Climate change* has become increasingly recognized as one of the greatest challenges to humankind and all other life

on Earth. Worldwide changes in seasonal patterns, weather events, temperature ranges, and other related phenomena have all been reported and attributed to global climate change. Numerous experts in a wide range of scientific disciplines have warned that the negative impacts of climate change will become much more intense and frequent in the future—particularly if environmentally destructive human activities continue unabated. Like all living members of the biosphere, medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs†) are not immune to the effects of climate change. Climate change is causing noticeable effects on the life cycles and distributions of the world’s vegetation, including wild MAPs. Some MAPs are endemic to geographic regions or ecosystems particularly vulnerable to climate change, which could put them at risk. Concerns regarding the survival and genetic integrity of some MAPs in the face of such challenges are increasingly being discussed within various forums. Although scientists do not know whether climate change poses a more prominent
or immediate threat to MAP species than other threats, it does have the potential to exert increasing pressures upon MAP species and populations in the coming years. The possible effects on MAPs may be particularly significant due to their value within traditional systems of medicine and as economically useful plants. The future effects of climate change are largely uncertain, but current evidence suggests that these phenomena are having an impact on MAPs and that there are some potential threats worthy of concern and discussion.

Soil
Undisturbed forests have a very low rate of soil loss, approximately 2 metric tons per square kilometer (6 short tons per square mile).[citation needed] Deforestation generally increases rates of soil erosion, by increasing the amount of runoffand reducing the protection of the soil from tree litter. This can be an advantage in excessively leached tropical rain forest soils. Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of roads and the use of mechanized equipment. China's Loess Plateau was cleared of forest millennia ago. Since then it has been eroding, creating dramatic incised valleys, and providing the sediment that gives the Yellow River its yellow color and that causes the flooding of the river in the lower reaches (hence the river's nickname 'China's sorrow'). Removal of trees does not always increase erosion rates. In certain regions of southwest US, shrubs and trees have been encroaching on grassland. The trees

is studying how to restore the former ecosystem. that will approach USD 30 billion for the period 2010–2012. These tools. including the United Nations and the World Bank. Tree removal on steep slopes with shallow soil thus increases the risk of landslides.[132] Significant work is underway on tools for use in monitoring developing country adherence to their agreed REDD targets. Funding has been an issue. but at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties-15 (COP15) in Copenhagen in December 2009.[134] Methodological guidance for forest monitoring was also emphasized at COP-15 [135] The environmental organization Avoided Deforestation Partners leads the campaign for development of REDD through funding from the U. negating the landslide. Control Reducing emissions Main article: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation Major international organizations. Tree roots bind soil together. an accord was reached with a collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources. The US Forest Service.[136] . which rely on remote forest monitoring using satellite imagery and other data sources. in Bandelier National Monument for example. including forestry and investments through international institutions. by removing the trees. which use direct monetary or other incentives to encourage developing countries to limit and/or roll back deforestation. and reduce erosion. have begun to develop programs aimed at curbing deforestation. However most deforestation only affects the trunks of trees. include the Center for Global Development's FORMA (Forest Monitoring for Action) initiative [133] and the Group on Earth Observations' Forest Carbon Tracking Portal. which can threaten people living nearby. allowing for the roots to stay rooted. The blanket term Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) describes these sorts of programs.S. government. The bare intercanopy areas become highly erodible. and if the soil is sufficiently shallow they act to keep the soil in place by also binding with underlying bedrock.themselves enhance the loss of grass between tree canopies.

paramount rulers developed policies designed to prevent conflicts between shortterm gains from converting forest to farmland and long-term problems forest loss would cause.[138] while during the 17th and 18th centuries in Tokugawa.[139] the shoguns developed a highly sophisticated system of long-term planning to stop and even reverse deforestation of the preceding centuries through substituting timber by other products and more efficient use of land that had been farmed for many centuries. have been widely used for monitoring deforestation in many regions. no dry season and very young soils (through volcanism or glaciation). including the Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring by INPE. quantifying the damage and its possible consequences is a more important task. However.Monitoring Deforestation There are multiple methods that are appropriate and reliable for reducing and monitoring deforestation. One method is the “visual interpretation of aerial photos or satellite imagery that is labor-intensive but does not require high-level training in computer image processing or extensive computational resources”. which becomes even more complicated with the increasing needs for resources. In Tonga. locations of rapid change) using expert opinion or coarse resolution satellite data to identify locations for detailed digital analysis with high resolution satellite images. whilst in areas with a strong dry season there is always a risk of forest fires . Forest management Efforts to stop or slow deforestation have been attempted for many centuries because it has long been known that deforestation can cause environmental damage sufficient in some cases to cause societies to collapse. This is because on older and less fertile soils trees grow too slowly for silviculture to be economic. In 16th century Germany landowners also developed silviculture to deal with the problem of deforestation.[71] Deforestation is typically assessed by quantifying the amount of area deforested.[71] Deforestation rate and total area deforested. measured at the present time. these policies tend to be limited to environments with good rainfall.[71] Another method includes hot-spot analysis (that is. From an environmental point of view.[42] Monitoring deforestation is a very complicated process. while conservation efforts are more focused on forested land protection and development of land-use alternatives to avoid continued deforestation. Japan.

In the areas where "slash-and-burn" is practiced. as outlinedin the Statement.transmitting development in science and appropriate technology to the people at large. switching to "slash-and-char" would prevent the rapid deforestation and subsequent degradation of soils.9 Partnership role of Centre and State GovernmentsEffective implementation of necessary measures. and Gram Sabtra should be empowered with locus standi and.3 NonGovernmental Organizations . the policies andprogrammes at the State and Central level should be drawn up keeping in view overall national policy considerations.7. citizen groups and village level institutions like forests panchayats. 8.8 Women and Environment …Women at the grassroot level should be actively involved in the conservation programmes which should be income generating and self financing and sustainable on a long term basis and the Government Ministries/Departments should have an NGOs cell or at least Liaison Officer for interaction with the NGOs.8.7.8.2 Environmental Information Centres should be set up at the district level to generate knowledge regarding traditional and endogenous system managementpractices. is not only a durable carbon sequestration method.7. NGOs at the district level should be involved in the management and dissemination of the environmental information. support for mobilization of public opinion and participation in developmentactivities. Hence. NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs) can play an important role in mobilizing the people at grassroots.7.4 Managerial capacity of the NGOs should be strengthened.8. A monitoring . Manyenv ironmental problems assume national significance.1 Implementation of the conservation strategy would be impossible without active participation of the people. This will need a network among NGOs and in terface between people and Government to work on community involvement. Trainingprogrammes for NGOs on regional basis should be organized. 18. given back to the soil. An advisory cell for rural NGOs should be made available at all district headquarters.7 Role of NonGovernmental Organizations8.destroying a tree crop before it matures. providing information on environmental surveillance and monitoring. will be facilitated by a partnership role of Central and State Governments. 8. The biochar thus created.

This includes organic farming. and other activist groups whose concerns centered on forest management. the use of compost and composting of household and farm waste products.2 The task before us would be daunting if it were not for the many positive factors that are emerging: people's movements to conserve their own environment. Sad to note.but it also is an extr1. before being issued a tree planting certificate. as State and citizens. Tree plantingI still remember during my college days. that this was stopped after Marcos was dethroned from office through the People Power Revolution. that every candidates for graduation in all courses were required to plant at least 10 trees.3 It is up to us.mechanism involving central and state Government representatives will be set up for inter-action as required forimplementation of the policy initiatives.9.3. Be active in information dissemination by joining environmental groups. we will be in a position to resolve the conflicts which often arise between the environmental concerns and developmental pursuits that have a direct bearing on the very fabric of our society and life styles. hydroponics farming. to undertake development pr6cess in keeping with our heritage and the traditional conservation ethos and in harmony with the environmental imperatives of this land. Government intervention plays a vital role to formulate rules and laws to encourage farmers to use hybrid crop varieties.9.A law should be passed to make tree planting compulsory to all citizens. during the time of Pres. Marcos of the Philippines.4. No body were allowed to graduate without a tree planting certificate. concerned citizens. but also all public and private companies. Good farming practicesProper farming methods should be applied with respect to the introduction of innovative crop and animal production. AdvocacyAs an ordinary citizen. 9. Forest rejuvenation and plantationThe use of forest products .2. you can help spreads about the effect of forest destruction by way of showing concern to a clean and green surroundings. greater public and media concern for environmental issues and spread of environmental awareness among children and youth. and private citizens to plant trees every year as specified by their local and national officials.his can be duplicated in all countries and modified to include not only graduating students. container and urban gardening.0 CONCLUSION 9.1 It is only through such initiatives the contours of which have been highlighted in preceding paragraphs. greenhouse. employees.

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