (10. A ≥ 0 and it’s never zero except when A is itself zero.B = B . A 4. If α < 0 remember that cos(θ + π ) = − cos θ. and you can easily ﬁgure out which angle is which anyway. (10. 2. and is essentially a translation of the assumptions that I made about M in Eq. Any function that satisﬁes these requirements is called a scalar product. and f (v. v ) ≥ 0. 1. r2 = x1 x2 + ky1 y2 . the standard scalar product is . looking something like r1 .6) and carry it out in this language.1) and (10.16) satisﬁes the requirements to be a scalar product is easy to check. I didn’t draw the angles explicitly because it would make the sketch too cluttered.3 Example Return to Eq. f (v. With a little more thought the same picture works for the three dimensional case too.(αB ) = α(A . The example Eq.

m 2 α2 = − k1 + 2k2 m (10. but not an impossible amount. The special case for which m1 = m2 gives x20 = 1 k2 α2 m1 + k1 + k2 x10 (10. but I don’t want to restrict myself to that case because it doesn’t show enough about the nature of “normal” modes.18) α2 = 1 − (m1 + m2 )(k1 + k2 ) 2m1 m2 ± 2 (m1 + m2 )2 (k1 + k2 )2 − 4m1 m2 (k1 + k2 )2 − k2 = 1 −(m1 + m2 )(k1 + k2 ) ± 2m1 m2 2 (m1 − m2 )2 (k1 + k2 )2 + 4m1 m2 k2 At least it came out real. Pick either. so evaluate the factor in Eq. and without that requirement on the determinant the only solution for x is identically zero. I want to show that this really works.18). 1 k2 α2 m1 + k1 + k2 = = 1 k2 − (m1 + m2 )(k1 + k2 ) ± √ 1 2m1 m2 m1 + k1 + k2 1 √ (m2 − m1 )(k1 + k2 ) ± 2m2 k2 √ The scalar product is now 0 m2 m2 2 2 2 2 2 = m1 + 2 (m2 − m1 ) (k1 + k2 ) − (m1 − m2 ) (k1 + k2 ) + 4m1 m2 k2 4m2 k2 2 1 1 2m2 k2 (m2 − m1 )(k1 + k2 ) − m1 0 1 √ (m2 − m1 )(k1 + k2 ) + 2m2 k2 1 =0 .10—Coupled Oscillators 358 (10. α2 m1 + k1 + k2 x10 − k2 x20 = 0. That the determinant is zero assures you that there is a non-trivial solution.5). When the determinant is zero.20) The solutions for the components are in this case 2 α1 =⇒ x20 = x10 and 2 α2 =⇒ x20 = −x10 and the scalar product of these two vectors is ( 1 −1 ) m 0 0 m 1 1 =0 If the masses aren’t equal there is more algebra. The modes themselves require solving the matrix equations (10.19) α2 = − 2m(k1 + k2 ) ± 2mk2 /2m2 . If m1 = m2 this simpliﬁes. the two simultaneous equations are really one equation. then 2 α1 = − k1 .19) using the two values of α2 in (10. (10.

Both these α’s are roots of the same quadratic equation. 2 (k1 + k2 )2 − k2 m1 m2 If m1 x20 = 1 k2 α2 m1 + k1 + k2 x10 2 For the α1 case. but this time there’s an easier way. and perhaps you remember something about the roots of polynomial equations. (10. so this implies 2 α1 = 2 m2 then α1 2 2 (k1 + k2 )2 − k2 −m2 (k1 + k2 )2 − k2 =− m1 m2 k1 + k2 m1 (k1 + k2 ) 2 α2 .10—Coupled Oscillators 359 The two modes are orthogonal as promised. And yes. (x − r1 )(x − r2 ) = x2 − (r1 + r2 )x + r1 r2 When a polynomial of any order (n) is written with its ﬁrst coeﬃcient one. you do have to check the algebra. The ﬁrst term wins. (10. the next term is (−) the sum of the roots. You can do a series expansion in m2 .19) again.18). Now for the modes themselves. For Eq. if you use the same approximation then the two terms cancel. The α with the minus sign in front of the square root is 2 α2 ≈ − m1 (k1 + k2 ) − m1 (k1 + k2 ) 2m1 m2 = −(k1 + k2 )/m2 For the other α. use Eq. then look at the square root in Eq. What if one of the two masses is a lot bigger then the other? Let m1 m2 . That throws everything away. (10. and the constant is (−1)n times the product of the roots.17) the product of the roots is 2 2 α1 α2 = 2 I already know α2 . The ﬁrst term has an m2 and the second 1 term has only an m1 . so it’s not good enough. leaving you with nothing. the m1 cancels and you have x20 ≈ 1 k2 − 2 (k1 + k2 )2 − k2 k2 + k1 + k2 x10 = x (k1 + k2 ) k1 + k2 10 .

k3 = 10. 360 x20 ≈ 1 k2 − k1 + k2 m k + k2 m1 + k1 + k2 x10 ≈ − 1 1 x10 m2 m2 k2 For the α1 mode the two masses move in the same direction by about the same amount. symmetric system. Eq. 10. M = M0 + M1 K = K0 + K1 x = x0 + x1 + 2 x2 + · · · ω 2 = (ω 2 )0 + (ω 2 )1 + 2 (ω 2 )2 + · · · . and assume a series expansion for the unknowns x and ω 2 . But how close? Use an expansion parameter as a convenient way to keep track of the powers in an expansion. If m1 = 1.4 Perturbation Theory The special cases for which the matrices are simple and the problem is readily solvable are just that — special. but with the large mass moving very little. one small. That occurs when the system is almost easy. (Or at least a known solution. m2 = 0. In contrast the α2 mode has the motion in opposite directions.) The idea of perturbation theory is to write M and K each as the sum of two terms: one simple. What about the other cases for which a direct attack will lead to a morass of messy mathematics? There is one set of circumstances for which there is hope. That is. an inﬁnite series typically.0 (N/m) then the system is almost symmetric and its solution is close to that of the simple. k1 = 10. take the prototype problem. k3 = 5. Then write x and ω 2 as a sum of terms. if the matrices are very close to ones for which there is an easy solution. This can provide a good approximate solution to the full problem.1).98 (kg). m2 but ( x∗ 1 x ∗ )1 2 m1 0 0 m2 x1 x2 =0 2 The choice of a scalar product makes this much diﬀerence. slow The modes are fast 1 x1 x2 ( x∗ 1 = 1 k2 /(k1 + k2 ) = 1− 2 and x1 x2 = 2 1 −m1 (k1 + k2 )/m2 k2 x∗ )1 2 x1 x2 m1 = 0.01.10—Coupled Oscillators 2 For the α2 case.2. (10. For an example of this.0. for which I can compute at least the ﬁrst few terms.

At this point I have to stop and present a theorem. only the ﬁrst two. It’s the one that is supposedly simple. But no. Instead of (ω 2 )1 2 I will write ω1 . And why the frequency squared instead of the frequency? That’s the way it works. I’ve replaced one diﬃcult equation by an inﬁnite number of diﬃcult equations. but it is the key to solving all these equations. but see problem 10. Equation ( 0 ) is the equation that I’ve already solved. so I will stop doing it. Writing the frequency this way is unnecessarily cumbersome. −ω 2 Mx + Kx = 0 − (ω 2 )0 + (ω 2 )1 + 2 (ω 2 )2 + · · · M0 + M1 x0 + x1 + + K0 + K1 x0 + x1 + The only way that this can be valid for arbitrary the powers of to agree. ˜∗ Theorem: If (1) H is a matrix that satisﬁes H† = H = H. there’s some simplicity hidden. On the left side you have something that looks like the simple. Besides. It’s such an easy theorem that you may wonder why I’d bother calling it such. ( 0) ( 1) ( 2) 361 2 2 x2 + · · · x2 + · · · = 0 is for the respective coeﬃcients of −(ω 2 )0 M0 x0 + K0 x0 = 0 −(ω 2 )0 M0 x1 − (ω 2 )0 M1 x0 − (ω 2 )1 M0 x0 + K0 x1 + K1 x0 = 0 −(ω 2 )0 M0 x2 − (ω 2 )0 M1 x1 − (ω 2 )1 M0 x1 − (ω 2 )1 M1 x0 − (ω 2 )2 M0 x0 + K0 x2 + K1 x1 = 0 It appears that I’ve made the problem worse. (Hermitian) (2) H has a null eigenvector — there is an x such that Hx = 0 then for any column matrix y. In what looks to be a hopeless tangle.21) Look at the way that I rearranged this equation and you see that on the right-hand side 2 the only thing that is unknown is ω1 . not better.10—Coupled Oscillators Substitute these into the equations that I want to solve.6. 2 2 2 −ω0 M0 x1 + K0 x1 = +ω0 M1 x0 + ω1 M0 x0 − K1 x0 (10. unperturbed equation. x† Hy = 0 (10. I’m never going to get around to using the third of these equations. The ﬁrst new equation that I have to examine is ( 1 ).22) . the term that gives the ﬁrst order correction to the frequency. It breaks open the entire structure and makes it manageable.

just a scalar product.21) and that acts on x1 is precisely such a matrix. Does all of this material seem familiar.20) for which k1 = k3 and m1 = m2 then the modes and the frequencies are simple. x = m 0 1 1 and 2 ω0 = k1 + 2k2 . (10. as if you’ve seen it somewhere before? Possibly in a previous life? Not so far back: try section 7. Eq. (10.24) = x† 0 − 2 ω0 M1 x0 + K 1 x0 x† M0 x0 0 Computing the lowest order correction to the frequency (squared) is now just some matrix multiplication. The ( 0 ) equation says that x0 is a null eigenvector. and the result is that it 2 determines the ﬁrst order correction to the frequency.j x∗ Hij yj = i i.j ∗ Hij xi yj = ∗ ˜∗ Hji xi yj i. 0 2 2 2 x† − ω0 M0 x1 + K0 x1 = 0 = x† ω0 M1 x0 + ω1 M0 x0 − K1 x0 0 0 There’s no matrix inversion to do here.23) The matrix on the left side of Eq.j † ∗ = i.8.25) What happens if I stick a small wad of chewing gum on one of the masses? Now it’s not such a symmetric system and the result is more complicated. (10. ω1 .1).16). if x is an eigenvector with zero eigenvalue then x is orthogonal to the output of H for any input. x† Hy = i. Example Take the case of two masses and three springs. (10. If you restrict yourself to the special symmetric case of Eq.10—Coupled Oscillators 362 That is.j Hji xi yj = Hx y ∗ (10. 2 2 0 = ω1 x† M0 x0 + x† ω0 M1 x0 − K1 x0 0 0 2 ω1 so (10. x0 = m 1 −1 (10. In this case I’ve actually . Notice that what shows up in the denominator is the same scalar product as in Eq. That means that if I multiply the equation ( 1 ) by x† then I must get zero. If you want to see it written in terms of components I can do that too. The proof involves writing it out. x† Hy = Hx y = 0 † It’s as simple as that. 2 ω0 = k1 .

26) The equation (10.24) now tells you the correction to the frequency for each mode of oscillation.10—Coupled Oscillators 363 solved for the frequencies. and if you add some mass that is what you should expect. Eq. use series expansions. Let m2 = m1 = m be changed to m2 = m + mg . (10. First note the simpliﬁcation that I can drop the m2 term inside the square root because I’m g keeping terms only to the ﬁrst power in the perturbing mass. m 1 + mg 2 k m 2 1 mm + ··· 2 m = 2mk2 1 + The denominator becomes mg m 1/2 = 2mk2 1 + mg 1 1 1 1 = = (1 + mg /m)−1 = 1− + ··· 2 2 2 (1 + m /m) 2m(m + mg ) 2m 2m m 2m g .18) says for this case α2 = −(2m + mg )(k1 + k2 ) ± 2 m2 (k1 + k2 )2 + 4m(m + mg )k2 g 2m(m + mg ) To see what this says about the ﬁrst order correction in mg .18) so that I can test this perturbation method on something that I already know. (10. x0 = 1 1 (1 2 −→ ω1 = 1) − k1 m 0 0 0 mg 1 1 (1 1) m 0 0 m 1 1 =− k1 mg m 2m x0 = 1 −1 2 −→ ω1 = ( 1 −1 ) − k1 + 2k2 m 0 0 0 mg 1 −1 2m = − k1 + 2k2 mg m 2m Both frequencies are lowered. The square root is 2 4m(m + mg )k2 = 4m . Eq. What does the perturbation method say about the modiﬁed frequency? M0 = m 0 0 m . M1 = 0 0 0 mg . In this example you have the exact solution. K1 = 0 0 0 0 (10. not the second. so you can compare the two to see if this procedure is working.

1 1− 2 2m m − 2m(k1 + k2 ) ± 2mk2 + mg 1 − m(k1 + k2 ) ± mk2 − [−2m(k1 + k2 ) ± 2mk2 ] m 2m2 For the + sign this is mg 1 1 − 2m(k1 + k2 ) + 2mk2 + − m(k1 + k2 ) + mk2 − [−2m(k1 + k2 ) + 2m 2m2 m 2m2 =− And for the − sign. 1 2m2 − 2m(k1 + k2 ) − 2mk2 + k1 mg k1 + m m 2m mg 1 − m(k1 + k2 ) − mk2 − [−2m(k1 + k2 ) − 2m m 2m2 k1 + 2k2 mg k1 + 2k2 =− + m m 2m And this agrees exactly with the result from the perturbation calculation. (It does doesn’t it?) .10—Coupled Oscillators Put these together and simplify. 364 α2 ≈ −2m 1 + = 1 2m2 mg 1 mg (k1 + k2 ) ± 2mk2 1 + 2m 2 m mg .

(b) In the special case that the mutual inductance is zero.12). .11).16) satisﬁes the requirements for a scalar product.4).25) and (10.10).2). and the scalar product of two 3 4 column matrices is deﬁned as in Eq. which of the four requirements for a scalar product are violated? Which of the properties of Eq. Rewrite the matrices in a more symmetric form before doing the perturbation calculation. M0 = m + 1 mg 2 0 0 1 m + 2 mg . Also. and (10. M1 = 1 2 −mg 0 0 mg . (10. (10.1 Derive the equations (10. and (a) ﬁnd the frequencies of oscillation. K1 = 0 0 0 0 The says that the perturbation involves subtracting some mass from one and adding it to the other. 10. do your results reduce to the correct values? (c) If the two capacitances have the equal values and the self-inductances do too. Show that to ﬁrst order in mg the two results agree.13).9) and (10.4 Set up the equations for the frequencies of oscillation of the coupled circuits.5 Write out the manipulations of Eq.6 In the perturbation calculation for normal modes.26) another way. (10.14) 1 2 . 10. explicitly write out the equations (10.7) are violated? 10.10—Coupled Oscillators 365 Problems 10. Show that to ﬁrst order in . (10. Eq. explicitly write out each of them term-by-term for the 2×2 matrix case. the correction to the frequency produces ω= (ω 2 )0 1 + (ω 2 )1 + ··· 2 (ω 2 )0 10.8 You can do the example in equations (10. (10.2 For the special case Eq. (10.16). c d 10. (10. it was not the frequency that was easy to calculate but the square of the frequency.3 If the mass matrix is proportional to 10.23) explicitly for the two by two case. 10. ﬁnd the frequencies and modes of oscillation. (10.7 Verify that Eq. Now repeat the perturbation analysis. with H = a b .

making a system with circular symmetry. the system is pulled around into a large circle so that the masses are free to move only along the circle. Write down the M and K matrices for this system. k . Write M and K now. m. The last springs on each end are attached to walls. If instead of being attached to walls.9 A string of N equal masses. are connected along a straight line by equal springs. The last spring is then attached to the ﬁrst mass. .10—Coupled Oscillators 366 10.

. things that can happen. a pendulum.1).1 A Method that Fails Start with the example of the pendulum. a planet in an almost circular orbit. If you apply an oscillating force to it however there are other. (11.2) This function u ought to be small. it is apparent that we are omitting something. The techniques to solve it more completely are illustrative of the more general methods. so I will try to get at least an approximate equation for it. an atom vibrating in a crystal. . and I’ll keep terms up to θ3 . I’ll treat it as a correction and try to solve for it. then the exact solution ought to be close to the ﬁrst one that I wrote.Nonlinear Oscillations The simple harmonic oscillator provides an excellent model for oscillations about equilibrium. I’ll ﬁrst show you what does not work. 11. d2 θ d2 u 1 2 2 = −ω0 θ0 sin ω0 t + 2 = −ω0 θ0 sin ω0 t + u(t) − θ0 sin ω0 t + u(t) 2 dt dt 6 Cancel what I can and get 3 d2 u 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 = −ω0 u + ω0 θ0 sin3 ω0 t + ω0 θ0 sin2 ω0 t u + · · · dt2 6 2 . If the maximum angle θ0 is small. θ(t) = θ0 sin ω0 t + u(t) (11. In the series expansion sin θ = θ − θ3 /6 + · · · I dropped everything but the ﬁrst term and I didn’t look back. d2 θ g 1 2 = − sin θ ≈ −ω0 θ − θ3 + · · · 2 dt 6 (11. as long as the oscillations don’t take it near the top. this is a simple harmonic oscillator and the solution is θ0 sin ω0 t. Even with the pendulum however. . there are only quantitative diﬀerences. Substitute into Eq. very diﬀerent. For the pendulum. Is this approximation good? How good? In such an approximation are there qualitatively diﬀerent phenomena that I am ignoring or are the errors only those of the next decimal place? Regarding the last question.1) If I drop the θ3 and higher terms. In that case more than any of the others I was explicit in approximating the sine by its argument. A mass on a spring. there are some of each.

On the 2 3 right-hand side then the terms in θ0 u will be a lot smaller than the terms in θ0 . because this is to be the ﬁrst correction. and that culprit in this case is the sin ω0 t term in the equation for u. You can’t use a sin ω0 t or a cos ω0 t because they make the left side zero. 11. I neglect them and now I’m down to an easy equation.11—Nonlinear Oscillations 368 Here I’m trying to assume that u is small enough that I can (at least for the ﬁrst correction) neglect u2 and higher terms. The sin 3ω0 t causes no problem. (Don’t look back to see if it still . though its essential idea is the same: systematically get rid of those growing terms. Just wait a while and the second correction term will grow without limit and in no sense will it be small. I will shortly present a method that is more general and not that much more diﬃcult than this special case.5) 192 48 This doesn’t work.00001t) will. The other term in sin ω0 t is a problem because it has a resonance.2 A Kludge Start with the solution Eq. B = +θ0 /192. Another way to look at it is to ﬁnd the culprit that prevents the perturbation expansion from working.5) and assume that you can patch it up by simply and arbitrarily changing the frequency in the answer. I’m going to show how it works not because it’s the best way to attack the general problem. The diﬀerence between them must eventually become large. Use some trigonometric identities on this. You need Ct cos ω0 t. It behaves as a resonance force and you know that such terms cause the solution to grow. starting with adjusting the frequency of the solution in just such a way that these growing terms are forced to disappear. That works.3) Recall that θ0 is small and u is supposed to be a small correction to this. where C = 3 −3θ0 /48.4) dt2 6 4 4 There are two terms on the right. It is a successful way to get a solution to the nonlinear oscillation problem. (11. but because it shows the spirit of the technique in this special case where you can more easily see what is happening. There are a variety of ad hoc methods to conquer this problem. Again. This supposedly small correction isn’t. cos t − cos(1. be close to 2. d2 u 1 2 3 3 1 2 + ω0 u = ω0 θ0 sin ω0 t − sin 3ω0 t (11. 1 3 3 3 θ(t) = θ0 sin ω0 t + θ0 sin 3ω0 t − θ0 t cos ω0 t (11. Assume a solution 3 B sin 3ω0 t and for the right value of B you get what you want. d2 u 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 + ω0 u = ω0 θ0 sin ω0 t − sin 3ω0 t + ω0 θ0 1 − cos 2ω0 t u 2 dt 6 4 4 4 (11. What went wrong? The problem is that the frequency for the exact solution is not the same as the frequency ω0 for the small angle solution. after a long enough time.

x.3 Workable. make the coeﬃcient of t cos ω0 t be zero. (11.) Just change ω0 to ω = ω0 + . 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 d2 u 2 2 + ω0 u = ω 2 − ω0 θ0 sin ωt + ω0 θ0 sin ωt − sin 3ωt + ω0 θ0 1−cos 2ωt u dt2 6 4 4 4 Or.3). 1 3 3 3 θ(t) = θ0 sin(ω0 + )t + θ0 sin 3(ω0 + )t − θ0 t cos(ω0 + )t 192 48 What value of will kill the undesirable linear growth term when I do a series expansion? 1 3 3 3 θ(t) = θ0 sin(ω0 t)+cos(ω0 t) t − θ0 sin(3ω0 t)+cos(3ω0 t)3 t − θ0 t cos(ω0 t) 192 48 To get the desired result. but the term on the right can be any ˙ function of x. Change one letter in Eq. but Special Method The idea of writing the solution as a sinusoidal oscillation plus a correction is essentially right.2) and it is θ(t) = θ0 sin ωt + u(t) The next equation is then (11. where τ= t This is approximately a harmonic oscillator. Just modify it a bit.* * This treatment is based on the work by Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky: Asymptotic Methods in the Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations. d2 u 1 2 2 θ2 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 + ω0 1− 0 u = ω 2 − ω0 + ω0 θ0 θ0 sin ωt − ω0 θ0 sin 3ωt − ω0 θ0 cos 2ωt u 2 dt 4 8 24 4 2 As before.4 General Approach ¨ ˙ x + ω 2 x = f (τ. and it can even be a slowly varying function of time. I neglect the smallest terms.6) d2 θ d2 u 1 3 2 = −ω 2 θ0 sin ωt + 2 = −ω0 θ0 sin ωt + u(t) − θ0 sin ωt + u(t) 2 dt dt 6 Rearrange it to get a diﬀerential equation for u and you have the new version of Eq. x). x. (11. where the last term is small.11—Nonlinear Oscillations 369 satisﬁes the desired equation. . the ones in θ0 u. d2 u 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 + ω0 u = ω 2 − ω0 θ0 sin ωt + ω0 θ0 sin ωt − sin 3ωt 2 dt 6 4 4 It was the sin 11. 3 3 3 2 θ0 − θ0 = 0 −→ = θ0 xxxxxxxxxxx 48 48 11. Plug in.

4). (11.11—Nonlinear Oscillations 370 Problems 11.1 Fill in the details in solving Eq. .

and now you have δx1 δx2 δx1 δx2 = L L/2 F1 = k1 δx1 . and there’s a simple reason why not. k1 + 4k2 F1 = M gk1 . Fy = −M g + F0 + F1 + F2 = 0. In order that the system be in equilibrium the total force and the total torque on the board must be zero. and that it drops by only a small angle. δx1 and δx2 . τ= 1 m1 g − 2 m2 g =0 These determine the force by the pivot and the relative positions of the people. In the second picture the same board of length L is pivoted without friction at one end. all torques are zero too. the whole subject appears as a special case of F = ma in which F = 0.Statics and Bifurcations In a ﬁrst introduction to statics. Suppose that the left post is made of a soft rubber and the right post is made of steel. the above two equations still hold. Fy = −M g − m1 g − m2 g + Fpivot = 0. You know that the one on the right will then bear most of the weight. τ = 0 − M gL/2 + F1 L/2 + F2 L = 0 The three unknowns. in addition to all the forces vanishing. m1 m2 M F0 F1 F2 Fig. and it is supported at the middle and the other end by two posts. If you assume that the board remains straight. replace the two posts by two very stiﬀ springs. 12. In the second example.1) . Next you require that. with spring constants k1 and k2 . 2 can’t be determined by these two equations. δθ = Four more equations but only three more unknowns (and you can ignore δθ ).1 In the ﬁrst picture a board is placed centrally on a pivot and two people sit on the board a diﬀerent distances from the center. k1 + 4k2 δx1 = Mg k1 + 4k2 = 1 δx2 2 (12. These are suﬃcient to determine all the forces and torques in the entire system — at least it’s suﬃcient in the carefully selected special cases for which it is suﬃcient. k1 + 4k2 F2 = 2M gk2 . The board will push each down by some (small) distance. 1. F2 = k2 δx2 . Reverse the posts and you reverse the statement. They are easy to solve: F0 = 2M gk2 . F0.

(12. so what has changed? The answer is that just being in “equilibrium” is not enough.12—Statics and Bifurcations 372 You can easily see what happens if k1 k2 or if k2 k1 or if k1 = k2 . At ﬁrst nothing happens. so the total is 1 E = −M gδx1 + 2 k1 δx2 + 1 k2 δx2 1 2 2 (12. Here you have gravitational and spring potential energies. or by steel and steel.1). 1 E = −M gδx1 + 2 k1 δx2 + 2k2 δx2 1 1 To get the minimum energy. ************************** 12. Put the steel at the end and the resulting displacement is only 1/4 of what it would be if you put the steel in the middle. You can look at this same problem another way: minimize the energy. Here it is simple to eliminate one of the variables and then to minimize the result. With more variables it will be useful to introduce Lagrange multipliers to handle the manipulations. That is exactly the same as if you replace the posts by rubber and steel. just potential. You can’t determine the results until you take into account the elastic properties of the constituents. The same statement applies to the second picture. but not for this. because any real material will compress slightly when you squeeze it — even steel. and another conﬁguration has become the stable one.1 Bifurcations Pick up a meter stick and squeeze it — not in the middle: push straight in at the ends as if you’re trying to make it shorter. it will suddenly bend. Is the equilibrium stable or is it unstable? In the ﬁrst image the straight line is stable. Only in the very simplest cases can you avoid this analysis. This is typical of problems about static equilibrium. but in the second image that straight line has somehow changed from being stable to being unstable. or by steel and rubber. For equilibrium you don’t have to worry about kinetic energy. The ﬁrst of these is an ordinary equilibrium. but if you push hard enough (and the meter stick is made of wood and not thick steel). Mg dE = −M g + k1 δx1 + 4k2 δx1 = 0 −→ δx1 = d δx1 k1 + 4k2 agreeing with the results in Eq. . The total force is zero and there are no torques.2) This problem has two variables subject to the geometric equation δx2 = 2δx1 .

If your hand moves a distance δx. you do work F0 δx. Just to keep the setup simple. Instead of a continuous stick that can bend anywhere. the −F0 δx term drives the system toward positive δx and the +2κφ2 drives it toward smaller φ: − d − F0 δx = +F0 . attach the other end to the wall so it doesn’t move.12—Statics and Bifurcations 373 To analyze this phenomenon. θ δx φ δx = 2L 1 − cos φ You can use the angle φ as a single coordinate for the system and then describe the energy using it alone. and the total potential energy is 1 U = −F0 δx + 2 κθ2 = −2F0 L 1 − cos φ + 2κφ2 (12. d δx and − d 2κφ2 = −4κφ dφ What is U for small φ? 1 U = −2F0 L 1 − 1 − 1 φ2 + 24 φ4 − · · · 2 1 = 2κ − F0 L φ2 + 12 F0 Lφ4 + · · · + 2κφ2 (12. (θ = 2φ. and the system does the opposite work on you: −F0 δx. κθ2 /2 = 2κφ2 . Taking F0 to be a constant force. Now push straight in on the two ends of these sticks. connect two perfectly stiﬀ sticks by a torsion spring. which is of course a minimum at θ = 0. with δx following along as a non-independent variable. it can only rotate.4) With this potential energy. That means that this contribution to the potential energy of the system is −F0 δx. The energy stored in the spring is then κθ dθ = κθ2 /2.) One term is the potential energy in the spring. Do not assume that everything is in equilibrium. You can’t analyze the stability if you do that. Push one end with a constant force F0 and see what the energy of the system is as a function of how far it has moved from a straight line.5) . The other term is −F0 δx. θ τ = −κθ 1 E = 2 κθ2 (12.3) This spiral spring acts to keep the two rods aligned by applying a torque proportional to the angle of bend in either direction. Just let φ be arbitrary. make a simple model that captures its essence without having its complexities.

but all the interesting phenomena will have long since passed by. These are the angles to which the rods buckle when you apply too much force.” . look at the energy function itself and draw some graphs. 1. but not simple harmonic. and you set the derivative of U to zero in order to ﬁnd them. You can see from the ﬁrst term in this expansion that if F0 small enough (< 2κ/L) then the coeﬃcient of φ2 is positive and φ = 0 is a point of minimum energy. The horizontal scale in each graph is −π/2 < φ < +π/2. What about using the approximate potential energy in Eq. If you push harder than 2κ/L. bifurcated equilibria? From the graphs you can see that there are two.5κ < U < +1. Keep . after which your push on the left end hits the wall at the right end. the zero angle solution is still an equilibrium because dU/dφ = 0 there. This will still exhibit stable oscillations.4) shows U as a function of φ. as in section 3.2 Equation (12. If you push the system hard enough that your hand meets the wall then you will easily be able to see the diﬀerence. and these three plots of U display three qualitatively diﬀerent behaviors.7. so the bottom of the curve is ﬂatter than you see in a simple harmonic oscillator. 12. The minima in the third graph are at φ = ±1 radian. you couldn’t tell the diﬀerence. The ﬁrst has has a zero or small applied force F0 and it has a single minimum energy at φ = 0. This transition is referred to as an “exchange of stability.5)? In the three graphs drawn. but it is an unstable equilibrium because the coeﬃcient of φ2 is now negative. so it’s not enough to matter — at least up to the values of F0 used here. The oscillations about the origin in this case will not behave like the simple sine and cosine oscillations that you’re accustomed to. The second graph is at the critical point between stability and instability. The last graph has U ∝ −φ2 at the origin and it shows the instability at φ = 0. It also has two minimum potential points representing two new stable conﬁgurations. U then has a maximum at φ = 0 and the system buckles. Now where are these new. and this leads to the familiar simple harmonic motion that was the subject of the whole of chapter three. The vertical scale is −0. . 3.12—Statics and Bifurcations 374 Notice that the angle φ can be only as large as π/2. To understand the stability. (12. 2. Near that point U ∝ φ2 . but that’s all.0κ . There’s a little change at the very ends of the third graph.4κ/L Fig. U φ F0 = 0 F0 = 2κ/L F0 = 2. The straight line conﬁguration is stable. The graph looks sort of the same as the ﬁrst but with the big diﬀerence that the behavior near the origin is ∝ φ4 .

there are precursors. F0 changes from zero at the left end of the graph and it increases toward the vertex at κ/2L. but then the function splits (“bifurcates”) into three equilibria.5) more closely. (12. so the transition to the new solution is quite abrupt. but does the system feel any diﬀerent because of this? Yes. and you see the analysis that starts at Eq. but what is happening to the frequency of the oscillation? The harmonic term in the potential is U = [2κ − F0 L]φ2 . the error would change this graph by less than the thickness of the heavy line drawn. Which way it goes can be determined by a random gust of air or an unsteady hand pushing the rod or any other random ﬂuctuation.5).12—Statics and Bifurcations only the terms through φ4 in the expansion for U . 6(F0 L − 2κ) dU = 2 2κ − F0 L φ + 1 F0 Lφ3 = 0 −→ φ = 0 or φ = ± 3 dφ F0 L 375 1/2 (12. There are many cases for which even that property does not hold. For small oscillations it is still a harmonic oscillator. though it is at least continuous. As you push the end. (12. stable solution has an inﬁnite derivative at the bifurcation point. Notice that the curve representing the new. and by looking at the dynamics just before and at the bifurcation point you can tell that this is not just another simple harmonic oscillator. First look at the potential energy in Eq. As it passes the bifurcation point the straight-line solution becomes unstable and the system will quickly ﬂip over to one of the two new stable equilibria.6) φeq F0 =0 F0 = 2κ/L F0 (12. The stable solutions are shown with a solid line and the unstable one is dashed. Oscillation What happens just before the bifurcation point? You are pushing on the left end of these sticks and something diﬀerent is about to happen. If you release the force it will return to the straight line. Eq. How good is the approximation of cos φ by just three terms in its power series expansion? Good enough that even if the equilibrium solution is φ = π/4.7) This graph of φeq versus F0 shows the equilibrium angle plotted as a function of the applied force. −→ − dU = −2[2κ − F0 L]φ dφ . (12. with the rods forming a right angle.8) for an example of this. Below a critical force there is only one equilibrium angle.

not much at all. Remember that φ0 is small. The middle one. just use the cubic formula. and I will assume that it is small.11. The period of oscillations then goes to inﬁnity. Eq. Eventually. the system will be predisposed to ﬂip into the state with positive φ. The original energy in Eq. Do the derivative to see that dU/dφ(0) = −4κφ0 . U = F0 Lφ4 /12 = κφ4 /6. dU = 2 2κ − F0 L φ + 1 F0 Lφ3 − 4κφ0 = 0 3 dφ Can you solve this? Of course. (12.8) The parameter θ0 = 2φ0 is the misalignment. No. 1 U = −2F0 L 1 − 1 − 1 φ2 + 24 φ4 − · · · + 2κ(φ − φ0 )2 2 1 = 2κ − F0 L φ2 + 12 F0 Lφ4 + · · · − 4κφ0 φ Do you need the term in φ2 ? No. diﬀerentiate.12—Statics and Bifurcations 376 This implies that the frequency of oscillation is going to zero as F0 increases toward the critical point. Now what are the equations to describe the system.2)? For the ﬁrst and third. The ﬂattened bottom now has a slight tilt down to the right (assuming φ0 > 0). That means that this extra term is signiﬁcant only near to the original solutions.00000000◦ ? Probably not. with oscillations of the form you saw in section 3. (12. not very helpful. The ﬁrst case is the simplest. just at the bifurcation. 0 That means it cannot contribute to the forces and it just re-deﬁnes the zero point of energy. Where is the equilibrium now? Again. this harmonic approximation is no good and you need the next (φ4 ) term in U . 2 2κ − F0 L φ + 1 F0 Lφ3 − 4κφ0 = 0 −→ φ = 3 2κ φ0 2κ − F0 L . where the original solution was φ = 0.4) simply becomes U = −F0 δx + 1 κ(θ − θ0 )2 = −2F0 L 1 − cos φ + 2κ(φ − φ0 )2 2 (12. and it take longer and longer to return to the equilibrium point after a disturbance. is subtly diﬀerent. so the only occasion in which this extra term is signiﬁcant is when the other terms are either small or when they almost cancel. not because it’s small but because it is a constant. The next step in the calculation is just as before: solve for the equilibria. more than you would probably expect. Imperfect Attachment What happens if you don’t make the apparatus perfectly? Did you align the rods and spring so that the original equilibrium point is exactly 0. to lowest order. and does such a minor deviation from the ideal really matter? Yes. How does this change the three graphs of potential energy (ﬁgure 12. Just at the bifurcation point the potential energy is.6). This means that as the force F0 is increased to the point of bifurcation.

The interesting point is near the bifurcation. 1 6 F0 L x = αφ.9) For large positive or negative x. . Now if you gradually change the force F0 this graph implies that the system will always follow the one curve leading to the side θ0 where it was originally bent. and in order to make it look simpler. where of course this simple equation no longer applies and the cubic term becomes important. is zero at the bifurcation point and it goes from negative values on the left to positive on the right. Rearrange this equation so it becomes easy to graph. the curve disappears from under you. where = F0 L − 2κ. η = 2ακφ0 Now instead of trying to plot x versus . Let* α = − x + x3 − η = 0. At that point.7): F0 left to right and φeq positive up and negative down. so that the stick is bent downward. . x x3 − η = x (12. That way you orient the graph the same way as the graph (12. * Why this value for α? Just plug in an arbitrary x = αφ and see which choice make the greatest simpliﬁcation. Look at the problem graphically. then turn the graph on its side and ﬂip it over. something should feel wrong. varies as x2 and for very small x it looks like −1/x. but as the applied force increases so does the bend. plot versus x. Of course if you advance F0 to the immediate neighborhood of the bifurcation. then a small breeze or an unsteady hand could shift the equilibrium to the other side if the oﬀset angle φ0 (or η ) is small enough. In the graph of φ versus F0 on the previous page. The only equilibrium is over on the other branch of the graph and the equilibrium jumps discontinuously from bent down to bent up. this is φ0 . and you gradually decrease the push that holds it bent? On the graph you are moving right to left on the lowest part. getting closer and closer to the tip of the curve. if you decrease further (you decrease F0 further). change variables. Diﬀerent Controls If you try to set up a physical system and really do the experiment described in the last few paragraphs.12—Statics and Bifurcations 377 For small enough F0 . What happens if you’re already on the lower branch of the graph.

6◦ ? Ans: 22◦ .01 radians = 0.12—Statics and Bifurcations 378 Exercises 1 In the equations (12.8) and following. what is the position of the angle for minimum U when the applied force is exactly at 2κ/L? What is this if φ0 = 0.

50. 303 angular velocity. 339 atmosphere. 349 Atwood. 335. 209 apparent weight. 210 arbitrary functions. 279. 321 acceleration. 308 anti-proton. 272 Brillouin. 107 component: gradient. 355 exponential 23. 13. 136. 312–323 comet. 76. 265 buckle. 264 black hole. 262. 125. 38. 321 bifurcate. 323–326 charge density. 29 complex: algebra. 184 approximate orbits.2001. 179 associative. 248. 232. 136. 94 plane 23. 139. 225 commutative. 285 vector 14. 173. 281 centrifugal force. 54. 350 binomial series. 28. 251 analyzing results. 40 adiabatic. 343 aphelion. 108. 13. 199 potential 185. 170. 337. 374 bullwhip. 190 beats. 140 angular momentum. 220. 52. 198 conjugate 22. 292. 22. 238. 156. 271 • Callaway. 284. 161 accelerated reference frame. 242 Archimedes. 14. 231. 18. 276. 59 capacitance. 350 blackboard bold. 58. 180. 31 boundary condition. 250. 167 • ballast. 280. 289. 38. 19. 120 β . 149. 254. 355 air resistance. 28 . 299 Antarctica. 352 carbon monoxide. 195. 156. 237 center of mass. 257. 205. 239 amplitude. 218. 94. 265 adiabatic invariant. 113 artillery. 151. 303 • Abramowitz and Stegun. 45. 2 birefringence. 93. 186 force 174. 296 Bay of Fundy. 183–195. 193. 58. 22–25. 297. 325 clock. 65. 208 chain rule. 58. 103 basis. 146 index notation 15 inertia 285–298 matrix 28 tangential 21 tensor 282–284. 202. 102. 158 adjoint. 106 magnitude 22. 22 asteroid. 186 centrifugal: acceleration. 102 Chandler Wobble. 301 charge. 375 binary star. 16. 41 proper 332 transformation 332 action.

8 polar 6. 50. 65. 216. 286. 298 dot product. 35. 167 critical damping. 294. 136. 281 • ei . 91. 111. 94 double factorial. 73. 64 determinant. 154 cyclotron frequency. 298 Dialog. 115–121. 98 dispersion. 13. 173. 162 dry friction. 111 deﬁnite integral. 330 cycloid. 145 constant coeﬃcient. 296. 98 cross product. 100. 300. 95–100 damping. 256. 100. 30. 25. 13. 43 contour map. 88 constant coeﬃcient 26. 220 cylindrical 6. 210 potential 146 rotation 174–186 shape 184. 179. 284 Earth. 336. 163 • 380 damped oscillators. 204 relative 220 rotated 318 rotating 182 space-time 320 spherical 6. 226. 7. 163 coordinate. 42. 349 coupled oscillators. 117. 203–212 energy 47. 9. 16–18 digression. 292. 8. 3. 88 discriminant. 7. 144 dumbbell. 357 double angle formula. 76. 336 string 53 conservative. 353 types 96 diﬀerentiation. 246. 220 diagonal components. 233 diﬀerential equation. 95. 231. 41 acceleration 189 eccentricity 206 magnetic ﬁeld 156. 251 frequency 252 laws 44. 358 deuteron. 318 accelerated 170 center of mass 218. 353. 148 converge. 215 Coriolis force. 20. 291 crystal. 96. 221 dot convention. 88 contact force. 51. 316. 323–326 oscillations 136 curved path.Statics and Bifurcations conservation: angular momentum. 300 . 292 diagonal matrix. 116 dimensions. 340 mass 51. 294 current. 310 diatomic molecule. 200 cubic equation. 49. 67. 60. 27. 116 constant of integration. 151. 75 Dicke. 44. 173. 137. 342 momentum 41. 144. 152. 175. 353 Green 122–125 nonlinear 101 separation 25 simultaneous 116. 108 dE/dt = 0. 22 Doppler. 174–183 cosmic rays. 265 distributive. 159 orbit 205.

229 ellipsoid. 179. 109 Foucault pendulum. 336 381 event. 280. 303 exponential of a vector. 116 equipotential. 37. 203 eﬀective potential. 171 ellipse. 265 Fraunhofer. 169. 187 escape speed. 345 density 244 ﬂow 245 integral 67. 208 eigenvalue. 325 elevator. 21 geometric series. 317 generically unstable. 95. 296. 170 ﬁeld line. 144 function. 102. 301 formula 23. 162 falling. 101. 206. 283 fundamental theorem of calculus:. 73. 327. 336 electrostatic potential. 303 focus. 63. 152 external force. 303 ﬂexibility. 100. 265 Fresnel equations. 38. 47. 265 eccentricity. 206 eﬀective force. 127 eV. 374 expansion. 360 Explorer-1. 10 femtosecond. 24. 219 extrasolar. 89 kinetic 334 mechanical 67 potential 67. 125 elementary charge. 111 geography. 47 • Galilean transformation. 361 orthogonal 297 Einstein. 186 equilibrium. 334. 244. 300 elliptic integral. 149 electron. 157 ﬂex. 72 Famous Curves. 108. 326 forcing frequency. 9. 296 eigenvector. 320 exchange of stability. 330 . 9. 184 equatorial diameter. 74 ﬁctitious force. 93. 44 o o equatorial bulge. 251. 184. 252 friction. 206 force. 300 frequency. 110 free rotation. 75. 102. 161 energy.Statics and Bifurcations earthquake waves. 220 • factorial. 327 Euclidean geometry. 149. 310 electric circuit. 179 Fourier. 311 γ . 293. 204. 43 electromagnetic ﬁeld. 352 electric force. 71 qualitative 68 relativistic 334 velocity 265 E¨tv¨s. 58. 90 geometry. 143 equations 299. 341 Galileo. 321 Gauss’s law. 310. 293. 325 general relativity. 252. 327. 111. 71 Euclid. 310. 330 Euler. 102.

. 15. 209 isomorphic. 162 gravitational ﬁeld. 297. 203 intensity. 252. 8 Legendre polynomial. 284 inductance. 204. 352 inductor. 222 Io. 352 damped 95–100 forced 103 non-simple 101 three-dimensional 200 HCl. 57 gravity. 159. 139 Gradshteyn and Ryzhik. 122–125 Green. 323 harmonic oscillator. 314 light. 2. 14 jerk. 265 indices. 345 intuition. 25. 222. 122 kinetic energy. 187 Gravitron. 99 insolation. 122 index notation. 43 Green’s function. 279 integrating factor. 328. 303 • Kenyon College. 70 gravitational potential. 116 honey. 244 Kronecker delta. 209 integral. 40. 59. 226. 31 index of refraction. 219 interval. 122 Greenwich. 27. 149. 75 helix. 253. 265 iteration. 7. 209 internal force. 312 light-year. 65 Jupiter. 103 initial conditions. 333 hyperbolic function. 202. 52 Kepler. 74 hydrogen. 170 inertial system. 220 hyperbola. 156 Hermitian. 188 length contraction. 27. 248. 265 light bulb. 210. 4 • impulse. 176 • Jacobi identity. 190. 175. 211 kick. 34 . 302 kinetic energy density. 211. 224. 317 Hall eﬀect. 4. 242. 103 light clock. 96. 9 group velocity. 102 382 inertia tensor. 87–125. 67. 148.Statics and Bifurcations Get used to it. 13 isothermal. 336 hydrogen atom. 15 • lasso. 235. 169 • half-life. 205. 178 golf ball. George. 66 inverse. 150. 103. 267 Gulf Stream. 265. 280. 7. 361 homogeneous. 25 Global Positioning System. 317 golf. 265 inhomogeneous. 169 information velocity. 291. 303 irradiance. 285 inertial force. 153. 186. 29 inverse cube force. 267 latitude.

353 adjoint 355 index notation 31 inertia 286 inversion 30 positive deﬁnite 354 singular 294. 179. 321. 345 383 money. 298 momentum. 7. 97 • pair creation. 173. 156. 316 parallel axis theorem. 286. 299 modes. 242. 242 operator. 311 Newton’s: laws. 345 lunar tides. 280 ω/k . 260. 335 non-inertial system. 169. 28–32. 13 . 8 Lorentz contraction. 333. 96. 260 pedestrians. 116. 325 Lorentz transformation. 352.Statics and Bifurcations linear. 40 second law 170 third law 218. 42 MeV. 121. 327. 264 orbits. 333 paradox. 15 overdamped oscillation. 190. 282 linear homogeneous. 242 partial integration. 281. 56 Oldsmobile. 67. 277. 336. 324. 200 orthogonal. 311 mean lifetime. 43. 311. 354 North Pole. 357 mass zero. 336 mass density. 337 parabola. 13 ω . 135 muon. 238. 190 • magnetic ﬁeld. 278 Morse potential. 298 orthonormal. 103. 309 Newton. 119. 170 nonconservative. 202 longitude. 48 Moon. 214 merry-go-round. 40 meter. 283 operator solution. 121. 172. 145 median. 336 Milankovitch. 176 now. 335 matrix. 316 • neutron star. 358 moment of inertia. 255 mass matrix. 301 mass. 285. 151 optical activity. 311 • ocean wave. 334. 355 normal modes. 277 Newtonian mechanics. 43. 305 magnetic force. 174 magnetic mirror. 316 mechanical energy. 353 symmetric 354 transpose 354 Maxwell. 82 Mercury. 76. 267. 156 magnetism. 27 Lissajous ﬁgures. 326 Mars. 210 misaligned. 42 partial diﬀerential equation. 174. 48. 145 normal mode. 281 Paris.

267 quasar. 99 simultaneity. 253. 336 positronium. 278 polar coordinates. 256 shock absorber. 21 radian. 356 positron. 242 phase velocity. 159 Foucault 179–183 inverted 114 period 160 spherical 215 perihelion. 67. 145–148. 157 • satellite. 344 radiance. 258 series. 300. 242. 333. 8 radar. 343 positron-electron pair. 65. 174. 264. 265 random wave. 89. 68 positive deﬁnite. 343. 328. 311. 288 perturbation theory. 108. 351 velocity 315 proton. 211 phase. 336. 108. 336 pseudo-Euclidean. 252 relative velocity. 247. 336. 303 scalar product. 13. 220 reﬂection. 354. 102 resonance. 276 roots of one. 110 rest energy. 100 polar diameter. 242 rapidity. 143. 318 rotating system. 121.Statics and Bifurcations pendulum. 350 time 315. 103 resistor. 155 resistance. 311. 152. 56 Runge-Kutta. 256–264. 279A rigid body. 251 power series. 359 poor form. 247. 301 pretend inertial. 218. 2. 1. 67. 356 Scotland. 25. 23 rotated coordinate. 339 radical departure. 325. 298 Rotor. 286 proper: acceleration. 269 resonance peak. 111 precession. 332 length 315. 292 probability. 330. 184 potential energy density. 63. 336. 100–102. 245 power. 344 reduced mass. 209 radiation. 331 • r⊥ . 298 rotation. 109. 326 relativistic. 111. 322 rainbow. 82 product of inertia. 209 perpendicular axis theorem. 241. 186 polynomial. 360 perturbed orbit. 255 point mass. 344 piano. 330 Pythagorean Theorem. 322 . 170. 205. 171. 336 potential energy. 64. 182 principal axis. 265 photon. 94. 313 • 384 quantum mechanics. 178 separation of variables. 283 rotational dynamics. 319 radial acceleration. 334 Riemann-Stieltjes.

Statics and Bifurcations simultaneous equations. 301 stable. 202 tsunami. 142 viscous damping. 190 solar wind. 155 Trojan asteroids. 109. 191 tides. 193. 318 spaghettiﬁcation. 71 stroboscopic. 317 Titleist. 195. 3. 68. 253 steady-state. 225 superluminal. 184. 109. 156 vector. 24. 297 syncopated clock. 111 standing waves. 42 unstable. 192 tide table. 249 spring. 72 385 terminal velocity. 275 . 283 transient. 141 thermodynamics. 113. 238 tensor. 73. 29 small oscillations. 349 • Taylor series. 299 torsional waves. 240 three body problem. 217 tennis ball. 94 trochoid. 264 symmetric. 74. 90 snarky comment. 241. 292. 10 • wave equation. 339 stiﬀness. 190 Sundman. 312. 284 of inertia 280. 75. 329 Tycho. 202 tidal friction. 329 space-time diagram. 13 velocity. 16 Sun. 282–303 components 282. 50. 231 special relativity. 156 Sommerfeld. 310 speed of light. 239 unit matrix. 96 uninformative. 286. 187–192. 12 vector product. 250 summation convention. 302 urban legend. 191 Stefan-Boltzmann. 290 unit vector. 265 space-time. 264 twin eﬀect. 267 time dilation. 202. 18 velocity addition. 286. 279. 331 surface wave. 82 tension. 265 transformation. 25 triple angle formula. 265 thin string. 70. 313. 255 Sturm-Liouville. 206 • underdamped. 172 units. 292. 283 stability. 175 • Van Allen. 59 torque. 297 symmetry. 289. 282 symmetry 297 terminal speed. 263 stopping point. 109 trigonometric identities. 96 volume element. 111. 334 viscosity. 69. 311 spherical coordinates. 246. 179 spike. 41 solar tides. 87. 75.

171 wet friction. 113 work.Statics and Bifurcations waves. 147 magnetic ﬁeld 149 work-energy theorem. 290 Wigner. 145 worldatlas. 58. 339 Young’s modulus. 95 wheel alignment. 9 • Yarkovsky. 143. 263 • Zielinski. Eugene. 335. 44. 76 386 . 238 weight.com. 340 wood ﬂoating.

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