# Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement

Homogenization method for elastic materials
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Outline
1
Introduction
2
Description of the geometry
3
Problem setting
4
Implementation & Results
5
Bandgaps
6
Conclusion
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Introduction
Introduction
study of the homogenization method applied on elastic materials,
G. Nguetseng (1989), G. Allaire,
D. Cioranescu, P. Donato.
Homogenization method
simpliﬁes description of behavior of heterogeneous materials,
replacement by the ’homogenized’, ﬁctive material,
homogenized material should be a good approximation of the original het.
material.
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Description of the geometry
Figure: Geometry of the lattice
Geometry
N × N cells, cell size ε,
domain Ω
ε
1
- elastic material 1,
domain Ω
ε
2
- elastic material 2,
reference cell Y = [0, 1[
3
.
Coordinates system
(x
1
, x
2
) macro coordinates,
(y
1
, y
2
) micro coordinates,
(x, y) represents ε
_
x
ε
¸
+ εy.
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
State equations
State equations
material coeﬃcients
c
ε
ijkh
(x) = c
ijkh
_
x
ε
_
, (1)
classical sense formulation
_
_
_

∂x
j
_
c
ε
ijkh
(x)
∂u
ε
k
∂x
h
_
= f
i
v Ω,
u
ε
(x) = 0 na ∂Ω.
(2)
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
State equations
Weak formulation
_
_
_
Find u
ε
∈ H
1
0
(Ω) such that
_

c
ε
mnkl
e
kl
(u
ε
)e
mn
(Φ) =
_

f · Φ ∀Φ ∈ H
1
0
(Ω).
(3)
Cauchy tensor
e
kl
(v) =
1
2
_
∂v
k
∂x
l
+
∂v
l
∂x
k
_
, (4)
H
1
0
(Ω) is the Sobolev space H
1
(Ω) with compact support.
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Homogenization method I
State equations for the homogenized material
_
_
_

∂x
j
_
c

ijkh
(x)
∂u

k
∂x
h
_
= f
i
in Ω,
u

(x) = 0 on ∂Ω.
(5)
homogeneous coeﬃcients (eﬀective parameters)
c

ijkh
= c
average
ijkh
− c
corrector
ijkh
, (6)
integral average of heterogeneous material coeﬃcients
c
average
ijkh
=
1
|Y|
_
Y
c
ijkh
(y) dy. (7)
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Homogenization method II
Corrector coeﬃcients
c
corrector
ijkh
=
1
|Y|
_
Y
c
ijlm
(y)
∂χ
kh
l
∂y
m
dy, (8)
auxiliary functions χ
kh
_
Y
c
ε
ijkh
e
ij

ij
)e
kh
(v) dy =
_
Y
c
ε
lmkh
e
kh
(v) dy ∀v ∈ W
1
per
(Y), (9)
where W
1
per
(Y) is the space of Y-periodic functions with a zero integral
average
W
1
per
(Y) =
_
v
¸
¸
v ∈ H
1
(Y),
_
Y
v
i
dy = 0, i = 1, 2
_
. (10)
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Discretization
Discretization
triangular mesh, ﬁnite elements method,
mass and force matrix
K
ε
=

e
K
ε
e
, f
ε
=

e
f
ε
e
,
(11)
state equation - heterogeneous material
K
ε
u
ε
= f, (12)
state equation - homogenized material
K

u

= f. (13)
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Implementation
Computation follows in four steps
computation of u
ε
, solution to (3),
computation of the auxiliary functions (9),
computation of eﬀective parameters c

ijkh
,
computation of u

(5).
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Results I
(a) Heterogeneous material (b) Homogenized material
Figure: Magnitude values of the displacement for considered materials (u
ε
, u

).
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Results II
Figure: L
2
norm of displacements u
ε
, u

.
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Bandgaps I
Bandgaps
Material with a periodic structure can exhibit acoustic bandgaps.
Bandgaps = frequency ranges for which elastic or acoustic waves cannot
propagate.
Possible applications
frequency ﬁlters,
vibration dampers,
waveguides.
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Bandgaps II
Weak formulation
ω
2
_

r
ε
u
ε
· Φ −
_

c
ε
mnkl
e
kl
(u
ε
)e
mn
(Φ) = −
_

f · Φ ∀Φ ∈ H
1
0
(Ω). (14)
the mass density r
ε
,
scaling ε
2
= strong heterogeneity in the relations for the material
coeﬃcients,
ω is the angular frequency,
for ω = 0 we get exactly the previous case,
for ω diﬀerent from the resonance values - unique solution u
ε
∈ H
1
0
(Ω).
Discretization
(K
ε
− ω
2
M)u
ε
= f. (15)
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Conclusion
Summary
comparison of the real heterogeneous material with the homogeneous
material,
under certain circumstances good approximation.
Further goals
shape optimization,
objective function: larger bandgaps.
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Shape optimization I
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Figure: Initial design
Closed B-spline of order k = 4
cubic polynomials,
design curves - material interfaces,
n
j
+ 1 is the amount of control points,
control points d
j
i
, j = 1, 2, i = 0, . . . , n
j
,
N
ik
are basis functions,
formula for the B-spline curves
X
j
(t) =
n
j

i =0
d
j
i
N
i 4
(t) t ∈
_
t
0
, t
n
j
+1
¸
,
T = (t
0
, t
1
, . . . , t
n
j
, t
0
, t
1
, t
2
, t
3
).
(16)
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Shape optimization II
(a) (b)
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Literature
D. Cioranescu, P. Donato, An Introduction to Homogenization, Oxford
University Press, 1999.
´
Avila, A., Griso, G., Miara, B., Rohan, E., submitted. Multi-scale modelling
of elastic waves, Theoretical justiﬁcation and numerical simulation of band
gaps. Multiscale Modeling & Simulation, SIAM journal.
F. Seifrt, E. Rohan, B. Miara, Inﬂuence of the scale and material
parameters in modelling of vibrations of heterogeneous materials,
Computational mechanics 2006, pages 535-542.
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
The work has been supported by the project FRV
ˇ
S 570/2007/G1.
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials
Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement
Thank you for you patience ...
Frantiˇsek SEIFRT Homogenization method for elastic materials

Introduction

Description of the geometry

Problem setting

Implementation & Results

Bandgaps

Conclusion

Acknowledgement

Outline

1

Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion

2

3

4

5

6

Frantiˇek SEIFRT s

Homogenization method for elastic materials

P. G. D. replacement by the ’homogenized’. Homogenization method simpliﬁes description of behavior of heterogeneous materials. Donato. Nguetseng (1989). G. material.Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Introduction Introduction study of the homogenization method applied on elastic materials. ﬁctive material. homogenized material should be a good approximation of the original het. Cioranescu. Allaire. Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials .

1[3 . (y1 .elastic material 1.Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Description of the geometry Geometry N × N cells. y2 ) micro coordinates. x2 ) macro coordinates. (x. y) represents ε x ε + εy. Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . Coordinates system Figure: Geometry of the lattice (x1 . 2 reference cell Y = [0. domain Ωε . cell size ε. 1 domain Ωε .elastic material 2.

Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . material coeﬃcients ε cijkh (x) = cijkh x . ε (1) classical sense formulation  ∂ ∂u ε k  − c ε ijkh (x) ∂xj ∂xh  uε (x) = 0 = fi v Ω.Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement State equations State equations deﬂection of the loaded lattice. (2) na ∂Ω.

0 Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials .Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement State equations Weak formulation   Find uε ∈ H1 (Ω) such that 0  c ε mnkl ekl (uε )emn (Φ) = Ω Ω f ·Φ ∀Φ ∈ H1 (Ω). (4) H1 (Ω) is the Sobolev space H1 (Ω) with compact support. 0 (3) Cauchy tensor ekl (v) = 1 2 ∂vk ∂vl + ∂xl ∂xk .

cijkh = cijkh − cijkh (6) integral average of heterogeneous material coeﬃcients average cijkh = 1 |Y | cijkh (y) dy. Y (7) Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . (5) homogeneous coeﬃcients (eﬀective parameters) average ∗ corrector . on ∂Ω.Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Homogenization method I State equations for the homogenized material    − ∂ ∂u ∗ ∗ cijkh (x) k ∂xj ∂xh u∗ (x) = 0 = fi in Ω.

i = 1. Y vi dy = 0. (9) 1 where Wper (Y ) is the space of Y-periodic functions with a zero integral average 1 Wper (Y ) = v v ∈ H1 (Y ). (10) Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials .Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Homogenization method II Corrector coeﬃcients corrector cijkh = 1 |Y | cijlm (y) Y ∂χkh l dy. ∂ym (8) auxiliary functions χkh c ε ijkh eij (χij )ekh (v) dy = Y Y c ε lmkh ekh (v) dy 1 ∀v ∈ Wper (Y ). 2 .

ﬁnite elements method. f ε = e e ε fe .heterogeneous material Kε uε = f. mass and force matrix Kε = e Kε . (13) (12) Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials .homogenized material K∗ u∗ = f. (11) state equation .Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Discretization Discretization triangular mesh. state equation .

Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Implementation Computation follows in four steps computation of uε . Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . solution to (3). computation of the auxiliary functions (9). computation of u∗ (5). ∗ computation of eﬀective parameters cijkh .

Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials .Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Results I (a) Heterogeneous material (b) Homogenized material Figure: Magnitude values of the displacement for considered materials (uε . u∗ ).

Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . u∗ .Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Results II Figure: L2 norm of displacements uε .

Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Bandgaps I Bandgaps Material with a periodic structure can exhibit acoustic bandgaps. waveguides. Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . Possible applications frequency ﬁlters. vibration dampers. Bandgaps = frequency ranges for which elastic or acoustic waves cannot propagate.

for ω = 0 we get exactly the previous case. ω is the angular frequency. Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials (15) . scaling ε2 = strong heterogeneity in the relations for the material coeﬃcients.Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Bandgaps II Weak formulation ω2 Ω r ε uε · Φ − Ω c ε mnkl ekl (uε )emn (Φ) = − Ω f ·Φ ∀Φ ∈ H1 (Ω).unique solution uε ∈ H1 (Ω). 0 Discretization (Kε − ω 2 M)uε = f. for ω diﬀerent from the resonance values . 0 (14) the mass density r ε .

Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . objective function: larger bandgaps. under certain circumstances good approximation. Further goals shape optimization.Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Conclusion Summary comparison of the real heterogeneous material with the homogeneous material.

control points dji . formula for the B-spline curves nj X (t) = i=0 j dji Ni4 (t) t ∈ t0 . j = 1. nj . . . (16) Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . t3 ). Nik are basis functions. nj + 1 is the amount of control points.material interfaces. . i = 0. Figure: Initial design T = (t0 . t1 . . t2 . t0 . t1 . . . . tnj .Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Shape optimization I Closed B-spline of order k = 4 cubic polynomials. design curves . tnj +1 . 2. .

Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Shape optimization II (a) (b) Figure: Admissible designs Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials .

G.. B. Computational mechanics 2006. Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials . Inﬂuence of the scale and material parameters in modelling of vibrations of heterogeneous materials. P. Rohan. SIAM journal. ´ Avila. Cioranescu. Griso.. Miara. E. Oxford University Press. An Introduction to Homogenization. Multi-scale modelling of elastic waves. Miara.Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Literature D.. Seifrt. Donato. Multiscale Modeling & Simulation. pages 535-542. Theoretical justiﬁcation and numerical simulation of band gaps. Rohan. submitted. A. B. E.. F. 1999.

Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Acknowledgement Acknowledgement ˇ The work has been supported by the project FRVS 570/2007/G1. Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials .

Frantiˇek SEIFRT s Homogenization method for elastic materials .Introduction Description of the geometry Problem setting Implementation & Results Bandgaps Conclusion Acknowledgement Thank you for you patience ...