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MC LC MC LC........................................................................1 BNG CH VIT TT.......................................................4 LI NI U..................................................................6 CHNG I -TNG QUAN V TRUYN HNH CP HU TUYN .....................................................................................9 1.

1 Tng quan v truyn hnh cp...........................................9 1.2 - V tr cc mng truyn hnh cp v xu hng pht trin. .10 1.3 - Cc cng ngh truy nhp cnh tranh...............................11 1.3.1 - Cng ngh ADSL (Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line)..12 1.3.2 - Fiber-In-The-Loop (FITL)..............................................14 1.3.3 - V tinh qung b trc tip DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite)................................................................................16 1.3.4 - Dch v phn phi a im a knh (MMDS)..............16 CHNG II KIN TRC MNG TRUYN HNH CP..........20 2.1 - Kin trc mng CATV truyn thng .................................20 2.2 - Kin trc mng c cu trc .............................................22 2.2.1 - Cc c im c bn mng HFC.................................22 2.2.2 - u v nhc im ca mng HFC..............................24 2.2.3 - Kt lun .....................................................................26 CHNG III CC THIT B CHNH TRONG MNG QUANG 27 3.1 Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca Headend................27 3.1.1 - S khi c bn ca Headend..................................27 3.1.2 - Nguyn l hot ng ca Headend.............................32 3.1.3 - Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca my pht quang33 3.1.3.1 Cu to ................................................................33 3.1.3.2 Hot ng ca my pht.......................................40 3.2 Cu to v hot ng ca node quang............................40 3.3 Si quang........................................................................42 3.3.1 - Cu to v dng si quang.........................................42 3.3.2 - Si n mode v si a mode.....................................42 3.3.3 - Cc c tnh ca si quang.........................................44 3.3.3.1 Suy hao.................................................................44 3.3.3.2 Cc nguyn nhn gy nn suy hao.......................44 3.3.4 - nhy thu v qu cng sut....................................47 3.3.5 - Cc gii hn bi suy hao.............................................49 3.3.6 - Truyn lan nh sng trong si quang.........................49

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3.3.6.1 Truyn lan tn hiu trong si quang......................50 3.3.6.2 Cc mode truyn lan.............................................52 3.3.7 - Tn sc si quang.......................................................54 3.3.7.1 Tn sc trong mode (Intramode Dispersion).........54 3.3.7.2 Tn sc mode ......................................................58 3.3.7.3 Tn sc tng cng ca si.....................................59 3.3.7.4 S hn ch do tn sc...........................................60 3.4 - Cc mi hn v cc b kt ni (Connector) trong mng quang......................................................................................61 3.4.1 - Phng php hn cp.................................................63 3.4.2 - Cc Connector............................................................65 3.5 Ghp cng sut quang....................................................66 CHNG IV - CC THIT B CHNH TRONG MNG NG TRC...........................................................................67 4.1 - Cp ng trc..................................................................67 4.1.1 - Suy hao do phn x....................................................67 4.1.2 - Tr khng vng...........................................................68 4.2 - Cc b khuch i RF (Radio Friquency)..........................69 4.2.1 - c im cc b khuch i.......................................69 4.2.1.1 - B khuch i trung k.........................................69 4.2.1.2 - B khuch i fid.................................................70 4.2.1.3 - B khuch i ng dy......................................71 4.2.2 - CNR ca mt b khuch i n v nhiu b khuch i ni tip............................................................................71 4.3 - B chia v r tn hiu.......................................................72 CHNG V PHNG PHP THIT K MNG TRUYN HNH CP HU TUYN ..........................................................74 5.1 La chn cc thng s k thut cho mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn................................................................................74 5.1.1 - Phn b di tn tn hiu..............................................74 5.1.2 - Tnh ton kch thc node quang cho yu cu hin ti ..............................................................................................75 5.2 Thit k...........................................................................76 5.2.1 - La chn si quang.....................................................76 5.2.2 - Tnh ton suy hao ca h thng .................................77 5.3 Nguyn tc thit k phn mng quang...........................78 5.4 Nguyn tc thit k phn mng ng trc......................80 5.5 Thuyt minh phn mng quang.......................................81 5.6 Tnh ton phn mng quang...........................................82

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5.7 Thuyt minh thit k phn mng ng trc....................86 5.8 Tnh ton phn mng ng trc......................................87 5.9 Thuyt minh thit k mng HFPC....................................93 5.10 Tnh ton mng HFPC....................................................93 5.11 So snh mng HFC v mng HFPC................................97 KT LUN....................................................................98 TI LIU THAM KHO....................................................99

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ADSL AGC APD ATM BER CATV CNR CO DFB DWDM DBS DSL DSLAM EQ FDM FTTC FTTB FTTH FITL GI GVD HDT HFC HFPC HFW HFR HPF ISDN LPF MDF MMDS NA ONU

BNG CH VIT TT Asymetric Digital Subcriber Loop Vng Thu bao s khng i xng Automatic Gain Control T iu chnh h s khuch i Angled Physical Contact Tip xc gc Asynchronous Transfer Mode Phng thc truyn khng ng b Bit Error Rate T s li bit Community Antenna Television H thng truyn hnh cp cng ng System T s sng mang trn nhiu Carrier-to-Noise Ratio Tng i trung tm Central Office Laser hi tip phn tn Distributed Feedback laser Ghp knh phn chia theo mt Dense Wavelength Division bc sng Multiplexing V tinh qung b trc tip Direct Broatcast Satellite ng thu bao s Digital Subscriber Line Ghp knh truy nhp ng thu bao DSL Access Multiplexing s Khi cn bng Equalizer Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s Frequency Division Multiplexing Cp quang n khu vc Fiber To The Curb Cp quang n to nh Fiber To The Building Cp quang n gia nh Fiber To The Home Cp quang trong mng thu bao Fiber In The Loop Ch s chit sut Gradient Gratded Index Tn sc vn tc nhm Group Velocity Dispersion Thit b u cui s trung tm Host Digital Terminal Mng lai cp quang/ cp ng trc Hybrid Fiber/ Coaxial network Mng HFC th ng Hybrid Fiber Passive/ Coaxial network Mng lai cp quang/ khng dy Hybrid Fiber/ Wireless network Mng lai cp quang/ v tuyn Hybrid Fiber/ Radio network B lc thng cao Hight Pass Filter Mng lin kt s a dch v Intergrated Services Digital Network B lc thng thp Low Pass Filter Gi phi dy chnh Main Distribution Frame Dch v phn phi a im a knh Multipoint Multichanel Distribution Service Khu s Numerical Aperture n v mng quang
4

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OTU POTS QPSK QAM RF SDH SI STB SMF STM VOD

Optical Network Unit Optical Terminal Unit Plain Old Telephone Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Ampliture Modulation Radio Frequency Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Step Index Set Top - Box Single Mode Fiber Synchronous Transfer Mode Video On Demand

n v u cui quang Dch v thoi thng thng iu ch kho dch pha cu phng iu ch bin cu phng Tn s cao tn Phn cp s ng b Ch s chit sut phn bc u thu tn hiu s Si quang n mode Phng thc truyn ng b Truyn hnh theo yu cu

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LI NI U Truyn hnh cp (CATV) t lu khng cn xa l i vi ngi dn cc nc pht trin trn th gii. Tuy nhin vic pht trin v m rng cc mng truyn hnh cp vn cha c quan tm nhiu bi v trc y mng truyn hnh cp ch n thun cung cp cc dch v v truyn hnh, khng th cung cp cc dch v khc nh thoi, s liuThut ng CATV xut hin ln u tin vo nm 1948 ti M khi thc hin thnh cng h thng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn v thut ng CATV c hiu l h thng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn (Cable TV). Mt nm sau, cng ti M h thng truyn hnh cng ng s dng anten (Community Antenna Television-CATV) cung cp dch v cho thu bao bng ng truyn v tuyn c lp t thnh cng. T thut ng CATV c dng ch chung cho cc h thng truyn hnh cp v tuyn v hu tuyn. Nhng nm gn y, do tng nhu cu thng thc cc chng trnh truyn hnh cht lng cao, ni dung phong ph cng nh s tin b trong cng ngh, cc mng truyn hnh cp c nhng bc pht trin mnh m. Gi y khng ch cung cp cc chng trnh truyn hnh tha mn nhu cu ngy cng cao ca ngi xem m chng cn tr thnh mt tim lc cnh tranh ng k i vi cc mng vin thng khc trong cung cp cc dch v vin thng. Ti Vit Nam hin nay c cc dch v truyn hnh nh truyn hnh qung b, dch v truyn hnh MMDS v dch v truyn hnh cp hu tuyn. Truyn hnh qung b s dng mi trng hon ton khng kh truyn tn hiu v cc thu bao ch vic cm anten thu tn hiu t anten pht ca cc i truyn hnh l c th xem chng trnh nn cc thu bao khng cn phi ng cc dch v v cc nh sn xut chng trnh cng khng phi tn km v phng tin truyn dn. Tuy nhin v l chng trnh truyn hnh tng t v s dng di tn s ngoi khng gian nn ti nguyn b hn hp dn n s lng knh pht ra ca dch v truyn hnh qung b rt hn ch v n chu nh hng mnh m bi cc ngun nhiu ca mi trng truyn dn nh: nhiu cng nghip, nhiu t cc i pht ln cn v n cng chu nh hng rt ln ca thi tit. Dch v truyn hnh qung b khng th tng thm knh chng trnh khc do bng thng b hn ch. V ti nguyn tn s khng gian l mt ti nguyn qu gi i vi mi quc

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gia v ngoi vic dnh cho dch v truyn hnh n cn dnh cho nhiu dch v khc na nh: thng tin lin lc trong qun i, thng tin di ng Cn dch v truyn hnh MMDS th s dng sng mang ph ca thng tin vi ba (900MHz) truyn ti cc knh truyn hnh v ko cp t trung tm truyn hnh n trm vi ba, s dng anten pht ca trm vi ba pht sng n cc vng xung quanh trm trong mt phm vi bn knh nht nh, n c chia thnh cc cell hnh di qut ph sng. i vi dch v ny th thu bao cng ch cn dng ct anten l c th thu c chng trnh truyn hnh v gii m xem. Tuy nhin y l phng thc truyn trong tm nhn thng nn anten thu ca thu bao bt buc phi nhn thy anten pht ca trm vi ba gn n th mi thu c tn hiu. y l mt nhc im ca dch v v n s hn ch i vi cc vng dn c trong khu vc c nhiu to nh cao tng che chn (nh l cc khch sn) hoc cc khu vc dn c c nhiu cy ci che ph. Cc khu vc khng th bt c tn hiu do tn hiu khng th xuyn qua chng ngi vt hoc i cong xung. Cn na n cng tng t nh dch v truyn hnh qung b ch bng thng b hn ch nn knh truyn hnh pht ra cng b hn ch v n cng chu nh hng mnh m ca cc ngun nhiu cng nghip, nhiu ca cc i pht ln cn v chnh n cng gy nhiu cho cc i pht khc, cng chu nh hng mnh ca thi tit. Do cc hn ch ca cc dch v truyn hnh nh trn nn vic pht trin truyn hnh cp hu tuyn HFC l iu tt yu v: Mng HFC s dng cp quang mng truyn dn v phn phi tn hiu nn s dng c cc u im ca cp quang so vi cc phng tin truyn dn khc nh: Bng thng ca cp quang rt ln (1014 ~ 1015 Hz), suy hao ng truyn rt nh, khng chu nh hng bi nhiu ca mi trng ngoi v nhiu in t, c th tch hp c nhiu dch v trn cng mt ng truyn Ti H Ni, nhu cu pht trin mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn qui m, hin i cung cp nhiu chng trnh cho ngi dn Th c lp k hoch pht trin v ang c trin khai trn din rng. Cng vi s pht trin ny, ti tt nghip Phng php thit k mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn trnh by nhng ni dung c bn nht cc cng ngh s dng trong mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn v kin trc mng HFC, hng pht trin ca mng v so snh cc u nhc im ca mng HFC vi cc dch v

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truyn dn cnh tranh khc. Ni dung bn n gm nm chng c gii thiu s lc sau y: Chng I: Gii thiu tng quan v truyn hnh cp hu tuyn ni chung, v tr ca truyn hnh cp trn th trng thng tin v xu hng pht trin ca n trong thi gian tip theo sau ny. Ngoi ra cn im qua mt s cng ngh truy nhp cnh tranh vi mng truyn hnh cp. Chng II: Gii thiu v cc mng truyn hnh cp truyn thng v mng truyn hnh kt hp. Gii thiu v so snh gia cc cu trc mng khc nhau. Chng III: Gii thiu v mt s thit b quan trng s dng trong vic thit k v lp t mng quang (mng truyn dn v mng phn phi tn hiu truyn hnh). Nu nguyn tc lm vic ca mt trm trung tm truyn hnh cp c bn, cu to ca thit b trung tm. Chng IV: Gii thiu v cc thit b chnh dng trong mng cp ng trc (mng truy nhp tn hiu). Chng V: Nu nguyn tc thit k mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn v thit k mt mng truyn hnh cp c th trn a bn thnh ph H Ni. Ngoi ra c thit k thm th d v kin trc mng HFPC so snh vi kin trc mng HFC v a ra kt lun v vic la chn kin trc mng no th ph hp cho tnh hnh nc ta hin nay.Trong chng ny c tnh ton chi tit tn hiu t trung tm n tn thit b nh thu bao. Tuy nhin ch chn la th im mt s vng nht nh. Trong qu trnh lm n do thi gian hn hp nn khng trnh khi nhng s sut v mt s ni dung cha c chi tit, mong cc thy c gio gp v thng cm. Em xin chn thnh cm n thy gio cng nh cc anh ch trong phng thit k ca cng ty truyn hnh cp H Ni tn tnh gip trong qu trnh lm n.

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CHNG I -TNG QUAN V TRUYN HNH CP HU TUYN 1.1 Tng quan v truyn hnh cp Mng truyn hnh cp bao gm 3 thnh phn chnh: H thng thit b ti trung tm, h thng mng phn phi tn hiu v thit b thu bao. H thng thit b trung tm H thng trung tm (Headend System) l ni cung cp, qun l chng trnh h thng mng truyn hnh cp. y cng chnh l ni thu thp cc thng tin quan st trng thi, kim tra hot ng mng v cung cp cc tn hiu iu khin. Vi cc h thng mng hin i c kh nng cung cp cc dch v truyn tng tc, truyn s liu, h thng thit b trung tm cn c thm cc nhim v nh: m ho tn hiu qun l truy nhp, tnh cc truy nhp, giao tip vi cc mng vin thng nh mng Internet... Mng phn phi tn hiu truyn hnh cp: Mng phn phi tn hiu truyn hnh cp l mi trng truyn dn tn hiu t trung tm mng n cc thu bao. Tu theo c trng ca mi h thng truyn hnh cp, mi trng truyn dn tn hiu s thay i: vi h thng truyn hnh cp nh MMDS mi trng truyn dn tn hiu s l sng v tuyn. Ngc li, i vi h thng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn (Cable TV) mi trng truyn dn s l cc h thng cp hu tuyn (cp quang, cp ng trc, cp ng xon ...). Mng phn phi tn hiu truyn hnh cp hu tuyn c nhim v nhn tn hiu pht ra t cc thit b trung tm, iu ch, khuch i v truyn vo mng cp. Cc thit b khc trong mng c nhim v khuch i, cp ngun v phn phi tn hiu hnh n tn thit b ca thu bao. H thng mng phn phi tn hiu truyn hnh cp l b phn quyt nh n i tng dch v, khong cch phc v, s lng thu bao v kh nng m rng cung cp mng.

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hub th cp node quang headend hub s cp node quang

TAP

Mng truyn dn

Mng phn phi

Mng truy nhp

Hnh 1.2 Cu hnh mng truyn dn v phn phi tn hiu

Thit b ti nh thu bao Vi mt mng truyn hnh cp s dng cng ngh tng t, thit b ti thu bao c th ch l mt my thu hnh, thu tn hiu t mng phn phi tn hiu. Vi mng truyn hnh cp s dng cng ngh hin i hn, thit b thu bao gm cc b chia tn hiu, cc u thu tn hiu truyn hnh (Set-top-box) v cc cp dn... Cc thit b ny c nhim v thu tn hiu v a n TV thu bao s dng cc dch v ca mng: Chng trnh TV, truy nhp Internet, truyn d liu...

1.2 - V tr cc mng truyn hnh cp v xu hng pht trin Cc mng CATV tri qua cc giai on pht trin t mng tng t qung b mt chiu ng trc ti mng HFC tng tc 2 chiu truyn ti cc knh

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Video tng t/ s v d liu tc cao. Mng ng trc bng rng kin trc cy v nhnh truyn thng c h tr bi cng ngh RF phc v tt cc dch v qung b v cc dch v im-a im. Dng nhiu b khuch i (30 40), c th lm gim cht lng v tnh nng ca knh Video AM-VSB, lm gim th hiu ca khch hng. Vic s dng cc kt ni vi ba mt t gim s lng cc b khuch i, ci thin c hiu nng truyn dn cc knh qung b tng t. S tin b vt bc trong cng ngh si quang t cui nhng nm 80 khin cho cng nghip truyn hnh cp pht trin mnh m. S ra i ca laser iu ch trc tip DM-DFB 550 MHz v cc b thu quang hot ng di bc sng 1310 nm lm thay i kin trc truyn thng mng cp ng trc. Mng HFC cho php truyn dn tin cy cc knh Video tng t qung b qua si n mode SMF ti cc node quang, do s lng cc b khuch i RF c gim i rt nhiu. Hn na cc nh iu hnh cn thc hin trin khai thit b headend s dng cc Ring si quang kt ni gia headend trung tm v cc headend th cp hoc cc Hub ti nhng v tr quan trng. Do vy, cc nh iu hnh cp c th h gi thnh v ci thin hn na cht lng v tnh hu dng ca cc dch v qung b truyn thng. S pht trin ca nhiu thit b quan trng nh: Cc b iu ch QAM, cc b thu QAM gi thnh h, cc b m ha v gii m tn hiu Video s, cho php cc nh iu hnh cp cung cp thm khong 10 dch v Video s mi trong cc knh Video AM/VSB dng vi STB s. Vic trin khai nhanh chng mng HFC 750 MHz v mt s dch v vin thng cung cp kh nng cnh tranh truy nhp v nhiu loi hnh kinh doanh cho khch hng ti cc th trng quan trng. Vo gia thp k 1990, kin trc mng HFC bt u c hng pht trin mi. Cuc cch mng ny l do nhng p lc sau ca th trng: - Bng n nhu cu truy nhp d liu tc cao trong cc khu vc dn c. - Nhu cu chuyn pht cc dch v s tng tc. - Gia tng cnh tranh t nhiu nh cung cp dch v vin thng v cc nh cung cp dch v DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite). - S tin b trong cng ngh si quang, c bit l laser v b thu quang v qun l mng cp. Nhng nhu cu v p lc ca th trng tc ng ti cc nh iu hnh cp xem li kin trc mng HFC hin ti v tin ti mng truy nhp CATV DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing). 1.3 - Cc cng ngh truy nhp cnh tranh

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C nhiu cng ngh truy nhp c th phc v cc dch v bng rng ti thu bao. Phn ny s cung cp tng quan mt s cng ngh cnh tranh cng nhng u nhc im tng loi. 1.3.1 - Cng ngh ADSL (Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line) Cng ngh ADSL s dng ng dy thoi xon i hin c cung cp bng thng yu cu cho cc dch v bng rng nh truy nhp Internet, thoi hi ngh, a phng tin tng tc v VOD. Cng ngh ADSL c thit k gii quyt tnh trng tc nghn nghim trng hin nay trong cc mng thoi gia tng i trung tm (CO: Central Office) v thu bao. ADSL c th chuyn pht tc d liu trong khong t 64 kb/s n 8,192 Mb/s cho knh ng xung v tc trong khong 16 kb/s ti 768 kb/s cho cc knh ng ln trong khi vn ng thi dng cc dch v thoi truyn thng POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). ADSL rt ph hp p ng nhu cu truy nhp Internet tc cao. ng truyn dn ADSL cung cp tc d liu ti 8 Mbit/s xung khch hng v 640 Kbit/s lung ln m rng dung lng truy nhp m khng cn lp t thm cp mi. Ngoi ra, vic s dng ADSL s chuyn lu lng dch v Internet qua cc mng chuyn mch gi hoc ATM gip hot ng hiu qu hn, gii quyt c vn tc nghn trn mng thoi.

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Cu trc mng c bn :
Chuyn mch ATM Intern et SDLA M Mch vng TB
POTS/ISD N SPLITTER

PC

ATU-C

splitter

POTS/ISD N

MDF

ATUR

PSTN

Cc ng khng phi xDSL

Chuyn mch CO

Hnh 1.4 Cu hnh h thng s dng cng ngh ADSL

Mch vng thu bao l mt i dy ng xon i ni cm thu bao v tng i trung tm. i vi ADSL full-rate (cung cp tc 6 8 Mbit/s lung xung), b Splitter c lp t ti c hai u cui mch vng. Pha khch hng modem ADSL m dy ADSL kt ni ti gi l khi kt cui ADSL u xa (ATUR). pha tng i, cc b Splitter c lp t ni cc mch vng thu bao kt cui trn gi phi dy chnh MDF (Main Distribution Frame), u ra c hai i dy. i th nht kt ni ti mng chuyn mch thoi cung cp dch v thoi truyn thng. i dy th hai kt ni ti khi kt cui ADSL trung tm (ATU-C). truyn dn hiu qu, cc khi ATU-C c kt hp vi chc nng ghp knh to nn b ghp knh truy nhp DSL (DSLAM: Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) trong tng i trung tm v c kt ni ti mng cc nh cung cp dch v. S liu qua ADSL c ng gi trong cc t bo ATM. DSLAM cn c kh nng x l cc t bo ATM thc hin ghp knh lu

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lng thng k. Tng tc cc ng ADSL qua tt c cc khi ATU-C c th ln hn tc ng STM-1. ng dng ca ADSL c im truyn tc hai chiu khng i xng ca ADSL lm cho k thut ny ph hp vi hu ht cc ng dng yu cu bng thng lung xung ln hn bng thng lung ln. VoD l hng pht trin ban u ca ADSL nhng sau truy nhp Internet tc cao nhanh chng tr thnh hng pht trin ch yu. Ngoi ra cn mt s ng dng khc ang c pht trin v s dng cng ngh ny nh sau: - Telecommuting: Dch v thoi v truy nhp d liu t xa, cho php ngi s dng lm vic ti nh v kt ni ti c s d liu ti ni lm vic. - Dch v truyn video hoc thng tin thi gian thc: ADSL cho php phn phi nhng ng dng bng rng theo thi gian thc nh tin tc, token chng khon, thi tit ... - Chng trnh o to t xa: ADSL full-rate vi cht lng dch v m bo c th cung cp lung video theo tiu chun MPEG-2 cho php cc trung tm ging dy gi video minh ho bi dy v trao i trc tip vi hc vin t nhiu v tr. - Cha bnh t xa: Cc bc s c th chn on v khm cha bnh t xa. - Hi ngh truyn hnh: Mc d dch v ny yu cu bng thng hai chiu i xng nhng ADSL full-rate c th cung cp mt knh H0 (384 384Kbit/s) chuyn dng ngoi bng thng c sn ca ADSL cho ng dng ny trong khi vn m bo phc v cc ng dng khc. 1.3.2 - Fiber-In-The-Loop (FITL) Cng ngh truy nhp FITL thng dng cp quang theo kin trc hnh sao (im-a im), gm mt h cc kin trc nh: - Cp quang ti tn node FTTN - Cp quang ti tn h dn c FTTC - Cp quang ti tn h thu bao FTTH Cc h thng FITL c pht trin theo hng tng thch vi cc dch v, h thng truyn dn, h thng iu hnh ca cc nh khai thc ni vng (LEC). Kin trc nguyn thy FITL c ch ra trong hnh 1.5. Mt mng FITL gm mt kt cui host s (HDT: Host Digital Terminal) vi cc khi ONU trong kin trc hnh sao, c HDT qun l. HDT cung cp cc hot ng v giao din cn thit ca h thng FITL cho phn cn li ca mng LEC.

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V d, HDT c th tch ring lu lng chuyn mch ni ht v ra bn ngoi qun l nh tuyn. Cc dch v bng rng nh Internet, tng tc a phng tin v thoi c pht ti HDT, HDT c th c t ti CO hoc ti u xa, nh tn hiu bng gc. iu ny tri ngc vi cc mng HFC, trong cc dch v bng rng c iu ch RF. Ti HDT, tn hiu s bng gc c chuyn mch v gi ti cc khi mng bng rng qua cp quang. ONU c t gn thu bao v phc v nhiu khch hng. ONU thc hin chuyn i quang in v cc chc nng quan trng khc. Tn hiu in sau c pht ti thu bao qua cp ng trc hoc cp ng xon i. Mt khi giao din mng t ti pha thu bao s tch tn hiu Video, tn hiu d liu, v tn hiu thoi nh ch ra trong hnh 1.5. Tn hiu Video s c tch knh v gii m bi mt STB.

Video server tng tc

Mng PSTN ON U

Video server

H thng truy nhp chuyn mch s

Cp ng trc

Cng Internet

Hnh 1.5 Cu hnh h thng Fiber in the loop

Mt kin trc FITL khc l FTTH. Nh tn gi ca n, cp quang s thay th cp ng trc hoc cp ng xon i t ONU n thu bao. S khc nhau gia kin trc FTTH v FTTC nm v tr lp t ca ONU.

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splitt er

Mng ATM

Trong kin trc FTTH, ONU c t ti nh thu bao. V vy, nhu cu dng cng ngh cp xon i ngoi nh thu bao c loi b trong kin trc FTTH. Phn mng gia HDT v cc ONU tr thnh mng quang th ng, iu ny tr nn rt quan trng khi nng cp trong tng lai. Bng thng rng sn c (hng THz) ca si quang chuyn pht cc dch v bng rng cho thu bao l mt trong nhng u im ca kin trc mng ton quang ny. Vi vic dng cng ngh WDM, cc h thng FTTH c kh nng truyn ti tc hng Gb/s v d OC-48/STM-16 (2.5GHz) hoc cc dch v bng rng tng thch vi SONET/SDH ti thu bao. Hn na, v mi ONU c t ti nh thu bao, do vy khng cn thit cng sut ngoi hoc bo dng thm. Nhc im chnh ca FTTH l gi thnh mi OTU tng i cao v chi ph lp t cp quang ban u. Bt chp nhc im ny, kin trc FTTH c nhiu tim nng ha hn cung cp cc dch v bng rng cho thu bao. 1.3.3 - V tinh qung b trc tip DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) Cng ngh DBS da trn cc v tinh ng b a tnh cung cp cc chng trnh truyn hnh a knh cho cc thu bao c trang b cc b thu DBS. Tuy nhin Vit Nam hin nay cha c v tinh ring v cng cha c cc knh truyn hnh tr tin qua v tinh ring. Cc chng trnh truyn hnh qua v tinh c cung cp bi cc nh cung cp dch v nc ngoi v thng qua cc v tinh nc ngoi. Ngi dn mun ng k dch v truyn hnh qua v tinh cn phi c s cho php ca B Vn Ho Thng Tin. V vy, truyn hnh tr tin qua v tinh Vit Nam gp nhiu hn ch nh: khng c knh truyn hnh v ngn ng ting vit ng k dch v phc tp, chi ph thu bao cao. Chnh v nhng l do ny m s lng ngi xem truyn hnh qua v tinh Vit Nam rt t. 1.3.4 - Dch v phn phi a im a knh (MMDS) (MMDS: Multipoint Multichanel Distribution Service) Cng ngh truy nhp MMDS l mt cng ngh khng dy (wireless) khc c da trn cc knh Video tng t v s qung b mt t. Kin trc c bn MMDS gm cc khi pht v tuyn MMDS t ti cc thp radio cng vi anten, mt anten ca thu bao, mt b h tn v mt STB. Mi vng phc v c chia thnh cc cell c phn giao nhau, mi cell c bn knh 40 km. i vi truyn dn yu cu mc tin cy cao, tm nhn gia anten pht v thu c yu cu bnh thng. V tm nhn lun khng thun li nn nhn t nh hng ti cht lng ch yu trong h thng MMDS l tn hiu fading nhiu ng. S dng cng ngh MMDS c nhng thun li v kh khn sau:

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1 Thun li Trin khai mng n gin, chi ph thp: Do mi trng truyn dn tn hiu MMDS l sng vi ba (sng v tuyn) cho nn khi trin khai mng n thu bao khng cn phi ko cp ti tn h thu bao, m ch cn dng ct anten thu ti thu bao sao cho c th nhn thy ct anten pht (ti ct anten ca i THVN) l c th thu c tn hiu v gii m xem. c im ny s gip nh cung cp dch v MMDS khng mt thi gian, cng sc v chi ph o ng ri cp, m bo m quan th. 2 Kh khn - Hn ch vng ph sng: Do s dng sng viba ti di tn 900MHz truyn tn hiu Video, MMDS i hi anten pht v anten thu phi nhn thy nhau th mi thu c tn hiu tt. V vy i vi cc h dn c nm pha sau cc khu khch sn cao tng, cc khu cao c, vic thu tn hiu MMDS rt kh thc hin. iu ny cng xy ra i vi cc gia nh trong cc ngi nh thp, b cc vt cn nh cy ci che chn. t chnh l tr ngi ln cho vic cung cp dch v MMDS n vi mi ngi dn s dng dch v. - Chu tc ng mnh bi nhiu cng nghip: Do s dng phng thc iu ch tn hiu truyn hnh tng t (analog) khng c kh nng chng li, li truyn bng sng v tuyn, tn hiu MMDS b nh hng rt mnh bi cc ngun nhiu cng nghip: nhiu t mng in li, nhiu t cc thit b in: mt in, qut in m khng c cch hn ch v khc phc. iu ny dn n gim cht lng hnh nh ca dch v MMDS. - Chu nh hng ln bi thi tit: khi thi tit xu, v d nh ma to, st tn hiu MMDS v tuyn b suy hao rt ln trong khng gian, dn n gim mnh cht lng tn hiu hnh nh. - Yu cu ph tn s v tuyn qu ln: Mun c kh nng cung cp nhiu chng trnh truyn hnh tng t, MMDS i hi phi c di tn ln . V d: c th cung cp 13 knh truyn hnh tng t, MMDS i hi phi c di tn ti thiu l 13knh x 8MHz/knh = 104MHz. y l mt di tn v tuyn rt ln, v khi cng tng s lng chng trnh th yu cu rng bng tn cng tng theo. Trong khi ph tn v tuyn l ngun ti nguyn qu gi i vi mi mt quc gia. Khng ch c dch v truyn hnh MMDS, truyn hnh qung b mt t s dng ngun ti nguyn qu gi ny, m cn rt nhiu cc dch v vin thng khc cng nh cc trm pht v tuyn thuc nghip v an ninh quc phng tham gia s dng ngun ti nguyn qu gi ny. V th vic chim dng ph tn v tuyn qu ln ca MMDS l khng hiu qu. - Gy can nhiu cc i pht v tuyn khc: Mc d c phn mt di tn ring, nhng my pht MMDS cng nh cc my pht v tuyn khc lun sinh

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ra cc tn s hi bc cao c th nh hng n cc trm pht v tuyn nghip v khc. Kh khn trong vic cung cp dch v truyn hnh s: Hin nay vic khng s dng MMDS cung cp dch v truyn hnh l xu hng thc t trn th gii (do cc nhc im trn) . Chnh v th vic cc thit b pht tn hiu truyn hnh s MMDS khng c pht trin, thm na, cc thit b gii m pha thu bao cng khng c cc nh sn xut thit b nghin cu v sn xut. Do vic ng dng truyn hnh s nng cao cht lng hnh nh, dch v ca MMDS s khng c tnh kh thi.

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Khi pht v tuyn MMDS

Mi tr ng truyn dn

Khi h tn
STB

Trung tm

Hnh 1.6 Cu hnh mng dch v phn phi a knh a im MMDS

Mt cng ngh gn vi MMDS l cng ngh lai ghp gia cp quang v khng dy (HFW) hay cn gi l lai ghp gia quang v v tuyn (HFR). Kin trc ny tng t nh HFC mt headend trung tm pht cc dch v bng rng ti nhiu cell RF qua cp n mode SMF, ti thu bao c thc hin qua 2 chiu MMDS. C nhiu u im trong kin trc ny: - Tng tin cy truyn dn 2 chiu gia thu bao v headend so vi kin trc MMDS truyn thng. - Gim lp t vng RF v chi ph bo dng. - Kin trc ny thng ph hp trin khai trn din rng trong cc khu vc thnh th ti mng cp quang c xy dng.

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CHNG II KIN TRC MNG TRUYN HNH CP 2.1 - Kin trc mng CATV truyn thng Hnh 2.1 l s n gin ca mt mng cp ton ng trc. Cc chng trnh thu c t v tinh hoc viba ti headend, headend thc hin nhim v sau:

Head end

Thu bao

Thu bao

Cp trung k

Thu bao

Cp fid Ch thch Pa d B khuch i Spliter Tap

Cp thu bao

Hnh 2.1 Kin trc n gin mng CATV truyn thng

Thu cc chng trnh (v d t NBC, CBS, v cc mng cp nh MTV& ESPN) Chuyn i tng knh ti knh tn s RF mong mun, ngu nhin ha cc knh khi c yu cu. Kt hp tt c cc tn s vo mt knh n tng t bng rng (ghp FDM). Pht qung b knh tng t tng hp ny xung cho cc thu bao .
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H thng mng truyn dn bao gm: - Cp chnh trung k (Trunk cable). - Fid cp: Cp r ra t cc cp trung k - Cp thu bao (Drop cable): Phn cp kt ni t cp nhnh fid n thu bao h gia nh. Lu lng Video tng ng xung pht t headend v c a ti cc cp trung k. cung cp cho ton mt vng, cc b chia tn hiu (spliter) s chia lu lng ti cc cp nhnh fid t cp trung k. Tn hiu a n thu bao c trch ra t cc cp nhnh (fid cp) nh b trch tn hiu Tap. Mc tn hiu suy hao t l vi bnh phng tn s trung tm khi truyn qua cp trc (cp trung k, cp fid v cp thu bao). Do vy tn hiu tn s cng cao suy hao cng nhanh so vi tn s thp. l l do ti sao cc nh cung cp mong mun t knh. Mc tn hiu cng b suy gim khi i qua cc b Spliter v Tap . Trn ng i ca tn hiu, cc b khuch i tn hiu c t cc khong cch ph hp khi phc tn hiu b suy hao. Cc b khuch i c cp ngun nh cc b cp ngun t ri rc trn ng i ca cp, cc b ngun ny c nui t mng in s ti. Cc b khuch i xa ngun c cp ngun cng chnh bng cp ng trc: dng in mt chiu c cng chung vi tn hiu nh b cng. n cc b khuch i, dng mt chiu s c tch ring cp ngun cho b khuch i. V cc knh tn s cao tn hiu suy hao nhanh hn nht l trn khong cch truyn dn di, cc knh tn s cao cn c mc khuch i cao hn so vi cc knh tn s thp. Do cn phi cn bng cng sut trong di tn pht ti nhng im cui gim mo. ph cho mt vng, mt b khuch i c th t mc cao, kt qu l c mc tn hiu v mo u ln. Do vy ti nh thu bao gn headend cn mt thit b th ng lm suy gim bt mc tn hiu gi l Pad. Cc h thng cp ng trc ci thin ng k cht lng tn hiu thu ca TV. Mc d nhiu vng tn hiu truyn hnh v tuyn qung b thu c c cht lng kh tt nhng CATV vn c la chn ph bin v kh nng la chn nhiu chng trnh. Tuy nhin mng ton cp ng trc c mt s nhc im sau: Mc d t c mt s thnh cng v cung cp dch v truyn hnh, cc h thng thun ty cp trc khng th tha mn cc dch v bng rng tc cao. Dung lng knh ca h thng khng p ng cho pht v tinh qung b trc tip DBS. H thng cp ng trc c th cung cp hn 40 knh nhng cc thu bao DBS c th thu c gp 2 ln s knh trn, cho h la chn chng trnh. Cc mng cp yu cu cn thm dung lng knh tng cnh tranh.

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Truyn dn tn hiu bng cp ng trc c suy hao rt ln, nn cn phi t nhiu b khuch i tn hiu trn ng truyn. Do vy phi c cc chi ph khc km theo: ngun cp cho b khuch i, cng sut tiu th ca mng tng ln dn n chi ph cho mng ln. Cc h thng cp ng trc thiu tin cy. Nu mt b khuch i gn headend khng hot ng (v d nh mt ngun nui), tt c cc thu bao do b khuch i cung cp s mt cc dch v. Mc tn hiu (cht lng tn hiu) s khng p ng cho s lng ln cc thu bao. Do s dng cc b khuch i b suy hao cp, nhiu ng truyn tc ng vo tn hiu v nhiu ni b ca b khuch i c loi b khng ht v tch t trn ng truyn, nn cng xa trung tm, cht lng tn hiu cng gim, dn n hn ch bn knh phc v ca mng. Cc h thng cp ng trc rt phc tp khi thit k v vn hnh hot ng. Vic gi cho cng sut cn bng cho tt c cc thu bao l vn rt kh. gii quyt cc nhc im trn, cc nh cung cp cng i ti tng s dng cp quang thay cho cp trung k ng trc. Ton h thng s c c cp quang v cp ng trc gi l mng lai gia cp quang v ng trc (mng lai HFC). Yu cu i vi h thng quang tng t l duy tr s tng thch vi cc thit b cp kim loi hin c.

2.2 - Kin trc mng c cu trc 2.2.1 - Cc c im c bn mng HFC Khi nim: Mng HFC (Hybrid Fiber/Coaxial network) l mng lai gia cp quang v cp ng trc, s dng ng thi cp quang v cp ng trc truyn v phn phi tn hiu. Vic truyn tn hiu t trung tm n cc node quang l cp quang, cn t cc node quang n thu bao l cp ng trc. Mng HFC bao gm 3 mng con (segment) gm: - Mng truyn dn (Transport segment) - Mng phn phi (Distribution segment) - Mng truy nhp (Acess segment) Mng truyn dn bao gm h thng cp quang v cc Hub s cp, nhim v ca n l truyn dn tn hiu t headend n cc khu vc xa. Cc Hub s cp c chc nng thu/pht quang t/n cc node quang v chuyn tip tn hiu quang ti cc Hub khc. Mng phn phi tn hiu bao gm h thng cp quang, cc Hub th cp v cc node quang. Tn hiu quang t cc Hub s c chuyn thnh tn hiu in ti cc node quang truyn n thu bao. Ngc li trong trng hp mng 2 chiu,

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tn hiu in t mng truy nhp s c thu ti node quang v chuyn thnh tn hiu quang truyn n Hub v headend. Mng truy nhp bao gm h thng cp ng trc, cc thit b thu pht cao tn c nhim v truyn ti cc tn hiu cao tn RF gia node quang v cc thit b thu bao. Thng thng bn knh phc v ca mng con truy nhp ti a khong 300m.

Mng truy nhp Mng phn phi Mng truyn dn (backbone) Hnh 2.2 Kin trc mng HFC

Hot ng ca mng: Tn hiu Video tng t cng nh s t cc ngun khc nhau nh: Cc b pht p v tinh, ngun qung b mt t, Video sever c a ti headend trung tm. Ti y tn hiu c ghp knh v truyn i qua Ring si n mode (SMF). Tn hiu c truyn t headend trung tm ti thng thng l 4 hoc 5 Hub s cp. Mi Hub s cp cung cp tn hiu cho khong hn 150.000 thu bao. C khong 4 hoc 5 hub th cp v headend ni ht, mi hub s cp ch cung cp cho khong 25000 thu bao. Hub th cp c s dng phn phi ph thm cc tn hiu video tng t hoc s ghp knh vi mc ch gim vic pht cng knh video ti cc headend s cp v th cp khc nhau. Cc knh s v tng t ca headend trung tm c th cng c chia x s dng trn mng backbone. Mng backbone c xy dng theo kin trc Ring s dng cng ngh SONET/SDH hoc mt s cng ngh c quyn. Cc c im ca SONET/SDH c nh ngha cp tc s liu chun t tc OC-1 (51,84 Mb/s)/STM-1 (155,52 Mb/s) ti cc tc gp nguyn ln tc ny. Trong mng SONET/SDH, tn hiu Video tng t c s ho, iu ch, ghp knh TDM v c truyn cc tc khc nhau t OC-12/STM-4 (622

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Mb/s) ti OC-48/STM-16 (2448 Mb/s). y s dng k thut ghp knh thng k TDM tng rng bng tn s dng. Ghp knh thng k TDM thc hin cp pht ng cc khe thi gian theo yu cu thc hin cc dch v c tc bt thay i qua mng SONET/SDH. gim chi ph lp t, phn ln cc nh iu hnh CATV la chn s dng thit b tng thch vi chun SONET/SDH, tu theo cc giao din mng. Dung lng node quang c xc nh bi s lng thu bao m n cung cp tn hiu. Node quang c th l node c nh vi khong 100 thu bao hoc c ln vi khong 2000 thu bao. 2.2.2 - u v nhc im ca mng HFC S dng cp quang truyn tn hiu, mng HFC s s dng cc u im vt tri ca cp quang so vi cc phng tin truyn dn khc: Di thng cc ln, suy hao tn hiu rt thp, t b nhiu in t, chng lo ha v n mn ha hc tt. Vi cc si quang c sn xut vi cng ngh hin i ngy nay, cc si quang cho php truyn cc tn hiu c tn s ln ti hng trm THz (10 14 1015 Hz). y l di thng tn hiu v cng ln, c th p ng mi yu cu di thng ng truyn m khng mt phng tin truyn dn no khc c th c c. - Tn hiu quang truyn trn si quang hin nay ch yu nm trong 2 ca s bc sng quang l 1310 nm v 1550 nm. y l 2 ca s c suy hao tn hiu rt nh: 0,3 dB/km vi bc sng 1310 nm v 0,2 nm vi bc sng 1550 nm. Trong khi vi mt si cp ng trc loi suy hao thp nht cng phi mt 43 dB/km ti tn s 1 GHz. - Tn hiu truyn trn si cp l tn hiu quang, v vy khng b nh hng bi cc nhiu in t t mi trng dn n m bo c cht lng tn hiu trn ng truyn. c ch to t cc cht trung tnh l Plastic v thy tinh, cc si quang l cc vt liu khng b n mn ha hc dn n tui th ca si cao. - C kh nng d phng trong trng hp si quang b t. Trc y cc mng con truy nhp thng s dng cc thit b tch cc l cc b khuch i tn hiu nhm b suy hao cp truyn tn hiu i xa. Theo kinh nghim ca cc nh iu hnh mng cp ca chu u v chu M, trc trc ca mng truyn hnh cp phn ln xy ra do cc b khuch i v cc thit b ghp ngun cho chng. Cc thit b ny nm ri rc trn mng, v th vic nh v, sa cha thng thng khng th thc hin nhanh c nn nh hng n cht lng phc v khch hng ca mng. Vi cc mng truy nhp ng trc, khi cung cp dch v 2 chiu, cc b khuch i cn tch hp phn t khuch i tn hiu cho cc tn hiu ngc dng d n n nh ca mng gim. Hin nay xu hng trn th gii ang chuyn dn sang s dng mng truy nhp th ng, ti
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khng s dng bt c mt thit b tch cc no na, m ch cn cc b chia tn hiu, cc b ghp nh hng v cc b trch tn hiu th ng. Mt mng HFC ch s dng cc thit b cao tn th ng c gi l mng HFC th ng HFPC (Hybrid Fiber/Passive Coaxial) nh th hin trong hnh 2.3. S dng mng truy nhp th ng hon ton s to ra cc u im sau: - Cht lng tn hiu c nng cao do khng s dng cc b khuch i tn hiu m hon ton ch dng cc thit b th ng nn tn hiu ti thu bao s khng b nh hng ca nhiu tch t do cc b khuch i. - S c ca mng s gim rt nhiu dn n tng n nh v cht lng phc v mng v trc trc ca mng truyn hnh cp phn ln xy ra do cc b khuch i v thit b ghp ngun cho chng. - Cc thit b th ng u c kh nng truyn tn hiu theo 2 chiu v th n nh ca mng vn cao khi cung cp dch v 2 chiu. - S dng hon ton cc thit b th ng s gim chi ph rt ln cho vic cp ngun bo dng, thay th v sa cha cc thit b tch cc dn n gim chi ph iu hnh mng. - Nu s dng mng ng trc th ng, s lng thu bao ti mt node quang s gim i, dn n dung lng ng truyn cho tn hiu hng ln s tng ln, to ra kh nng cung cp tt cc dch v 2 chiu tc cao cho thu bao. Tuy nhin, mng truy nhp cp ng trc th ng HFPC cng c mt s nhc im sau: - Do khng s dng cc b khuch i tn hiu cao tn, tn hiu suy hao trn cp s khng c b dn n hn ch ln bn knh phc v ca mng. - Do khng ko cp ng trc i xa, s lng thu bao c th phc v bi mt node quang c th gim i. c th phc v s lng thu bao ln nh khi s dng cc b khuch i tn hiu, cn ko cp quang n gn thu bao hn v tng s node quang dn n tng chi ph rt ln cho mng.

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B chia B chia

Mng truyn dn (Backbond)

Mng phn phi

Mng truy nhp

Hnh 2.3 Cu trc mng HFPC

2.2.3 - Kt lun Nh trnh by trn, u im ca mng ny l nhc im ca mng kia. Tu thuc vo m hnh kinh t, iu kin a l p dng loi mng no cho ph hp. Nu xt trong cng mt phm vi phc v, mng HFPC yu cu s lng node quang ln hn mng HFC. V vy: - Trong iu kin mng quang c sn, nn chn phng n xy dng mng HPFC nhm mc ch gim chi ph u t cho mng ng trc, y nhanh tc trin khai mng, nng cao cht lng tn hiu v hiu qu khai thc. - Trong iu kin mng quang cn hn hp, nn chn phng n xy dng mng HFC. Khi , y nhanh tc m rng mng phi vn di mng ng trc bng cch s dng cc b khuch i cao tn. i vi tnh hnh nc ta hin nay th cu trc mng HFC hp l hn v Vit Nam mng truyn hnh cp vn ang cn mi m, mng mi c a vo s dng trong khong thi gian ngn nn c s h tng cn thiu thn. H thng mng hu nh phi ko mi nn gim chi ph lp t cho c nh khai thc ln cc thu bao th mng HFC l hp l nht nn trong phm vi n ny em ch xt cu trc mng HFC v phng php thit k mng ny.

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CHNG III CC THIT B CHNH TRONG MNG QUANG 3.1 Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca Headend 3.1.1 - S khi c bn ca Headend 1/ Khi RF/IF l khi chuyn i t tn hiu cao tn (RF) ca truyn hnh qung b ln tn hiu trung tn (IF) ca h thng truyn hnh cp (hay cn gi l b upconverter). 2/ Khi thu tn hiu v tinh l khi c chc nng chuyn i t tn hiu v tinh (l hai tn hiu audio v video tch bit) c tn s cao xung tn hiu trung tn (IF) ca h thng truyn hnh cp (gi l b downconverter). 3/ Khi IF/IF l b lc trung tn c chc nng lc ng tn s ca knh truyn hnh cn thu. 4/ Khi IF/RF l khi chuyn i t tn hiu trung tn ln tn hiu cao tn trong di tn ca h thng truyn hnh cp ghp knh v truyn ln mng n thu bao. 5/ Khi combiner l khi kt hp knh hay cn gi l khi ghp knh n c chc nng ghp cc knh truyn hnh thu c t truyn hnh qung b v t v tinh vo mt di tn ng xung (65MHz ~ 862MHz) ca h thng truyn hnh cp theo phng thc ghp knh theo tn s (FDM). 6/ Khuch i RF l b khuch i tn hiu cao tn trc khi a vo b chia tn hiu cao tn vo my pht. 7/ My pht quang c chc nng chuyn i t tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang v ghp n vo si quang truyn i.

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RF IF RF RF
IS

IF IF IF IF IF RF
IS

IF IF IF RF IF

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RF IF IF IF IF A/V A/V A/V A/V IF IF RF IF IF A/V A/V IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF IF RF RF RF RF RF RF RF
Combiner

Cp ng trc

IS

Hnh 3.1 Trung tm Headen

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Thu v tinh (IF) Thu v tinh (IF) Thu v tinh (IF)

RF

IS

Thu v tinh (IF)


IS

Pht quang (Tx)

Si quang

Thu v tinh (IF) Thu v tinh (IF)

3.1.2 - Nguyn l hot ng ca Headend Cc chng trnh qung b mt t (VTV1, VTV2, VTV3, ) c thu qua cc anten VHF (very hight friquency), mi mt knh truyn hnh c thu qua mt anten ring, cc knh truyn hnh thu c sau a vo khi chuyn i t tn hiu cao tn RF thnh tn hiu trung tn IF (upconverter). Lc ny tn hiu thu c t mi anten l mt di tn bao gm knh tn hiu cn thu v cc knh tn hiu khc lt vo (v d: anten VHF cn thu knh VTV3 nhng trong tn hiu thu c c c cc knh khc nh HTV, VTV2). Tn hiu trung tn chung ny c a qua b lc trung tn lc ly knh tn hiu cn thu (VTV3). Mi b lc trung tn c iu chnh ch thu mt knh tn hiu. Tn hiu trung tn ra khi b lc ch c mt knh duy nht. Cc knh tn hiu ny s c i ln tn s RF qua b chuyn i IF/RF c tn hiu RF nm trong di tn ng xung ca mng CATV. Sau tn hiu RF ny c a vo b kt hp (combiner 16:1) ghp knh vi cc knh tn hiu khc theo phng thc ghp knh theo tn s (FDM: Friquency Division Multiplexing). Cc tn hiu v tinh c thu qua anten parabol l cc tn hiu truyn hnh bao gm nhiu knh ghp li vi nhau, tch cc knh ny ra thnh cc knh c lp th chng c chia thnh nhiu ng bng cc b chia v tinh. Sau mi ng s c a vo b thu v tinh (downconverter) chuyn t tn s cao thnh tn s thp, tn hiu ra khi b thu l tn hiu A/V. y cha phi l tn hiu m CATV cn nn sau chng c a vo b chuyn i A/V thnh IF.Tn hiu ra l tn hiu IF trn c Audeo v Video. Tn hiu trung tn ny vn l s kt hp ca nhiu knh tn hiu , ly ra mt knh theo yu cu th chng c a qua b lc trung tn ging nh khi thu cc chng trnh truyn hnh qung b v tn hiu ra l knh tn hiu cn thu. Cc knh ny tip tc c a vo b chuyn i IF/RF c tn hiu RF nm trong di tn CATV. Sau c a vo combiner 16:1 ghp knh vi cc knh truyn hnh khc thu t v tinh v cc knh truyn hnh qung b trong di tn ng xung (70MHz ~ 862MHz). Tn hiu ra l tn hiu RF ghp knh bao gm nhiu knh c ghp li vi nhau. Tn hiu ny c th a vo my thu hnh ca thu bao gii m v xem c, nhng truyn i xa v theo nhiu hng khc nhau th n c a vo b khuch i khuch i ln sau chia ra bng b chia tn hiu cao tn (b chia k hiu ISV hoc IS). Tn hiu sau b chia mi ng c a vo mt my pht quang, ti y tn hiu RF c chuyn thnh tn hiu quang v ghp vo si quang truyn n thu bao qua mng HFC.

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3.1.3 - Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca my pht quang 3.1.3.1 Cu to

Tn hiu vo

B lp m

B iu khin

Ip

Ngun quang

Tn hiu quang ra

Hnh 3.2 S khi my pht tn hiu quang

My pht quang bao gm 3 khi chnh nh sau: + B lp m c chc nng chuyn cc m ng truyn khc nhau (RZ, NRZ, AMI) thnh m ng truyn thch hp trn ng truyn quang, thng l m Manchester. + B iu khin c chc nng chuyn tn hiu vo biu din theo p thnh tn hiu biu din theo dng ph hp vi ngun laser. V ngun laser ch lm vic vi tn hiu dng. + Ngun quang trong trng hp ny dng ngun laser loi phn b phn hi (DFB) nng cao cht lng tn hiu. C cc loi ngun quang thng dng sau: 1/ Laser iode c khoang cng hng Fabry perot Laser ioe c cu trc d th kp nh LED , nhng c kh nng khuch i. t c mc ch ny thng dng khoang cng hng Fabry-perot, bng cch mi nhn hai u d th kp thnh hai gng phn x nh hnh 3.2a. Cu trc ny ca laser diode c vit tt l FP-LD. Khong cch hai gng trong laser diode Fabry-perot l L. cc gng ny c kh nng to ra hi tip tch cc, tc l s quay li ca cc photon kch thch trong vng hot tnh s kch thch nhiu photon hn. nh sng i ra ngoi qua hai gng phn x. Xt iu kin khuch i trong laser diode Fabry-perot: mt sng truyn t gng bn tri ti gng bn phi, nh hnh 3.3b. Ti gng bn phi, sng ny s phn x v tip tc truyn nh th. Dng sng ny gi l sng ng. trong bung cng hng ch c sng vi bc sng n nh th n phi l sng ng. Yu cu vt l ny c th c vit nh sau: N= (3.1)

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Trong : L: l khong cch hai gng N: l s nguyn tho mn iu kin cng hng, hai gng phn x phi cch nhau mt khong l L bng s nguyn ln na bc sng. Qu trnh pht x ca FP-LD c thc hin khi mt vi bc sng cng hng nm trong ng cong khuch i c h s khuch i ln hn suy hao, nh trong hnh 3.3c

Vng hot tnh Vng hn ch

Gng

Vng hn ch L (a)

Cng sut u ra (mW)

(b)

(nm)

(c) Hnh 3.3 Laser Fabry-perot: (a) Cu to ca khoang cng hng; (b) Hnh thnh sng ng trong khoang cng hng; (c) Ph pht x ca FP-LD

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c tnh P I ca laser diode nh hnh 3.4. c tnh ph ca FP LD nh hnh 3.3d.


Cng sut ra (mW)
0

Dng (mA)

Hnh 3.4 c tnh P I ca laser diode

2/ Laser diode DFB (Distributed FeedBack) Nguyn l hot ng ca laser DFB l s dng hin tng phn x Bragg vo mc ch nn cc mode bn trong v chn lc tn s. Trong thit b ny bung cng hng Fabry-perot c thay th bng cch t nhiu x (Hnh 3.5). Sng quang lan truyn song song vi cch t, do cch t c cu trc tun hon chu k to hin tng giao thoa gia hai sng ghp la truyn ngc nhau. hin tng giao thoa sng xy ra th sau mt chu k ca cch t pha ca sng phi thay i 2 m, trong m l s nguyn, c gi l bc nhiu x Bragg tc l: 2 m = 2 (3.2) Vi neff l chit sut hiu dng ca mode (neff 3,4 i vi bc sng 1550nm InGaAsP laser). l chu k cch t, h s 2 xut hin trong biu thc trn v nh sng phi phn x hai ln trng pha vi pha ca sng ti.

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Nu iu kin (3.2) khng tho mn th nh sng tn x t cch t s giao thoa trit tiu ln nhau, kt qu l sng khng th lan truyn i c. Khi m = 1 th bc sng B c gi l bc sng Bragg bc 1 v: B = 2 neff (3.3)
P Lp tip xc Cch t Vng hot tnh Lp tip xc Hnh 3.5 Cu trc diode laser hi tip phn tn DFB

Cng thc (3.3) l trng hp c bit ca nh lut Bragg v nu m = 1 n v th sng c gi l tho mn iu kin Bragg th nht. Ngoi ra cng c th nh sng phn x tho mn iu kin Bragg th hai. Thc t th khi m = 2, chu k cch t tng ln v d ch to hn. Lu rng cch t khng nm trong lp hot tnh nguyn nhn l do cch t nm trong vng hot tnh s gy ra s chuyn v b mt v iu ny s lm tng t l ti hp khng bc x. Lp cch t c thc hin nh cng ngh quang khc hoc cng ngh n mn ho hc. c tuyn P-I ca laser c th hin nh trong hnh 3.4 v chc nng iu ch tn hiu tng t c th hin nh trong hnh3.6a v iu ch tn hiu s c th hin nh trong hnh 3.6b. y logic 0 tng ng vi trng thi ti v logic 1 tng ng vi trng thi sng ca nh sng laser. Mt tn hiu thay i thng t gi tr di ngng n gi tr trn ngng ca c tuyn laser (dng bm).

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P(mW )

Tn hiu quang u ra

Ith Ib Tn hiu in u vo

IF (mA)

Hnh 3.6.(a) iu ch tn hiu s

P(mW ) Tn hiu quang u ra

Ib Ith Tn hiu in u vo IF (mA)

Hnh 3.6.(b) iu ch tng t

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3.1.3.2 Hot ng ca my pht Tn hiu cao tn RF qua b lp m (nu l tn hiu s th n s c chuyn i m ng truyn hin ti thnh m ng truyn thch hp cho ng truyn quang thng l m Manchester) sau tn hiu c a vo b iu khin chuyn tn hiu in p thnh tn hiu dng bm thch hp cho ngun laser v ngun laser c chc nng chuyn tn hiu in thnh tn hiu nh sng v ghp vo si quang qua b ni. 3.2 Cu to v hot ng ca node quang 1 - S khi ca node quang 4 cng ra:

03 01 02

04

05 RF1 06 TP1

RF2 TP2 RF3 TP3

08

07 TP4

RF4

Hnh 3.7 S khi ca node quang 4 cng ra

2 - Cu to ca node quang bao gm cc khi c bn sau:

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(01) Khi thu quang c chc nng thu tn hiu t tuyn n v sau chuyn thnh tn hiu cao tn (RF) (02) Khi khi phc tn hiu: khi ny bao gm cc b chia tn hiu, b suy hao (pad), b khuch i, chng C ch nng ln lt l chia u tn hiu cho cc cng khc, iu chnh mc tn hiu ph hp vi yu cu u ra v khuch i tn hiu. (03) Khi khuch i cng sut trc khi a ra u ra. (04) Khi Diplexer ba cng: c chc nng r tn hiu ng xung v ng ln. Tn hiu c ng xung s i theo cng H (Hight) cn ng ln s theo cng L (Low). (05) L cc b r tn hiu (trch tn hiu ra ) kim tra. (06) L khi kt hp (Combiner) tn hiu t hai cng theo hng ln (Hng tr v trung tm) TP (Test Point): l u kim tra,ti mi u ra s c mt u kim tra tn hiu c trch ra bng khi chia tn hiu. 3 - Nguyn l hot ng ca node quang Tn hiu quang ti u vo c chuyn thnh tn hiu cao tn (RF) qua it quang in vo b khuch i, tn hiu cao tn (RF) c chia u thnh hai hng vo hai khi tng t nhau. Ti y tn hiu c khi phc li nh b cn chnh v khuch i ln a vo b chia, tn hiu li tip tc c chia thnh hai hng vo b khuch i cng sut trc khi a ra cng. Tn hiu hng xung i qua khi Diplexer s i qua cng H ra cng ra. Cn tn hiu cao tn hng ln (i t pha thu bao) s i qua cng L vo khi Combiner v c kt hp vi tn hiu n t cc cng khc qua b lc, b lc s lc ly khong tn hiu trong bng tn hng ln (5MHz 65MHz) sau c khuch i v c a vo khi pht quang. Ti y tn hiu cao tn (RF) s c chuyn thnh tn hiu quang qua it in quang truyn v trung tm trn cc si cp hng ln. 4 - Chc nng ca node quang Chc nng chnh ca node quang l chuyn i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu cao tn (RF) v ngc li. ng thi n cng khuch i tn hiu v cn chnh li tn hiu tng t nh tn hiu ti my pht. V tn hiu khi truyn trn si quang b suy hao v cc xung b gin ra do hin tng tn sc ca si quang m c bit l truyn trn si n mode nn s nh hng ny li cng ln. Chng lm suy gim cht lng tn hiu v vy cn cn chnh v khuch i. Tn hiu vo ca node quang nm trong khong 2.5dBm +2dBm v tn hiu ra thng thng ca mt node quang trong khong 108dB V. Khong bc sng

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hot ng l t 1270 1550nm, trong truyn hnh cp dng ca s quang 1310nm c suy hao trn si quang thp. 3.3 Si quang 3.3.1 - Cu to v dng si quang
V

Lp v bo v

Li Hnh 3.8 Cu to si quang

truyn lan c nh sng, mt si quang c bn c cu to nh hnh 3.8. Mc d trn thc t, si quang c th c nhiu lp nhng ch c hai lp c bn l lp li (core) v lp v (cladding) ng vai tr quan trng trong qu trnh truyn lan nh sng. C lp li v lp v c ch to t thu tinh Silic, tuy nhin chng c chit xut khc nhau, li c chit xut ln hn v m bo iu kin phn x c th duy tr vic truyn lan nh sng bn trong li si quang. Chnh lch chit xut gia lp li v lp v thng khong mt vi phn trm. Hu ht cc loi si quang u c ng knh lp v khong 125 m. Bn ngoi lp v ny thng l mt vi lp bc bo v trnh s tc ng c hc vo si gy bin i cc c tnh c l ca si. 3.3.2 - Si n mode v si a mode Khi nh sng truyn lan bn trong li ca mt si quang ph thuc vo h s khc x ca li (h s khc x l hng s hoc thay i), c th c cc phn b trng in t khc nhau qua mt ct ca si. Mi mt phn b thng tho mn phng trnh Maxwell v cc iu kin bin ti mt phn cch li-v c gi l mt mode quang (Transverse mode). Cc mode khc nhau truyn lan dc trn si quang cc vn tc khc nhau. Si quang cho php lan truyn ch mt mode duy nht c gi l si quang n mode (single mode fiber). Si quang cho php

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truyn lan nhiu mode ng thi c gi l si quang a mode (Multimode fiber).

n2

n1

2a n2 n1 2a n2 n1 2a (c) Hnh 3.9 Mt ct v cc tia sng truyn trong (a) si a mode chit xut phn bc, (b) si a mode chit xut Gradien v (c) si n mode chit xut phn bc (b) (a)

iu mu cht trong vic thit k, ch to si truyn n mode l ng knh li si phi nh, xut pht t mi quan h gia bc sng ct ca si vi ng knh li. Bc sng ct c l bc sng m trn si ch c mt mode c truyn v c tnh nh sau: c= (3.4) Trong : V = 2,405 i vi si c chit xut bc (SI fiber) a[ m]: l bn knh ca li

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n1 l chit xut ca li n1 l chit xut ca v Khi ng knh li ca si n mode khng ln hn nhiu so vi bc sng th s c mt s phn chia cng sut ng k lp v. V th cn phi nh ngha mt tham s khc c gi l ng knh trng mode (Mode Field Diameter). Mt cch trc gic, chnh l rng ca trng mode. c bit, ng knh trng mode chnh l trung bnh bnh phng rng ca trng nu phn b trng theo Gauss. Khi phn b trng khng phi dng Gauss th c nhiu cch nh ngha ng knh trng mode. 3.3.3 - Cc c tnh ca si quang 3.3.3.1 Suy hao - Cng sut quang truyn ln si gim theo quy lut hm s m: P(z) = P(0).10(-z) (3.5) Trong : P(0)[mW]: l cng sut quang u si P(z)[mW]: l cng sut quang c ly z l h s suy hao - suy hao ca si quang c tnh bi cng thc: A[dB] = -10lg (3.6) Trong : P1[dBm]: l cng sut quang u vo P2[dBm]: l cng sut quang u ra - H s suy hao trung bnh (suy hao trn mt n v chiu di): [dB/km] = (3.7) Trong : A[dB]: l suy hao ca si quang L[km]: l chiu di si quang 3.3.3.2 Cc nguyn nhn gy nn suy hao c 4 yu t gy suy hao c bn nh sau: 1 Suy hao hp th ca vt liu nh sng truyn lan trong si quang b hp th do cc vt liu si v c bin i thnh nhit gy nn suy hao m khng lt nh snh ra ngoi. C hai dng suy hao hp th vt liu c bn l suy hao do bn thn si quang v suy hao do c tp cht trong thu tinh ch to si quang. Suy hao do bn thn vt liu si l do

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cc cng hng nguyn t ca vt liu si. Trn hnh 3.9 cho chng ta thy s hp th xy ra c hai min hng ngoi v cc tm. S hp th khng phi do bn thn vt liu ch to si gy ra bi cc cng hng nguyn t ca cc thnh phn khc cn gi l tp cht nh cc ion kim loi, ion Hydroxyn v cc lin kt OH m tn s cng hng c bn ca n bc sng 2.8 m. Do lin kt OH c th hp th nh sng ti tn s cng hng v cc sng hi, do c nhiu nh hp th ti cc bc sng 2.8/(n + 1) m, v d nh 1.4 m, 0.93 m v 0.7 m (vi n = 1,2 v 3) nh th hin hnh 3.10. Cc nh hp th khc nh l nh 1.24 m l do tc ng gia lin kt OH v SiO2.

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Suy hao (dB/km)

5 4 3

Suy hao tng Tn x Rayleigh ion OH

Hp th 2 cc tm 1 0 0.7 0.8 0.9 850nm 1.ca s

Hp th hng ngoi

OH 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1550nm 1300nm 3.ca s 2.ca s Bc sng ( m) Hnh 3.10 Suy hao tng ca si quang 1.0 1.1

2 Suy hao do tn sc C 4 loi suy hao tn sc trong si quang l Rayleigh, Mie, Brillouin v Raman m trong quan trng nht l suy hao do tn sc Rayleigh. Suy hao do tn sc Rayleigh t l thun vi 1/ 4 v c tnh nh sau: R = CR[dB/km] (3.8) y, CR c gi l h s tn sc Rayleigh. Gi tr thc t o c th hin hnh 3.10 v nm trong khong t 0.8 1.0 (dB/km)/( m)2 v l mt hm ca chnh lch chit xut giav li vi v, ng knh li v kiu ca vt liu. Ni mt cch tng qut, chnh lch chit xut gia li v v cng ln th suy hao do tn sc Rayleigh cng ln. Suy hao tng bao gm suy hao vt liu v suy hao do tn sc Rayleigh c th hin nh hnh 3.10 cho thy c hai ca s thp 1.3 m v 1.55 m. Do vy hu ht cc ngun quang thng hot ng cc bc sng c suy hao l nh nht.

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Cc tn sc Rayleigh v Mie l cc tn sc tuyn tnh, trong cng sut mt mode ca tng loi thit b bin thnh mode bc x bi tnh khng ng nht ca ch s chit xut (Rayleigh) hoc tnh khng ng nht ca b mt dn sng (Mie). Cc tn cc Brillouin v Raman l cc tn sc khng tuyn tnh , trong cng sut mt mode ca tng loi b bin thnh mt mode c tn s khc. Tn sc Brillouin c th coi nh mt s iu ch sng mang nh sng bi s dao ng phn t nhit, tn s ca nh sng b iu ch s b dch ln hoc dch xung so vi tn s sng mang vn c. Tn sc Raman ging nh tn sc Brillouin. Thc t, c hai tn sc Brillouin v Raman cn cng sut ln, thng thng 100mW vi Brillouin v 1W vi Raman. V th chng khng ng k khi cng sut c truyn ch c vi mW. 3 Suy hao un cong Tn hiu trong si quang cn chu suy hao bc x ti cc im un cong bi cc mode vi phn c to ra. Trong thc t, suy hao un cong khng ng k tr khi bn knh un cong si qu nh, do vy thng b qua suy hao un cong ny. Tuy nhin khi tuyn truyn dn quang di v c nhiu im un cong th suy hao do un cong c th ng k. Khi cn s dng cc si c ng knh trng mode nh hn gim suy hao un cong. 4 Suy hao ghp ni v mi hn Tn hiu quang cn b suy hao ti im kt ni gia hai si bng b ghp ni hoc mi hn. Suy hao ny gy ra bi nhiu nguyn nhn sau y: - Suy hao bi cc yu t bn ngoi: + Khng ng tm gia hai li si + Mt ct si b nghing + C khe h gia hai u si c ni vi nhau + B mt u si khng phng - Suy hao bi cc yu t ni ti: + Li si b elip + Khng tng thch v chit xut + Khng ng nht v ng knh trng mode Thng thng suy hao ni ghp khong 0.2dB v suy hao mi ni khong 0.05dB. 3.3.4 - nhy thu v qu cng sut Do suy hao si quang, cng sut nh sng s b suy gim khi lan truyn v suy hao si s hn ch c ly lin lc v tc bt. Gii hn suy hao c th c thy r thng qua khi nim nhy thu v qu cng sut.

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1 - nhy thu Trong mi h thng vin thng, mt cng sut thu ti thiu cn thit phi c t c cc c tnh nht nh, cng sut thu ti thiu c gi l nhy thu. Nu cng sut tn hiu thu c thp hn cng sut ti thiu cn thit th h thng s khng tho mn cc ch tiu k thut hoc thm ch c th khng lm vic c. 2 BER ca truyn dn s Trong truyn dn s, phm cht c nh gi da trn thng s BER m n l phn trm cc bt li thu c. Mt nguyn nhn c bn gy ra cc bt li chnh l tp m. Cng sut tn hiu cng ln hn cng sut tp m th BER cng nh. T kt qu cc nghin cu, BER i vi cc tp m trng phn b Gauss (chnh l tp m nhit) c tnh nh sau: BER = )

eSNR

dx = Q() ) e

(3.9)

Vi t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR >>1. Nu BER yu cu nh hn 10-9 th SNR s phi t nht l 36 ln tc l 16dB. V vy, vi mt cng sut tp m tng cng cho ca h thng, nhy thu s phi gp 36 ln cng sut tp m. 3 Qu cng sut Qu cng sut c nh ngha l hiu s gia mc cng sut pht v cng sut thu cn thit v c tnh theo cng thc: Bp = (3.10) Hoc: BD[dB] = PTx[dBm] PRxmin[dBm] (3.11) Vi: PTx[dBm]: l cng sut pht PRxmin[dBm]: l cng sut thu ti thiu cn thit ( nhy thu) Nh vy, suy hao tng cng trn ng truyn phi thp hn qu cng sut. Trong si quang, suy hao c tnh theo dB/km. Nu mt si quang c di L[km] v c suy hao si[dB/km] th suy hao tng cng ca si l si.L[dB]. V vy ta cn c: si.L + ghp ni.N + Aloss Qu cng sut (3.12) Trong : si[dB/km]: l suy hao si

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ghp ni[dB/mi hn]: l suy hao mi ghp ni N: l tng s im ghp ni trn tuyn truyn dn Alos[dB]: l cc suy hao khc Qu cng sut c th c ci thin bng mt s cch, v d nh: c th tng PTx bng cch tng cng sut ra ca laser hoc gim PRxmin bng cc b tch sng quang dng thc l (Avalanche Photodetector). Qu cng sut cn c th tng ln bng cch s dng cc b khuch i quang m chng c th rt quan trng trong cc h thng thng tin xuyn i dng bi cc h thng ny th suy hao l yu t v cng quan trng nh hng n h thng. 3.3.5 - Cc gii hn bi suy hao T biu thc v qu cng sut (3.12) ta thy c ly truyn dn b hn ch bi: Trong : Lmax = {10lgPTx 10lgPRxmin - Aloss} (3.13) si[dB/km]: l suy hao si PTx[dBm]: l cng sut pht PRxmin[dBm]: l nhy thu m bo cht lng truyn dn nht nh. Alos[dB]: l cc suy hao khc Nu cng sut ra PTx ca b pht v suy hao si quang si l cho trc th khong cch lin lc c th t c ph thuc c bn vo PRxmin. V d: Nu PTx = 0dBm, PRxmin = -45dBm, si = 0.2dB/km, N = 2 v cc suy hao khc trn h thng Aloss = 5dB th ta c: Qu cng sut = 45dB. T ta tnh c khong cch ti a: Lmax = (45 5 -2)/0.2 = 190[km] 3.3.6 - Truyn lan nh sng trong si quang Ngoi vn suy hao, tn sc si (Dispersion) cng l mt yu t hn ch khc n vic truyn dn sng nh sng. Tn sc l mt hin tng m cc photon (tc l cc mode) c tn s khc nhau truyn lan vi cc vn tc khc nhau. Do vy, mt xung nh sng s tr nn rng hn v chng ln ln nhau khi n truyn lan trn si quang. Trong phn ny s i vo c s vt l ca vic truyn lan nh sng trong si quang, sau s cp n cc dng tn sc khc nhau trong si v cc hn ch do tn sc. Vic truyn lan tn hiu trong si quang c th c m t bng phng php quang hnh hoc bng cc hm Maxwell c th th hin mt

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cch chnh xc, tuy nhin rt phc tp. n gin trong n ny ch yu xem xt bn cht vt l ca vic truyn sng vi mt mc ton hc n gin nht. 3.3.6.1 Truyn lan tn hiu trong si quang truyn c trong si quangth tia sng phi tun theo nh lut phn x ton phn ca Snell. Trong si quang c hai loi tia c th truyn i trong l tia kinh tuyn (Hnh 3.11) v tia nghing (Hnh 3.12). Tia kinh tuyn l tia truyn dc theo si quang theo ng zic zc v cc tia ny ct ngang trc ca li si sau mi ln phn x, cn tia nghing l tia truyn dc theo si quang theo ng xon c v ng i ca cc tia ny thng di hn cc ng kinh tuyn do suy hao mnh hn. V vy, vic i vo phn tch loi tia nghing ny l khng cn thit v n khng phn nh v cc tia lan truyn trong si. Nn ch xem xt cc tia kinh tuyn mi c ngha trong mc ch ny. Tuy nhin, cc tia nghing cng gp phn vo vic kt lun qu trnh tip nhn cc tia sng v suy hao tn hiu ca si quang. Cc tia kinh tuyn c th hin trong hnh 3.11 l xt cho loi si c ch s chit xut phn bc. Vi gc vo ca tia sng hp vi li trc mt gc 0. Theo nh lut Snell th gc min to ra s phn x ton phn s c xc nh nh sau: sin min = (3.14) Trong : min l gc ti hn n1 l chit xut li n2 l chit xut v Nh vy, mi tia sng khi tip xc vo ranh gii li-v vi gc < min s b khc x ra ngoi v v s b suy hao lp v. iu kin ca phng trnh 3.14 s b rng buc vi gc vo ln nht 0max theo phng trnh: n0sin 0max = n1sin c = (3.15) Trong c l gc khc x ti hn. Do vy, cc tia c gc vo 0 < 0max th s phn x hon ton bn trong ti ranh gii li-v ca si quang. Hnh 3.10 cn cho chng ta rt ra c hai nhn xt quan trng. Th nht, cc tia vi cc gc > min c cc vn tc theo trc z l khc nhau. C th, vn tc theo trc z c tnh bi: vz = sin (3.16) Vn tc ny ph thuc vo 1 do vy gy ra tr truyn lan khc nhau, chnh l tn sc. Th hai, l cc tia c 1 cng ln th vn tc theo trc z cng ln v do c vn tc gc cng nh. Nh trn hnh th hin th ta thy rng vn tc

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gc cng ln th s thm thu ca nng lng nh sng vo lp v cng ln. Cc tia c vn tc gc ln tng ng vi cc mode truyn lan bc cao. Khi vn tc gc qu ln, tc l < min th tia sng s truyn lan vo lp v v khng phn x tr li li c. Phng trnh (3.15) cng xc nh khu s NA (Numerical Aperture) v c nh ngha nh sau: NA = n1sin 0max = = n1 (3.17) Vi = l chnh lch chit xut tng i gia li v v. Khu s NA l mt thng s rt quan trng i vi si quang v n th hin s tip nhn nh sng v kh nng tp trung cc tia sng ca si, cng v th m cho php chng ta tnh ton c hiu qu ca qu trnh ghp ngun pht vo si dn quang. Gi tr ca khu s NA lun nh hn mt n v v nm trong khong t 0.14 0.5. i vi cc ng dng trong vin thng th NA nm trong khong 0.1 0.2 tng ng vi cc gc vo t 5.70 11.50. Do cc connector quang thng c gc nghing tip xc l 80. ngha ca khu s NA c th hin trong hnh 3.11.

n2 n0
0

Tia khc x Tia phn x

Trc

n1 n2

Li V

Hnh 3.11 Tia kinh tuyn trong si chit xut phn bc

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Trc

n1 n2

Hnh 3.12 Tia nghing trong si chit xut phn bc 3.3.6.2 Cc mode truyn lan

Phng php quang hnh trn ch cho thy mt cch gn ng s truyn lan nh sng trong thc t. nghin cu chnh xc hn chng ta phi dng cc hm Maxwell. Tuy nhin nu ch hiu cc c tnh truyn lan trong si v tn sc ca si chng ta c th s dng cc phng php ton hc khng phc tp lm. Vi iu kin bin ti giao din li-v (tng ng vi nh lut Snell cng thc (3.14) trong phn phn tch quang hnh), ch c mt tp xc nh cc hm sng tho mn phng trnh Maxwell mi c th truyn lan trong si quang, mi mt hm sng c gi l mt mode truyn lan v c biu din di dng: i(r, ,z) = Ai(r, )ej( t - ziZ) (3.18) Trong : i l ch s ca mode truyn lan i Ai(r, ): l phn b trng ngang zi: l hng s truyn lan theo trc z Biu thc (3.18) cho thy hm sng l hm theo thi gian v cc tham s khng gian r, , z. H to tr c dng ay bi si quang chnh l mt ng dn sng trn. Trong biu thc (3.18), tham s ej( t - ziZ) biu th vic truyn lan sng dc theo trc z ca si. Hng s truyn lan hng z: T khi nim cc mode truyn lan zi tho mn biu thc tn sc nh sau: 12 = = zi2 + Ki2 (3.19)

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Vi 12 = l hng s truyn lan ca mt sng hi tn s v trong mi trng in mi ng nht c chit xut n1. Ki l hng s truyn lan theo phng ngang ca mode truyn lan th i. T ta c, mi mode truyn lan c mt cp Ki, zi l s thc tho mn bt ng thc sau: 12 - zi2 = Ki2 > 0 (3.20) Cc mode truyn lan bc cng cao (i cng ln) th Ki cng ln v zi cng nh. Khi Ki vt qu 1 th zi tr thnh s o v mode c mt s suy gim hm m khi n truyn lan. Biu thc (3.20) l iu kin truyn lan cho cc sng bn trong li si. C mt s tng t cho lp v nhng vi iu kin khc: zi2 - 22 > 0 (3.21) Vi 2 = iu kin ny c ngha l khng c truyn lan trn lp v, ni cch khc l sng trong lp v b suy hao. Cc biu thc (3.20) v (3.21) u yu cu zi nm trong khong: < <1 (3.22) iu kin (3.22) chnh l tng ng iu kin phn x ton phn trong phn phn tch quang hnh. Biu thc (3.17) cho thy khi n2 xp x n1 th NA cng nh, do ch c rt t mode lan truyn c. Vn tc truyn lan theo trc z: Tng t vi nhn xt c nu trong phn phn tch quang hnh, vn tc ca tia sng ph thuc vo gc ti . Vn tc theo trc z ca mode lan truyn th i l hm ca hng s truyn lan zi ca n v c tnh nh sau: vgi = (3.23) Vi vgi thng c gi l vn tc nhm v cho thy rng cng sut ca tn hiu quang lan truyn nhanh nh th no. Vn tc nhm khc vi vn tc pha vpi = / zi. Vn tc pha vpi cho bit pha ca tn hiu quang thay i nhanh nh th no.Mc d vic tnh ton chnh xc vn tc nhm vgi cn phi bit zi l mt hm ca , biu thc (3.20) c th c tnh xp x khi s ph thuc tn s ca Ki l nh, khi : Bi v 1 = n1 /C = = (n1 + ) = = (3.24) Vi n1g l ch s khc x nhm: n1g = n1 + (3.25) T kt qu trn, dng php rng buc ta c: vgi = = ()-1 = ()-1 ()-1 = = vg (3.26)

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So snh (3.26) vi (3.16) ta thy t s zi/ 1 l tng ng vi sin 1 hoc t l vi C/n1 trong biu thc (3.10). Bi mi mode truyn lan c zi ring nn mi mode c tr truyn lan khc nhau. iu ny khng nh iu nhn xt qu trnh truyn lan trong phn phn tch quang hnh rng cc tia ti vi gc ti khc nhau c vn tc theo trc z l khc nhau. 3.3.7 - Tn sc si quang Nh nu trn, vn tc nhm vgi trong biu thc (3.26) l mt hm ca tn s v ca cc mode truyn lan. Nu mt xung quang c cha cc thnh phn tn s khc nhau v cc mode truyn lan khc nhau th cc tr truyn lan khc nhau ca cc thnh phn ny s lm xung b gin rng v chng ln ln nhau cui si quang. Tng qut, c ba loi tn sc si nh sau: - Tn sc vt liu (Material Dispersion). - Tn sc ng dn sng (Waveguide Dispersion). - Tn sc mode (Modal Dispersion). Hai loi tn sc u (tn sc vt liu v tn sc ng dn sng) c th quy cho s ph thuc tn s ca vn tc truyn lan v gp chng li gi chung l tn sc trong mode (intramode) hay cn gi l tn sc vn tc nhm (Group Velocity Dispersion - GVD). Loi th ba (tn sc mode) c gi l tn sc gia cc mode (intermode) do s ph thuc ca cc vn tc truyn lan vo cc mode truyn lan khc nhau. T cch phn loi ny, si n mode ch c tn sc trong mode. 3.3.7.1 Tn sc trong mode (Intramode Dispersion) Tn sc trong mode c th hiu nh sau: bi vn tc nhm ca mt mode l ph thuc tn s nn tr truyn lan n v (tc l nghch o ca vn tc nhm) cng ph thuc tn s. Khai trin chui Taylor i vi tr n v ti bc sng xc nh ta c: g = g ( 0) + ( - 0) + 0.5( - 0)2 + (3.27) Trong g ( 0) l tr truyn lan khong cch n v bc sng trung tm 0. T khai trin trn, tn sc trong mode c tnh bi: Dintra = = () = () (3.28) Trong ch s i i vi zi c b i cho n gin. Biu thc (3.27) c th tnh gn ng nh sau: g = g ( 0) + ( - 0)Dintra + 0.5( - 0)2 (3.29) Nu ch gi li hai ton hng u, rng xung tng do tn sc bn thn mode Dintra s c tnh bi:

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g = Dintra (3.30) Vi l rng ph tn hiu. tm Dintra ta dng nh ngha (3.28) v php rng buc ta c: Dintra = () (3.31) T (3.24) ta c Dintra: Dintra = + () = Dmaterial + Dwaveguide (3.32) y tn sc vt liu: Dmaterial = (- ) (- ) (3.33) V tn sc ng dn sng: Dwaveguide = () (3.34) T cc nh ngha trn, lu rng Dmaterial l tham s khng ph thuc mode lan truyn m ch ph thuc vo n1. Tn sc vt liu ca si quang Silic thng thng c coi l mt hm ca bc sng v c m t hnh 3.12

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Ps/ (nm.km) 20

10 0 -10

-20 1.1 1.2 Hnh 3.13 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.5 Bc sng ( m) Tn sc vt liu trong si quang 1.7

Tn sc ng dn sng th ngc li, n ph thuc vo mode lan truyn th i c xc nh bi cu trc ng dn sng quang. Ni mt cch tng qut, vic tnh ton tn sc ng dn sng l rt phc tp. 3.3.7.2 Tn sc mode Tn sc mode l do s tr truyn lan khc nhau ca cc mode khc nhau. T (3.20) zi l khc nhau i vi cc mode khc nhau. Do vy, vn tc nhm tng ng vgi trong (3.23) cng khc nhau. C th, ta c th tnh tn sc mode nh sau: Dmode = - = g.max - g.min (3.35) Vi g.max v g.min l tr truyn lan nhm n v cc i v cc tiu. Vi si chit xut bc (SI): c th tnh ton tn sc mode ca si SI bng phng php quang hnh. Theo cng thc (3.16) ta c: g.max = (3.36) Vy tn sc mode: Dmode = g.max - g.min ( - 1) = (3.37)

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Kt qu (3.37) cho thy rng tn sc mode trong si SI t l thun vi chnh lch chit xut . Do NA t l thun vi nn c mt s tng ng gia hiu sut ghp ni v tn sc. Vi si chit xut Gradient (GI): Mt ct ch s chit xut ca si GI c th c biu th tng qut bi biu thc sau: n(r) = n1(1 - 2 [r/a] )1/2 n1(1 - 2 )1/2 Vi r <a Vi r a (3.38)

Trong l tham s c ti u ho sao cho c th t c tn sc mode cc tiu. Tn sc mode trong si GI rt kh xc nh c trong phng php quang hnh. Theo cc kt qu nghin cu th khi: = 2(1 - ) (3.39) th tn sc mode l cc tiu v c xc nh bng biu thc: Dmode = (3.40) Khi tn sc mode trong si GI l nh hn nhiu so vi si SI c tnh bi (3.37) do yu t 2 (v < 1 nn 2 <<1). Tng s mode c th truyn lan c trong si GI c tnh nh sau: M = 2 12() (3.41) 3.3.7.3 Tn sc tng cng ca si T tn sc trong mode v tn sc mode c th tnh c tn sc tng cng ca si quang. Thay v cng trc tip chng, ngi ta dng cng thc tng bnh phng nh sau (do tn sc c tnh ngu nhin): D2total = D2intra 2 + D2mode (3.42) Vi l rng ph ca nh sng c tnh bng nm. Do mt si quang c th hin cho mt knh thng tin, tp m tng ca si quang thng c dng c trng cho bng thng truyn dn: Bsi = (3.43) Biu thc (3.43) cho thy tn sc tng v di si quang cng ln th tc bt c th truyn cng thp.

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3.3.7.4 S hn ch do tn sc Tng t nh vi tn sc si, tn sc si lm hn ch c ly truyn cc i mt tc bt nht nh c gi l gii hn tn sc v c th c hiu nh: Khi tn hiu c truyn i trn si quang n u thu chng tr nn rng hn v chng ln ln nhau, nu khong cch truyn dn qu ln th n mt lc no ta khng th phn bit c cc xung v khng th tch tn hiu c ch ra c (th hin trong hnh 3.14). S can nhiu ny trong truyn dn s c gi l can nhiu gia cc bt v kt qu l lm tng BER (th hin trong hnh 3.15 l hnh xung s).

Dng xung v bin

Cc xung tch nhau t1 Cc xung cn phn bit c t2 Kh phn bit xung t3 Giao nhau Khng phn bit c xung t4 Chiu di si

Hnh 3.14 S gin xung v suy hao ca hai xung k nhau khi chng c truyn dc theo si

Ni chung BER khng tng ng k tr khi T = T T0 l qu ln. Mt nguyn tc c bn l nu tho mn: T = T T0 = DtotalL = (3.44) th BER khng xung cp ng k.

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Trong h thng thng tin cp si quang, s gin xung khng ch gy ra bi tn sc si m cn do mt yu t khc l rng sn trc ngun pht quang v ca b thu cng gy ra gin xung. Tng t vi tng bnh phng ca tn sc si tng cng, gin xung tng cng l tng bnh phng ca tt c cc yu t: T = t2 + r2 + (DtotalL)2 (3.45) Vi t v r l rng sn trc ca my pht v my thu. Kt hp (3.44) v (3.45) ta c: t2 + r2 + (DtotalL)2 < ()2 (3.46) y chnh l biu thc tng qut cho gii hn tn sc.

T0 T

Tn hiu pht

Tn hiu thu

Hnh 3.15 Dng cc xung pht v thu c

3.4 - Cc mi hn v cc b kt ni (Connector) trong mng quang. Mt nhn t quan trng trong vic lp t h thng thng tin quang l s kt ni qua li gia cc thit b hoc gia cc thnh phn vi nhau. Cc lin kt xy ra ti ngun quang, thit b tch quang hay cc im trung chuyn trong ng truyn khi c hai si quang hoc cc si cp ni vi nhau. Vic s dng cc mi hn hay dng cc b kt ni (connector) tu thuc vo lin kt l tm thi hay lu di. Lin kt lu di l cc im ni him khi thay i nh ni hai si quang, ni gia si quang v dy nhy. Cn lin kt tm thi l lin kt gia cc thit b c th thay i c nh: Gia si quang v node quang ,si quang v hub, gia si quang v cc b chia,..Ni chung, cc mi hn c suy hao thp hn so vi cc connector nhng li yu cu thit b hn t tin v nhiu nhn lc hn connector. i vi si n mode, yu cu chnh xc rt cao ti im kt ni gia cc si quang. Cc nguyn nhn gy nn suy hao trong c connector v mi hn c th chia lm hai loi c bn: Suy hao bi cc yu t bn ngoi v suy hao bi

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cc yu t ni ti. Suy hao bi cc yu t bn ngoi nh: S khng ng tm gia hai li si, cht lng mt ct si v c khe h gia hai u si.
s d

(a)

(b)

(c)

Hnh 3.16 Cc mi hn gy suy hao gia hai si quang (a) c khe h, (b) Trc hai si b lch, (c u cui hai si to gc)

C 3 yu t gy suy hao bn ngoi trong mi hn quang c bn sau (Hnh 3.16) + C khe h gia hai si quang + Trc ca hai si b lch + Trc ca hai si to gc Trong trng hp c khe h th trc ca hai si quang trng nhau nhng mt ct ca hai si cch nhau mt khong s. Khong cch ny to ra mt vng khng gian to ra s phn x v nu s phn x ny ln th ngi ta gi l phn x Fresnel v gy ra suy hao. Cn trong trng hp lch trc l trc ca hai si song song vi nhau nhng lch nhau mt khong d. Trng hp to gc l trc ca hai si khng song song vi nhau m to vi nhau thnh mt gc hay mt ct gia hai u cui si to thnh vi nhau mt gc nh trong hnh 3.16. khc phc suy hao bi cc yu t bn ngoi th u cui hai si quang phi mn ,trc ca hai si phi trng nhau v mt ct hai si phi kht nhau. Suy hao bi cc yu t ni ti do cc nguyn nhn gy ra nh: ng knh hai si khng bng nhau, li si hnh elip, C hai loi suy hao bn trong v bn ngoi u nh hng n hiu sut ghp ca si quang, hiu sut gia ngun v si quang. Trong si a mode, th suy hao do b gc l ln nht ri n suy hao do lch trc v suy hao t nht l suy hao do c khe h. i vi si n mode th suy hao do lch trc nhiu hn so vi suy hao do c khe h v do b gc nh c th hin trong hnh 3.16. V trong si n mode ch c mt mode c truyn lan v n truyn dc theo trc ca si nn

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nh sng ghp vo si khng ng tm s b suy hao mt cch nhanh chng. Do , i vi kt ni suy hao thp ( 0.5dB) th gim suy hao do lch trc phi c iu chnh chnh xc n m (vi n l s nguyn) cn i vi si a mode th iu chnh chnh xc n m.
Suy hao ghp (dB)
Gc () 1.0 1.5

0.5

2.0

3 2

B gc Lch trc

1 0

Khe h

0 0

1 10

2 3 lch d ( m)

20 30 40 Khong h s ( m) Hnh 3.17 Suy hao ghp trong si n mode i vi ngun MDF v bc sng 10 m trong cc trng hp: Khe h, lch trc v b gc

3.4.1 - Phng php hn cp Hn bng cch lm nng chy si quang: Trong phng php ny vic u tin cn phi lm l gia cng b mt li si ni cn lm mn b mt si v mt ct phi vung gc vi trc ca si. Sau hai u cui ca si phi c t vo ci gi c rnh hnh ch V v chm u vi nhau nh trong hnh 3.18. Tip theo chng c c nh bng cc thit b c iu khin bng tay hoc bng b vi x l. Bc tip theo ti im tip xc c lm nng chy bng n h quang hoc bng laser v vy u cui si quang b chy ra mt cch nhanh chng v lin kt li vi nhau. K thut ny c th c s dng cho cc si n mode v si a

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mode vi suy hao nh hn 0.1dB. hn na, cc si quang nng chy c th bao ph gn nh l kch thc si quang ban u. Hin nay hu nh cc my hn quang u s dng phng php hn bng cch lm nng chy si quang. Cc si quang c a vo my hn v n c iu chnh hon ton t ng bng b vi x l v hn cng hon ton t ng. Cc nhn vin ko cp ch thc hin mt s bc nh sau: - u tin dng dao chuyn dng ct cp. - Sau tut v bo v ngoi cng, tip theo l tut lp v ch nh mu ca si quang v lp v trong sut. - Ra sch si quang bng cn (thng u si cp tut v khong 1 1.5m) v ct bng u cui si. - Sau khi xong cc khu chun b th si quang c a vo my hn quang c rnh ch V c nh cp. - Sau khi nhn nt set th my s t ng iu chnh v tr tng i ca hai si quang cn hn v hai tia h quang s lm nng chy si quang v chng c lin kt li vi nhau mt cch nhanh chng.

in cc

Si quang

Rnh ch V Cc thanh c nh cp Hnh 3.18 Phng php hn si quang nng chy

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3.4.2 - Cc Connector

V bc c nh

Si quang vo

Si quang ra

Keo dnh Thu knh Hnh 3.19 Cu to ca conector

Trong mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn thng dng hai loi connector chnh l FC/APC (Angled Physical Contact) v SC/APC. FC/APC l loi connector u trn c ren vn c nh u cp. Cn SC/APC l loi u vung khng c ren m ch c khp c nh khi cm vo. Tuy SC/APC n nh hn FC/APC nhng li c suy hao ln hn. Cu to ca hai loi ny c th hin nh trong hnh 3.19. Nguyn tc hot ng ca hai loi connector l bc x chm tia si quang pha truyn v hi t li ti li ca si quang pha thu sau khi i qua hai thu knh. Chc nng ca cc connector l kt ni gia cc thit b quang ni c th d dng thay i v chuyn tuyn sau ny.

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3.5 Ghp cng sut quang Vic ghp cng sut nh sng t ngun quang vo si quang phi xt n khu s NA, kch c si, cng pht x v phn b cng sut theo gc ca ngun quang. Lng cng sut quang pht ra t ngun quang c th ghp c vo si c c trng bi hiu sut ghp : = (3.47) Trong : PF: l cng sut c ghp vo si quang PS: l cng sut pht ra t ngun quang ph thuc vo loi si gn vo ngun v vo x l ghp (c s dng thu knh ghp hoc cc bin php nng cao hiu sut ghp hay khng). Hnh 3.19 th hin gc pht x tia sng ca ngun quang vo si quang v gc nhn nh sng (cng chnh l khu s NA) ca si quang.

n2 Ngun quang Gc pht ca ngun n1 n2

V Li V

Gc nhn ca si quang Hnh 3.20 Gc ghp ca ngun quang vo si quang

Trong mng truyn hnh cp thc t th vic ghp tn hiu t ngun quang vo si hay ghp gia cc si quang vi nhau c th dng c hai phng php l dng mt dy nhy hay cn gi l dy ui ln (pigtail) n bao gm mt on cp quang ngn v mt connector v dng mi hn trc tip. Dng dy nhy th tin li cho vic lp t, sa cha v chuyn tuyn sau ny nhng n li c suy hao ln (suy hao tnh cho mt kt ni hon chnh t si pht sang si thu l 0.8dB/kt ni). Cn hn trc tip th mi hn s c nh khng thay i, khng sa cha c nhng li c suy hao nh hn (khong 0.05dB/mi hn).

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CHNG IV - CC THIT B CHNH TRONG MNG NG TRC 4.1 - Cp ng trc Cp ng trc c s dng rng ri cho vic phn phi tn hiu cc trng trnh truyn hnh . Hnh 4.1 v s cu trc cp ng trc s dng trong CATV.

Lp v nha

V bc nhm Lp bt nha Dy dn trong ( ng bc nhm)

Hnh 4.1 Cu to cp ng trc

Phn li ca dy dn trong thng lm bng ng vi in tr nh thun li cho vic truyn dng in cng cao. Lp v ngoi cp v phn li trong thng lm bng nhm. Vt liu gia hai lp nhm thng l nha. Gia li v phn ngoi c cc ti khng kh gim khi lng v trnh thm nc. Ngoi cng l mt lp v bc chng cc tc ng c hc. ng knh tiu chun ca cp l 0.5; 0.75; 0.85 v 1 inch, tr khng c tnh ca cp thng l 75 . Tn hiu s b suy gim khi truyn theo chiu di ca cp. Lng suy gim ph thuc vo ng knh cp, tn s, h s sng ng v nhit . Cc thng s ca cp ng trc: 4.1.1 - Suy hao do phn x Suy hao do phn x l i lng c o bng khc bit ca tr khng c tnh cp so vi gi tr danh nh. N bng t s gia cng sut ti trn cng sut phn x:

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Lr[dB] = 10log[dB] (4.1) Khi tr khng thc hin cng gn vi gi tr danh nh, cng sut phn x cng nh v suy hao phn x cng nhiu. Khi phi hp l tng ta c P r = 0. Tuy nhin, trong thc t gi tr Lr vo khong 28dB 32dB. Nu suy hao phn x qu nh, phn hi s xut hin trn ng dy v s to nn tn hiu c ting . 4.1.2 - Tr khng vng Cng sut t cc b khuch i b li suy gim trn ng truyn thng c cung cp bi dng mt chiu/xoay chiu in p thp truyn trong cp theo tn s RF. Do mc in p thp, thng thng khong 45V, tr khng vng(tr khng phi hp ca dy dn trong v ngoi ca cp) l mt c tnh quan trng. Dng in ny chy qua trong ton b thit din ca cp, v v vy tr khng ca dy dn trong i vi n s cao. C ba loi cp ng trc khc nhau c s dng trong mng cp phn phi: + Cp trung k + Cp fid + Cp thu bao

Khuch i trung k
Node quang

Cp fid

Khuch i cu/trung k Khuch i ng dy

Cp thu bao

Tap

Hnh 4.2 Phn cp ng trc trong kin trc cy v nhnh trong mng HFC Cc loi cp v cc loi b khuch i

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Cp trung k: ng knh t 0.5 1 inch dng truyn tn hiu bt u t node quang. Tn hao truyn dn i vi loi cp 1 inch l 0.89dB/100m tn s 50MHz v 3.97dB/100m 750MHz . Cp fid c s dng ni gia cc b khuch i ng dy v cc b chia tn hiu, cn cp thu bao c ng knh nh hn cp fid dng kt ni t cc b chia ti thit b thu bao. V tr lp t trong mng c ch trong hnh 4.2. 4.2 - Cc b khuch i RF (Radio Friquency) 4.2.1 - c im cc b khuch i Cc b khuch i ng truyn b li suy gim tn hiu, chng ng vai tr quan trng khi thit k h thng. Mi b khuch i c cha mt b n nh b li suy gim cc tn s khc nhau. Trong h thng truyn hnh cp thng s dng b khuch i cu. Vi tr khng ln, tn hiu t ng trung chuyn c th c ly ra m khng nh hng n cht lng ton b knh truyn. Yu cu i vi b khuch i l n nh phi cao do c s tch lu suy hao ca nhiu thnh phn mc ni tip : - Chng phi lm vic c trn mi phm vi di tn rng, h s khuch i phi t c gi tr ph hp ti cc min tn s cao. - B n nh c kh nng b li suy gim theo tn s mt cch ph hp. - B khuch i c c tuyn tuyn tnh cao trnh xuyn m. - T ng iu chnh h s khuch i v c tuyn tn s b li s thay i do nhit . - T s CNR ca ring mt b khuch i phi ln chng c mc nhiu tng ca cc b khuch i. C ba loi b khuch i c s dng trong mng CATV HFC tu thuc vo v tr ca chng: +B khuch i trung k. +B khuch i fid. +B khuch i ng dy. V tr ca tng loi trong mng c nu trong hnh 4.2. c im ca tng loi: 4.2.1.1 - B khuch i trung k c t ti im suy haoln ti 20 22dB tnh t b khuch i trc , mc u ra thng khong 30 36dBmV. u im:

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Mc CNR cao(<80dB) c bit l i vi knh truyn hnh tn s cao (>300MHz). V cp ng trc khi truyn dn tn hao ph thuc nhiu vo tn s nn bin tn hiu Video pht i cn phi c gi cn bng nhm duy tr s ng u trong ton vng ph tn hiu RF pht. Cc b gi cn bng ng xung c thit k b cho cc on cp ng trc c di c nh. Bng cch tng suy hao tn s thp, b cn bng cho php cc b khuch i trung k duy tr mc khuch i thch hp vi tng khong tn s trong ph tn hiu truyn dn. Ngoi ra, mt s b khuch i trung k cn c trang b b cn bng d on trc (Bode Equalizer) b tn hao cp gy ra do s thay i ca nhit :

Tn hiu vo

Phn u (Flatness) Tin khuch i

Khuch i (Gain)

D on (Bode)

Khi cn bng(EQ)

Postamp

Tn hiu ra

HPF 24 V LPF

Hnh 4.3 S khi n gin b khuch i trung k

Cc b khuch i trung k thng dng mch t iu chnh h s khuch i (AGC: Automatic Gain Control). Khong iu chnh chnh lch mc khuch i thng trong khong 6 10dB. Cc khi AGC trong b khuch i trung k tch tn hiu mu ca cc knh hoa tiu ti u ra b khuch i, tn hiu mu ny thng c dng to ra mc in p ph hp iu khin mc khuch i (Gain) v dc (Slope) c tuyn ca b khuch i, cc tn s hoa tiu chun khc nhau i vi tng nh sn xut. Tt c cc b khuch i trong truyn hnh cp u dng mt s mch khuch i y ko gim thiu hi mo bc hai. 4.2.1.2 - B khuch i fid c s dng khng ch pht xung nhnh knh tn hiu Video ti cc b khuch i trung k m cn chia tn hiu ti cc fid cp khc nhau (thng l

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4 cp fid). Mc tn hiu ra thng khong 40 50dBmV(cao hn 12dB so vi b khuch i trung k). Tuy nhin, u ra c mo phi tuyn mc cao hn so vi b khuch i trung k. 4.2.1.3 - B khuch i ng dy Khong cch gia cc b khuch i ny khong 120m 130m, t pha gn thu bao. gim hiu ng mo phi tuyn tn hiuVideo pht i cng nh duy tr s ng u trong ton di tn tn hiu, ti a ch s dng 2 4 b khuch i ng dy, tu thuc vo s lng Tap (b trch tn hiu) gia cc b khuch i ng dy di rng. Trong cc h thng CATV hai chiu c s dng mt thit b c bit l b lc Diplexer (hnh 4.4) cho php tch ring tn hiu ng ln v ng xung. Ti cc h thng truyn hnh cp ti Bc M cc knh tn hiu ng ln c t di tn s 5 65MHz. Di tn s tn hiu ng xung l 70 862MHz. Diplexer c cch ly gia cc di tn khong 60dB.

Cng H

Cng C Cc b lc Cng L

Hnh 4.4 Minh ha n gin mt diplexer

Diplexer l mt thit b c ba cng: cng H, Cng L, Cng chung C. ng t cng chung C ti cng thp L l mt b lc thng thp cho php tn hiu ng ln bng tn thp hn c pht i. ng i t cng chung C ti cng cao H l mt b lc thng cao cho php pht cc knh tn hiu ng xung. Trong mt b khuch i ng dy (khuch i trung k v khuch i cu) cc tn hiu ng xung chuyn qua cng H, tn hiu ng ln chuyn qua cng L. 4.2.2 - CNR ca mt b khuch i n v nhiu b khuch i ni tip.

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Mt trong nhng thng s quan trng nht nh gi hiu nng truyn dn ca h thng CATV l t s sng mang trn nhiu (CNR: Carrier Noise Rate ). CNR ca mt b khuch i n c tnh theo cng thc : CNR[dB] = - (-59.16) F G (4.2) Trong Pra[dB V]: L cng sut ra ca b khuch i. KB: L hng s Boltzman(1.38x10-23J/k). T[k]: L nhit Kenvil ca b khuch i. G[dB]: L h s khuch i. B[MHz]: L di tn lm vic. Gi tr (-59.16)dBmV l nhiu nhit trong di tn 4MHz. F[dB]: L tp m nhit ca b khuch i. Tp m nhit thng thng i vi cc b khuch i trung k thng trong khong 7 10dB vi mc tn hiu vo l +10dBmV v h s khuch i l 20dB. Trong trng hp c n b khuch i khc nhau mc ni tip: Gi s b khuch i th n c tp m nhit l Fn v h s khuch i l Gn nh trong hnh v:

G1

G2

Gn CNRn

F1

F2

Fn

Hnh 4.5 S n b khuch i ni tip

Tp m nhit ca ton b h thng c tnh : F = F1 + + ++ (4.3) Trng hp n gin nht l tt c b khuch i RF l ging nhau th CNR ca ton h thng l: CNRn = CNR - 10log(n) (4.4) V d, nu mt h thng CATV c bn b khuch i ni tip vi CNR ca mi b l 56dB th CNR ca ton h thng sau b khuch i th 4 l 50dB. Trng hp tng qut CNRn ca ton h thng gm cc b khuch i khc nhau c tnh theo cng thc : CNRn[dB] = -10log[ 10-CNR1/10 + 10-CNR2/10 ++10-CNRn/10] (4.5) 4.3 - B chia v r tn hiu

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S n gin ca b r tn hiu Tap cng ra suy hao 20dB:

ng vo

ng ngun AC
Khi ghp nh hng

ng ra

ng RF
-4 dB

-12 dB -4 dB

Chia tn hiu

Hnh 4.6 S khi n gin ca Tap 4 ng suy hao 20 dB

Tap c s dng a tn hiu ti cc thu bao. Mt Tap in hnh bao gm mt khi ghp nh hng RF v cc khi chia cng sut . Khi ghp nh hng r ra mt phn nng lng tn hiu u vo, cn cc khi chia cng sut (Spliter) chia tn hiu ti thng l 2,4,8 cng ra. Cng sut tn hao gia cng vo so vi cng ra gi l suy hao xen (Insertion Loss), cn vi cc cng ra khc (cng r) gi l suy hao cch ly (Isolation Loss). Suy hao xen ca Tap thng c lp vi tn s v nhit . Suy hao cch ly ln hn rt quang trng i vi cc h thng CATV hai chiu ngn tn hiu ng ln ca mt thu bao ny lt vo tn hiu ng xung ca thu bao khc. Thng thng suy hao cch ly vo khong 20dB gia di tn ng ln v ng xung. Tap c c trng bi gi tr r, c nh gi bng t l gia cng sut ra v cng sut tn hiu vo. Gi tr r thng trong khong 4 35dB.

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CHNG V PHNG PHP THIT K MNG TRUYN HNH CP HU TUYN 5.1 La chn cc thng s k thut cho mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn 5.1.1 - Phn b di tn tn hiu Hu ht cc h thng HFC ti M hin nay u phn b di tn nh sau: t 5MHz 40MHz dnh cho di tn ngc (truyn s liu t thu bao n trung tm), t 52MHz 750MHz dnh cho di tn hng xung trong : di tn t 52MHz 550MHz dng cho cc knh truyn hnh tng t, t 550MHz 750MHz dng cho cc knh truyn hnh s v cc knh truyn s liu hng xung (downstream data). Vy di thng dnh cho cc knh truyn s liu hng ln ch l 35MHz, trong khi di thng ca knh truyn s liu hng xung c th t n 120MHz 150MHz. iu c th nhn thy di thng cho knh hng ln nh hn nhiu so vi knh hng xung. Ngoi ra hu ht nhiu h thng cng u xut hin ti cc tn s thp, phn cui ca ph tn, iu ny li cng lm cho di thng hng ln nh hn.
Digital video, data Dowstream

Data, interative upstream

Analog Video Dowstream

40MHz 50MHz

500MH z 550MH z

Hnh 5.1 Phn b di tn cho cc mng truyn hnh cp ti M

Do yu cu di thng cng ngy cng tng, c bit l di thng tn hiu hng ln, hin nay cc thit b truyn hnh cp mi ra i u h tr cho phng thc phn b di tn mi, trong di tn hng xung ln n 860 hoc 870MHz, ng thi di tn s hng ln cng c tng t 5 65MHz. Vi phn b di tn ny, di thng hng ln tng gp i, trong di thng hng xung cng tng hn 100MHz. Ta s la chn phn b tn s theo phng n ny cho mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn.

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750MH z

5MHz

Tn s

500MH z 550MH z

Hnh 5.2 Phn b di tn cho cc mng truyn hnh cp Chu u

5.1.2 - Tnh ton kch thc node quang cho yu cu hin ti Kch thc node quang l s lng thu bao c cung cp dch v ti mt node quang. S lng thu bao ti mt node quang l thng s quan trng hng u khi thit k mng, v nh hng n mt lot cc thng s quan trng ca mng, nh: tc bt tn hiu hng ln ca mi thu bao (i vi mng hai chiu), cu hnh mng truy nhp, kh nng cung cp dch v cho thu bao hin ti v tng lai, kh nng pht trin v nng cp mng trong tng lai. Mt h thng mng c xy dng thng thng phi p ng c yu cu s dng t nht trong 15 n 20 nm, v phi c kh nng nng cp p ng trong nhng nm tip theo. V vy trin khai mng truy nhp ng trc cn tnh n mc tp trung ca thu bao v cu trc mng cp quang ca khu vc node quang bao ph, cn kt hp cc yu t nh cu trc a l thnh ph, hng ng ph v nh hng pht trin ca thu bao trong thi gian tip theo, cn c vo tnh hnh thc t xc nh s lng thu bao ca mi node quang. Nu thu bao tp trung th 1000 ~ 1500 thu bao/ node quang l ph hp. Khi s dng 1500 thu bao /1 node quang th nn chn node quang c 4 cng ra, mng phn phi cp ng trc th nn chn cu trc dng sao v c gng cn i s lng thu bao cc cng ra ca mi node quang tin cho vic nng cp sau ny.

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862MH z

65MHz

70MHz

5MHz

Data, Data, interative interativ upstream e upstrea m

Analog Video Dowstream

Digital video, data Dowstream

Tn s

5.2 Thit k Thit k mt h thng cp quang l mt quy trnh phc tp. Ngi thit k phi nh gi nhiu yu t nh: tc d liu, suy hao ng truyn, mi trng, loi cp, thit b c c, cc loi giao din in t, b ni, hn quang, cc giao thc Mt quy trnh hon chnh s rt phc tp, tuy nhin n c th c n gin ho nh cc ch dn km theo cc thit b quang do cc nh sn xut cung cp. Nhng ch dn ny thng mang y cc thng tin c th chn c loi cp quang thch hp v d lp t. Nhng yu t khc nh loi cp, panel, jumper, mi trng, th ngi thit k phi t nh gi. Phn ny s trnh by phng php thit k n gin da trn cc khuyn ngh ca nh sn xut. Cc phng php tnh ton chn la loi cp quang s dng trong mng. 5.2.1 - La chn si quang iu u tin phi c quyt nh l lp t h thng quang n mode hay a mode. C hai h thng u c nhng u nhc im ca mnh. Cc u im ca h thng si quang n mode 1. Si quang n mode c bng tn truyn dn rt ln, l tng cho truyn dn c ly xa. 2. Si quang n mode c suy hao nh hn si quang a mode. 3. Cp si quang n mode r hn si quang a mode. 4. Si quang n mode hin c hot ng bc sng 1310nm hoc 1550nm u im ca h thng si quang a mode 1. Si quang a mode thch hp cho cc c ly di 2km. 2. H thng si quang a mode c bng tn t ph thuc vo chiu di ca si . C th truyn s liu tc 100Mbps, c ly nh hn 2km, s dng si quang FI tiu chun 62,5/125. 3. Thit b quang a mode thng r hn n mode. Cc LED r thng c dng lm ngun quang. 4. Cp si quang a mode thng t hn n mode, nhng i vi nhng ng dng c ly ngn th s tit kim chi ph t cc thit b quang c th b li chi ph cp quang a mode. 5. Si quang a mode hin c hot ng bc sng 850nm hoc 1310nm. C th kt lun chung rng cc u im nu trn ca si quang n mode thch hp hn cho mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn. Cn si quang a mode ch

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c th c lp t cho h thng phc v cho cc ngnh cng nghip khc c ly ngn. 5.2.2 - Tnh ton suy hao ca h thng Tng suy hao tuyn l suy hao cng sut trong mt tuyn si quang do tt c cc yu t bao gm: cc b ni, mi hn, suy hao si quang, cong ca cp Suy hao cng sut quang do cc b ni gn vi thit b quang c th b qua v n c tnh gp vo thit b. Tng suy hao tuyn phi nm trong phm vi cho php ca thit b quang th h thng mi c th hot ng tt. iu ny c xc nh nh vic lp k hoch chi tit cc suy hao cng sut cho ton b h thng quang. Tt c cc yu t c lin quan hoc c th s lin quan n suy hao tuyn u cn phi c tnh n. Cc nh sn xut thit b quang thng khuyn ngh mt hoc nhiu loi si quang c th s dng ph hp vi thit b ca h. Nhng loi si quang ny c th nghim vi thit b ca h trong mt cu hnh im - im tiu chun cho cc ch s di v suy hao cc i ca si quang. Thit b s hot ng tt nu ta s dng loi si quang c khuyn ngh trong cc gii hn v chiu di v suy hao ca si. Mt phng php dng xc nh tng suy hao tuyn l nh gi phn b suy hao tuyn quang. nh gi ny lit k tt c cc yu t lin quan hoc s lin quan n suy hao quang ca h thng. Kt qu s a ra tng suy hao tuyn yu cu cho h thng si quang. Sau s so snh vi suy hao cc i ca thit b xc nh liu thit k c t ch tiu v suy hao hay khng. 1. Cc yu t nh gi h thng quang - Cc khuyn ngh v bn knh si quang (125 m) - Khuyn ngh v suy hao cc i ca si quang (0,35dB/km) - Khuyn ngh v m s cc i ca si quang (NA) - Khuyn ngh v bng tn si quang cc i (MHz*km) ti bc sng hot ng (1310nm) - Khuyn ngh v chiu di cc i ca si quang - Cc thng s suy hao cc i ca thit b - nhy thu ca thit b - Cng sut ra trung bnh ca b pht ca thit b - Di ng ca b thu Nu suy hao cc i c cung cp v b thu c di ng l ton b di cng sut lm vic ca b pht th khng cn cc thng tin v nhy b thu v cng sut ra trung bnh ca b pht. Suy hao cc i = cng sut ra trung bnh b pht - nhy b thu

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T k hoch lp t si quang, cn xc nh - Tng chiu di tuyn si quang - S lng mi ni cn thit v suy hao ca mi mi ni - D tr cho thit k - Cc suy hao quang do cc thnh phn khc trong h thng 3. Kt lun phn b suy hao tuyn quang - Suy hao si quang ti bc sng hot ng: dB/km - Suy hao mi hn: s mi hn*dB/mi hn - Suy hao mi ni: s mi ni*dB/mi ni - Cc suy hao thnh phn khc - D tr cho thit k - Tng suy hao tuyn - Cng sut u ra trung bnh ca b pht - Cng sut u vo b thu - Di ng ca b thu - nhy ca b thu - D tr cn li 4.D tr cn li nn ln hn 0. Nu khng t c iu ny th cn phi xem xt li suy hao ton tuyn gim suy hao ton tuyn.
2.

5.3 Nguyn tc thit k phn mng quang Mng quang l mng truyn dn khng th thiu trong tng th mng truyn hnh cp xy dng theo cu hnh HFC hay HFPC nhm mc ch truyn dn tn hiu quang t Trung tm n cc im t node quang (thc cht l b chuyn i quang in O/E) v trong tng lai l truyn dn tn hiu ngc dng t cc u cui thu bao (Modem cp, thoi, h thng bo chy, Set-top-box...). Tu theo quy m pht trin mng m mng quang c th c chia thnh nhiu cp khc nhau, y ta ch xem xt v tnh ton quy hoch cho mt mng truyn hnh cp c quy m va phi v ch s dng mt cp truyn dn quang v ch tnh ton cho hng tn hiu ng xung (t Trung tm n my thu thu bao). Vic quy hoch v pht trin mng quang gn lin vi c im a hnh, dn c v tnh hnh pht trin cc dch v gi tr gia tng trong tng lai v iu ny lin quan n vic quyt nh s s dng cu hnh mng quang, mng ng trc v h thng thit b ph hp vi tng cu hnh mng. V d Vit Nam, vic s dng cu hnh HFC hay HFPC ph thuc rt nhiu vo mt bng quy hoch th . trin khai dch v truyn hnh cp trn cc tuyn ph trn a bn thnh ph H Ni hay mt s thnh ph c s lng dn c ng c, h thng giao thng phc tp ng thi c s h tng, ng mng, ct in lc, ct n chiu sng... khng n nh th vic trin khai mng theo cu hnh HFPC l khng c

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tnh kh thi m thch hp hn l trin khai mng theo cu hnh HFC. Do tnh khng n nh nu trn cho nn s nh hng rt nhiu n mng quang dy c trn a bn thnh ph (nu xy dng theo cu hnh HFPC) m thc t thi cng, khc phc s c mng quang cc k phc tp. Tuy nhin, hin nay cc khu vc ngoi thnh vic quy hoch cc khu chung c th mi ang c trin khai mt cch rng ln v t s l ni rt thch hp trin khai mng truyn hnh cp v cc dch v gia tng trn mng cp theo cu hnh mng HFPC. Chi tit vic quy hoch, phn tch v tnh ton mt mng quang cho cc khu quy hoch ny s c xem xt k hn phn sau. Ni nh vy khng c ngha l ch cc khu quy hoch mi mi c th trin khai c mng theo cu hnh HFPC, m khu vc ni thnh cng c th trin khai thnh cng nhng cn c thi gian v phi lp k hoch trin khai tng bc (tc l nng cp dn mng HFC ln thnh mng HFPC da trn c s h tng quy hoch th ca thnh ph). Cc s liu cn thit thit k c tng hp t nhiu ngun khc nhau, bao gm cc s liu v tnh hnh kinh t chnh tr, mt dn c, trnh dn tr v cc yu t khc lin quan n vic trin khai c hiu qu dch v truyn hnh v a hnh cng l iu kin quan trng lin quan n vic la chn cu hnh mng. Xc s lng v nh v tr t node quang: S cc node quang c nh gi theo ton vng dn c v vng dch v thu bao thun li nht. nh gi ny c s dng lm c s xem xt cu trc mng. Do vy cn thit xc nh c vng dch v thu bao ti u, xem xt nh gi cho ng thut bao v node quang. V tr t node quang ni thu bao tp trung l hiu qu nht. Vng trung tm c xc nh ph hp vi s thng nht v kinh t v vn ho trong khu vc. i vi cc khu vc thnh ph Vit nam hin nay, hu ht cc tuyn cp ng trc sau node quang u ang trin khai treo trn cc h thng ct in lc, ct n chiu sng... m cc h thng ct ny hu ht chy dc theo cc tuyn ph. Do v tr t mt node quang thch hp trong a bn thnh ph thng l nhng im giao ct ng ph. Vic la chn cc thng s thit b cho mng quang ph thuc vo cc s liu tng hp c qua h s kho st tuyn quang bao gm cc thng tin v chiu di tuyn, hng tuyn v cc yu t khc v d: Hin nay rt nhiu cc tuyn cp thuc cc n v khc nhau hu ht treo trn h thng ct in lc v ct n chiu sng, nh vy tuyn cp qua cc khu ph c cc tuyn ct nh vy phi p ng tiu chun cp treo, c dy vng chu lc. Nhng thc t hin nay nhiu tuyn ng ng c tin hnh ngm ho, h thng ct b d b v do cc thit b khi trin khai cng phi ph hp vi iu kin ngm ho. H thng mng quang t bit quan trng l node quang. Hu ht cc thit b node quang hin nay u s dng l node quang 4 cng ra cao tn RF,

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mc tn hiu cao tn ra thng 108dB V vi cng sut quang vo chun l 0dBm. Di thu ca tng node quang do tng hng sn xut c nhiu di khc nhau, nhng hu ht di thu ca node quang thng nm trong khong t -2 n +2 dBm. Qu trnh tnh ton mt tuyn quang c th cho mt node quang c th c s bin i gia cc n v dBm v mW tu theo cng on tnh ton. V d, suy hao connector, cp, mi hn... c tnh theo n v dBm, nhng ti cc b chia tnh c cng sut chia quang cn quy i n v dBm thnh n v mW. Cc cng thc cn thit tnh ton suy hao ton tuyn cho mt node quang: Gi A l cng sut sau chia cn thit cp cho mt node quang, A c tnh nh sau: A[dB] = Loss[dB] + Pvo node [dBm] (5.1) Vi: Loss[dB] = hn*N + connector*M + Suy hao b chia (5.2) Trong : Loss[dB]: Suy hao trn tuyn. Pvo node[dBm]: Cng sut quang u vo node quang (chun l 0dBm) hn[dB]: Suy hao mi hn (cho php 0.05dB) connector[dB]: Suy hao mt connector (cho php 0.8dB) N: S mi hn trn mt tuyn M: Tng s connector trn mt tuyn Suy hao b chia cho php 0.1dB i n v dBm thnh mW: A[mW] = 10 (5.3) Tnh ton phn trm cng sut ca b chia: A% = *100% (5.4) Vi Pvchia[mW]: Cng sut vo b chia c quy i thnh mW. Tnh ton tng t nh vy i vi tt c cc node quang trong b chia . Vic la chn my pht quang ph thuc vo s lng cc node quang, di tuyn v cc im u ni trn tuyn cho nn trong qu trnh tnh ton mng cn nghin cu k cc iu kin c lin quan nhm ti u ho bn thit k. Tt nhin, tng s % sau b chia phi nh hn 100%. Tu vo tnh hnh thc t s trin khai v d phng trong tng lai s c s la chn mt pht quang c cng sut ph hp. 5.4 Nguyn tc thit k phn mng ng trc
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S dng cp QR540 (suy hao 7dB/100m) cho ng trc.


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S dng cp RG11 (suy hao 12dB/100m) cho ng nhnh. - S dng cp RG6 (suy hao 18dB/100m) cho ng thu bao (ko t thit b chia trong nh IS n thit b thu bao TV). Mng ng trc: Cp ng trc QR540 c s dng lm cp trc chnh. Trn mng cp trc chnh m bo ch lp cc thit b chia ng trc (S, DC), b khuch i ng trc v thit b chn ngun (nu c). T cc b chia ng trc, tch tn hiu a vo cc b khuch i nhnh, thng qua cp trc nhnh RG11 cp tn hiu vo mng thu bao. Yu cu khi thi cng ko cp ng trc: - Cp phi c ko cng, no cn thn vo ct in lc hoc ct bu in. Khng lm gy, xon, nt cp. - Ti cc im ct cp a vo b chia hoc khuch i, khng d qu nhiu cp gy tn hao vt t, tn hiu, mt m quan (ch d khong 1 2.2m). Nu cc thit b chia nhnh, thu bao c t trn cng mt ct th c th dng cp RG6 (ngn hn 1m) ni vi nhau. - Cc connector c kt ni cn thn, ng loi, ng tiu chun. Nu cp QR540 c thit k a vo/ ra b khuch i th s dng trc tip F-male connector hoc 5/8 connector cho cp QR540 kt ni. - Ti cc im mng xng cp phi chc chn, gn, c qun bng dnh cch in, chng thm nc. - Trong trng hp b chia u ch (phc v m rng sau ny hoc a vo ng su, hp, khng ct hoc cha c thu bao) th nht thit phi lp cc thit b phi hp tr khng 5/8TC hoc 75TC m bo tn hiu. - i vi cc b khuch i ng trc, khuch i nhnh v cc b chia ng trc phi c lp mt, tip t phmg r r, chp in. Phn thu bao: Cp phn phi tn hiu n h thu bao s dng loi cp ng trc RG6. Trong trng hp khong cch t v tr b chia n thu bao ln hn 40mt th phi dng cp RG11 gim suy hao ng truyn, trnh nh hng n mc tn hiu u vo ca thu bao, sau s dng u ni F-F connector ni gia cp RG11 v RG6 a n im thu trong nh thu bao.
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5.5 Thuyt minh phn mng quang Ti Trung tm (Headend) cc ngun tn hiu truyn hnh qung b mt t, tn hiu truyn hnh v tinh, video server... c x l v ghp knh trong di tn ng xung nm trong khong t 60-862Mhz. Tn hiu cao tn RF sau ghp knh ny c khuch i v chia cng sut v a vo cc my pht quang. Trong bn thit k ny s dng mt my pht cng sut 13dBm (tng ng 20mW) t ti trung tm Headend cung cp tn hiu cho 9 node quang t ti cc im: Trung T, Ng T S, Kim Giang, Bch Mai, Phng Mai, Kim Hoa,

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X n, Vn Chng, Ho Nam v mt u d phng (2dBm). Mi im t mt node quang 4 cng vi mc cng sut cao tn RF mi cng 114dB V. My pht quang t ti trung tm, s dng cp quang 8 si vi chiu di 3288 mt ko t trung tm n Trung T. Ti Trung t t mt b chia 10 cng vi t l phn trm cc cng (12%/8%/10%/12%/10%/8%/10%/10%/10%/10%). Ti y t mt hp phi dy MDF (Main Distributed Fiber) (HUB) xem nh l im trung tm u nhy cc si quang ko i cc node cc hng khc nhau. Mi node quang cn ti thiu 4 si quang: trong 2si s dng cho hng xung, mt si truyn tn hiu truyn hnh hin ti v mt si dng cho d phng. Cn hai si cn li dng cho vic pht trin mng 2 chiu truyn tn hiu ngc chiu, mt si truyn v mt si d phng. Tuy nhin, trong mng truyn hnh cp nu ch thit k mng cho vic truyn tn hiu truyn hnh m khng d phng cho vic m rng mng sau ny th c th ch cn ko hai si cho mt node quang.Nhng trong ny em thit k mng dng cho c vic m rng mng sau ny nn s dng 4 si quang cho mt node quang. V vy trong khi ko cp ta c th ko loi cp nhiu si hn yu cu v c th s s dng cho vic pht trin mng. Hn na, cp quang thng c sn xut vi s lng si chn (8, 16, 24, 32) khng sn xut theo si l. Vng dn c ni ny c s lng ct in y v chc chn ph hp cho vic ko cp nn y s dng ton cp treo. Cc thit b quang c lp t cn thn trn ct in v u c hp bo v trnh cc s tc ng t bn ngoi lm hng thit b. Trong khi lp t yu cu cc thit b quang: b chia, node quang phi c tip mt, tip t trnh r r, chp in. Sau y l phn tnh ton suy hao v cng sut vo cho cc node quang. 5.6 Tnh ton phn mng quang Cc thng s k thut ca thit b chnh dng trong mng quang + My pht quang: - Tn hiu quang ra: 13dBm (20mW) - Bc sng hot ng: 1310nm + Node quang - Bng thng: 80 860MHz - Bc sng hot ng: 1290 1600nm - u vo quang: -2.5 +2dBm (chun l 0dBm) - u ra cao tn (RF): 46dBmV (106dB V) - Connector RF: 5/8 - Connector quang: SC/APC

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+ Dy nhy (dy quang 3m + 1 connector): suy hao 8dB + Mi hn quang: suy hao 0.05dB + B chia quang theo cng sut: suy hao 0.1dB + Si quang n mode: suy hao 0.35dB/km Phn tnh ton Cng thc tnh: A[dB] = Loss[dB] + Pvo node [dBm] (5.1) Vi: Loss[dB] = hn*N + connector*M + Suy hao b chia (5.2) Trong : Loss[dB]: Suy hao ton tuyn Pvo node[dBm]: Cng sut quang u vo node quang (chun l 0dBm) hn[dB]: Suy hao mi hn (thng ly khong 0.05dB) connector[dB]: Suy hao mt connector (Thng ly khong 0.8dB) N: S mi hn trn mt tuyn M: Tng s connector trn mt tuyn Suy hao b chia thng ly 0.1dB Sau khi c c cng sut ton tuyn tnh theo n v dB th i thnh n v mW: A[mW] = 10 (5.3) Sau tnh xem n chim bao nhiu phn trm cng sut u vo b chia: A% = *100% (5.4) Vi Pvchia[mW]: Cng sut vo b chia 1 Ly u vo chun cho tt c cc node quang l 0dBm Tn hiu vo b chia: - Suy hao ng truyn: 3.28*0.35 = 1.148dB. - Cng sut vo b chia: 13dBm 1.148dB = 11.852dBm. - i sang n v mW: 10 15.32mW Node quang Trung T: 0dBm + 0.8 + 0.1 = 0.9dB. => 10 1.23mW. -> *100% 9%. Node Ng T S: 0dBm + 0.05 + 2.2*0.35 + 0.8 + 0.1 = 1.72dB. => 10 1.49mW. -> *100% 10%. Node Kim Giang: 0dBm + 0.05 + (1.65 + 2.2)*0.35 + 0.8*2 + 0.1 3.1dB. => 10 2.04mW.

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*100% 14%. Node Bch Mai: 0dBm + 0.05 + 2.31*0.35 + 0.8 + 0.1 = 1.76dB. => 10 1.5mW. -> *100% 10%. Node Kim Hoa: 0dBm + 0.05 + 1.4*0.35 + 0.8 + 0.1 = 1.44dB. => 10 1.39mW. -> *100% 10%. Node Phng Mai: 0dBm + 0.05 + (1.05 + 1.4)*0.35 + 0.8*2 + 0.1 = 2.6dB. => 10 1.82mW. -> *100% 12%. Node X n: 0dBm + 0.05 + 1.32*0.35 + 0.8 + 0.1 = 1.41dB. => 10 1.38mW. -> *100% 10%. Node Vn Chng: 0dBm + 0.05 + (0.45 + 1.32)*0.35 + 0.8*2 + 0.1 = 2.37dB. => 10 1.73mW. -> *100% 12%. Node Ho Nam: 0dBm + 0.05 + (1.35 + 1.32)*0.35 + 0.8*2 + 0.1 2.68dB. => 10 1.86mW. -> *100% 13%. Mt tuyn d phng 2dBm: =>10 1.58mW. -> *100% 12% % = 9 + 10 + 14 + 12 +10 + 10 + 10 + 12 + 13 + 12 = 112% > 100% Vy c ngha l my pht ny khng cng sut cp cho tt c cc node quang mc vo chun l 0dBm. V vy ta phi gim tn hiu vo ca mt s node quang sao cho hp l bng cch gim s phn trm cng sut m mi node quang chim ti b chia (tng s phn trm phi gim l 12%). Chng ta khng dng phng php tng cng sut ca my pht v nh vy th chi ph cho thit b s tng ln trong khi c th dung ho mc cng sut vo ca cc node quang nm trong di nhy thu cho php (-2.5 +2dBm). Sau y ta s thay i s phn trm ca mt s node quang v tin hnh tnh ton li mc cng sut vo ca node quang tng ng. 2 Tnh ton li cng sut vo cc node quang sau khi thay i Node Trung T: Gim 1% -> cn li 8%: Mc cng sut vo node l: *15.32mW 1.23mW. => 10lg1.23[mW] 0.89dB = loss + pvnode. -> Pvnode = 0.88 - loss = 0.89 (0.8 + 0.1) = -0.01dBm. Node Ng T S: Khng thay i: cng sut vo node 0dBm chim 10%. ->

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Node Kim Giang: Gim 2% -> cn li 12%: mc cng sut vo node l: *15.32mW 1.83mW => 10lg1.83[mW] 2.62dB . -> Pvnode = 2.62 3.1 = -0.48dBm. Node Bch Mai: Khng thay i: cng sut vo node 0dBm chim 10%. Node Kim Hoa: Gim 2% -> cn li 8%: mc cng sut vo node l: *15.32mW 1.23mW. => 10lg1.23[mW] 0.89dB. -> Pvnode = 0.89 1.44 = -0.55dBm. Node Phng Mai: Gim 2% -> cn li 10%: mc cng sut vo node l: *15.32mW 1.53mW. => 10lg1.53[mW] 1.85dB. -> Pvnode = 1.85 2.6 = -0.75dBm. Node X n: Khng thay i: cng sut vo node 0dBm chim 10%. Node Vn Chng: Gim 2% -> cn li 10%: mc cng sut vo node l: *15.32mW 1.53mW. => 10lg1.53[mW] 1.85dB. -> Pvnode = 1.85 2.37 = - 0.52dBm. Node Ho Nam: Gim 3% -> cn li 10%: mc cng sut vo node l: *15.32mW 1.53mW. => 10lg1.53[mW] 1.85dB. -> Pvnode = 1.85 2.68 = - 0.83dBm. Tuyn d phng 2dBm: Khng thay i chim 12% cng sut vo b chia. % = 8 + 10 + 12 + 10 + 8 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 12 = 100%. Vi mc cng sut vo mi node quang nh trn th hp l i vi my pht 13dBm ny. Sau khi tnh ton xong cc thng s cn thit th by gi c th t mt b chia quang theo cng sut vi t l phn trm cc cng nh sau: S dng b chia 1x10 (/12%/8%//10%//12%//10%//8%//10%//10%//10%//10%).

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5.7 Thuyt minh thit k phn mng ng trc Sau khi thit k, tnh ton xong phn mng quang ta bt u thit k, tnh ton phn mng ng trc. Trong phm vi bn n ny em ch chn mt node quang trong s 9 node quang tnh ton phn mng quang thit k cn cc node quang cn li c th tnh ton tng t. Tuy nhin vic phn b thit b trong mng v m hnh mng th phi tu thuc vo c im ca tng vng dn c khc nhau, c th hon ton s dng cp treo hoc cng c th kt hp c cp treo v cp chn nu vng dn c khng c ct in hoc ct bu in. Mun thit k c mng v tnh ton c cc thng s th trc ht phi kho st c im vng dn c ni , sau t cc thit b k thut, o c khong cch sau tin hnh tnh ton. Phng php tnh ton th c th ging nhau nhng cch b tr cc thit b v s dng loi thit b no th li hon ton khc nhau v n ph thuc vo vng dn c ni t node quang. y em chn node quang X n thit k, node quang X n s dng node quang 4 cng. Mi cng ra khong 114dB V. Mc tn hiu vo node quang X n theo thit k mng quang l 0dBm (tng ng 20mW). Trong 4 cng ca node quang X n em chn tnh ton cho cng A ca node, cn cc cng cn li th tnh ton tng t da vo a hnh ca vng. (Cng A, B, C hay D ch l tn gi, cc cng ny nh nhau n khng quy nh cho mt iu g m ch phn bit sau ny l tn hiu ca thit b ny, vng ny c cp tn hiu t cng quang no (cng A, B, C hay D) v cng thuc node quang no) . Trong phn tnh ton ca mng ng trc th em ch tnh ton t node quang n cc khuch i trc v t cc khuch i trc n cc khuch i nhnh. Sau chn tnh ton i din cho mt khuch i nhnh, cn cc khuch i nhnh khc c th tnh ton tng t. Cc thit b s dng sau khuch i nhnh ch yu l cc b chia v r tn hiu (bao gm b chia nhnh v cc b chia thu bao). y chn khuch i nhnh t ti ct in c k hiu A03 Trong phm vi bn n ny em khng trnh by phng php thit k v tnh ton cho cc b cp ngun, cp cho cc thit b ca mng ng trc, m ch c th im qua nguyn tc cp ngun cho mng l: cp ngun theo phng php cp ngun ti ch (cp ngun phn b). Ly ngun in t ngun in li ca thnh ph cp trc tip cho cc thit b mng. ng cp ngun v ng truyn tn hiu l trn cng mt ng. Trong lc thi cng nu thy ui ngun cp u th cp ti v cc thit b cp ngun ny c th cp ngun ngc tr li cho cc thit b pha u ngun. Cc thit b ng trc th cho php dng in cp ngun i qua cn cc thit b nhnh ti thu bao th khng. Quan trng l thit

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b trc khi a vo thit b nh thu bao phi ngt ngun in trnh lm hng thit b nh thu bao. Mi thit b trong mng ng trc u c cc cu ch ti cng vo v cng ra cho php ng hoc ngt ngun in ti cng theo yu cu ca thit k. Cc thit b cp ngun u c cc c quy d phng trong trng hp ngun in li b mt. Tuy nhin n ch c th duy tr trong mt khong thi gian ngn. Trong phn mng ng trc trong bn n ny c s dng hai b cp ngun t ti cc ct in c k hiu A01 v A07. - Ngun t ti A01 cp ngun cho cc b khuch i t ti cc ct in: A01, A08, A09, A10, A13, A12. - Ngun t ti A07 cp ngun cho cc b khuch i t ti cc ct in: A07, A06, A05, A04, A03. Sau y l phn tnh ton cho mng ng trc: 5.8 Tnh ton phn mng ng trc Cc ch tiu k thut ca cc thit b dng trong mng ng trc Thit b khuch i (c khuch i trc v khuch i nhnh): + Cng sut vo: 80 85dB V. + Cng sut ra: 108dB V. + Ngun cp: 220V/60Hz/10A. Cc thit b khc: STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Ch tiu k thut K hiu ting anh V tr t thit b S2 ng trc S3UB ng trc DC8 ng trc DC16 ng trc DC20 ng trc IT1-6 ng nhnh IT1-10 ng nhnh IT1-12 ng nhnh IT1-14 ng nhnh IT1-16 ng nhnh IT1-18 ng nhnh IT2-8 ng nhnh IT2-16 ng nhnh IT2-20 ng nhnh
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Suy hao(dB) 5.5 Out:5/Tap:9 5.5 2.5 2 3 2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 4 2 1.5

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IS2 IS3 IS4 ISV6 ISV8 QR540 RG11 RG6

ng nhnh ng nhnh ng nhnh ng thu bao ng thu bao Cp trc Cp nhnh Cp thu bao

4 6 8 11 12.5 7dB/100m 12dB/100m 18dB/100m

1 Tnh ton phn mng trc trong mng ng trc (T node quang n cc b khuch i trc, nhnh) - Tn hiu ra ti cng A node quang X n: 108dB V. - Suy hao qua b chn ngun l 2dB: cng sut cn li l: 108 2 = 106dB V. + A01. - Cng sut vo DC20 (2dB): 106[dB V] 0.25*7 104.25 dB V. - Out DC20: 104.25 2 = 102.25 dB V. - Tap DC20: 104.25 20 = 84.25 dB V. Vo khuch i nhnh ti A01. + A02. - Cng sut vo S3UB: 102.25 0.45*7 99.1 dB V. - Hai u Tap S3UB: 99.1 9 = 90.1 dB V. - Out S3UB: 99.1 5 = 94.1 dB V + A03. - Cng sut vo khuch i nhnh: 90.1 0.72*7 85.06 dB V. + A04. - Cng sut vo khuch i trc: 90.1 0.72*7 85.06 dB V. - Cng sut ra khuch i trc: 104 dB V vo DC20. - Out DC20: 104 2 = 102 dB V. - Tap DC20: 104 20 = 84 dB V vo khuch i nhnh. + A05. - Cng sut vo DC8: 102 1.62*7 90.66 dB V. - Out DC8: 90.66 5.5 = 85.16 dB V. - Tap DC8: 90.66 8 = 82.66 dB V vo khuch i nhnh. + A06. - Cng sut vo khuch i trc: 85.16 0.74*7 79.98 dB V. - Cng sut ra khuch i trc: 104 dB V vo DC20. - Out DC20: 104 2 = 102 dB V. - Tap DC20: 104 20 = 84 dB V vo khuch i nhnh. + A07.

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Cng sut vo DC8(qua b chn ngun suy hao 2dB): 102 2 0.80*7 94.4dB V. - Out DC8: 94.4 5.5 = 88.9 dB V vo S2. - Tap DC8: 94.4 8 = 86.4 dB V lp b phi hp tr khng 5/8TC dng cho d phng. - Hai u Out S2: 88.9 5.5 = 83.9 dB V. vo hai b khuch i nhnh tng ng. + A08. - cng sut vo khuch i trc ti A08: 94.1 1.85*7 81.15 dB V. - cng sut ra khuch i trc: 108 dB V vo b chia DC16. - Out DC16 (2.5dB): 108 2.5 = 105.5 dB V. - Tap DC16: 108 16 = 92 dB V. Vo DC8. - Out DC8 (5.5dB): 92 5.5 = 86.5 dB V. Lp b phi hp tr khng 5/8TC dng cho d phng. - Tap DC8: 92 8 = 84 dB V. Vo khuch i nhnh. + A09. - cng sut vo DC8: 105.5 1.9*7 92.2 dB V. - out DC8: 92.2 5.5 = 86.7 dB V. - tap DC8: 92.2 8 = 84.2 dB V. + A10. - cng sut vo khuch i trc ti A10: 86.7 0.91*7 80.33 dB V. - cng sut ra khuch i trc: 102 dB V vo DC20. - Out DC20: 102 2 = 100 dB V. - Tap DC20: 102 20 = 80 dB V. Vo khuch i nhnh. + A11. - Cng sut vo S2: 100 0.79*7 94.47 dB V. - Hai u out S2 (5.5dB): 94.47 5.5 = 88.97 dB V. + A12. - cng sut vo khuch i nhnh: 88.97 0.66*7 84.35 dB V. + A13. - cng sut vo khuch i nhnh: 88.97 0.60*7 84.77 dB V.
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2 Tnh ton phn mng thu bao ca mng ng trc Cng sut vo thit b ca nh thu bao(khong chun): 62 4 dB V. + A03. - Cng sut vo khuch i nhnh: 85.06 dB V. - Cng sut ra khuch i nhnh: 104dB V vo IT1 6. - Tap IT1 6: 104 6 = 98dB V. vo IT2 1 6 - Out IT2 16 (2dB): 98 2 = 96dB V. - Tap IT2 16: 98 16 = 82dB V. vo hai ISV6. - Cng sut vo thit b ca cc nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung + 82 11 0.29*18 65.78 dB V. + 82 11 0.31*18 65.42 dB V. + 82 11 0.33*18 65.06 dB V. + 82 11 0.36*18 64.52 dB V. + 82 11 0.34*18 64.88 dB V. + 82 11 0.32*18 65.24 dB V. + a31. - Cng sut vo IT1 10: 96 0.35*12 91.8 dB V. - Out IT1 10: 91.8 2 = 89.8 dB V. - Tap IT1 16: 91.8 - 10 = 81.8 dB V.vo ISV6 - Cng sut vo thit b ca cc nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung + 81.8 11 0.29*18 65.58dB V. + 81.8 11 0.31*18 65.22dB V. + 81.8 11 0.33*18 64.86dB V. + 81.8 11 0.36*18 64.32dB V. + 81.8 11 0.34*18 64.68 dB V. + 81.8 11 0.32*18 65 dB V. + a32. - Cng sut vo ISV6: 89.8 0.21*12 87.28 dB V. - Cng sut vo thit b cc nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung + 87.28 11 0.29*18 71dB V. + 87.28 11 0.31*18 70dB V. + 87.28 11 0.33*18 70.34dB V. + 87.28 11 0.36*18 69.8dB V. + 87.28 11 0.34*18 70.16dB V. + 87.28 11 0.32*18 70.52dB V. + a33. - Cng sut vo IT1 14: 101 0.26*12 97.88 dB V.

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Out IT1 14: 97.88 1.5 = 96.38 dB V. Tap IT1 14: 97.88 14 = 83.88 dB V. vo ISV8 Cng sut vo thit b cc nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung: + 83.88 12.5 0.27*18 66.52 dB V. + 83.88 12.5 0.29*18 66.16 dB V. + 83.88 12.5 0.31*18 65.8 dB V. + 83.88 12.5 0.33*18 65.44 dB V. + 83.88 12.5 0.36*18 64.9 dB V. + 83.88 12.5 0.34*18 65.26 dB V. + 83.88 12.5 0.32*18 65.62 dB V. + 83.88 12.5 0.30*18 65.98 dB V.

+ a34. - Cng sut vo IT2 8: 96.38 0.15*12 94.58 dB V. - Out IT2 8: 94.58 4 = 90.58 dB V. - Tap IT2 8: 85.86 8 = 86.58 dB V. vo ISV8 - Cng sut vo thit b nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung + 86.58 12.5 0.27*18 69.22 dB V. + 86.58 12.5 0.29*28 68.86 dB V. + 86.58 12.5 0.31*18 68.5 dB V. + 86.58 12.5 0.33*18 68.14 dB V. + 86.58 12.5 0.36*18 67.6 dB V. + 86.58 12.5 0.34*18 67.9 dB V. + 86.58 12.5 0.32*18 68.32 dB V. + 86.58 12.5 0.30*18 68.68 dB V. + a35 - Cng sut vo IS2: 90.58 0.17*12 88.54 dB V. - Out IS2: 88.54 4 = 84.54 dB V. vo ISV8. - Cng sut vo thit b nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung +84.54 12.5 0.27*18 67.18 dB V. + 84.54 12.5 0.29*18 66.82 dB V. + 84.54 12.5 0.31*18 66.46 dB V. + 84.54 12.5 0.33*18 66 dB V. + 84.54 12.5 0.36*18 65.56 dB V. + 84.54 12.5 0.34*18 65.92 dB V. + 84.54 12.5 0.32*18 66.28 dB V. + 84.54 12.5 0.30*18 66.64 dB V.

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+a36. - Cng sut vo ISV6: 84.54 0.17*12 82.5 dB V. - Cng sut vo thit b cc nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung + 82.5 11 0.29*18 66.28dB V. + 82.5 11 0.31*18 65.9dB V. + 82.5 11 0.33*18 65.56dB V. + 82.5 11 0.36*18 65dB V. + 82.5 11 0.34*18 65.38dB V. + 82.5 11 0.32*18 65.74dB V. + a37 - Cng sut vo IS2: 86.58 0.13*12 85.02 dB V. - Out IS2: 85.02 4 = 81.54 dB V. vo ISV6. - Cng sut vo thit b nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung + 85.02 11 0.29*18 64.8 dB V. + 85.02 11 0.31*18 64.4 dB V. + 85.02 11 0.33*18 64 dB V. + 85.02 11 0.36*18 63.54 dB V. + 85.02 11 0.34*18 63.9 dB V. + 85.02 11 0.32*18 64.26 dB V. + a38 - Cng sut vo IS4: 81.02 0.20*12 78.62 dB V. - Cng sut vo thit b nh thu bao, tnh t trn xung + 78.62 8 0.31*18 65 dB V. + 78.62 8 0.33*18 64.68 dB V. + 78.62 8 0.36*18 64.14 dB V. + 78.62 8 0.34*18 64.45 dB V.

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5.9 Thuyt minh thit k mng HFPC Kin trc mng ny thit k cho mt khu tp th gm c 4 to nh cao tng, mi to nh gm 8 tng, mi tng 4 h v mi h c 3 phng. Ti tng 1 ca to nh CT1 t mt trm lp quang gm mt my thu v mt my pht cng sut 7dBm (5mW). Tn hiu quang c a vo b chia 4 cng cp tn hiu cho 4 node quang. Mi node quang cp tn hiu cho mt to nh. Cc thit b quang: my pht, my thu, b chia, node quang u c t ti phng k thut ti tng 1 ca cc to nh cao tng. V y l mng HFPC khng s dng cc b khuch i cao tn nn yu cu cng sut ra ca cc node quang cao, do cc node quang ny c mc cng sut ra khong 120dB V. Trong phn mng ng trc t cc b chia cao tn ti cc tng 2, 4, 6 v tng 8 ca mi to nh, cc b chia ny c t trong hp k thut chung ca tng . Trong phn mng ny ch yu s dng cp RG11 V RG6 v khong cch ko cp ngn, cc b chia ch yu s dng cc b chia nhnh (IT, ISV). Do khng c khuch i nn mc cng sut vo cc thit b c th cao hn so vi mng theo kin trc HFC. 5.10 Tnh ton mng HFPC 1 - Tnh ton phn mng quang trong kin trc HFPC Tn hiu quang vo my thu c th ly t mt node quang no ln cn. Sau khi c khi phc v a vo my pht cng sut 7dBm (5mW), tn hiu quang c a vo b chia quang theo cng sut c 4 cng. T l mi cng sau khi tnh ton l (20%//25%//30%//25%). Cc ng ny c a n node quang t ti phng k thut ti tng 1 ca cc to nh cp tn hiu cho cc to nh . a/ Tnh ton t l cc cng b chia khi mc cng sut vo node quang ti 0dBm + CT1: 0dBm + 0.8 + 0.1 = 0.9dB ->*100% 25% + CT2: 0dBm + 0.05 + 0.3*0.35 + 0.8 + 0.1 = 1.055dB -> *100% 26% + CT3: 0dBm + 0.05 + (0.3 + 0.25)*0.35 + 0.8*2 +0.1 = 1.94dB -> *100% 31% +CT4: 0dBm + 0.05 + 0.25*0.35 + 0.8 + 0.1 = 1.03dB ->*100% 25% - Tnh tng phn trm cc cng: % = 25% + 26% + 31% + 25% = 107% >100%

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Ta thy my pht ny khng cng sut cung cp cho cc node quang ti mc chun 0dBm. Do ta c th gim cng sut vo cc node quang xung cho ph hp bng cch gim mt vi phn trm cng sut ti cc cng ca b chia. Khng nn dng phng php tng cng sut ra ca my pht bng cch thay i my pht khc c cng sut ln hn v nh vy c th gy lng ph tn hiu v tng chi ph thit b v my pht c cng sut cng ln th chi ph cng cao. b/ Tnh ton li cng sut vo cc node quang sau khi gim phn trm mt s cng ca b chia + CT1: gim 5% cn li 20%: 0.20*5 = 1mW -> Pvnde = 10lg1mW 0.9 = -0.9dBm. + CT2: Gim 1% cn li 25%: 0.25*5 = 1.25mW -> Pvnde = 10lg1.25mW 1.055 -0.085dBm. + CT3: Gim 1% cn li 30%: 0.30*5 = 1.5mW -> Pvnde = 10lg1.5mW 1.94 -0.18dBm. + CT4: Khng thay i (25%) - Tng phn trm cc cng sau khi thay i: % = 20% + 25% + 30% + 25% = 100%.

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2 Tnh ton phn mng ng trc trong kin trc HFPC La chn tnh ton cho mt to nh (chn to nh CT1). Trong to nh ny t ba b chia (IT) v mt b chia ISV8 trn ng cp nhnh (RG11), cc b chia (IS) trn ng cp thu bao (RG6). Mi cn h t mt b chia IS3 dng cho 3 tivi cho ba phng (mi phng mt tivi). - Cng sut vo node quang: -0.9dBm - Cng sut ra node quang: 106 2 = 104 dB V. - Cng sut vo IT8 26: 104 0.06*12 103.28dB V. - Out IT8 26: 103.28 2 = 101.28 dB V. - Tap IT8 26: 103.28 26 = 77.28 dB V. + Cng sut vo IT8 26 ti tng 4: 101.28 0.13*12 99.72dB V. + Out IT8 26: 99.72 2 = 97.72 dB V. + Tap IT8 26: 99.72 26 =73.72 dB V. - Cng sut vo IT8 24 ti tng 6: 97.72 0.13*12 96.16 dB V. - Out IT8 24: 96.16 2.2 = 93.96 dB V. - Tap IT8 24: 96.16 24 = 72.16 dB V. + Cng sut vo ISV8 ti tng 8: 93.96 0.13*12 92.4 dB V. + Tng 1: - 77.28 0.15*18 74.58 dB V. - 77.28 0.24*18 72.96 dB V. + Tng 2: - 77.28 0.09*18 75.66 dB V. - 77.28 0.18*18 74.04 dB V. + Tng 3: - 73.72 0.15*18 71 dB V. - 73.72 0.24*18 69.4 dB V. + Tng 4: - 73.72 0.09*18 72.1 dB V. - 73.72 0.18*18 70.48 dB V. + Tng 5: - 72.16 0.15*18 69.46 dB V. - 72.16 0.24*18 67.84 dB V. + Tng 6: - 72.16 0.09*18 70.54 dB V. - 72.16 0.18*18 68.92 dB V. + Tng 7: - 92.4 12.5 0.15*18 77.2 dB V.

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92.4 12.5 0.24*18 75.58 dB V. + Tng 8: - 92.4 12.5 0.09*18 78.28 dB V. - 92.4 12.5 0.18*18 76.66 dB V. Cng sut tnh ti mi tng l tn hiu ko vo tng h gia nh, ti u vo b chia IS3 t ti hp k thut trong h gia nh . Cn tn hiu ra mi b chia IS3 th c 3 ng tn hiu bng nhau v gim so vi tn hiu vo l 6dB (suy hao b chia IS3). Mc tn hiu vo my thu t yu cu trong khong 62 4dB V.
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5.11 So snh mng HFC v mng HFPC Kin trc mng HFPC l mng khng s dng cc phn t tch cc trong phn mng ng trc, m ch s dng cc b chia chia tn hiu. Do bn knh bao ph ca mng hp, thch hp cho vng dn c tp trung nh cc khu tp th nh cao tng, cc khu chung c. Cn cc vng dn c phn b ri rc, tha tht th vic dng kin trc mng HFPC l khng c hiu qu v nu ko di mng ng trc th tn hiu s b suy yu. Tuy vng ph sng ca mng khng ln nhng i li cht lng tn hiu li cao v n ch s dng cc b chia m khng dng cc b khuch i nn thun li cho vic nng cp thnh mng hai chiu sau ny. ng thi vic sa cha v bo dng mng d dng hn. tin cy ca mng cao hn. Cn kin trc mng HFC l mng c s dng cc phn t tch cc trong phn mng ng trc nn c th truyn tn hiu i xa c v bao ph c mt vng rng ln. Do c th gim c chi ph cho thu bao khi lp t. Tuy nhin, do c s dng cc b khuch i nn ko theo mt lot cc vn l: v phn mng ng trc vn di nn phi s dng thm cc b cp ngun nm ri rc trn mng nn an ton mng khng cao. Nu mt b cp ngun b hng th ko theo cc thit b do b cp ngun cung cp s khng c ngun v ngng hot ng v vng thu bao s b mt tn hiu, vic bo dng mng gp nhiu kh khn. S dng nhiu b khuch i dn n suy hao tch lu trn cc b khuch i ln nn cht lng tn hiu khng cao. Theo nh phn tch trn v xt trong iu kin a l v kinh t Vit Nam th s dng kin trc mng HFC l thch hp nht. C th bao ph c mt vng rng ln, v vy c th gim chi ph u t ko cp cho c nh cung cp ln thu bao, gim gi cc thu bao.

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KT LUN Trong tnh hnh nn kinh t nc ta hin nay ang trong thi k m ca v hi nhp nn nhu cu v cp nht thng tin ngy cng cao. Trinh dn tr ca ngi dn cng ngy cng cao nn s i hi v cc nhu cu gii tr cng ngy cng cao. M trn thc t cc knh truyn hnh qung b khng th p ng kp s pht trin ca cc nhu cu gii tr ca ngi dn. Do s pht trin ca cng ngh truyn hnh cp hu tuyn l tt yu. S dng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn ngi dn c th xem c nhiu knh truyn hnh c trong nc v quc t, cc knh thi s nng bng, cc knh th thao, phim truyn vi dung lng knh truyn ln v cht lng m bo khng chu tc ng ca mi trng ngoi. Trong giai on hin nay mi trin khai dch v truyn hnh cp, nhng trong tng lai gn y s trin khai thm dch v internet v cc dch v tng tc khc trn mng. Lc ngi dn c th c thm rt nhiu s la chn dch v theo yu cu. Do pht trin mng truyn hnh cp hu tuyn l iu tt yu hin nay. Trong bn n ny thit k mng ch mang tnh m hnh da trn s liu tng i ca mt vng dn c a bn H Ni. Trong phm vi ti ca mnh, ti ch phc ho nhng nt khi qut qu trnh thit k mng v gii php pht trin mng hin ti. Trong qu trnh lm n do iu kin thi gian v kin thc c hn nn c th c mt vi vn cn s si, cha chuyn su. Ti s hon thnh nhng vn k thut cha khai thc ht trong qu trnh hc tp v cng tc sau ny. Cui cng em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio, cc anh ch trong phng thit k gip em trong qu trnh thc hin n. Xin chn thnh cm n thy TS. Bi Vit Khi tn tnh hng dn em hon thnh bn n ny.

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TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] K thut thng tin quang Tng cng ty bu chnh vin thng Vit Nam [2] Nghin cu xut cc gii php k hoch v cc bc thay th cp ng bng cp quang M s 001-96-TCT-RD - Vin khoa hc k thut Bu in. [3] Optical communications J. H. Franz V. K. Jain. [4] H thng truyn hnh cp H Ni i truyn cp hnh H Ni. [5] Fiber Optic communication Technology Djafar K.Mynbaev Lowell L.Scheiner [6] H thng thng tin si quang Phng Vn Vn - 2002

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