i ISSN 1998-0531
The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development
Journal of Adama University
Volume 1, Number 1
January, 2010, Adama , ETHIOPIA
The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. j. sci. sustain. dev.),
EDITORS: • Dr. Ing. Simie Tolla; (Managing) Adama University, Adama, Ethiopia Dr. Asefa Abahumina; Adama University, Adama, Ethiopia
The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development
The Journal of Adama University, Published, TWICE A YEAR.
REVIEW EDITOR: • • Dr. Emana Getu; Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Dr. Tsetargachew Legese; Adama University, Adama, Ethiopia
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Prof. Dr. Herbert Eichele; Adama University, Adama, Ethiopia Dr. Ing. Zewdu Abdi; Adama University , Adama, Ethiopia Prof. Tafa Tulu; Adama University , Adama, Ethiopia Prof. Dr. G. Albert; Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Prof. Tammo S. Steenhuis; Cornell University, USA Dr. Abebe Fanta; Haromay University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia Dr. Kaba Urgessa; Jima University, Jimma, Ethiopia Dr. Asefa Abagaz; Mekele University, Mekele, Ethiopia Dr. Berihanu Adnew; Ethiopian Economic Association, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Dr. Asefa Taa; Oromia Agricultural Research Institute (ORI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Dr. Shimelis Admasu; Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Dr. Alexander Au; German Academic Exchange Service, Bonn, Germany Dr. Tadele Mekonnen; Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Dr. Haileleul Zeleke; Adama University , Adama, Ethiopia
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The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. j. sci. sustain. dev.),
JOURNAL GUIDELINES AND INFORMATIONS THE ETHIOPIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (Ethiop.j.sci.sustain.dev.) Vision: The vision of this journal is to be a means to transfer appropriate technology and initiate researchers to focus on community oriented issues, so contribute to sustain the development in the region (Ethiopia). Mission: This journal is devoted to initiate applied research and disseminating its findings, centering on the activities at Adama University. It is therefore, flexible and will entertain articles on any issue related to the application of appropriate technology in engineering, health, education and business. The editorial and advisory board members are drawn from different institutions and universities, locally and abroad, based on their academic profiles. It is hoped that it will facilitate the exchange of research experience and attract researchers with different disciplines. The journal is to be published twice a year in English and in local languages as required
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C. Adami-Tulu Jido .
Performance evaluation of some trees and shrubs under inhospitable site Conditions of Kulumsa (Arsi).sutain. Vol. Adama University
Journal of Adama University. dev. j. Adugna Wakjira and Ketema Belete
Call for Papers Welcome to the new look to Adama University Journal. We hope you will find it useful and encourages you to send us articles for the next publication. We expect your comments.) publishes original articles. Nina Hartmuth
Introduction and implementation of total quality management (TQM) in Ethiopian Domestic industries with special reference to MATADOR Addis Tyre S. Braun)
Abebe Delesa.sutain. Kombolch Woreda in 2007/2008 harvesting season
University student’s hygiene behavior and attitude towards ecological sanitation: a status report on studies conducted in Adama University.dev. sci.sci. 1.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Ethiopia.dev published by Knowledge and Technology Interchange (KTI). Jan-Olof Drangert. 2010.
Wudneh Ayele. which enable us improving the publication further too. sustain.sci.). Southeast Ethiopia
Yigremachew Seyoum and Girma Shumi
Obstacles in job creation and employment for TVET graduates in Ethiopia: the case of Oromiya regional state
Bedada Mergo. article reviews and case studies. No.j.) (Ethiop. January. ISSN 1998-0531
.j.sustain. TWICE a YEAR.dev. titled “The Ethiopian Journal of The Sciences and Sustainable Development” Development (Ethiop.j. lecturer. research findings. 1.sci. The (Ethiop.
Relationship between yield and yield components of Ethiopian mustard (brassica carianata a. which cover wide areas in: o Sciences and o Sustainable Development For further information please use the Editor's Address Address!
Evaluating the effects of irrigation on poverty reduction and income distribution in the Nile Basin: a lesson from Banja Woreda of the Amhara Region (Ethiopia)
Rural women and environmental degradation: the case of Nano Aseko Kebele in Arsi Zone
Determinants of the household food security in Bulbula.
the national average yield of Ethiopian mustard is still low. 1971. such as between yield and yield components (Gravios and Helm. soap and lamps (Doweny. Dire Dawa.O Box 138. 3 Haramaya University. Phenotypic path coefficient analysis of oil content revealed that biomass. it becomes crucial to measure the contribution of each of the variables to the observed correlation and to partition the correlation into components of direct and indirect effect (Giriraj and Vijayakumar.com. manufacture of varnishes. January.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF ETHIOPIAN MUSTARD (Brassica carianata A. Ethiopia. However. plant height. No. Key words: Brassica carinata. sustain. pulses and potatoes. information regarding aforementioned aspects is limited in Ethiopian mustard.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. nigra (BB. Recent investigations have witnessed that. can be very useful for seed yield improvement. Vol. n=8) and B. Adugna Wakjira2 and Ketema Belete3
Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center. 1967). P.). Correlation and path coefficient analysis of seed yield revealed that biomass and harvest index had strong and positive correlations and also exerted favorable direct effects on seed yield at genotypic and phenotypic levels. plant height. 2003. B. Knowledge of the association of yield components with each other and with yield is helpful in improvement of complex characters such as yield for which direct selection is not mostly effective (Tikka. 1999). harvest index. 1979). correlation analysis. This indicated that simultaneous improvement of seed yield and these characters is possible. Holetta Agricultural Research Center. after transesterification the oil exhibit physical and chemical properties suitable for bio-diesel (Cardone et al. Correlation and path analysis were used to determine character associations.95 t/ha (Central Statistic Authority (CSA) 2006/07). Selection for biomass and harvest index. P. paints. 1. harvest index per plant and seed yield per plant. E-mail: Abebe_delesa@yahoo. Adefris. carianata is found to be better yielding. napus (Singh. Bhan.. despite research efforts since 1968 Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR. 1992). conducted in order to estimate association among seed-yield and yield related
Journal of Adama University. 0. 2004). With regard to seed yield per plant. The aim was to determine the association between different traits and partition the association into direct and indirect effects in order to determine selection criteria for yield improvement. sci. 2003). lubricants. 1000-seed weight and number of pods per plant could be used for indirect selection of seed yield. oleracea (CC. 2010. 1. 1975). plant height and 1000-seed weight had positive correlations with oil content at both levels. Seed yield showed positive and significant associations with oil yield. In Ethiopia. plant height and 1000-seed weight should be considered as selection criteria for oil content improvement in Ethiopian mustard. It is. PO Box 489. Furthermore. as a potential rotational-crop for cereals. The advantages of Ethiopian mustard are immense in the farming systems. j. tolerant to drought. Days to flowering and days to maturity exhibited negative correlations with seed yield. followed by chromosome doubling. Ethiopia. Ethiopia
Abstract: The experiment was conducted on 60 Ethiopian mustard genotypes collected from 16 random and diverse zones of Ethiopia. plant height. path analysis Introduction Brassica carinata (BBCC. resistant to diseases and insect pests and seed shattering than B. Addis Ababa. n=2x=17) has evolved as a natural cross between B.. therefore. Asella.O Box 2003. It has been cultivated in Ethiopia as an oilseed and vegetable crop since antiquity. therefore. harvest index and days to maturity had positive direct effects on oil content Thousand seed weight had exerted positive direct effect on oil content at genotypic and phenotypic levels and. 1992). essential to assess the importance as well as degree of association of various quantitative characters in order to initiate effective selection program aimed at genetic improvement in seed and oil yields using suitable selection criteria. Thus. therefore. Path analysis has proven useful in providing additional information that describes cause and effect relationships. in the highlands of Ethiopia and adjoining portion of
Africa and the Mediterranean coast (Gomez-Campo and Prakash. 1000-seed weight and biomass per plant. The present study was. positive associations were observed with harvest index per plant. Information on interrelationships of characters is very crucial for indirect selection of traits not easily measured and for those that show low heritability (Rasmusson and Glass. If the numbers of components are many. ISSN 1998-0531
. Ethiopian mustard. BRAUN) Abebe Delesa1. The industrial value of Brassica carinata oil is immense in leather tanning. 1974). biomass. n=9). dev.
plant height. seed yield per plant. harvest index per plant. primary branches per plant and number of seeds per pod. harvest index per plant and seed yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic levels (Table 1). primary branches per plant and number of seeds per pod at both levels. southeastern Ethiopia. 2010. and with number of pods per plant and secondary branches per plant at phenotypic level.). using 60 Ethiopian mustard genotypes collected from 16 diverse and random zones of Ethiopia. Vol. 1. biomass per plant and 1000-seed weight at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Normal cultural practices were followed to raise the crop. The correlation between 1000seed weight and oil content was also relatively strong and positive. Seed yield per plant had positive and significant correlations with harvest index per plant. These correlation coefficients give an indication of the traits of importance in the identification of a selection criterion. seed yield was negatively correlated with days to flowering. January. and to identify the yield components for yield selection criteria for a breeding program.
improvement and measure their relative importance as a making simultaneous increase for these characters with seed yield is possible. biomass. only plant height was strongly and positively correlated with oil content at both levels. j. Among characters considered in the study. days to maturity. ISSN 1998-0531
. However. 1. oil yield was negatively correlated with days to flowering. biomass. Path coefficient analysis was carried out to partition correlation coefficients of different parameters into components of direct and indirect effects. dev. Data was recorded on 16 characters. sustain. However. Hence. A correlation analysis was carried out to determine the degree of association among different parameters with yield and with each other according to the procedures suggested by Dabholkar (1992). No. This indicates the merits of these characters to improve seed yield per plant.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Materials and Methods Field experiment was conducted at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center in Arsi zone. harvest index.
Journal of Adama University. The present result is in accordance with the results reported by Nigussie (1990) with regard to the correlations between seed yield and plant height and primary branches per plant. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. days to maturity. .
traits. The partitioning was done by simultaneously solving sets of linear equations as outlined by Singh and Chaudhary (1977). Results and Discussion Correlations Seed yield (per plot) was significantly and positively correlated with oil yield. sci. seed yield and harvest index. Oil yield was strongly and positively correlated with plant height.
187 0.582 0.195 0.
DF DM PH PB/PL SB/PL PD/PL SD/PD BM/PL SY/PL HI/PL BM/P SY/P HI/P TSW OC OY/P 0.225 -0.509**
0.160 -0.356 0.595
-0.652 0.300 -1.910 -0.136 0.217 0.259*
0. 2010. HI/PL = Harvest index per plant.952**
0.073 0. PD/PL = Number of pods per plant.423** 0.244 0.273* 0. **.364 0.074 -0.277 0.266* -0.253 -0.298
0.366 0.275* 0.049 0.485** -0.347** 0. sustain.470**
0. ISSN 1998-0531
.070 0.372** -0.406** 0.520 0.735 -0.610 0. No.920 0.967
-0.374 0.187 0.000 0. DM = Days to maturity.321* -0.394 0.230 -0.570 -0.382** -0.110 -0.783 -0.728 0.004 0.608 -0.281 0.605 -0.185 0. dev.233 0.127 -0.809
1. HI/P = Harvest index per plot.491 -0.472 0.233 -0.047
0.066 0.030 1.086 -0.068 0. SD/PD = Number of seeds per pod.132 -0. BM/PL = Biomass per plant.687 -0.175 -0.016 -0. OC = Oil content and OY/P = Oil yield per plot.240 0.).273* -0.299* -0.541 -0.020 0.488 0.530** 0.028
0.01 probability levels.323 0.052 0.279
0. Vol.288* 0.082 0.276* 0.261* 0.856 0.254 0.591
0.328 0.317 -0.050 -0.350** 0. sci.270* 0.994 0.292* 0.038 -0.280* -0.163 0. PH = Plant height.384** 0.287 -0.361 0.008 0.255
-0.280* 0.392** 0. January.328 0.964
-0.442 0.426** 0.171 0.223 0.044
0.402** -0.146 0.524** 0.057 -0.418 -0.Indicate significance at 0.646 0.267* 0.127 -0.729 -0.703** 0. TSW = Thousand seed weight.602** 0.033 -0.168 0.000 -0.942 -0.515 -0. 1. SY/PL = Seed yield per plant. Genotypic (above diagonal) and phenotypic (below diagonal) correlation coefficients among 16 characters in 60 Ethiopian mustard genotypes.454** 0.216 -0.345** 0.630 -0.515 0.058 -0.805 -0.093 1.497** 0.166 -0.202 -1.661** 0.075 0.966 -0.127 0.041 -0.899 -0.072 -0.037 0.186 0.381** 0.309* 0.115 -0.424**
0.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.729** 0.513** 0.268* 0.444 0.202 0.05 and 0.992** -0.365** 0.042 -0.576 -0.550 0.128 0. 1.027 -0.601 -0.181 -0.610 0.541** 0.355** 0.925** -0. DF = Days to flowering.275 0.684 -0.
Journal of Adama University.127 0.079 -0.483
-0.502 0. SB/PL = Number of secondary branches per plant.
Table 1 .332** 0.831** -0.712 -0.588 0.532 -0.139 -0.307 0.242 0.030
0.375** -0.225 0.396** -0.248 -0.622 -0.999 0.535 -0.074 -0.514 -0.051
0.430** 0.938 0.265* -0.002 0.172 -0.484 0.184 -0.323* -0. BM/P = Biomass per plot.394 -0.205 0.767** 0.401** 0.125 0. SY/P = Seed yield per plot.842** 0.006 0.229 -0.507 0.461 -0.355 -0.013 0.128 0.952** 0.198 -0.462 0.258* -0.014 0. j.085 0.340 0.748
-0.497 0.738 -0. PB/PL = Number of primary branches per plant.973 0. respectively.293* 0.023 -0.008 0.736 -0.379
-0.677** 0.701 -0.093 0.393** 0.923 -0.
112) had positive indirect effects on seed yield through plant height. dev. Hence.468).181) exhibited considerably positive indirect effects on seed yield via biomass. these characters were also correlated strongly and positively with seed yield. Based on genotypic path coefficient analysis. Likewise. these situations further confirm the crucial role of biomass in improving seed yield. 1. Similarly. The phenotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that biomass (0. Similar results were reported by Nigussie (1990) for plant height and primary branches. favorable direct effects of biomass.149). and only number of pods exerted positive indirect effects on seed yield per plant via harvest index at phenotypic and genotypic level. number of pods per plant had positive indirect effect on seed yield via harvest index. The residual factor of 0.252) and secondary branches per plant (0.952).185). harvest index (0. Days to flowering and days to maturity exerted positive indirect effects on seed yield per plant via biomass per plant at both levels. respectively.0134 in the present study indicated that most of yield related traits were included. number of pods per plant. only secondary branches and number of pods.154) and oil content (0. sci. Vol. respectively. No.263) and number of seeds per pod (-0. primary branches per plant and number of seeds per pod had negative direct influence.258) exerted high and favorable direct effects on seed yield (Table 3). In other words. 2010. days to maturity (-0.879) and harvest index (0.
Path Coefficient Analysis for Seed Yield The genotypic and phenotypic direct and indirect effects of different characters on seed yield (per plot) are presented in Tables 2 and 3.353).451). but opposite results were reported for number of pods by Singh et al. Days to flowering and days to maturity exerted negative indirect effects via several characters.344). It is also logical to select for plant height. 1000seed weight and number of pods to improve seed yield. 1000-seed weight (0. which were observed in the correlation analysis. Therefore. 1000-seed weight exerted favorable indirect effect on seed yield per plant through biomass. Thus. The genotypic path coefficient analysis also revealed that biomass (0. Days to maturity. whereas days to flowering. These three characters also exhibited strong and negative genotypic correlations with seed yield. both the direct and indirect effects revealed the importance of biomass. Except secondary branches per plant. followed by harvest index (0. with other variables kept constant. harvest index and number of pods (data not shown).The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.). which suggest the merit of biomass for improving seed yield. these three characters could be considered in the improvement of seed yield. The direct effect of biomass (0.169) exhibited positive genotypic indirect effects via biomass. Similarly. the highest and favorable direct effect was exerted on seed yield by biomass (0. plant height (0. 1. On the other hand. 1000-seed weight (0. 1000-seed weight and oil content exerted favorable but weak direct influences on seed yield. Plant height (0. days to flowering (-0. j. harvest index and plant height for the improvement of seed yield. These indirect effects had considerable contribution to their total correlations. These indirect effects were the major components of the
positive and highly significant correlations with seed yield per plant (Table 1). harvest index and plant height on seed yield indicate that.
Journal of Adama University. A result of Table 2 indicated some considerable indirect effects on seed yield at genotypic level. Plant height (0.246) had considerable negative indirect effects via biomass. The three important direct effects on seed yield per plant were that of biomass.240). sustain. improvement of these characters will increase seed yield. ISSN 1998-0531
. they could not be used for indirect selection for improving seed yield.237) and number of pods per plant (0. (1979) and Nigussie (1990). Secondary branches and number of pods exerted high and positive indirect effects on seed yield per plant via biomass and harvest index. harvest index (0. Hence. January.263).879) had the greatest contribution to positive and highly significant correlation between biomass and seed yield (rph = 0.171) and 1000-seed weight (0.
159 -0. DM = Days to maturity.000 0.062 0.002 0.001 0.007 0.266* 0.003 -0.264 -0.015 rph -0.035 0.134 -0.432 0.028 -0.738 -0.064 0.576 -0.018 0.006 -0.070 -0.073 0.009 0.344 -0.008 SD/PD 0.135 0.086 0.058 -0. HI/P = Harvest index per plot.011 -0.008 0.036 BM/P -0.162 -0. sustain. PD/PL = Number of pods per plant.034 rg -0.045 -0.246 0.012 -0.112 PB/PL -0.001 0.097 0.005 -0. OC = Oil content and r ph = Phenotypic correlation.468 0.451 -0.032 -0.053 -0.002 -0.018 0.010 -0.004 -0.030 PD/PL -0.138 -0.007 0.012 -0. BM/P = Biomass per plot.057 -0.038 -0.284 -0. 2010.004 DM -0.01 probability levels.062 0.07 0.063 -0.079 -0.004 0. Phenotypic direct (underlined) and indirect effects of 11 characters on seed yield (per plot) DF DF DM PH PB/PL SB/PL PD/PL SD/PD BM/P HI/P TSW OC Residual = 0.006 0. PH = Plant height.087 0.021 0.295 -0.003 0.004 -0.008 0.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.070
Journal of Adama University.077 -0.056 0.023 -0.147 0.030 -0.102 0.000 -0.073 -0.485** -0.967 0.000 -0. j.003 0.007 0.015 0.067 0. PH = Plant height.002 -0.942 0. ISSN 1998-0531
.001 0.014 0.005 0.004 SB/PL 0.237 0.119 0.040 0.004 -0. SB/PL = Number of secondary branches per plant.097 0.000 0.005 -0. 0. BM/P = Biomass per plot.031 -0.121 0.263 0.014 PH 0.007 -0.000 0.031 PH -0.014 0.003 0.353 -0.002 -0.048 0.021 0.002 0. TSW = Thousand seed weight.072 -0. OC = Oil content and rg = Genotypic correlation.185 -0. HI/P = Harvest index per plot.013 -0.011 -0.035 -0.011 0.085 -0.041 0.017 -0.004 0.057
Residual = -0.004 0.225 -0.007 0.265* 0.006 PD/PL 0. DF = Days to flowering.007 0.069 -0.021 -0. PB/PL = Number of primary branches per plant. Genotypic direct (underlined) and indirect effects of 11 characters on seed yield (per plot)
DF DF DM PH PB/PL SB/PL PD/PL SD/PD BM/P HI/P TSW OC -0.003 0.009 0.252 -0.001 -0.004 0.042 -0.021 -0.591 0.025 0.684 -0.018 0. No. 1.). SD/PD = Number of seeds per pod. 1.083 0.011 0.147 -0.010 0.004 0.050 -0.008 -0.190 0.010 -0.001 0. SB/PL = Number of secondary branches per plant.001 -0.005 -0.017 -0. January.017 0.026 -0.017 0.012 0. sci.154 0.181 -0.003 0.097 -0.016 0.059 -0.025 0.244 -0.098 -0.052 0.034 0.646 0.000 BM/P -0.096 0.01 OC -0.003 0.001 0.001 -0.149 0.009 -0.520 0.129 0.149 0.171 0.258 -0.003 -0.003 0.033 -0.
Table 2.007 -0.054 -0.034 HI/P -0. TSW = Thousand seed weight.007 0.025 0.018 -0.132 0.077 -0.267 -0.007 0.292* -0.104 0.021 0.396** 0.006 0.012 -0.05 and 0.044 -0.169 0. PB/PL = Number of primary branches per plant.154 0.263 -0.135 -0.007 0.065 -0.000 -0.083 -0.052 0. DM = Days to maturity.128 -0.0039 DF = Days to flowering.016 0.001 0.017 -0.097 0.0134 *.211 -0.003 0.041 0.093 -0.005 0.001 SB/PL -0.016 PB/PL -0.001 0. dev. PD/PL = Number of pods per plant.879 0.127 TSW 0.240 -0.059 -0.007 0. Vol.952** 0.043 0.237 0.112 0.012 -0.118 -0.524** 0.035 OC 0.052 0.105 -0.006 HI/P -0.023 0.022 -0. SD/PD = Number of seeds per pod.001 -0.005 -0.047 -0.233 -0.045 DM 0.119 -0.033 0.044 -0. respectively.052 0.061 SD/PD -0.044 0. ** Indicate significance at 0.005 -0.016 0.116 -0.032 TSW 0.041 0.026 0.206 -0.023 0.382** -0. Table 3.005 -0.059 -0.
IAR (Institute of Agricultural Research). 1990: Yield and yield components of Ethiopian mustard and rapeseed as affected by some agronomic practices.1977. and Vitolo. Plant height. 1971: Agricultural and genetic potential of Cruciferous oilseed crops. Copenhagen. Crop Sci. days to maturity. Hence. On the other hand. India. primary branches and number of seeds at both levels. 1992: Path analysis of rice yield and yield components as affected by seed rate. 39: 150-153.R.. A.and R. harvest index. D. A. M. 1000-seed weight and number of pods could be useful for indirect selection criteria for the improvement of seed yield in Ethiopian mustard. harvest index and 1000-seed weight added indirectly to seed yield via biomass at genotypic level. 1000-seed weight exerted positive direct effect on oil content at genotypic and phenotypic levels. it was negatively correlated with days to flowering. K. Ethiopia. p513.K.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. while plant height. Ind.). Biomass and Bio-energy 25: 623-636. P.. Oil. 11th Int. An MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University. Singh. Agronomic evaluation of fuel production by trasesterification and characterization. January.. plant height. 1000-seed weight and number of pods had favorable indirect effects on seed yield at phenotypic level.C. Ind. 4-7 July 2003. Chem. 3-5 December 1991. S. 'Meher' season... 2010. Rasmusson. dev.. In: Proc. Gene. Vol. S. 1992: Oilseeds research and development in Ethiopia. A. plant height.
Cardone. 1. Gravios. Soc. O. Based on the results of correlation and path coefficient analysis. 1974: Path coefficient analysis of yield attributes in mung bean. Acknowledgment The authors would like to acknowledge the germplasm provided by the Institute of Biodiversity Conservation. plant height. sci. Vijayakumar. 1979: Effect of soil moisture and nitrogen on mustard under Gangetic alluvium of Utterpradesh. M. Agron. Helm. Number of pods per plant also added indirectly to seed yield through harvest index. 24: 180-186. plant height and 1000-seed weight should be considered as selection criteria for oil content improvement in Ethiopian mustard. harvest index and days to maturity had positive direct effects on oil content. A. 2004: Diversity study based on quality traits marker and investigation of heterosis in Ethiopian mustard. Bhan. Ind. plant height. Singh. Doweny. Katiyar. harvest index per plant and seed yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic levels. harvest index. J.R. L. K. Thus. Agron. 318p. Srivastava and R. Furthermore.
Conclusion Seed yield (per plot) was positively correlated with oil yield. and B. V. biomass. Seggiani. References Adefris T. ISSN 1998-0531
. Kalyani publishers. 160p. J. and R.New DelhiLudhiana. Similarly. No. 1992: Elements of biometrical genetics. Ethiopia.Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis. Glass. J. biomass.and S. 84: 1-4. harvest index. India.Chaudhary 1977: Chaudhary. New Delhi. Similarly. 1979: Path analysis in Indian Colza. Senatore. Menini. Germany. 1. Doctoral dissertation submitted to George-August University of Göttingen. Proceedings of the First National Workshop. plant height and 1000-seed weight had positive correlations with oil content at both levels. R. Dabholkar. CSA (Central Statistical Authority).. 1000-seed weight and number of pods per plant were the second important characters for the improvement of seed yield. There were positive correlations among seed yield per plant and harvest index per plant. S. 112p. Rocco. K. Ame. 2003: Brassica carinata as an alternative oil crop for production of bio-diesel in Italy.D.. M. 1967: Estimation of Genetic and Environmental Variability in Barely. N. j. Genet. S. 1000-seed weight and biomass per plant at both levels. Statistical bulletin 388. 34: 27-30. 243p. Addis Ababa. Czern and Coss). The phenotypic path coefficient analysis of oil content as dependent trait revealed that biomass. S. Nigussie A. J. Singh. Denmark. Braun) vis a vis Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Concept Publishing Company. 2003: Genetic improvement in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. sustain. J. P. Addis Ababa. 2006/07: Report on Area and Production of Crops: Private peasant holdings. 7: 185-188. 431p. biomass and harvest index were the major determinants of seed yield. and Plant Breed. 48: 728-732. Rapeseed Conf.
Journal of Adama University. The research was funded by Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. Giriraji. Ethiopia. Mazzoncini.
however. 1. Introduction South-East Asian countries. sci. Therefore. Currently. The researcher has also used Gini coefficients to evaluate the impact of irrigation on income distribution. two of the five selected kebeles are intended be irrigated while the other two must be non-irrigated and the rest one was anticipated to be half-irrigated and half non-irrigated. and other indicators of well-being are all extremely low. In addition to this.
Though food security is a top economic development agenda for many least developed countries. have failed to succeed. continued investment in new irrigation projects and maintenance of existing systems in Banja Woreda will help to attain the government’s rural welfare improvement goals. by group according to access to irrigation and by estimated income flows as a result of specific household characteristics. shocks. we examine the relationship between irrigation and income using multivariate analysis. Hence. sampling techniques and methodology 2. Hence. Irrigation investment in rural Banja Woreda appears to be an investment that can lead to both growth and equity. it was found that the key variable. j. we use a simulation approach to explore the impact of irrigation on the incidence of poverty. The Green Revolution was an agricultural technology introduced in the 1970s and 1980s that has brought remarkable improvements in the livelihoods many agrarian societies especially in the
Journal of Adama University. First. Key words: Food Poverty Line. To meet the overall goal. 2. chemical
fertilizers and irrigation as pillars for agricultural development. Vol. 1. Thus. According to the report of IMF(1999). in order to uncover the effect of irrigation on income distribution.1 data source and sampling techniques The data for this paper comes from five selected rural villages using purposive sampling methods. Ethiopia is rated as one of the poorest countries in the world with GDP per capita of around USD 100. January. 2010. Ginicoffecients 1.). Data source. the determinants of rural income has been assessed. income of households that is attributable from irrigated lands was found influential in abating income inequality among rural households in the study area. Moreover. irrigation investment could have an added benefit. Using multivariate analysis. Finally. using the simulation framework. we decompose inequality by source of income. Agriculture remains the dominant economic sector contributing about 45% of GDP. for the sake of the analysis. One such program is the construction of irrigation schemes all over the country especially in areas where irrigation water is abundant. Moreover. the overall goal of this paper is to examine the impact of irrigation on income. is a significant determinant of total income of rural households. Ethiopia is exerting much effort to bring about fast and sustainable development and has launched various programs in order to do so. educational enrolment. poverty and income distribution in Banja woreda of the Amhara region. Ethiopia. This method was chosen because most rural villages of the woreda are not irrigated hence. the fixed effects model has been employed. Second.
EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION ON POVERTY REDUCTION AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN THE NILE BASIN: A LESSON FROM BANJA WOREDA OF THE AMHARA REGION (ETHIOPIA) Abrham Seyoum Arba Minch University. sustain. while life expectancy. From the study. E-mail:abrhamseyoun@yahoo. ISSN 1998-0531
.Arba Minch. as reducing poverty and decreasing inequality both have growth-enhancing effects. To avoid the problem of omitted variables that create inconsistency in estimation. irrigation has been witnessed to have a greater contribution in reducing poverty incidence in the study area. household size and proportion of output affected by negative shocks were found as expected. only few have been successful with the help of the Green Revolution.com Abstract This paper mainly focuses on evaluating the effects of irrigation development in Banja Woreda on poverty and income distribution. dev. irrigation. Many countries. the signs and significance of coefficients of other important variables such as dependency ratio. This technology was mainly based on the use of improved seeds. No. the paper pursues three specific objectives.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.
January. 2010. total land holdings and asset holdings. If we adopt this approach of Huang et al (2005). 1. dev. the degree of land fragmentation (measured as the number of plots per household). Hence. If this is the case. The survey collected data on rural household income that can be disaggregated into cropping. In such a case. infrastructure and topography. This source of income is classified as ‘other’ in this study. literacy of the household head. the estimate for the sample is given below
Journal of Adama University. Cropping income includes proceeds from crop sales less expenses. The block also recorded information on other plot-specific variables. off-farm and other income sources. ISSN 1998-0531
. Dhv . sustain. Casting the problem in this way (henceforth. The questionnaire included a special block that collected plot-level information. the fixed effects model that we estimate is:
yhv − yhv =γ( Dhv − Dhv )+( Χ hv − Χ hv )β+( ε hv − ε hv )
Where yhv . it is possible that we have omitted village-level variables that. crop yield. The household survey also gathered detailed information on other household characteristics. Off-farm income includes all income from businesses run by households.
2.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. drought or flooding). such as earnings from livestock.). increases the degrees of freedom and allows us to estimate the importance of these village characteristics. asset sales and pensions. sci. the proportion of good quality land (the proportion of one household’s land that is rated as ‘high quality’ by the farmer) and the proportion of outputs affected by negative shocks during the cropping year (e. One such variable is weather variation in the village. a random sampling method was employed to give households an equal chance of being selected in the sample. Χ hv and variables at the village level. However. We asked whether a plot was irrigated and the area of the household’s irrigated land. may affect income and may be correlated with irrigation. From each village 30 households were selected randomly for the interview with a total of 150 households for the whole sample in the Woreda. such as the type of crop grown on a plot.
ε hv are
the averages of
Based on equation 2 above. including household irrigated area. a number of village level variables for our sample were constructed using data from a village leader questionnaire.. rent earnings. dependency ratio of the household. Profits from processed crops are also included in this category. Vol. wages from a household member’s off-farm job and migrant remittances. No. however. 1.1 Multivariate Analysis In this study.2 Methodology 2. Finally. one solution is to include a set of village dummy variables that capture all of the observed and unobservable village effects. we could have an omitted variables problem and estimates of γ would be inconsistent. although unobserved. Most of the households in the sample also had some other form of income. We have information on household size.2. the fixed effects model). our basic model is: yhv=α+γDhv+Xhvβ+Zvδ+µv+εhv (1)
This approach enables us to use village-level data on employment. means that we cannot separate the effect of specific village characteristics (Zv and µv) from other village fixed effects since all are captured by the village dummy variables. the determinants of income can be analyzed by making income a function of a set of household and village characteristics.
In the selection of sample households.g. j.
58568 (0. Irrigation and Poverty To study more carefully the effects of irrigation on poverty. literacy of household head has a negative coefficient against cropping income though not significant. **significant at 5 per cent.02)
-4. negative shocks significantly reduce cropping income.01131(0.11) 265.842743 (-0. sustain.72)
Literacy of the household head Degree of land fragmentation (number of plots per household) Proportion of good quality land (%) Proportion of output (crops cultivated) affected by negative shocks (%) Cultivated land per capita (ha) Non-land agricultural assets per capita (Birr) Self-business assets per capita (Birr) Non-productive assets per capita (Birr) Credit Cons.0801
-4.63) 198.21131 (-0.0723494 (0.56)** .The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.669 (-3.38)
-336.73)* -8.2.763 (4. sci.81) 142.30) 0.8751(0.70) .2559658 (-1.0296 (-2. is 0.77) Cropping income 1854. as expected. dev.45) -2.906528 (-0. ***significant at 1 per cent
Dependent variables (Birr per capita) Total income Area of irrigated land per capita(ha) Household size Dependency household Ratio of the 2389.16)*** (2.47) .13) 41. *Significant at 10 per cent.26) -. Increasing
irrigated land per capita by one hectare will lead to an increase of 1855 Birr in annual cropping income per capita.755227 (-0. The goodness of fit measure. Also.47) 72.26) -64.356 (-1.6737
Regression Results Our regression estimates of the effect of irrigation on income are shown in Table 1 above. Vol.3252418 (-0.691651 (-0.83)***
-. 1.11) -.6278
-26.2745 (0.31)** -94.75)
382.36645 (-4.52) -1.95) -.10)*** -541.57) -22.39) -.0022 (0.109372 (1. These R2 are sufficiently high for analyses that use cross-sectional household data.29219 (0.58956 (1.03) 108.76) Other income 440.29493 (-0.9819237 (-0.57) -2.9036 (3. j. In addition to this.915985(0. R2.).4480674 (0. In addition.4496623 (2.0549 (1.
Table 1: Determinants of Income (Equation 2: Ordinary least squares with fixed effects at the village level)
Robust t-statistic in parentheses.57) 0.96)
531.204 (-1. For example.83016 (-0.2.25) 105. ISSN 1998-0531
. holding other household characteristics constant.29) 75.23) 116.155542 (0.66) -1.854707 (-1.72628 (0.6737 for total income and 0. Contrary to our expectation.3573.04) .64)*** 70.4251363 (-2.6278 for the cropping income equation. (4. January.2116418(0.0991671 (0.50) 1.77)*** .0159745 (-0.97) -26. 2010. many of the coefficients associated with the control variables are statistically significant and of the expected sign.92)
11. column 2). 2. Most importantly. To do so.4539 (-0.54927 (0. 1.3838409 (0.23254 (-1.033344 (-1.7)*
.62) -1.61) 37. No.3165 (1. we use a simulation approach in order to assess the change in poverty incidence arising from a change in a specific factor.72)*** Off-farm income 94. self-business assets per capita. non-land agricultural assets and degree of land fragmentation have a different sign from our expectation but are not significant.22372 (1.2045
(0.11) 0. the results allow us to reject the null hypothesis that irrigated land area has no effect on cropping income (Table 1.46957 (-1.1913 (1. R-Square
5. dependency ratio negatively affects total income of a household.92)* -110.39883 (2.7755 (-1. we follow Datt (1998) and Gibson and Rozelle (2003) cited in
Journal of Adama University.06)*** 640.9463 (0.77) 0.
At this juncture. They proposed a new method.0740667 (2.19) -.14)** -. 2010. In particular.04) -. is positive and
Journal of Adama University. Nonetheless. Table 1.0098325 (-4. c. the signs and statistical significance of the coefficients on most of our key explanatory variables are consistent in both tables (column 1. **significant at 5 per cent. dev.54) -.49)*** . area of irrigated land per capita.).0009677 (-0. However. and does not pre-impose a researcher's or bureaucrat's subjective notion of what constitutes a palatable.46)*** . yhv. which is conceptually and computationally simple.89 Birr per adult per month. . The magnitude of the coefficients differs between Table 1 and 2 because the dependent variable in Table 2 is a non-linear (log) transformation of that in Table 1.47706 (13. Vol. More specifically.45) . of plots per household) Proportion of good quality land (%) Proportion of output (harvest) affected by negative shocks (%) Cultivated land per capita (ha) Non-land agricultural assets per capita (Birr) Non-productive assets per capita (Birr) Self-business asset per capita (Birr) Credit Cons. j.00000856 (0. sustain. ***significant at 1 per cent.00000741 (0. January. the basic model is of (log) income per capita.13) 2. but inexpensive diet. Based on this calculation. 1. Table 2).
Q.00146827 (0. a ratio known as the “welfare ratio”.71) -.
ε’hv is independently and identically distributed normal random variables with zero means and constant variance.67) . σv. 1.38) -.5502 Robust t-statistic in parentheses.0914834 (-1. No. does not require an excessive sample size. deflated by the poverty line.78)***
R-Square 0.0570604 (0.3908934 (2.0926228 (1. Huang et al (2005) and use parameters from a regression analysis of the determinants of total income to create a simulation framework.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.0003985 (-0. ISSN 1998-0531
.000049 (-5. we can mention several methods of calculating poverty line (c in equation 3) in Economics such as Food Energy Intake (FEI)
Table 2: Estimates of log welfare ratio for rural households (Ordinary least squares with fixed effects at the village level) Dependent variable: Log welfare ratio Area of irrigated land per capita (ha) Household size Dependency Ratio of the household Literacy of the head of the household Degree of land fragmentation (no. the coefficient on our variable of interest.73)*** . *Significant at 10 per cent. sci.
' ln( y hv / c ) = α ' + γ ' D hv + Χ hv β ' + Ζ v δ ' + µ v' + ε hv (3)
method. the Cost of basic needs method and the Food Component method. Regression Results The regression of log welfare ratio performs well (Table 2). 1986. in this thesis I have preferred to use a method of calculating food poverty line suggested by Joel Greer and Erik Thorbecke. it was found that the food poverty line for the sample is 62.
We begin by noting that if yk is
Where: ln ( yhv / c ) . irrigated land area per capita and dependency ratio of the household). dev.. and b) Decomposition by estimated income flows due to specific household characteristics (e. poverty line would decline by 7. we then plug them back into equation (3):
ˆ ˆ ln( y h v / c ) = γˆ ' D h v + Χ h v β ' + [α ' + Ζ v δ ' + µ v' ] 1 44 2 4 43
Where. sci. the incidence of poverty would fall by 4.15 % if all non-irrigated land were converted to irrigated land. α . the simulation work will clearly show us the effect of irrigation on poverty reduction.20%*** (7. the incidence of poverty may fall/rise by certain percentage points if all nonirrigated land were converted to irrigated land. the probability of the hth household being poor is calculated as:
ˆ ln ( y h v / c ) P r o b ln ( y h v / c ) < 0 = Φ σˆ v
A weighted average of the household probabilities of being poor gives the predicted incidence of poverty. Once the simulation is done.45 percent if all nonirrigated land were converted to irrigated land.65% 62.the terms in bracket is estimated as one single
ˆ parameter. However.
significant at one percent. Χ hv and ε hv are the
averages of variables at the village level.).
In the simulation.
Journal of Adama University.3 Irrigation and Inequality To analyze the impact of irrigation on inequality. sustain. We first decompose the total income Gini coefficient by income source. No. January. I have chosen two ways of decomposing inequality: a) Decomposition by sources of income (cropping income from irrigated plots. Our methodology is similar in both cases. According to the result. ISSN 1998-0531
. cropping income from non-irrigated plots. where the weights are the household sampling weights in terms of household size. We first decompose the total income Gini coefficient by income source. and is captured by the coefficients on the village dummy variables. the positive effects of increasing irrigated land on poverty reduction are clear (Table 3). off farm income and other income). Using the simulation framework. Normalizing income per capita by the poverty line implies that
Table 3: Simulated effect of certain changes in area of irrigated land on incidence of poverty in rural Banja Woreda in 2005 Poverty incidence Baseline: Actual values Convert households’ nonirrigated land into irrigated land 66. 2010. 1.
D hv .The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. a) Decomposition by Income Sources We decompose the Gini coefficient for total household income as a weighted sum of the inequality levels of incomes from different components. That is. *** Significant at 1%.15%) ‡
ln ( yhv / c ) <0 for poor households and
the probability of the h household being poor can be derived using the probit model as follows:
Pr ob[ln( yhv / c) p 0] = Φ[−(α ' + γ ' Dhv + Χ hv β ' + Ζvδ ' + µv' ) / σ v ]
We adopt the same approach as in estimating equation (1) and the fixed effects model we estimate is:
' ln ( yhv / c ) − ln ( yhv / c ) = γ ' Dhv − Dhv + Χhv − Χhv β ' + ε hv − ε
‡ Percentage change from the predicted baseline values is reported in parenthesis. 2. the sign for the coefficients of credit and proportion of land with good quality is negative contrary to our expectation though it is statistically insignificant. Vol. with the weights being functions of the importance of each component and the correlation of each component with total income. 1.2. In percentage terms. Thus.g. it is possible to look at the effects of increasing irrigated land on poverty reduction. j. the village fixed effect. After we obtain consistent estimates of γ' and β' by estimating equation (5).
F ( y0 )) / cov( yk ..
Table 4: Gini decomposition by income sources Income sources Total income Cropping income From irrigated land From non-irrigated land Off-farm income Other income 0. 2010.24 which is very much lower than those of other income sources (Table 4.Sj j=1. sci.41 per cent. Cropping income from irrigated land is most equally distributed with a Gini coefficient approximately 0.27063526 0.821378 0. K
F ( y0 ) and F ( yk ) are the cumulative distributions of total household income and income from source k respectively. we can write the Gini coefficient for total household income per capita.0371512 -0.00013781 0. Dividing equation (11) by G0.
Journal of Adama University. Rj.2.393181
∂G0 ∂e j
∂e j ) G0
Where. row 1). Chen and Fei (1980) and Lerman and Yitzhaki (1985). column 2).082708 0. Gk is Gini coefficient of income source k.g. irrigated plots).88046 0.393181 Rk SkGkRk 1 0. SkGkRk is contribution of income source k to the Gini coefficient of total income. cropping income from irrigated land has the highest marginal effect on lowering inequality (column 6).
The overall Gini coefficient of per capita income from our sample is 0.). Vol.05612 -0.
Where: Sj.0276531 -0.….1595804 -0. y0 .00486607 -0. j. Rk is Gini correlation between income source k and the distribution of total income. (∂Go /∂ej)Go is relative effect of a marginal percentage increase in income source j upon the Gini coefficient of total income.071629 0.797757 0.
income from source k (e. dev....891469 0. such that yj(e) = (1+e)yj for all households.056473 0. then total household income. is:
k k =1
y k . ISSN 1998-0531
.09449 -0.0220664 -0.450737 0. Decomposing the Gini coefficient by income source shows that irrigation could help to equalize income (Table 4).1909283 0.2.243251 0. 1.…K.07033 1 Sk Gk 0. and Rk is the Gini yk and the distribution of
y0 and is defined as:
Rk = cov( yk . sustain. k = 1. Gk is the Gini
yk . G0. these results indicate that inter household inequality is significantly reduced by the presence of irrigation. No.003059 0.393 (Table 4. . A 1 per cent increase in cropping income from irrigated land for all households would decrease the Gini coefficient for total income by 0.782811 0. Following the method suggested by Stuart (1954) and Pyatt. Sk is share of income source k in total income.40587 -0. ( 12)
k k =1
S k G k Rk
S k is the share of yk in y0 .767015 0. Hence. the marginal effect of this percentage change on total income inequality is: The relative effect of a marginal percentage change in source-j income on the Gini coefficient for total income (elasticity of total income inequality with respect to income source j) equals the relative contribution of source j to overall income inequality minus the share of source j in total income. January. Gj and G0 are measured prior to the marginal income change. F ( yk ))
If income component j increases by a factor of e.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.
Note the subscripts h and v are suppressed here. we obtain: (∂G0 /∂ej)/G0 = (Sj RjGj)/G0.K. as:
∂G0 /∂ej = Sj (RjGj-G0 ) j =1. 1. ∂Go/∂ej is marginal effect on the Gini coefficient of total income due to a marginal percentage increase in income source j.
such as. ∂Go/∂ej is marginal effect on the Gini coefficient of total income due to a marginal percentage increase in income source j. and these flows constitute the various components of total income. Rk is Gini correlation between income source k and the distribution of total income. Conclusion
From the output of the study. α + Ζ vδ + µv .14497
Dependency ratio of the household
1 0. (∂Go /∂ej)Go is relative effect of a marginal percentage increase in income source j upon the Gini coefficient of total income.03248626 -0.22758951
0. j. α v and
ˆ ε hv . are calculated using the estimated
ˆ ˆ ˆ y hv = γˆ Dhv + Χ hv β + α v + ε hv
ˆ Where α v is the estimated village fixed effect that is equivalent to the estimate of the term.01146701
-0. January. Χ hv β .154999
0. Gk is Gini coefficient of income source k.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Sk is share of income source k in total income. The shares of income flows from the area of irrigated land per capita and other household characteristics take the
ˆ ) given by the regression ˆ parameters ( γ and β results from equation (2). The results also showed that irrigation is not the only factor that can decrease inequality.10681
0. 2010. dependency ratio has a contrary effect on income inequality. In this approach. 1. 2.00434868
-0. A unit percentage increase in dependency ratio would worsen income distribution by 0 .
decomposition by income flows uses the same approach as the decomposition by income sources except that each yk is replaced by estimated income
ˆ ˆ ˆ flows γ Dhv .06448
Cultivated land per capita (ha)
b) Decomposition Results by Income Flows The limitation of decomposing inequality by income sources can be overcome by using a regression-based approach to decompose total income inequality by income flows attributable to specific household characteristics.0253511
-0. By construction.184164
Proportion of good quality land (%)
0. variables such as dependency ratio and proportion of output affected by negative shocks were statistically significant and had the expected signs of coefficients. ISSN 1998-0531
.14 per cent decrease in the Gini coefficient for total income. y hv
respectively.18 percent.11 per cent decrease in the inequality level of total income.21132386
Journal of Adama University. a 1 per cent increase of irrigated land per capita leads to a 0. SkGkRk is contribution of income source k to the Gini coefficient of total income. Similarly.393181 0. proportion of good quality land has also its own contribution in reducing income inequality of households in the
Results from decomposing inequality by income flows as a result of specific household characteristics further confirm irrigation’s propensity to equalize income (Table 5). sci.157835
0.0569977 -0. level of education and age. In addition to this.00146543
-0. total income is the sum of these flows:
ˆ Χ hv β . No. Huang et al (2005). sustain.111892
0. our key variable area of irrigated land per capita was found to be positively related to household incomes with statistical significance. area of irrigated land. Vol.
Table 5: Gini decomposition by income flows as a result of specific household characteristics
Income sources Sk Gk Rk SkGkRk
∂G0 ∂e j
∂e j ) G0
Total income per capita (Birr) Area of irrigated land per capita (ha)
1 0. in equation (1). A 1 per cent increase in the cultivated land per capita of a household will lead to a 0. However. This approach follows the work of Taylor (1997) and Morduch and Sicular (2002) cited in Q.07335
0. After controlling for other factors. the estimated income flows contributed by characteristics. On the other hand.
). and Yitzhaki. J. J. G. 159-175. 2010. To sum-up the above points. indirect. International Food Policy Research Institute. 187-208. Discussion paper. 115-141. Irrigation investment in rural Banja Woreda appears to be an investment that can lead to both growth and equity. David Dawe. Hence. FAO (1968): Food Composition Table for Use in Africa. J. it was evident that irrigation also helps reduce income inequality. (1985): Income inequality effects by income sources: A new approach and applications to the U. A research Project Sponsored by US Department of Health. (1980): The distribution of income by factor components. irrigation investment could have an added benefit... British Journal of Statistical Psychology 12. No. sci. (2005): Irrigation. (1954): The correlation between variety-values and ranks in samples from a continuous distribution. North-Holland.(2003): Poverty and
access to roads in Papua New Guinea. 151-156. Datt. T. A. DC. 49. as reducing poverty and decreasing inequality both have growthenhancing effects. and Fei. C. January. (2002): Rethinking inequality decomposition. Journal of Policy Modeling 14. and Sicular. Washington. Economic Development and Cultural Change. Quarterly Journal of Economics 95. 1. G. irrigation was found to have strong impact on income and poverty. dev. with evidence from rural China. Joel Greer and Erik Thorbecke (1986): A Methodology for Measuring Food Poverty Applied to Kenya. Education. Lerman. Stuart. S. Huang.S. Acknowledgement I would like to extend my gratitude and deep appreciation for African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) and Addis Ababa University Department of Economics for providing material and financial support for the accomplishment of this piece of work. Using alternative decomposition analyses of inequality. Vol. 1968. The Review of Economics and Statistics 67. 451-473. Vol. S. Gibson. using multivariate analysis. Addis Ababa. continued investment in new irrigation projects and maintenance of existing systems in Banja will help to attain the government’s rural welfare improvement goals.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Poverty and Inequality in Rural China. 1. Scott Rozelle. Taylor. (1998): Simulating poverty measures from regression models of household consumption. The Economic Journal 112.. 35. Morduch. Italy. sustain. E. UN (2004): Implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration: Report of
Journal of Adama University. j. Journal of Development Economics 24 (1986) 59-74. and Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations. Chen.
most of the rest variables have either unexpected signs.. Rome. 1. 37-44. Jikun Huang and Jinxia Wang. Q. Pyatt. and Welfare. I. Joel Greer and Erik Thorbecke (1986): Food Poverty Profile Applied to Kenyan Smallholders. and intertemporal effects. and Rozelle. Moreover. statistically insignificant or are inconsistent in the ordinary least squares with fixed effects model and its semi-log transformation of welfare ratio. 159-185 IMF (1999): Ethiopia recent economic developments. ISSN 1998-0531
. R.. 93-106. References CSA (1994): Ethiopian Population and Houses Census by Ethiopian Central Statistical Authority. (1997): Remittances and inequality reconsidered: Direct. Economic Development and Cultural Change 52. J. No.
which expose them to a greater number of environmental hazards (Arne. gather fuel and perform most of the other works that sustain the family.Box 1907 Abstract The purpose of this study was to look in to the impacts of water resource degradation and deforestation on the life of rural women. Those
Journal of Adama University.
RURAL WOMEN AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION: THE CASE OF NANO ASEKO KEBELE IN ARSI ZONE
Teshome Beyene Email: teshome_beyene @ yahoo. sustain. Introduction Critical natural resources. and second because of their role and status in the traditional patriarchal society. No. Women are doubly affected by environmental degradation. The target population of the study was rural women living in Nano Aseko kebele. traditionally. Statement of the Problem The links between women and the environment have only recently begun to be recognized by environmentalists. The findings show that the depletion of forest resources has forced women to travel longer distances in search of fuelwood.com. investigate the change in women life style and identify the coping mechanisms adopted by rural women to cope with the problem they encountered. It has become common fact that the ongoing natural resource degradation is desperately affecting the majority of the rural poor whose livelihood is entirely dependent on these resources. focus group discussions and structured interview were employed to collect data and both qualitative and quantitative analysis has been carried out. fuelwood and animal feed. water. it has an adverse class and gender effects. clothing and shelter. j. Moreover girls often help their mothers in household chores. The study attempts to explore the extent of the problem on women. ISSN 1998-0531
. 1997). As they prepare food for the household. This specific study has found that in Nano Aseko kebele the facts of environmental degradation are more than exaggerations: shockingly. Common problems repeatedly mentioned are headache. 1. women are largely responsible for survival tasks that are essential for daily life. forests and trees as well as other forms of biodiversity. In such a setting. development specialists and those engaged in raising the status of women. January. Scholars have become increasingly concerned about impacts of environmental degradation on women. The main reason for this is that it is usually women who are the main collectors and user of water.The study has also revealed that in the process of gathering fuelwood and water women have been raped and abducted. In-depth interviews. the Ethiopian women are primary responsible for household chores that keep them inside the house for most of the time. Women spent more time in the collection of fuel and it requires their scarce time and limited energy . caring for children and elderly etc significantly reduce women's time for other activities that they inspire. and to switch to inferior quality fuel. as well as exposing them to health risks that the men not get exposed to or being exposed in this frequency. As the daily user of the natural resources.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. The responsibility of undertaking household chores. largely because of their social and economic role. they are often exposed to high level of smoke and dust for long period of time that reduces their life expectancy more than that of men. In Third World Countries. Men and women are exposed to different environmental stresses in different ways.e. Halsema. 1. which meet the basic needs for food. 2010. Vol. The study has found that women are forced to wait an average of 4-6 hours to get turn at the water point and forced to travel longer distance an average six kilometers in search of new sources. first because of poverty. 2-3 times per week. They traveled an average 9-25 km in search of fuelwood. chest and back pain and other complications. Environmental degradation has adverse implications for women and girls in the area. They grow the food crops. & Hombergh. fetching water from distant source and carrying heavy loads exposed women into higher health risks. water. & Gunner. key informant interviews. women are often the hardest hit by environmental degradation (Bruijn. 1997).). 2005). environmental degradation has placed a disproportionate burden on women.O. dev. have now deteriorated to a low level of productivity in most parts of Ethiopia (EPA. sci. provide water. i. The study further reveals that. According to Aster (2003). P. land. depriving them of valuable time for education.
January. 1. Using kebele officials' guidance knowledgeable individual and experts were taken as informants. Yeaseko Akababei setoch meredaja idir and Yeaseko 01 setoch ider). In the selection process of informants snowball-sampling techniques were employed. focus group discussion. ISSN 1998-0531
. Data collected using interview and Focus Group Discussion were analyzed qualitatively to investigate the findings. In addition to this. The existing literature on environmental degradation in Ethiopia. sustain. age. The first group was consisted of eleven women.). the researcher also employed reflective analysis to present his own personal observation in the field. which are members of Nano Aseko Women's Association. which includes their number. Data Analysis The data collected through the above different instruments were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. 1. According to the information obtained from the kebele who are engaged in marriage officials. sentence and phrases to create categories.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Simple statistics like percentage was used to describe the background of the respondents. In order to get adequate data for this study. therefore all are taken as sample and the total size was achieved in the sample frame. Thus. Most of the account on such issues are very patchy and lack seriousness and do not give us a full picture on the situation of women in the countryside. there continues to be large knowledge gaps in our understanding of what changes occur in the rural women’s lives and calling for a comprehensive research work. marital. a total of twenty one discussants were participated in the FGDs. in-depth and key informant interviews were held with both women and men residents of the area. The researcher intends to obtain vital information relating to the environment. The number of the discussants was ten. structured interview were administered. To this end. According to Gedyon (2003) environmental degradation affects everybody indiscriminate of gender. Data that were collected through structured interview were also analyzed using simple statistics (frequency and percentage) to show the degree of respondents' opinion on relevant and important issues. In-depth interviews. The main purpose of this study is to fill the gap by assessing the effects of environmental degradation (loss of forest and scarcity of water) on rural women by taking the case of Aseko Woreda (a term given to provincial administrative unit. there are three women's Idirs i. investigating women’s views towards their surroundings. In the study area. The total numbers of the women Idirs member were not too large to manage the data. The structured interview.
studies give us a global picture and very rarely case studies from across Africa. the samples of this study include
192 rural women who are member of local women Idirs. Key informant interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The target population of the study is women who are living in Nano Aseko kebele. This includes structured interviews. sci. Therefore. as a social obligation almost all women's of the kebele are members of women's Idir (an indigenous self-help association). The second group was selected from Aseko 01 Yesetoch Idir. The views of rural women about the effects of environmental degradation on their every day life have not been sufficiently documented. in-depth interview and key-informant interviews results are going to be presented in continuation under each variable of the study. Findings and Discussion Impacts of Environmental degradation on Women The purpose of this study was to explore the actual impacts of environmental degradation on women in the study area. However. In order to obtain quantitative data. data were gathered from woreda environmental protection officials. j. thus attempts have been made to investigate the consequences of environmental degradation on women. and educational status. Only women were selected because as a result of traditional genderbased division of labour women are disproportionately affected by the adverse impact of environmental degradation.e Selasse yesetoch idir. Women's Affairs Representatives and Women's Association members. seem to neglect or de-emphasize the impacts on women. No. dev. Vol. But the issue of women and environment are differing through place and time. In this study two FGDs were conducted. the researcher used units such as narratives. Methodology The researcher has employed different types of data collecting techniques. decision is made to access the women through Idirs. which is equivalent to a district). These categories or grouping of issues were served to put related ideas together in a series of topics in the analysis. Thus. 2010. Therefore. In addition to this. society is not
Journal of Adama University.
The qualitative data shows that in recent year because of high population pressure together with recurrent droughts. we often quarreled with each other. FGD participants explained the challenges as follows.6% reported that they walk 16-22 km. competing on a single water source has led to conflict.7 7 3. followed by those who walk 9-15 km 18. because the stream has not enough amount of water to feed the whole population of the area (3A. Water and fuel source availability as well as its location has direct impact on women who are the household water and fuel manager and providers.). the distance from which women had to carry water varied from two kilometers to ten kilometers. dev. sustain. According to the respondents in the dry season when water scarcity was very serious. the majority of the respondents out of 192.7% and 3. advocating against poverty and improving their quality of life. sometimes we return home with an empty pot and jerrican (a plastic made container used to hold liquid substances). The response was ‘yes’ in most case. j. there are gender factors. (77. Thus. reproductive and sustenance of the family. ISSN 1998-0531
. kidney and uterine
Journal of Adama University. They had to carry water twice a day.1 percent reported that they had headache. This has direct implications on their families. time invested on securing water excludes them from participating in decision-making process. Rodda 1993) have demonstrated how rural women frequently utilized the resource base in their daily task of meeting subsistence needs. In Nano Aseko kebele women had to travel far for water collection. With increasing population. Table 1. fuel and fodder for their households. increasing the distance means increasing the women level of suffering. women traveled relatively longer distance to fetch water from the stream/river. the time and distance where women get water increased. This implies that the amount of water that a
household consumes per day is much lower than the standard set by WHO which is 40-50 liters per person per day (Hirut.
Distance (kms) 16-22 P F P 18.6 percent) replied that in the present time they walk an average 2-8 km to fetch water. This is not always possible. Thus. According to the findings in the kebele 40 liters of water used per day per family just for drinking and cooking. 1. As shown in Table 1.6
23+ F -
Total F 192 192
P 100 100
Fetching water is an activity that is undertaken every day. The respondents were asked whether the distance to fetch water increased or not. conflict at the water point is common. The result of this study revealed that women often have the responsibility of using and managing water in the household. Average Distance Travel in Search of Water Time <2 F 61 P 31.
organized in harmonious and egalitarian manner. Impact of Water Scarcity on Women An attempt has been made to explore whether the time women use to fetch water compared to the past time increased or not. Respondents were asked what health problem they encountered as a result of fetching water from distant sources. which used to take at least half a day.2 77. No. Age 55). These studies show how women have to walk longer distances and expend more energy to collect food. thus everyday they are taking long hours to fetch water both from distant sources and to get turn. 1. class factors. and other factors that are discriminatory. though we got the turn. Fetching water from distant source and carrying heavy load has its own impact on the women’s health. As a result of the traditional gender based division of labour. 2000 citing Rodda). We got water after waiting 5-6 hours queue. so fetching water is our responsibility. thus. inevitably suffering worse effects of environmental degradation than men. Case studies on the rural areas in countries of the third world (Dankelman and Davidson 1988.7
Our children spent the whole day at school. For example. Thus. January. As indicated in Table 2 most of the participants 53. women’s role focuses on the productive. sci. According to my observation.6 9-15 F 36. Vol. women are usually the ones responsible for providing food and water for the household and suffer disproportionately when common resources are degraded.7 2-8 F 131 149 P 68.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. chest and back pain. This reduces their time for education and other activities. the amount of water available in the kebele has decreased. Because of the mutual relationships Visa-vis control over property and resource and the existing patronizing and subject subordinate type of relationship. 2010. At the water point in order to get turn.
Journal of Adama University. followed by animal dung and kerosene (17. no water purification methods were used. kidney and uterine pain eye complication) Pain resulting from heavy burden and frequent work Pollution exposed to water born diseases a Tiredness/Fatigue Fear during the nighttime
Note:* Since the response could have multiple responses the total percentage does not add to 100. the primary source of fuel is agricultural residuals accounts for (54. The impacts of water scarcity not only affect the socio-economic situation of women but also have socio-cultural and emotional challenges. Women also indicated that scarcity of water dismantled their social network.2%).0 3.
Table 2. followed by bushes and agricultural residuals (2. In the past year. In addition to the above impacts women also faced different socio-cultural problem that results from water scarcity.7%) each. 1. Women. As it indicated in Table 3. especially those who were middle aged complained of pain in their
neck and shoulders. The increase in poverty and health hazards further reduced the ability of poor women to cope with hardship and marginalization. In the present time however.1
4 6 76 12
2. No.1 39 6
In terms of the quality of water. ISSN 1998-0531
illness. In the entire kebele. Some common problems reported by the women were. The poor quality of water also had severe implications for the community’s health and for women in particular. women reported that they never had access to clean water.8 percent). the researcher found that for rural poor women. dev.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. sustain.* 53. 1. reducing livestock population resulting in greater poverty. 4 respondents (2 percent) replied that they feel pain resulting from heavy burden and frequent work. chest and back pain.
Per. sci. Literature on environmental degradation has shown that fuelwood scarcity in many part of developing world gives evidence to the seriousness of deforestation.). and eye problem. Most Frequently Mentioned Problems Associated with Water Resource Degradation Cause Problems Different kinds of health complaints (headache. 2010. Fuelwood Scarcity and its Impacts on Women In order to explain the extent of fuelwood scarcity participants have identified changing fuel sources and varieties. During the research and fieldwork. Focus group discussants and interview participants reported that women are frequently exposed to rape and abduction when they go far distance to fetch water. January.
Impacts of Deforestation on Women One of the indicators that is commonly used to assess the level of environmental degradation is the availability of fuelwood in a community.1%) each. j. Vol. increasing distance of fuel source and changing time spent as the major indicators. the lack of access to water meant an increase in the workload. tiredness and during the nighttime fearing of attacks from wild animals and humans. the primary source of fuel was trees for proportion of (94. respondents were asked to identify the primary sources of fuelwood in the past years and the present time.
2 34 17.
Trees Bushes Agricultural residuals Animal dung Kerosene Total
In the kebele all of the women and key informants interviewed reported that crop residual now a day constituted nearly the entire sources of fuel.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. As can be seen from Table 3. However. For example. Fikirt 1991. good smell. Respondents noted that as a result of scarcity of fuels they started to use poor quality fuel sources. dev. The data obtained from both quantitative and qualitative analysis show that fuelwood scarcity is clearly observed in the area. Due to the extreme wood shortage for example sorghum stalks were even used in the construction of hunts. more than half (51%) of respondents replied that in the present time they travel an average 9-15 km. But in terms of quality it is the most inferior quality and identified by the women. Age 60). a research conducted in Gojjam revealed that women travel an average 5. This is manifested both in quantity and quality of fuelwood. No.7 192 100 removal of trees. We were never worried for fuelwood collection. sci. But now we do not have any option. which hardly fulfill the above. We have a profound knowledge about the variation. while. 2010. FGDs discussants reported about scarcity of fuelwood as follows. it is required in relatively large quantity. sustain. burning for long time.). Sources of Fuel in the Household Source Past Frequency 182 4 4 2 192 Percentage 94. when using fuelwood we have had the knowledge which wood (tree) give more heat and light.5 km to gather fuelwood while in Addis Ababa the average distance women travel to collect fuelwood reached up to 10 kms (Aster.1 1 100 Time Present Frequency Percentage 8 4. This may be due to the reason that environmental degradation is place and time specific. etc. As can be seen from the same table.4%) from 16-22 kms and (16. dryness. ISSN 1998-0531
. which is used by many women. mentioned qualities. j. absence or little smoke. in the past almost all (95%) of respondents were travel to collect fuelwood an average less than 2 km and the rest (4. As shown in Table 4. in the present time the second largest proportion of respondents were found to use animals dung as alternative fuel source. When the fuel has poor burning quality. 1. The use of different inferior quality fuel has different implication on the health of women’s who are responsible for the daily kitchen work. A study conducted by Hirut (2000) on Boguna woreda also confirmed that the unsustainable
Journal of Adama University. Results of both the quantitative and the qualitative data show that the distance from and time spent to collect fuelwood has increased in the present time when compared to the past. Weira (Olena europaea) is more preferable because it has no smoke and gives more heat and light.7 34 17. For example. (24. 1996).1%) reported that they traveled from 2-8 kms. which resulted in depletion of vegetation cover in terms of quantity as well as quality push the rural households to divert to other fuel types.
Table 3. causes smoke that negatively affect health and test of food. Fuel quality according to respondents is measured in terms of flammability. January. Vol.3 104 54.8 2. thus the degree and the extent of the problem varies accordingly and this is equally important in determining the response to the problem. we use whatever available around (6A. the results of this study regarding the average distance covered by women are not consistent with other researches conducted in different parts of the country. 2003.2 12 6. Alemayehu. and which wood does not have smoke that is hazardous for our health.1 2.1%) travel from 2-8 kms respectively. In the near past the forest was found in the outskirts of each village. We were very selective. 1.
Carrying heavy load and traveling long
Journal of Adama University. In most cases we got fuelwood after crossing the Bogido River.
Table 4. the wood becomes more smoky and unable to burn easily. Collecting fuelwood from distance and inaccessible sources require more energy and considerable courage. Sometimes. Women who are the primary provider of household energy. when sudden rainfall occurs. 1. Average Distance Traveled in Search of Fuelwood kms Past Frequency <2 2-8 9-15 16-22 23+ Total 184 8 192 Percentage 95. women are exposed to various types of problems. Thus.0 24. Due to the dangerous location of the sources of fuelwood. Apart from the time and distance wood gathering is not merely a matter of picking up sticks lying around. The women’s words tell the severity of the problem that scarcity of fuel wood increase the time women spend seeking fuel wood and exacerbate women’s physical and psychological burden. 1. Age 36). This implies that women are forced to walk 60 kilometers per week only for fuelwood collection. 2000). it needs more energy and determination to transport. sustain. January. Sometime the fittest women climb up trees often in
bare feet. falls and injuries form-cutting tools and stones are common. sci. j.1 51. Research finding on women and fuelwood scarcity indicate that the rainy season makes fuelwood gathering and transporting very complicated (Fikirit 1991. while a generation ago it could be collected within a half hour walk from their homes (Hirut.5%) of responses replied that they collect fuel 2-3 times per week (See Table 4). dev. when there are feasts. Studies on the additional length of time and greater distances women have to walk to collect fuelwood shows that burden of ecological change has fallen disproportionately on women and young children (Gedeyon.). 2010. To get dry wood we need to move further with that slippery and sharp terrain.4 7.8 100
The distance traveled in search of fuelwood has an impact on the time and frequencies of gathering fuel. holidays. travelled at least one full day to collect wood. Fuelwood is the principal source of domestic energy in Ethiopia. the volume of the river rises up and it become difficult to cross. Moreover. According to the survey results about one third (37. A participant describes the challenges they had faced in the process of transporting the wood and in time of using the wood as follows: In the summer season when it rains the roads become slippery and wet. because of the rain the wood become wet and the weight that we carried increased. In addition participants of the FGDs pointed out that the frequencies of fuelwood collection in the household increased. As a result. In addition to this. No.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. the situation of women to get fuelwood becomes difficult during the rainy season. Rather it is a complex and energy consuming operation. Hirut 2000 and Selamawit 2004). Vol. ISSN 1998-0531
.1 100 Present Frequency 31 98 47 15 192 Percentage 16.8 4. and other socio cultural ceremonies. we are forced to spend more time until the flood passes and the volume of the river decreases (3B. The researcher observed that walking steep slop and climbing mountains to collect fuelwood is the everyday challenges of women in the study area. We get soaked through. 2003). According to this study.
an erosion of women's social support networks. j.
Journal of Adama University. January. Many informants pointed out that until recent time the women rarely bought goods and materials for household consumption except salt. 1. which were available everywhere in the past. Furthermore. Women face the greatest shock with the resource degradation / exhaustion. poverty. This has particularly adverse implications for women and girls in the area. Thus. Most of the participants of this study reported that they have been exposed to different kind of illness (headache. dev. in rural areas where fuelwood supply is scarce. saps theirs energy. eye complication etc. spending more time and energy to get hold of these resources in the further distances.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. the consequence of environmental depletion negatively affect human health and welfare. hinder development will affect generation to come. reproduction and household chores. High population pressure. emissions from biomass fuels are dangerous sources of air pollution in the home. risking their personal safety and also the data shows there is an increasing incidence of violence when they traveled to remote location. ISSN 1998-0531
. This specific study has found that in Nano Aseko kebele the facts of environmental degradation are more than exaggerations: shockingly. The main reason for this is that it is usually women who are the main collectors and user of water. deforestation and loss of vegetation have forced women and girls to wake up earlier and walk further in search of fuel wood (Diana 2005. division of labor between men and women show that both cross-cultural as well as cross regional variation within a country it is a widely accepted fact that women in most culture take the responsibility of collecting water. leaving home very early to have more time to gather fuelwood is a daily routine among women. fuelwood and animal feed. where women cook during all or part of the year. All this simply mean prolonged hours of working beyond the capacity that one can be done. Vol. an adverse effect on their health and nutrition. a decrease in women's income from non-timber forest products and agriculture. which resulted in reduced supply of resource.
distances has an impact on health. it can be concluded that the degradation of natural resource in the study area. it has an adverse class and gender effects. From the survey results and discussion. are caused by wood and other biomass burning. their families and their environment. and a decline in their traditional knowledge of plants and species. The women explained this. has caused wider and complex problems on women. sci. Having all these. exposed them for genderbased violence. Fikirte1991 and Hirut 2000). The depleted of fuel sources and water resource degradation in the immediate environment has lengthened their daily journey. fuelwood and fodder from various sources and managing it at home. Apart from the hard task Rape and abduction is another problem that pointed out by responds and discussants. Even though. sustain.). Conclusion Studies show that due to their interaction and interferences with the immediate environment to fulfill their economic. "sources of fuelwood is far away from human settlement so. social and political needs
people in this world have been exploiting the planet earth very rapidly. A close examination of the above statements reveals that scarcity of fuelwood has a huge impact on the physical and economic well being of women. This study pronounced that in the study area the availability of a large proportion of the poor rural population has severely eroded natural resource over the past two decades. According to the researcher observation it seems likely that respiratory and eye disease. Both the qualitative and the quantitative data demonstrated that women must walk a long distance to collect fuelwood often increased women's work load. But now they are forced to buy everything including water and fuel wood. thus the women do the work with fear and anguish. Previous research on women and environment as well as the result of this study revealed that women are exposed to indoor pollution.). No. spinal cord pain. unwise use of natural resources and ignorance are combined synergically to contribute the degradation of the environment. which are so abundant among women of the study area. Even they prepared their own clothes using local resources. environmental degradation increased the range of working hours. 1. the abductor and rapist get the courage to do whatever they want". 2010. deforestation and scarcity of fuel wood has an economic implication on women. Thus. A typical rural woman expected to take over the divers’ tasks in production. Research findings on deforestation in various countries have shown.
Vol. (1988): Women and Environment in the Third World: Alliance for the Future. for her critical comments. Environment .Health. Fikirt Haile (1991): Women Fuelwood Carriers in Addis Ababa: and the Prei-urban Forest. Addis Ababa: EPA. Livelihood . dev. Selamawit Minkir (2004): Major Causes of Environmental Degradation and Local Peoples adaptive Strategies: The case of Babele in Eastern Harerghe. 1. References Alemayehu Geberhiwot(1996): Inflow and arketing of Fuelwoood and Dung in Addis Ababa: Report of A Pilot survey. Unpublished MA Thesis. Diana Lee Smith (Ed. Amsterdam: Thela Dankelman. January. j. Gedyon Asefaw (Ed.. & Davidson. contractive corrections and invaluable advice right from the shaping of the problem throughout the development of the study. V. Olesen (Eds.D.2. Strand. Unpublished MA Thesis. Nairobi: Kenya Litho Ltd . Addis Ababa University. 6-23). In Yonas Admasu (Ed. In Daud Saba: Environment in Afghanistan: Findings on Education. Conservation Strategy of Ethiopia.
Acknowledgments I am indebted to express my heartfelt and deep gratitude to Dr. ISSN 1998-0531
. Geneva: International Laboure Organization Office. Forum For Social Studies .The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. sustain. London: Earth Scan publication Ltd. I would also extend my sincere thanks to all my research participants who shared their time and who provided and assisted me to obtained valuable information in Nano Aseko kebele. Addis Ababa: No. I would like to thank Addis Ababa University Schools of Graduate Studies for its financial support for doing this research. No. AAU. (Eds. Department of Population Studies. Addis Ababa: (pp.. I. Arne. Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) (1997). (1997): Gender and Land Use: Diversityin Environment. M. Halsema.Water and Sanitation. Master Printing Press. Hirut Bekele (2000): Natural Resource Degradation and the Predicament of Rural Women: The case of Bugna Wereda.)(2005): The Nexus between Environment and Gender..
Journal of Adama University.).). Poverty and Gender. Addis Ababa: International Labour Organization Office. 1..Gender .. Finally. CMI Report. Bruijn.Emebet Mulugeta.& Hombergh. sci. Department of RLDS. 2010. V.).(2005): Women Managing Research on Gender Urbanization and Environment. J. Aster Tefera (2003): "Environment and Gender".). & Gunner.(2003): Environment.). Reflection: Document on the Forum on Gender.
Ironically. prices of food. Thus. Most of the farmers are unable to utilize the abundant water resources (Tesfaye. The result from multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age of the household head. ten million people are exposed to vulnerable. The interaction effect between education status and income category indicated that illiterates were better than literate households in the status of food security. This means millions of people have been affected (Eyasu et al. j. labor availability and market accessibility showed significant and negative effect in household food security whereas cultivable land size. Yet. determinants and Rainwater harvesting Introduction In Ethiopia the blend of man made and natural factors results serious and growing food insecurity problem. At the same time. Thus. Workneh (2006) argue that household food security needs to be seen from dimension of availability/production and access (the ability to purchase food from market). secondary data were used elicit the primary data. ISSN 1998-0531
. Adami-Tulu Jido Kombolcha Woreda particularly the study site Bulbula is characterized by drought and lack of moisture. In quite similar way. Addis Ababa. Key words:Food security. Getachew (1999) described that Ethiopia is still endowed with enormous land and water resource potential that can be transformed into a dependable source of energy and food supply. 2005). January. In addition. food security at household level determines by factors such as income. 1. In addition. To decide the food secured and insecure households 2100Kcal was taken as a cut off point on the bases of 14-days food consumption of the households. Vol. Household survey was conducted on 140 households. 65% of the households were found to be food secured. sustain. However. so far 5. the potential for rain watr harvesting (RWH) per person is estimated to be 11. and examining the contribution of RWH for food security. Ethiopia. Over the years. In addition. with 2 focus group and 8 key informants. which is 1. family size. ADAMI-TULU JIDO KOMBOLCH WOREDA IN 2007/2008 HARVESTING SEASON(Oromia. fertilizer. with weak resilience (FAO. 2003).
Journal of Adama University. 2006). 2010. household demographic structure (sex. The study employed purely quantitative method such as descriptive statistics. 1. Paradoxically. The potential irrigable land area of the country is estimated to be about 3. bivariate and multivariate analyses were used for quantitative data analysis. in order to withstand this problem there is a need to improve technologies of agriculture production to ameliorate the economic. educational status of household members and location (Garrett and Ruel. Ethiopia) Fekadu Nigussie Kunuze College. Ethiopia is considered as the ‘water tower ‘of Eastern Africa even though only about 32% of the total population has access to clean and safe water. 2006).com Abstract This study was conducted with the objectives of identifying the determinants of food security. engagement in showed significant and positive role for household food security. 2007). Accordingly. it is still one of the most drought prone countries in the world. policy programming should be based on the rudimentary of precise determinants of food security status. The study area was selected through a multi-stage purposive sampling technique while simple random method employed for household survey. dependency ratio etc). Further Nyariki and Wiggins (1997) unveil that access for food in household implicitly depend on the ability to make use of natural (land. 1999). sci.600 cubic meters (UNEP. physical and human (labor) resources efficiently. which expose five to six million people to chronic and transitory food insecurity problem each year. water etc).
DETERMINANTS OF THE HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY IN BULBULA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org cubic meters as compared with annual renewable water resources-rivers and ground water.7% of the potentially irrigable land is believed to have been developed. dev.). much of Ethiopia’s economy requires adequate and reliable rainfall for agricultural production.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. scanty and erratic rainfall has led to significant crop losses and in some cases total crop failure.5 millions hectares. social and institutional conditions necessary of the people (Mekuria. Despite its abundant water resources and irrigable land potential. No..
Of these. 2003. Data analysis Prior to actual analysis sheer number of livestock and labor in each household was converted in to TLU (Tropical Livestock Unit) and Person-days equivalence unit (PE) respectively (see Annex Table A-1 & A-3). 1.
which subject the people into chronic and transitory food insecurity problem (DPPC. resource endowment. Namely: Korme-Bugure. a two-stage purposive sampling and random sampling techniques were employed for the selection of the study site and respondents respectively. and Danile (2007)dwelled much on policy issue and implementation of RWH. this study is different from the above studies in two ways. Moisture conservation and RWH to enhance agricultural production in the Woreda happen to be the most prominent activity implemented by the government since 2002. However. 2010. No.
Based on the data obtained from the respective office there are nearly equal number of participants and non-participants in RWH in the selected kebeles. mean & standard deviation) were used for comparison purposes. this study will examine the determinants of household food security. There are some researches made on the performance of RWH structure for food security such as by Eyasu et al (2007) dwell on the idea of profitability of pond to well system for production. dev. DPPC. First. and dividing the calories figure by the number of adult equivalents in the household and per 14 days resulted in a concise figure for average calories consumed per adult equivalent per day. kertefa-Weransa. There has been limited or no effort to systematically and to analytically study the contribution of RWH on households’ food security in the study area. Multivariate (Logistic regression) model analysis employed to determine the food security determinants in the study area (see the detail of the specific model below). Second. In the first stage the study site-Bulbula was purposively selected. For the reason that it comprises more than 35% of RWH structure in the Woreda and relatively low land from the Woreda. Accordingly.
Journal of Adama University. As a result a total of 140 representative sample respondents were taken in the study. the total households in the 5 selected kebeles were stratified as the participants and non-participants in RWH. Bivaritate analysis: analysis of independent t-test and Pearson χ2-square test was taken to show the mean difference between continuous and dependent variables and the association of categorical and dependent variables respectively. January. Dependent Variable: Household food security Status (HFS) is a dummy dependent variable in the model assigned value of 1 for food secured (>2100 Kcal) households and 0 otherwise (< 2100 kcal). DPPC. then compared with an estimate of threshold kilo caloric level of 2100 Kcal (Hoddinott. DPPC. from the total of 11 Kebeles in Bulbula 6 of them were found to be participants in RWH. Methodology In this study. Thus. and Hurgo-Mechafera. DPPC. Araba. Independent variables: Various household characteristics. Thus. Descriptive statistics (such as percentage. The major explanatory variables hypothesized to influence positively and negatively on the household to be food secure or not are described below in Table1. which was not considered in the studies mentioned above. equal numbers of households were taken from both categories. 2005). the gross household food consumption was converted into calories by using the conversion factor for each 100g of the food items consumed. 1999) see annex Table A-2 and A-4. Following. sustain. institutional issue and socio-economic variables are expected to affect households’ food security in the study area.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. In the second stage. sci. The data analysis part mainly was done by using quantitative data analysis techniques. Jela-Aluto. 5 of them were purposively selected giving due attention to the participants number. 1. j. ISSN 1998-0531
. in the area context since food security differs from place to place. the central question of this study is ‘What are the determinants of household food security in the study area? The objective of this paper is to identify determinants of household food security in Bulbula. Then simple random sampling techniques were used using lottery method to sample the individual respondents from the respective strata.). 2000. Vol. 2004. 2002.
either food secure or insecure not both. j. sci. β1.e. i. Here. . in this case Zi = Household food security status. Demographic and Institutional issue factors with Food Security Status of the Households
Journal of Adama University. institutional issue and socio-economic explanatory variables Zi = the function of n explanatory variables (x).The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. expected sign (the direction of relation that explanatory variables affect the dependent variable) and unit of measure in the model has been given.
Table 1. ISSN 1998-0531
.βn are slopes of the equation in the model
Xi = is vector of relevant to household characteristics. institutional issue and socio-economic variables. 0=otherwise Adult equivalence Tropical livestock unit(TLU) Count Hectare 1= secured. 0=otherwise 1= RWH participant 0= non-participant
REALINCOME FERZER MARKA
Birr 1=user users km 0=non-
Result and Discussion Bivariate Association of some Continuous and categorical Households characteristics. resource endowment. 1. Ui= disturbance term or the error term Summary of the code. β2.
To test the sated hypotheses.. No. 1. Vol. January.). dev. Definitions and Measurement of Independent variables Variable explanatory(Codes) AGE LEDUC RATIO TLU OXEN LANDSI LANDSE ENRWH Variables type & expected sign Continuous (+) Dummy (+) Continuous (-) Continuous (+) Continuous (+) Continuous (+) Dummy (+) Dummy (+) Categorical (+) Dummy (+) Continuous (-) Definition Age of the HH head literacy status of the HH head Family size in AE consuming unit Livestock size (excluding oxen) Number of oxen in the HH Total farm size operated during the cropping year The property right to use land owned The involvement in RWH Income from (Livestock(asset). 2010. a probabilistic model was specified with food security as a function of series of household characteristics. The dependent variable is dummy variable. RWH and rain fed ) Fertilizer use or not Distance travel from home to market Measurement years 1=literate. resource endowment. . sustain. The functional form of Logit model is specified as follow. the main purpose is to determine the probability that an individual with a given set of attribute will fall in one choice rather than the alternative. . Socio-
economic. which takes a value of 0 or 1 depending on the households’ food security status. variable definition.Variable codes. Gujarati (1995) Zi = βo + β1x1 + … + βn xn + Ui Where: βo = intercept.
which is significant at 5% level. Besides. Accordingly.). No. Workneh (2006) has attested the same fact that for an increase in farm land there is a better change in production. Engagement in RWH (ERWH) The odds ratio of the food security status of the participants as compared to the non-Participants in RWH from the model indicates 3. June 14: 10) in Addis Neger weekly Amharic version news paper presented that the presence of surplus labor in the household has a “pressure on consuming pattern. Similarly. food security status has shown significant Pearson χ2-square with livestock (excluding oxen). This increase in the food security of the former as compared to the later could be that the formers engagement
Journal of Adama University. However. which is significant at 10% level.364 fold increase in the odds of the food security status in the participants than in the non-participants. Vol.943. Food secured and insecure households have shown a significant mean difference in labor availability. dev. Cultivable Land Size (LANDSI) The result from the odd ratio of the LANDSI indicated that for one hectare increase in cultivable land size is associated with 1. 2010. This corroborates Workenh argument in the interview given to Zerihun (2008. the presence of high labor beyond the available resource seems a sheer unproductive number and high consuming unit. There is also a significant mean difference in oxen availability. sci. j. hamper technological transfer and also create social instability”.6% and model prediction for food secured 91. education status of the household head. Accordingly higher labor endowed households were food insecure as compare to less endowed households. it was learned that increasing the availability of labor has negative and significant relation with food security status of the household at 1% level. This could probably be due to the attainment of marginal return of labor. Labor Availability (LABOR) in the household
Though high labor assumed to have positive relation to household food security. 1. ISSN 1998-0531
. which in turn affects the food security status negatively.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.e for whatever unit labor incremental in the farm activity the production will remain the same.411. In addition. Workneh (2006) has also
found that the age of the household is negative and significantly related to household food security status in Wollo. January. goodness of fit of the model was carried out. Age (AGE) Contrary to what is hypothesized it was found out that keeping all other factors constant for one year increase in the age of the household is associated with a decreasing of food security status of the household by the factor of 0. Econometric Model Estimation Prior to the actual analysis Multicolinearity diagnosis test was taken to both continuous variables using Variance of Infiltration Factor (VIF) and Contingency Coefficient (CC) test was taken for categorical variables (see annex Table A-6 & A-7). sustain. 1. Kidane et al (2005) in their study have found that farm land size is positively and significantly related to the probability of the household to be food secure in Koredegaga peasant. The model indicates that a unit increase in labor availability in the households would result in decreasing food security by the factor of 0. deters the creativity of the labor.
From the bivariate relation continuous variable with food security it was found out that there is a significant mean difference in age of the household between food secured and insecure households. Hosmer and Lemeshow test for goodness of the model indicates best fit and the overall correctly prediction of the logit regression model is 83. Thus. This may be that the significant relation that is found between old age HH and polygamy might probably play a deterring role in the status of food security there by increasing the family size of the household or by increasing pressure on fixed resource that the household posses(see annex Table A-5). i. in this case the relative young households are better than old ones. land size and market accessibility between food secured and insecure households at different significant level. dependency ratio does not show any significant difference between food secure and insecure households (see annex Table A-9). fertilizer utilization of the household and aggregate income of the household at different significant level (see annex Table A-8).708 fold increase in the odds of having food security in the households.4% (see Table 2 below ). which is significant at 5% level.2% and for food insecure 69.
No. Use of fertilizer (FERZER) The result from the model indicates that keeping all other factors constant the food security of fertilizer users increased by a factor of 4. as cited in Workneh. Instead. improved seeds and pesticides which in turn increased their productivity and better food security status than their counterparts. 1. which in turn paves the way to have food security. Market accessibility (MARKA) The result from the model indicates that keeping all other variables constant for one kilometer increase in the distance that the framer travel from the market is associated with a 0.
Journal of Adama University. selling fuel wood. This is in harmony with Sen (1989) work on food and freedom that “the compulsion to acquire enough food may force the vulnerable people to do things. That is why the result shows educational status of the HH is important to affect how the money spent efficiently. Or the tendency of illiterate households to spend their income on non-food item is less likely. sustain. dev. given by Webb et al. Or the income that the participants obtained from RWH might have given them the opportunity to purchase essential agricultural inputs such as fertilizer. For instance working being hired as laborer for the haves household. 1.). the way that money managed and utilized to the priority area matters or the way that income allocated to high return giving projects matters most. 2006) have shown that famine in Ethiopia is induced by isolation of farm households from the major markets together with other limiting factors. While for low income groups the effect remains the same.
in cash crop production helped them to reap substantial amount of money. the effect of being from middle and high income group on having food security is greater in illiterate households than the literate. However. 2010. they need to have the threshold level of income in order the education status of the HH could affect it. which is significant at 5% level. Similarly. Odhiambo (2005) in his study indicated that the use of RWH as a supplemental irrigation happen to be linked with increase in food security and income level of the participants in RWH. j. This means the availability of sufficient income to the HH as a single variable may not warrant food security of the household. Kidane et al (2005) have attested the same fact that the food security of fertilizer user households is positively and significantly affected unlike their counterparts. using income as a focus variable. Similarly Senkondo et al (2004) in their study have concluded that RWH availability has brought a potential option for production in semi-arid areas.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. when it is supported by education there will be better management of the available income and efficient utilization. (1992.780 fold as compared to the odd of food security status of the non-users of fertilizer. This may be that the illiterate households work without discriminating the type of the job as their self-esteems is relatively lower compared to the literate.76 factor decrease in the food security status of the household. sci. ISSN 1998-0531
. Effect of Interaction terms Educational Status of the HH and Income level of the Households Using education status of HH as a focus variable. to lower income groups to begin with. which in turn help them to purchase consumable food during dry season. By the same token to have sufficient amount of income is a precondition to attain food security but not an end by it self. A similar argument. January. which might help them to sustain the threshold level of their daily calorie as compared to their counterparts. the effect of being educated on having
food security is greater in high-income groups than in the rest groups. which they resent doing and may make them to accept lives with little freedom”. charcoal and sending their kids to work as herders to generate income is much acceptable in the illiterate than the literate households in the study area. Vol.
j.077 0. 0=otherwise LANDSI OXEN TLU ENRWH(1).275
Standard Error(S.000 0.271 0.4% Overall percentage prediction 83. Vol.653 0. Prof.360 0.959 0. The underlying concern of this paper is to study the main determinants of household food security in Bulbula.2% Specificity b 69.621 1.388 1.546 13.250 0. I would like also to extend my appreciation to ERHA (Ethiopian Rainwater Harvesting Association) for providing me reading documentations.407 1. The maximum likelihood estimates of Binary Logit Model (BLM) Variables AGE RATIO LABOUR TENURE(1).004 0.943 0. 2=middle.623 p-value 0. As a result there will be extended family on fix resource that the household endowed.383 1. 0=otherwise FERZER(1).889 -0.142 0. Getent Alemu and Assoc. The analysis also divulged the significant and negative role of market accessibility and high labor availability.139 0.640 0.780 0.002 0. No.364 69. 0=otherwise REALINCOME(1).213 4. However.082 1.456 1. 2010. In addition the result of the interaction term between aggregate income of the household and education status indicated that illiterate household headed were better in food security status than households leaded
by literate ones. which I benefited much.017 0.235 0. Furthermor.707 7.332
P-value 0. Alemahyh Geda.009 0. The age of the household head is not happen to affect positively the household food security status as the age of the household increase the tendency to be engaged in polygamy is high. Accordingly.067
Odd Ratio 0.151 0.048 0.668 -2.665 0. January. this study would have been meaningless and unattainable without the willingness and patience of Peasants in Bulbula. 1=secure.086 3. ISSN 1998-0531
.411 0. which increases the consuming unit there by attaining marginal return of labor on fixed resources.021 0. sustain.). Acknowledgments I would like to expresses my deepest indebtedness to Assoc.851
Correctly predicted food secure groups based on a 50-50 probability classification scheme Correctly predicted food insecure groups based on a 50-50 probability classification scheme
Conclusion Food insecurity is a chronic problem for more than five million people every year in Ethiopia.031 0.244 2.002 0.094 1.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.069 71.134 0.708 1.021 2.752 4. multivariate analysis showed the positive and significant roles of land size.565 -0. Prof.760 0.515 2. its effect is better in high income category households.274 -4. which increases subsistence pressure. Taking income.0=low LEDUC(1). Workenh Negatu for their insightful comments and guidance.056 0. fertilizer utilization and engagement in promoting food security status of the households.6%
B -0.408 -0.507 1.224 Sensitivity a 91.060 0.376 0. 1.033 0. The study identified the most significant factors which determine household food security status in Bulbula. 0=otherwise MARKTA LEDUC(1) * REALINCOME(1) LEDUC(1) * REALINCOME(2) Constant Hosmer and Lemeshow test chi-square (χ2) 10. my particular thanks goes to the Woreda irrigation authority head (Ato Abraham) who helped me a lot to have every possible comfort.059 -0. which demand education of the household head. 1=users.355 0.535 0. 1=literate. 1. 1=high. 1= participants. Yet being from high income group is not and by itself to warrant food security instead how the money used or allocated matters. sci. dev.0=low REALINCOME(2).679 4.E) 0.
Table 2. Dr.
Journal of Adama University.570 1.411 0.
to my brother Tesfaye and Hiruy Sime for their endless support they gave me. J... S. Impacts of rainwaterharvesting in Lare division. Sear Net. Agrekon 44(4): 543-560. 1997. FAO. 2006. World Development 17: 769-781. Center for Agricuture and Rural Cooperation (CTA) working document number 8031:2-3. Lazaro. Farming systems and farm management practices of small holders in the Hararghe highlands. 1989. Determinants of Rural and Urban Food Security and Nutritional Status Differences. 2008. Mekuria Tamiru. Addis Neger Amharic translated. Msangi.
Journal of Adama University. June 14. Profitability of for Agricultural Production in Selected Semi-Arid Areas of Tanzania. M. Workneh Negatu. Ethiopia. Birhanu Adnew.
Nyariki.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. & Shimelis W/Hawarit. Hoddinott. ‘Food and Freedom’. 2004. British food journal 99(7): 249-262. 11. Ethiopia Garrett.): an over view of Integrated Development for Water Supply and Sanitation (PP. G. Borowiecki.. Sen. P.. sci. Food composition table for use in Ethiopia part III.F. Alemu.G. 2005.
Last but not the least my appreciation goes to my fiancé (Beteka).. Ethiopia . Reference DPPC. 2005. Z. 2005. The 2000 Belg season Crop production performance and July-December 2000 food supply prospect in Ethiopia: early warning System Report.). M. & Kundhlande. East Shewa. A. 1997. Bezabih Emana. Vol. J. Vol. World Development 27(11): 1959 – 1975.A Thesis presented to school of Graduate studies in Alemaya University. Analyzing Factors Affecting the Adoption of Rain water harvesting technology in Dugda Bora Woreda. Reprinted in full save from the first paragraph from. Addis Ababa: DPPC. 1999. N. 1. No. j. Xavery. DPPC. Basic Econometrics. Storck.2002-2005: food Supply Prospect in 2002-2005 early warning system report. Choosing outcome Indicators of household food security. UNEP. Washington. Applied Irrigation Science 39(1): 65-81. H. January. D. 1. Kidane H. Senkondo. 1999. 1999.. 4th edition New York: McGraw-Hill.R. E. D. 2006. A& Hatibu.Causes of household food insecurity in Koredegaga peasent association. Harvesting Rainfall is a key climate Adoption Opportunity for Africa. D. Rome: FAO. Gujarati. Determinants of small farm household food security: evidence from south Wollo.A. sustain. dev. Addis Ababa: WEDC. 2006. EHNRI. Odhiambo. Special report on crop and food supply assessment mission to Ethiopia. O. Addis Ababa: DPPC. Addis Ababa: ILRI. Ethiopian Journal of Development Research 28(1): 129. ISSN 1998-0531
. Farming systems and Resource Economics in the Tropics. & Wiggins.L. E. 387-390). Germany: Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel Tesfaye Worku. S. 1(034):10. Small-Scale Irrigation for food Security in Sub-Saharn Africa.1991.T.Unpublished M. 2010. Agriculture sector holding “Hidden unemployment”. 2003. Getachew Alemu. Briefs 10:6. Ethiopia.C: IFPRI. 1995. M. Oromiya Zone. Household Food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lesson from Kenya.N. & Ruel. K.M. 2000. insighted from Mozambique. Zerihun Tesfaye. A. John Pickford (Ed.
dev. (1991) Table A-3.80 0.).10 0.60 0. No.00 0.00
Source: Institute Pan African Pour le Development (1981).90 1.75 0.20 0.75 0.25
Table A-2. sustain.60 0.75 1.20 0.
Annex Table A-1. 1.00 1.00 0.70 0. 1.00 1.34 0.50
Source: John (1982). ISSN 1998-0531
. Vol.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. cited in Storck et al. ( 1991)
TLU( Tropical Livestock Unit) 0. 2010.75
Male 0.50 1. Ruthenberg (1983). as cited in Storck et al. Conversion factor used to estimate Person-days Equivalent (PE)
Age category(Years) Less than 10 Years 10-13 14-16 17-50 Greater than 50 Male 0. Conversion factor used to calculate Adult Equivalence (AE)
Age category(Years) Less than 10 Years 10-13 14-16 17-50 Greater than 50
Female 0. j.80 0.40 0.00 0.00 1.13 1. Nair (1985) and Here (1986).70 Female 0.Conversion factor used to estimate Tropical Livestock Unit (TLU) Livestock Type Calf Weaned Calf Heifer Cows/Oxen Horse/Mule Donkey Sheep/Goat Camel
Source: Storck et al. sci.(1991)
Journal of Adama University.20 0. January.
00 154.30 295. January.
Table A-4.70 212.70 46.00 222. sustain. j. 2010.10 223.30 358.40 73. Vol. No. 1.4 Food energy in Kcal per 100 grams edible portion(kg)
Source: Ethiopian health and nutrition research institute (EHNRI) (1997).40 71.80 30.00 88. ISSN 1998-0531
.). Caloric content of the food consumed in the study area
No A 1 Food items Cereals Maize *white porridge *white bread *Ingera *whole roasted *white kitaa 2 Wheat *Bread *kitta 3 Teff *Ingera *porridge 4 Haricot * boiled B 1 2 3 4 5 C 1 2 3 4 5 D Vegetables *onion *Cabbage * Carrot *Tomato *green pepper Livestock products *Milk *Meat *Egg *cheese * Butter others *oil 896. dev.10 27.40 736.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.10 132.30 40.
Journal of Adama University.40 153.70 223.50 170.40 222. sci. 1.80 165.
Source: own survey (2008)
Journal of Adama University. dev.077 0. Marriage status per age of the household head
Age of the household head Mean SD
Monogamy (n=98) 37.390 0. 2010.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.436 0.189 0.239 0.015 1
ERWH 0. January. sci.108 0.339 0.295 2.92
Source: own survey 2008 Table A-6.564 1. Contingency coefficient test for co-linearity between categorical variable
Variables TENURE LEDUC REALINCOME ERWH FERZER
LEDUC 0.07 12.141 1
FERZE R 0. sustain.211 0. 1.
Table A-5.596 1.241 1. ISSN 1998-0531
.627 0.Variance Infiltration Factor for the test of co-linearity among Continuous Variables
Variables LANDSI RATIO OXEN TLU AGE LABOUR MARKA Source: own survey (2008)
VIF 2.117 0.394 1.283 2.779 0.190 1
REALINCO ME 0. No.). 1.18 10.446 0.052
Table A-7. j.045 0.000
Polygamy (n=42) 47.93 t-value p-value -4. Vol.
January.723** 8. and *** indicates 10%.51 2. sci. dev. Vol. **.743**
Market accessibility Source: own survey (2008)
Food insecure Food secured
3. No. sustain.). 1.959** 8. 2010. Demographic and Institutional issue factors with Food Security Status of the Households
Factors Age of the HH Dependency ratio
Household food security status Food secured Food insecure Food insecure Food secured
Mean 38.90 12. 5% and 1% significant level
Table A-9. 5% and 1% significant level
Journal of Adama University. 1.65
t-value 2.31 43. Demographic and Institutional issue Factors with Food Security Status of the Households Factors Education Vs Food security Livestock(excluding) Vs Food security Fertilizer Vs Food security Land tenure issue Vs Food security Aggregate income Vs Food security Engagement in RWH Vs Food security Pearson χ2-square value 4.50 3.345**
Land size availability
Food insecure Food secured
Note: *.66 1.47 2.089 4.848* 0.980*** 0.037***
Food insecure Food secured
-2. Socio-economic. Bivariate Association of some Continuous Households characteristics.442**
0.65 10. Bivariate Association of Categorical variables: household characteristics.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.260
Food insecure Food secured
3. and *** indicates 10%. j.12 2.761***
Note: *. socioeconomic.**.40 2.66 4.57 1. ISSN 1998-0531
1993). j. To investigate attitudes of the students towards ecological sanitation for the implementation of the demonstration UrineDiversion Dry Toilets to be constructed in the university To identify methods of raising awareness and dissemination of information in the university Methodology Different methods of data collection were used in the study.. sustain. Ethiopia. Ethiopia. which-if performed hygienically. The interventions proposed to improve the hygiene behaviour of students will also help to raise satisfaction in the
existing facilities and build sustainability of sanitation systems. The existing sanitation arrangements were investigated and the relevant officials of the university were interviewed about the sanitation situation in the university. describe. No. university students. GTZ -IS. The study identifies different practices and pinpoints changes and improvements in the hygiene behaviour of the students which may have a positive impact on health. wudexa@yahoo. Unstructured observation To have a qualitative data environmental walks and visits to toilets to observe what is happening in and around the toilet were made. ETHIOPIA Wudneh Ayele1. Vol. P. health. Jan-Olof Drangert2.
UNIVERSITY STUDENT’S HYGIENE BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS ECOLOGICAL SANITATION: A STATUS REPORT ON STUDIES CONDUCTED IN ADAMA UNIVERSITY. The methods used to acquire a detailed understanding of the students´ hygiene behaviours and attitudes to ecological sanitation comprise unstructured observation. Ethiopia
Abstract This study is about the hygiene behaviour of students in relation to sanitation arrangements in Adama University. toilet Introduction The general objective of the study is to devise strategy and put forward suggestions for changing and/or modifying hygiene behavior of university students to improve the health situation in Adama University. Throughout this study the following methods were followed. In addition.com. Nina Hartmuth3
Arba Minch Town ROSA project Office. dev. There is great need for hygiene education to improve the existing toilet use practices None of the interviewed students had seen a urine-diverting toilet and only about 46% of the respondents had heard about the reuse of human excreta.are likely to help prevent the transmission of disease and also create satisfaction with the existing toilets. 1. Addis Ababa. 3 Linköping university. ISSN 1998-0531
. The obvious reason for choosing multiple methods is that no single method can provide sufficient information on the subjects of study (Boot et al.). The specific objectives are: To identify. Toilets in the university lack cleanliness. Some main findings of the study are: 69 out of 110 students are not satisfied with the existing sanitation arrangements due to various reasons which include the improper use of the existing toilets by students themselves and frequent water cuts in the university. ecological sanitation. Signs of particular
Journal of Adama University. sci. measure and understand the students hygiene behaviors To select risky behaviors that need to be modified or changed To suggest behaviors. January. Corresponding author. Arba Minch. the student’s perception about ecological sanitation and their attitudes towards the use of urine-diverting dry toilets and recycling of organic matter and nutrients from human excreta were assessed. focus group discussions and detailed structured interviews with 110 students. Generally. conversational interviews. Sweden. 1. the results of the information and data gathered in the study and the developed conclusions and recommendations made for this university may be used by most of the universities in the country.O. The strategy can be used as a model for other Universities in the country.Box 40. Stockholm. key informant interviews. Key words: hygiene behaviour. 2010. University Capacity Building Program.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.
Key informant interviews In the study the following persons were interviewed as key informants Students dormitory service head Two proctors Two janitors Vice president of the university students union Business and Development Vice President of Adama University Project and Maintenance Head of Adama University Focus group discussions (FGD) An open discussion was held with small groups of students. 1. Two students and the head of the university library were interviewed. or so called physical clues such as soap and water presence or traces of feaces. It was observed during the study that new temporary pit latrines are under construction for the newly constructed buildings by GTZ-IS. The structured interview indicated that 86% of the female respondents thought the numbers of toilets are not sufficient for the students where as only 45% of the male respondents indicated that the number of toilets available are not sufficient. 2010. et al. No. The kinds of the questions were • • • • • • Experience/behavior questions Opinion/Value questions Feeling questions Knowledge questions Sensory questions and Background/demographic questions
It was also tried to cover men and women. 1. The focus group discussions indicated that students wash their hands after defecation. dev. The toilet of the lecture hall is also water-flush type. a good mix of interviewees’ background was found. They will be used only for short period of time until the construction of the new wastewater system is finalized.
Eleven students. if there is water and they are not in a hurry. from the observation made all dormitories have hand washing facilities. 1:15 for male dormitories using with water-flush toilets. specially the region from where they come.). all the WCs flashing devices are not working.
behaviors. It was tried to cover all buildings and those using flushing toilets and the others using dry toilets. It gets opened only for night students only during the night. and 1:13 for male using dry toilets. One participant in an FGD said that “I wash my hands if there is water and only when I remember that I have to wash my hand”.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.
Journal of Adama University. It is therefore closed during the day time so that the regular students do not have access to it. which are having separate dry toilets. It was also found that the ratio of toilets to the number of students is 1:20 for female dormitories. ISSN 1998-0531
. nine male and two female. January. In the questionnaire the six kinds of questions that can be asked in a study of hygiene behavior were included (Boot. A sample size of 110 was taken out of which 21 were female and 89 men. The proposed new wastewater treatment system is an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. The total number of students in the university is about 6000. were trained to conduct the interview. 1993). A stratified sample was used for the structured interview. Fortunately. Structured interview A structured interview was designed to generate factual and quantitative date. Hand washing 70% of the respondents indicated the presence of hand washing facilities and 30% not. Two group discussions were held. (G+0) buildings. presence of odor …were observed. Conversational interviews Spontaneous talks with some individuals were made and the interviewees were introduced to the topic and then their reactions were followed.
Results and discussions
Sanitation issues Type and number of toilets From the observation made it was found that the toilets in all building were water-flush toilets except for ‘Sawa’. Vol. sustain. j. However. These latrines do not have a vent pipe and the walls are to be made of corrugated iron sheet. However. The interviewers were supervised and supported during the interview to ensure uniformity and quality of data. sci. It is the interviewer’s effect or the understanding and perception of the interviewees about hand washing facilities that the 30% responded as if there is no hand washing facility.
However.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. No. Janitors are employed by the university to do the cleaning work.
Journal of Adama University. The data reveal that works should be done in relation to the existing toilets to raise the satisfaction in the students. 2010. Frequent water cutoff 2. The reasons for the toilets not to be clean were discussed in the FGD and also in the interviews. 6. ISSN 1998-0531
. sci. It is the responsibility of the students to wash cloths. In all hand washing basins soaps were also not seen. 59% of the interviewees claimed that the toilets they are using are not cleaned regularly by the janitors. Cleanliness of toilets 82% of the interviewees revealed that the existing toilets are not clean (refer Figure 2).
Figure 1 Responses on cleanliness of existing toilets
Are toilets clean?
100 80 60 % 40 21 20 0 Female Male Total 5 18 95 79 82
During the site visit paid in the toilets of the university most of the toilets were not clean. The main reasons are the following. During the visit of the facilities it was observed that the
drainage of the floors of the laundries is not proper. sustain. January. 5. 1.). Feeling irresponsible for toilet cleanliness 3. Cloth washing There are good facilities for washing clothes. 1. The improper and unhygienic use of the toilets by some students which include the following behaviors Not flushing water before and after defecation Dropping anal cleansing material in the WC hole
Using the toilet when there is no water for flushing Defecating outside the WC hole. The floor should be maintained to have a good slope otherwise it should be cleaned daily to prevent the breeding of mosquitoes and also odor problems. 1. Janitors do not work on Saturday & Sunday and on holydays Janitors do not work in the afternoon High number of users Carelessness of some students
Satisfaction with the existing toilets Most of the interviewed students are not satisfied with the existing toilets and only 37% of the 110 interviewees are satisfied with the existing toilets (refer Table 1). j. Vol. dev. Stagnant grey water was observed on the floor.
As far as availability of soap is concerned it was found that soap was not provided for students for hand washing. 4. while 41% confirmed that the toilets are cleaned regularly.
1. 2010.) Lack of privacy Uns anitary and offens ive 51% Offens ive & lack of privacy Uns anitary. j. Vol.). ISSN 1998-0531
Table 1 Satisfaction with existing toilets
Satisfaction with existing toilets Satisfied . 1.. dev. sustain. offensive & lack of privacy Reas on not m entioned
Anal cleansing It is common practice in Ethiopia to use papers and tissue papers for anal cleansing. paper. Yes No Total No of respondents 41 69 110 % 37 63 100
The reasons for dissatisfaction of the interviewees are shown in Figure 2.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. January. particularly among Muslims and increasingly these days also among some Non-Muslims
Figure 3 shows the types of anal cleansing material and the percentage of users among the interviewees. Figure 3 Anal cleansing materials
Anal cleansing material used
cleansing with water is common. Figure 2 Reasons for dissatisfaction with the existing toilets
Re asons for disatisfaction with the e xisting toile ts
1% 1% 9% 9% 4%
Uns anitary Offens ive (s mell flies. etc. tissue paper 0 1 Paper and tissue paper Water and tissue paper Water and paper Only tissue paper Only paper only water 0 0 9 10 20 30 % 40 50 60 3 0 5 5 14 25 48 65 70 7 Male Female 17
Journal of Adama University. sci. No..
The other reason is women dormitories are located at the center and are surrounded by buildings. However in all the investigations made the water supply is not continuous and not found in sufficient amount. dev. Water supply The university gets water from the town water supply and two reservoirs are found in the university campus. The water supply better have sufficient mount and also pressure to improve the health situation of the students. They are not also nearer to the bush. sustain. The students find there way when there is no water. it was realized that the situation is not safe to from health and aesthetic point of view. j. Women are not going to the bush due to cultural influence and they need privacy. There was an overflow from this septic tank at the time of visit. The following are the practices when there is water cut-off: If there is no water some anal washers use paper for anal cleaning Some go to toilets of other blocks where there is water There are cases where water tankers are placed in toilet rooms which are filled with water. It is the responsibility of the student to avail the cleansing material. Wastewater Existing septic tank There is one septic tank for the collection of wastewater from some buildings. 2010. sci. There are also circumstances that men go to the bush. There are also complaints from the students that the water is hot and not pleasant for drinking. it is possible to use the effluent from the second pond directly when there is an outflow. 1. The students in the FGD also mentioned in addition to the behavior of the students in the toilet use the water supply problem is the main reason for the toilets not to be clean. At the time of visit the second pond is not filed and hence there was no outflow from the second pond. However it is no sufficient. However. Vol. 1.
The interviewees were also asked about the availability of the material they prefer for anal cleansing. Every student was given one roll soft paper per month and was getting one egg less per week for breakfast. There is a need from the farmers working on the agricultural field of the university for pumping the wastewater from the second pond and use it for irrigation.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Practices to change In this study an attempt is made to identify hygiene practices which carry high risk and are feasible to change. The flow coming out of the septic tank is flowing through an open ditch and spread over the open field. This shows that strategies should be devised to make anal cleansing material readily available. Some students go out of the campus for using toilets This study reveals that the concerned bodies of the university specially the management body should try to solve the water supply problems the campus is facing. January. The interviewees were asked whether there are times when they do not get enough water or not. Some times students use it for flushing. Existing waste stabilization ponds There are two ponds connected in series for treating the wastewater. For the future the septic tank effluent should be connected to the new wastewater treatment plant to be constructed by GTZ-IS. No. Two years ago there was a very good arrangement. The water is used by janitors for cleaning the toilet.). 95% of the respondents said there are times when they do not get water. It is better to divert the flow to the existing waste stabilization ponds to solve the problem for the time being. We recommend that the BOD and COD of the wastewater should be first known before a decision on the use is made. Some times piles of feaces in WCs are observed and some students defecate on this pile of feaces when there is no water for flushing. ISSN 1998-0531
. In the FGD it was mentioned that few students use their fingers for cleaning or making fun and mark on doors and walls of toilets. During the site visit. 57% of the participants said it is not readily available.
In rare cases some female students use the shower as a toilet because water some times will not be available for three or more days. It is important to target only a very few
Journal of Adama University.
with the possible exception of Ethiopia. j.). the University Capacity Building Program is going to introduce innovative and future-oriented sanitation systems for the new universities in Ethiopia. 1. Sustainability needs to be defined in relation to the interaction of users. 4 out of 11 participants heard about use of
Journal of Adama University. an up-scaling in other sites will be possible. 2004). ISSN 1998-0531
. Regarding the information about the reuse of human excreta. The practice has to be incorporated in residents’ daily routines in a way that fits local aspirations and conditions and this may take time. Use of excreta as fertilizer To check the perception of the interviewees towards human excreta. 4. since experts report modest interest in such tasks (Dranget. 1. sci. it is not a simple process introduced only to reuse hygienized nutrients in urban food production. In Ethiopia it is also known from experience that getting in contact with human faeces is generally unacceptable in most cultures. However. The attitudes of the students in various issues were investigated and are presented in the subsequent sections. In this study information was gathered to help the sustainable operation of the demonstration UDDT (UrineDiversion Dry Toilet). The following article best summarizes impressions about human waste reuse. No. they were asked about if there is any difference between human excreta and cow dung and urine. This is to show alternative solutions for sanitation. environmental and resource use. but not necessarily with high turn-out of followers. Before the implementation of the demonstration unit. Based on the results. to create acceptance of the users and to examine and optimize different possibilities of the treatment. 2006). This will in turn avoid illness and spread of diseases. The following are the main ones selected: 1. GTZ-IS wanted to know the perception and attitudes of the students for the sustainable operation
of the unit. January. The impression is that the basic desire among experts is to create a ‘nutrient loop’ has not yet materialized. Flush toilets after defecation Dispose anal cleansing matter in the basket Wash hands with soap after defecation Do not use toilets if there is no water for flushing
The concern here is to make a behavioral change in the students and there by keep the toilets clean and improve the sanitary condition of the toilets. 3. The response of the interviewees is shown in Table 2.4 100.
Table 2 Impression on human excreta when compared with cow dung and urine Human excreta is different from cow dung and urine Different… Yes No Total No of respondents 88 5 93 % 94.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. 2. Most people agree to the rationale of nutrient reuse and of saving on chemical fertilizers. socio-cultural aspects and use and technology function (WHO. advocating reuse of nutrients may be done. Thus.
practices (certainly less than five) to avoid dissipation of message (Cairncross et al.6 5. organizational structure and technology.0
This shows that there is resistance to consider human faeces to be similar to cow dung and urine. Attitudes towards ecological sanitation General According to GTZ-IS. Therefore one demonstration unit of dry toilets with urine separation and reuse of urine and faeces is going to be constructed at the Adama University site. Does this lead us to conclude that this goal should be abandoned? It is important to remember that this is a young system that requires time to get all components in place.). Vol. economy. dev. The method used for hygiene promotion for making the necessary behavior changes are described in the subsequent section. sustain. 2010. There fore much work
should be done to raise the acceptance of reuse of excreta. to create awareness amongst students for ecological and hygienic toilet facilities. with a range of important criteria: health and hygiene.
1. sustain.3 22. January. 74% of the interviewee heard of making biogas from organic waste or faecal matter.4% of the interviewee responded that
they will eat bread baked of crop grown using excreta as fertilizer. j. This indicates that there are negative views on the reuse of urine. This may be due to cultural taboos and also lack of awareness about the contents of urine.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. The other responses are shown in Table 3. Vol. As shown in Table 4. Feeling of eating bread baked of crop grown using excreta as fertilizer Feeling I do eat I do not feel bad I do not eat It is repulsive Total Number of respondents 57 23 23 0 103 Percentage 55. dev. No. only
41% of the respondents imagine/believe using urine as a fertilizer to fertilize crops in their home garden.
Table 3. 55.3 0 100
Use of urine as fertilizer
Urine is rich in nitrogen and can be used for fertilizing most non-nitrogen-fixing crops after proper treatment to reduce potential microbial contamination. sci.
human excreta as fertilizer and only 2 out of 11 participants of the FGD seen when excreta was reused. 2010. The perception of the students was assessed in the interview. ISSN 1998-0531
.). 1. Belief in producing crop using urine as fertilizer Believe… Number of respondents Yes No Total 41 59 100 41 59 100 Percentage
Use of excreta for biogas production The students have good information about biogas. The students were asked about their attitude towards using urine as fertilizer. None of them said it is repulsive. Most of them also recommended the use of biogas as source of energy
Journal of Adama University.4 22.
4. Sanitary fixtures including WC units should be maintained at least once in a year. A cupful (Approximately 200ml) should normally be sufficient. j.
5. Only 46% of the interviewees heard about separating urine and faeces in toilets and using the urine as fertilizer and dried feaces as soil conditioner. Awareness raising campaign should be made before the demonstration UDDT is opened for use. This can be made in shifts or by employing additional janitors. So the students may not add ash after use. Raising the awareness of dormitory representatives by lecture or by any other means. No body has seen the UDDT toilet fixture. January. There are 81 students who are selected from the 81 classes democratically. No. Therefore the caretaker should add ash in all faeces containers two times a day.
Impression about UDDT (Urine-Diversion Dry Toilet) In the interview.
Journal of Adama University. Students strictly recommend that the method should be not boring and too long. Students usually do not like lengthy meetings. dev.
4. sci. Floors of cloth washing places/laundries should be cleaned daily The toilets of the lecture halls should be repaired and become open for daytime regular students. but as this study revealed that most of the students do not want to take care of the toilet after defecation.
9. The previous trend of cost sharing by the students for the provision of tissue paper should be adopted again. 5. Water should be made available all the time at sufficient amount and reasonable pressure. A supply of ash should always be available in a suitable container.
7. However. 3. 1. the students have good impression for the system and appreciated the reuse of urine and feaces. operation and maintenance of the UDDT Methods of raising awareness and dissemination of information in the university The following are the methods which were identified in the FGD as the best methods for raising awareness and dissemination of information. Only one participant out of eleven has heard about Ecosan toilet from a course given in construction department.). in places where students usually gather and in toilets.
6. In the FGD. The participants were also asked whether they have heard about UDD toilets. That representative will in turn raise the awareness of his roommates and inform them what he has learnt. the student union in the university should be consulted and involved in the awareness raising and information dissemination process. sustain. student’s dormitories. 8.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Giving orientation during the beginning of the year for fresh students. 1. It is better to use recreational means like funny dramas and attractive advertising.
3. The key operational factor for a successful UDDT is minimal moisture. 2. Sundays and on holidays. This indicates that the students should be well informed about the UDDT. Janitors should clean toilets on Saturdays. Toilets whose water flushing units are not working should either be maintained or kept closed until they are maintained or replaced. The title of the course is ‘’ water supply and sewerage’’. the main principles of UDDT and the operation of the demonstration toilets were explained to the participants by showing the toilet fixture. and this should be sprinkled over the faeces after defecation. The hygiene practices selected for change can be achieved through hygiene education intervention and the intervention should be monitored and evaluated.
Conclusions and recommendations
1. 6. From all the evaluations made.
7. Vol. Funny posters Brochures Entertaining videos Allowing lecturers to spend 10 to 15 minutes for disseminating the required information to the students.
In addition. the interviewees were asked whether they have heard about reuse of UDDT products (faeces and urine). 2010
Putting advertisement/notice on notice boards.
2. much work should be done to raise the awareness of the students in the use.
14. 1. Sweden. Marieke T. 12. The authors are grateful for the support. we wish to thank Mr.
11. Geneva. Nebiyu. dev. Vol. January. Technical brief: Hygiene and sanitation promotion. Special focus should be made on fresh man students. public relation officer. From Adama University Students’ Union. Ethiopia. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Acknowledgements The study work is carried out within the University Capacity Building Program (UCBP) and is funded by GTZ-IS. The water quality of the effluent from the waste stabilization ponds should be tested and the WHO guideline for the safe wastewater use in agriculture should be referred before decision is made on the use of the effluent for agriculture and also before deciding the application techniques.). component 3 (2003): Wastewater study for Adama Town. For the future it can be connected to the new wastewater treatment plant to be constructed by GTZ-IS. 13. The health committee of the student’s union together with proctors should actively be involved in monitoring of the hygiene behavior of the students. EcoSanRes publication series. No. Ministry of Water Resources. Boot and Sandy Cairncross (1993): ACTIONS SPEAK: The study of hygiene behavior in water and sanitation projects. vice president and Mr. Dejene Limeneh. j. and all other
members of the executive body of the student union for facilitating the interviews and focus group discussions. sustain.
Journal of Adama University. Switzerland. London. Students should be given orientation about the proper use of existing sanitation facilities at the beginning of each academic year. Otherwise the septic tank effluent can be treated by constructed wetlands. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. 1. WHO guidelines for the safe use of wastewater. London. IRC international Water and Sanitation Center and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. VolumesII and IV. The effluent of the existing septic tank should be directed to the existing waste stabilization ponds. 2010
. WHO(2006). Sandy Cairncross and Valerie Cutis. References Environmental support project. Jan-Olof-Drangert(2004): Norms and Attitudes towards Ecosan and Other Sanitation Systems. excreta and greywater. Stockholm. sci.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.
by assessing the current conditions of the company and indicating the gaps between the existing management system and TQM system.Sc. 1. an extensive literature review has done and summarized on TQM and ISO 9000 systems.Addis Tyre is directly traced to the history of Matador group and the former Addis Tyre Share Company.
INTRODUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) IN ETHIOPIAN DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES with special reference to matador addis tyre s.
Journal of Adama University. it is an ever ending process [2. and Addis Tyre Share Company (ATC) a sole bias tire manufacturer in Ethiopia for the last 34 years and has good reputation in the domestic market have agreed to merge and form a Joint Venture (JV) after a long process of negotiation in July 2004 . sustain. January.C. 1. TQM consists of continuous improvement activities involving everyone in the organization-managers and workers-in a total integrated effort toward improving performance at every level.3]. Matador. with the intention of penetrating the COMESSA Market and Africa at large. Quality means meeting or exceeding customer (internal or external) expectation. based on the participation of all members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction. Background of MATADOR Addis Tyre S.C. The gaps between TQM implementation model and the actual management system of the company are identified. program of Industrial Engineering in Addis Ababa University.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. To bring the domestic industries to a competitive level both in domestic and international markets it is mandatory to change both the management system and the quality of product and service. j. The main objective of the study was to indicate the gap between the management system of domestic manufacturing industries and TQM by considering MATADOR Addis Tyre S. What is Total Quality Management (TQM)? TQM is a management approach centered on continuous quality improvement. is selected and data are collected in different ways. questionnaires personal experience in the area and observation. This paper is anticipated to reinforce the process of TQM implementation in MATADOR Addis Tyre S. In addition different working manuals.com
Abstract This a summary of a term paper on Total Quality Management (TQM). These two companies were independently tire manufacturer companies in their respective countries. These problems are reflected in the product and service quality. The collected data and information are analyzed and compared with the model adapted. For the case study MATADOR Addis Tyre S. Total means that every one participates and that it is integrated into all business functions. Fiseha Mekonnen Mechanical & Vehicle Engineering Department. The activities are ultimately focused on increased customer/user satisfaction . and by forwarding findings and recommendations pertinent to the process of TQM implementation. work instructions. Currently the most competitive industries in the world market are those which implemented the Total Quality Management (TQM) system. 2010
. with the capacity. Implementing TQM in the domestic industries is the road map to quality. Finally recommendations are forwarded to fill the gap. Management means improving and maintaining business systems and their related process or activity. rich experiences in transferring technology and know-how. TQM is not a program. Adama University E-Mail fiseham2002@yahoo.C. which was prepared for the partial fulfillment of the course Total Quality Management in the M. Vol. Matador group is based in Slovak Republic while Addis Tyre in Ethiopia. The main data collection methods were structured and unstructured interview.). Methodology To conduct this research. dev. sci. From the literature survey a model is selected and adapted on the implementation of TQM for domestic manufacturing industries. Introduction It is true that most of Ethiopian domestic industries are less competitive both in domestic and foreign markets. for the case study. conclusion and concluding remark are presented. To fill the gap recommendation are suggested. One of the main reasons is the problem of the management system and management capability to manage the whole process of the industry functions.c. and different publications of the company are collected and investigated. and benefits to the members of the organization and to society at large. The history of MATADOR . No.C.
dev. Especially a model developed by Zhihai Zhang for Chinese manufacturing firms is used as a ground for the development of this model [8. j. The ten elements play major role on the success of the goals. January. Leadership acts as a base for the achievement of elements and goals.7]. 1. The combination of the elements of TQM. leadership are constructed in the framework of TQM model as shown in figure 1.
The five basic elements to a basic understanding of TQM are: 1. the goals of TQM i. sustain. Product quality has effects on customer satisfaction and strategic business performance. The ten elements as a whole are regarded as enablers that can lead to improvements of goals of the company. 4.. TQM Implementation Model After an extensive literature survey on TQM and models developed for manufacturing industries of developing countries a new model is developed that suite for Ethiopian manufacturing industries. and Continuous improvement
Communication (feedback) is probably the most essential and often overlooked components [6. employee satisfaction.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Vol. Customer satisfaction also has direct effects on strategic business performance.e. Of the four goals of the company employee satisfaction has effect on product quality and customer satisfaction.9]. In other words. 3. Figure 1 A framework of TQM
Journal of Adama University. the framework of TQM consists of the ten elements. 5. 2. 1. overall success of the company is the result of TQM implementation. product quality. Thus. Communication Cultural transformation Participative management Customer focus. sci. No.e..). it also has an indirect effect on strategic business performance through product quality and customer satisfaction. 2010
. strategic business performance and the ground i.
Even though the information exchange systems with the suppliers are not in a continuous and systematic manner. Recognition and Reward: The Company has a collective agreement. mission. The ISO 9001 certification is on-process.
Case Study on TQM Implementation in MATADOR Addis Tyre S. Quality System Improvement: The Company has already prepared and documented the quality manual and quality system procedure. Fixing an employee in a specific area at a specific work for a long time is tiresome and erodes job satisfaction. toilets. On the discussion and interview it is identified that the company has no scheme to motivate and encourage employees and lower level managers for continuous improvement.
Strategic plan and quality improvement plans are also drafted for the next four years. annual profit. On the agreement salary and bonus scheme. etc. Leadership: From the interview it is recognized that the management has taken different training courses. In the discussion it is also understood that systematic job rotation is not practiced in the company. Vol. There are also an evaluation methods for materials received from suppliers and an information feedback systems. From the interview and documents the following information are found. and the cleanness of the shop floor are improved. j. 2010
. Its involvement is limited only in checking of the materials when it is received. such as customer complaint. dev. quality policy and different performance plans. From the interviews it is also recognized that the management do not have a clear encouragement and motivational scheme for employees and lower level managers to forward their ideas. Evaluation: The Company has different business performance measurement. conferences and seminars on ISO 9001 certification and TQM implementation process. and penalty rules are described. Vision and Plan Statement: The Company has vision. prevention costs and performances and reliability of the product are not identified explicitly. product quality. 2. In this respect formal and informal discussions with the employees have revealed that employees’ motivation and encouragement has deteriorated after the joint venture is formed. Process control and improvement: After the formation of joint venture different facilities are improved. sci. the salary of the employee will be deducted up to 30 percent. mission. In the new disclosed evaluation system 30 percent of the basic salary of the employee is paid on the basis of the monthly performance of the employee. 1. sustain. This means if an employee performs below the planned amount in a given month. Work instructions partially prepared for certain activities. January. Employee Participation: Even if it is not organized in a systematic and procedural manner.
Journal of Adama University. The process capacity of different lines is not evaluated against the design of the product. In suppliers’ quality management system the main shortcomings that could be mentioned are: 1. market share. etc of the company to every department. The company has a claim procedure for any discrepancy found when the material is checked.). Many of the respondents explain that information by gossip approach is used by the management as the main information source for decision making. Internal failure costs and external failure costs are also collected and evaluated. The mixing room is full of carbon soot. Suppliers Quality Management: The Company has different technical parameters for supplier’s selection. Open and informal interviews are also conducted with lower level managers and employees. But the evaluation systems and measurements do not cover all areas of the company in an integrated manner.C. The company does not have any involvement in quality improvement process of the suppliers The company does not conduct a quality audit and assessment of suppliers’ quality system. strategic plans. there is also an information exchange with the suppliers when ever problem arises. 1. cross-functional and within-functional teams are established and assigned jobs when ever it is required. In relation to the ISO 9001 certification the company conducts quality audit based on the requirement of the standard. structured interview has conducted with different managers who have key responsibility on TQM implementation and ISO 9001 registration process. But detail quality goals like appraisal costs. division and sections. The company also lacks to align the vision. Interview and documents Data Analysis Based on the frame work of TQM implementation process. The temperature of the curing room reaches up to 40Co. But still there are areas that require improvement.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. performance evaluation and rewarding systems are mentioned as the main weakness of the leadership. The salary scheme the bonus scheme. cafeteria. Offices. No. objectives. annual sales growth rate. For ISO 9001 standard certification process consultant firms were contracted for a certain time. policies. In the
In general the company does not have a significant role or involvement in the quality system of its suppliers. Bench marking approach has also practiced by considering the well known competitors product.
Questionnaire Analysis Thirty questionnaires were prepared and distributed to the employees and lower level managers. The questionnaires contain twenty-two closed type questions. satisfaction. The respondents indicate their answer by putting mark in the Yes or No box. Therefore the summery table contains “Yes” (satisfactory). Because the 6th question is misunderstood by many respondents and the 21st are miss-worded when it is prepared. and all .
interview it is understood that the company does not individual workers on the basis of their performance. The final column contains the percentage of satisfactory answers. j. the company conducts market investigation.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. employee skill and employee training requirements. For the analysis purpose only twenty questions are considered. available resources. Vol. The percentage is calculated by dividing the “Yes” quantity by “Yes+No” quantity.). Since the questionnaire is prepared for the employees and lower managers its content focuses more on issues related to motivation. Though it is not adequate. 2010
. But there are some respondents that do not put mark in the Yes or No boxes. sci. The 6th and 21st questions are excluded from the analysis. collects customer information. No. The company pays 100 percent compensation for manufacturing failure. The company’s training programs are not drawn up with the alignment of company’s strategy. 1. “Yes” answer indicates satisfactory or adequate condition for TQM implementation. The salary promotion and the bonus system do not differentiate teams or employees. objectives. The questionnaire is divided in to seven elements. Even though it is not extensively done.
Journal of Adama University. January. reward and awareness issues. “No” answer indicates un-satisfactory or inadequate condition for TQM implementation. participation. In this survey no single employee is identified that has got a moral reward or recognition in the form of thank you note or letters of praise Education and Training: In the discussions and structured question survey it is mentioned that employees and managers have got awareness trainings on TQM and ISO certification program. dev. and analyzes it. The issues mentioned in the questionnaire are information that is not found in documents or that is not comfortable for respondents to answer in face to face interviews. “No” (Unsatisfactory) and “Unfilled” column. 1. on job trainings are given to some of the employees. Customer Focus: The Company has a claim policy that assures customer reliance on products failure due to manufacturing defects. sustain.
have recognition and reward scheme for teams and are collected and analyzed.
dev.3 42. sci.).2
33.3 7. letters of praise.0 10. sustain.7 0.0
4. 1.7 61.3 60.1 4 4. Questionnaire Summery No.3 4.1 4.4 51.7 33.3 1. Vol. Example.1 2.4 2 2. mission.2 3 3.3 34. thank you note.2 4. etc? Is the company’s penalty rules are logical and acceptable in your view? Participation of Employee Does the top management encourage the employees and lower level managers to bring an improvement and new ideas? Have you ever participated in cross-functional teams to solve or investigate cross-functional problems? Have you ever participated in within-functional teams to solve or investigate problems within your working area? Yes 56 8 9 18 21 31 15 16 11 11 8 3 2 0 0 No 61 22 18 12 9 24 14 10 15 15 165 26 24 29 30 Yes+No Unfilled 117 30 27 30 30 55 29 26 26 26 173 29 26 29 30 2 0 3 0 0 4 1 4 4 4 7 1 4 1 0 % of Yes 47.0 0.3
51. and quality policy of the company? Do you know your internal supplier? Customer Focus Do you know the quality requirements of the company’s external customer? Recognition and Reward Do you know the company’s recognition and reward scheme for the employees? Do you think that the performance of employee is measured in the correct way? Are you satisfied with the salary promotion scheme of the company? Are you satisfied with the company bonus scheme? Are you satisfied with the company’s moral reward.0 56.
5. Questionnaire 1 1.6 5
0 3 29
30 26 55
30 29 84
0 1 6
0.3 4.6 10.0
5.2 1. 2010
20.5 4.1 1.9
Journal of Adama University.9 26.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. j.4 Education and Training Have you got any formal training on the job you perform? Have you got any chance of team learning? Have you taken quality awareness training? Have you taken TQM or ISO 9000 awareness training? Quality Awareness Do you know the vision.0 70.5 42. January. 1.
.13 Pareto analysis 7.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.3 3.0 0.6 7.).3 6.9 percent respectively. sci. sustain. Fifty six percent of the respondents have responded “Yes” (satisfactory) answer.1 7.9
Working Environment Do you have a written working instruction or manual you use in your regular job? Have you taken the QC tools awareness training? Is there a systematic job rotation scheme in your working area? Quality Tools Utilization and Awareness Quality function deployment Concurrent engineering Affinity Diagram/KJ Method Interrelationship Digraphs Tree Diagram Matrix Diagrams Matrix Data Analysis Process Decision Diagram Chart (PDPC) Deming Cycle
14 3 6 5 25 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 6 1 1 2 6 1 2
72 25 21 24 485 27 30 30 30 30 30 30 29 30 28 24 29 29 28 24 29
86 28 27 29 510 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30
5 2 3 1
16. Participation of employee and working environment are 34.0 3.2 4.0 0. dev.2 6.15 Control charts 7.14 Cause and effect analysis brainstorming 7. strategic plan and know how on the company’s customer needs are included.0 0.7 20. Under quality awareness vision.5 7.4 7.3 7 7.3 0. it is impossible to think and implement TQM in the company. Especially in the recognition and
28 30 6.0 6.3 percent respectively. About Forty Eight percent of the respondent responded “Yes” (satisfactory) answer on education and training given by the company on the issues of quality.2 17. Unless the company become alert and reverses this condition.0 0.3 10.0 0.7 reward scheme.3 7.0 3.9 10.0 3.7 22. The least score indicated is recognition and reward scheme. 1. January. the company does not give due attention to the employees which are the main component in the TQM philosophy. ISO 9001 certification could be realized with out the full commitment of the employee but TQM in its complete sense cannot be implemented with out the full commitment of the employee.8 7. 1.7 7.6 and 4.12 Histogram 7. and quality tools utilization.16 Scatter diagrams 7.5 and 16. The scores are 4.17 Benchmarking From the analysis of the questionnaire the company’s effort to create quality awareness is relatively good.1O Process-flowcharting 7. the employees are totally unsatisfied on the salary.1 6.2 7. mission. This figures show that.0 0.3
7.7 20. Because the certification process focuses and audits the measurable activities and
Journal of Adama University. bonus and moral reward of the company.11 Check sheet 7. j. Vol. No. ISO 9001 certification does not assure TQM implementation.
The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. j. sci. sustain. dev.),
procedure of the company system processes. This does not grantee the TQM implementation. Conclusion and recommendation Conclusion The reputation and management system of MATADOR Addis Tyre S.C. are found in the front line when it is compared from the domestic manufacturing industries. Almost all the domestic manufacturing industries follow the traditional management system. In contrast to the previous times, market barriers between countries are removed from time to time. The future fate of firms in the world is determined only by their competitive capability in the glob market. The globalization of the world creates an opportunity for competent firms and threat for incompetents. The trend of globalization indicates that countries can not block their territories from entry and exit of goods and services. This circumstance exposes domestic firms to the global market. The main difference between the competent and incompetent firms is their management system. Different literatures and studies have shown that those firms implemented TQM philosophy are leading the race in the market. The tire market has strong competition both domestically and internationally. To appear as a champion in the competition, MATADOR Addis Tyre S.C. has to implement the Total Quality Management system. The implementation of TQM in MATADOR Addis Tyre S.C. is not an option rather it is mandatory. The concern should be on the speed of implementation. Most competitors are found in a better technology and skill. Besides their current position they are continually improving their technology and employees’ skill at a higher rate. Hence to maintain and increase the market share, the company has to continually improve its quality at a faster rate than of its competitors to reach and to go beyond. Such a continual development both in the company level and nation wide can be achieved only if TQM is implemented. Long term oriented continuous quality improvement on the basis of customer requirement is the only strategy to increase the market share and profitability. Short term profit plan should not be practiced with the expense of long term quality strategy. The long term vision of the company should not be
bounded in the local market. In the current market condition if firms don’t go to the competitors’ market zone, the competitors will come to the firm’s market. There is no means for firms to survive both in the local and global market with a lower an overall performance and poor quality. The implementation of TQM is the road map for the journey to long term success. The analogy of Total Quality Management against traditional management is like a war field of opposite armies fighting each other one with modern weapon the other with stick and stone. Recommendation The current status of the company in implementing total quality system has been assessed through the study conducted and the system gaps between the current condition of the company and the TQM implementation model has indicated. The findings of the study have shown that the company has accomplished many activities in relation to the certification of ISO 9001. The development of this activity has a significant role in the implementation of TQM. However evaluation of the company on each elements of the model indicates that the company has left many tasks to be done. In this section recommendations on each element of TQM implementation process are forwarded. Leadership: The commitment of the leadership towards awareness, training, and in establishing different committees for the certification process of ISO 9001 standard is more or less satisfactory. This effort of the management has to be consistently continued in the future. However, the commitment of the leadership towards encouragement of employee in different aspects is found to be very low. In this area the management has to work hard to encourage employees to participate in the continuous quality improvement process of the company products and services. The other issue the management has to focus is on the salary and bonus scheme of the company. The result of the study shows that employees are completely dissatisfied on the salary and bonus scheme. In this regard the management has to give due attention to the complaints of the employee and improve the salary and bonus scheme. Especially the new salary payment scheme that the company wants to follow has very distractive outcomes in the TQM implementation. The
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intention of the management seems to enforce the employee to work hard. TQM is Management by carrot whereas traditional management is management by sticks. For the long-term development of the company the management has to refrain and think how the employees can be motivated and quality improvement comes. Suppliers Quality Improvement: The supplier selection procedure and received material inspection methods of the company are well managed and controlled. There is also an information exchange system and claim procedure whenever discrepancy is encountered between the received material and the request. But this information exchange system is not sufficient. The company has to have a continuous and consistent information exchange system with the supplier. Bilateral involvement and cooperation in the quality improvement system between the company and the suppliers has to be developed and implemented in a systematic way. Vision and Plan Statement: The Company has gone far in development and documentation of vision, mission, quality policy, strategic plan, etc. But still many are left to be done. Detail quality plan, an explicit identification of the performance and reliability of its product, and dissemination of the vision, mission, quality goals, etc of the company through the employee have to be done in the future. The other task the company has to work is to align the vision, mission, corporate strategy, business strategy etc of the company to every department, division, section and employee of the company. Evaluation: Despite the many evaluation system the company has, most of the evaluation processes lack consistency, integrity and computerization. The company has to do on these issues for the future. Process control and improvement: The Company has shown significant improvement both in production capacity and different facilities. But there are many things that have to be improved. For the continuous quality improvement different TQM tools has to be utilized. The working environment such as the temperature of the curing room and the cleanness of the mixing area has to be improved. Quality system improvement: The Company has prepared and documented the different
requirements of ISO 9001 standard. To finalize the preparation for ISO 9001 certification, work instructions, gap analysis, etc has to be completed. Employee Participation: As it is mentioned in the previous sections the management is expected to improve the encouragement scheme for employee participation. Recognition and reward: The motivation and encouragement of the employee are deteriorated since the formation of the joint venture. Before the formation of the joint venture the reward and payment system were on the front line when it is compared with the domestic manufacturing industries. This reputation has to be kept and improved by the joint venture, MATADOR Addis Tyre S.C. Customer focus: In the continuous improvement process customer is the center of the firm’s focus. Therefore the full involvement of customer in every activity of the company is mandatory. In TQM all doors are open for customers. Customers are Alpha and Omega of the firm. References David Hoyle. (2001): ISO 9000 Quality System Handbook, A number of the Re Ethiopian Management Institute, Production Management Department, Total Quality Management, Addis Ababa. Goetsch, D. and Davis S. (2000): Quality Management, Introduction to Total Quality Management for Production, Processing, and Service; Third Edition, Prentic hall. John S. Oakland. (1995): Total Quality Management, text with case, Text John 5. Oakland,. James w. Dean, Jr., James R. Evans. (1994): Total Quality Management, Organization, and Strategy, West Publishing Co. Jenny Waller, Derek Allen, Andrew Burns. (1993): The Quality Management Manual, How to Write and Develop a Successful Manual for Quality Management System, Nichols publishing. Matador Addis Tyre. (2006): Magazine. Terry L. Richardson. (1997): Total Quality Management, Delmar Publisher,
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOME TREES AND SHRUBS UNDER INHOSPITABLE SITE CONDITIONS OF KULUMSA (ARSI), SOUTHEAST ETHIOPIA
Yigremachew Seyoum 1, Girma Shumi
1 2 2
Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box. 489, Asela, E-mail: Yigremachewseyoum@yahoo.com. Dresden University of Technology, P.O.Box: 117,01735, Tharandt, Germany, E-mail: email@example.com and construction wood is predicted to increase significantly (FAO, 2001). However, the existing plantation efforts are by far insufficient to address rapidly increasing demand for different forest products. Lack of productive land, among others, is a major constraining factor that impairs forest plantation efforts. If forestry is to expand, even if to hold its own- trees must be profitably grown on some sites that formerly were considered to be so poor that they were of little value for forest production (Zobel and Talbert, 1984). Species that best adapt to harsh site conditions should be evaluated to implement successful plantation programs for both production and protection purposes. Tree improvement programs aimed at selecting species and populations that adapt to inhospitable sites are, therefore, very important. Inhospitable sites are sites where special, and usually more costly, establishment methods are needed. Among others, extreme soil conditions- lack or no top soil and/or nutritional problem makes a site inhospitable (Evans, 1992). The highlands of Ethiopia are very suitable for human inhabitation. As a result, 88% of the population, 95% of the cropped land and about three fourths of the livestock is found on highlands (EFAP, 1993). This population pressure on the highlands accompanied by sedentary agriculture, extensive cattle herding activities and socio-political instability, has resulted in heavy deforestation and impoverishment of ecosystems in general. Uncontrolled deforestation has caused ecological and socio-economical threats harmful to the well-being of the inhabitants. Efforts towards achieving sustainable management and utilization of natural forest resources are still lagging behind the pace of the destruction. As a result, the rate of loss of biodiversity of the natural forest ecosystem is accelerating. Some of the remnant tree species in the Northern and Central highlands are endangered, since they are found as isolated individuals, and their ability to form viable populations is very much in doubt (Esheu Yirdaw, 2002). Continual soil and water resource loss, following vegetation removal, is inflicting an acute decline in land productivity. Consequently, land degradation is challenging the lives of millions in the country. Rehabilitation of
Abstract Species-site matching is a corner-stone of successful plantation. Performance evaluation study was carried out at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center to select among 16 tree and shrub species that best survives and grows well under inhospitable sites. An experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Seedlings were raised from seeds obtained from Forestry Research Center and planted on June, 2003. Data were collected on survival, height and collar diameter at the age of 52 months and analyzed using analysis of variance. Olea africana, Juniperus procera and Albizia gumiffera showed the highest survival which was significantly higher (P<0.05) than Cordia africana and Acacia saligna. Acacia decurrens and Eucalyptus camaldulensis showed the highest height growth which was significantly different from all other species except that of Acacia saligna (P<0.05). Acacia saligna, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Juniperus procera and Acacia decurrens showed the highest diameter growth. We recommend the three species with the highest survival for inhospitable sites and their potential as catalytic species in rehabilitation programs. Acacia saligna, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Acacia decurrens are suggested for high biomass yield with appropriate establishment techniques that improve their survival. The responses of the species to different establishment techniques should be further investigated across different levels of degradation. Key words: Collar diameter, Height, Survival Introduction Interest in plantations continues to increase rapidly in the tropics and many countries with huge natural reserves of timber are also implementing plantation projects (Evans, 1992). In Ethiopia, the current rate of deforestation is estimated to be between 150,000200,000 hectares per year FAO (2003), indicating a critical need for plantations in order to satisfy the current and future demand for various forest products. Ethiopia has a long history of plantation with an extensive and successful eucalypt plantation carried out in 1894-1895 in order to solve the fuel wood problem during that time caused by severe deforestation (Esheu Yirdaw, 2002). Demand for forest products such as industrial wood, fuel wood
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Acacia saligna. No. Despite apparent challenges of deforestation and ecological imbalance. 2000). Kulumsa is located at 8o 08’N latitude and 39o 08’ E longitude. and other sites with similar agro-ecological conditions. dev. sustain. 1. j.. are considered as priority forestry programs of the country. and seedlings were raised in the nursery of Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center. Because of lack of optimal growth conditions in degraded sites. species well-adapted to and that thrive under inhospitable edaphic and climatic conditions of planting sites should be systematically selected. 2004). 2000). trials should be carried out to identify species that suit specific site conditions. Lugo et al. i. Species-site matching is a key step that guarantees successful tree plantations. The natural vegetation is characterized by remnant trees of huge Acacia abyssinica trees and as the altitude rises by the mixed relic trees of Juniperus procera and Afrocarpus falcatus. Eucalyptus globulus. These schemes are believed to be best remedies or measures in the highlands which are intensively degraded and nowadays reaching the point of no return (Tumcha Belguda. Betre Alemu et al. Acacia albida.8o C and minimum mean annual temperature 10. 1994. Hagenia abyssinica. about 167
km Southeast of Addis Ababa and 8 km North of Assela town. Pinus patulla. restoration and catalytic plantation programs. Afrocarpus falcatus. Therefore. Albizia gummiffera and Acacia decurrens. January. The regeneration of the natural flora can also be hastened through catalytic plantations. Statistical analysis was performed on the data collected at the age 52 months. Data were collected from the inner 9 trees leaving out the rows in the border of the plots. 1. The mean annual rainfall is 820 mm. it was conducted on a marginal site that lost its top soil and with the bare rock visible on the surface.
degraded lands. sci. 2010
. Only limited tending activities were performed at the early stage of the establishment and guarding was the only management continuously provided to protect the seedlings from livestock damage. Evaluation of growth and survival of species under different site conditions has been reported by many authors (Tesfaye Abebe. Therefore. Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Seeds of these species were obtained from Forestry Research Center. Material and Methods Study site The experiment was established at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Acacia nilotica. Schinus molle. Data collection and statistical analysis Data were collected for survival %. warrants an urgent research and development interventions. establishment and succession of native woody species by functioning as foster ecosystems (Parrotta. there are only limited successful restoration plantations in degraded sites of Arsi highlands.. Each species was planted in 10m*10m plot with 2m spacing between rows and there were 25 seedlings within each plot. Otsamo. Species tested The species tested for their survival and growth were Olea europeana. the objective of this study was to evaluate early growth and survival of 16 tree and shrub species to select species suitable for inhospitable site conditions at Kulumsa. the maximum mean annual temperature is 22. Cordia africana. Rehabilitation schemes.. In response to severe deforestation there is a critical need to rehabilitate degraded sites of Arsi highlands with restoration plantations in order to utilize the marginal lands for productive purposes and to maintain the ecological balance of the area. the capital city of Arsi Zone.5o C. lack of information regarding which species to plant under such inhospitable site conditions has substantially limited the achievements. which include afforestation. The major soil type in the area is Clay soil (Luvisols). Vol. Prior to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) the data were checked for the homogeneity of variances and normality and arcsine transformation was carried out for the survival percentage data. Blocks and plots were 5m apart from each other. Arsi. 2000. Recent research on tropical forest plantations indicates that plantations may enhance the recruitment. Juniperus procera.e. 1992. therefore. Experimental design and layout The experimental design employed was Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All statistical
Journal of Adama University. The altitude of the area is 2200m above sea level. Abebe Yadessa et al. Among others. Acacia seyal.). Field management The experimental site was selected in a manner to represent degraded sites. diameter and height growth every March and September since March 2005.. 1993. Tukey's honest significant difference was used to detect possible variations among tree species. species screening aimed at selecting those best thrives under inhospitable site conditions is a primary task. Since local conditions vary and that the response of tree species follows distinct pattern. Moringa stenopetala. For both purposes.
j. H.). Among the 16 species tested M.83 A Australia and the New World where olive trees were 70. This tall (up to 50 m).65 C required for obtaining maximum percentage Journal of Adama University.8 A BC germination and nursery establishment of O. J. 2002).The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.05) than the survival of C. Results and discussion Seedling survival The differences in survival among species were significant (P<0. The modest height growth of J. The present result substantiates that these three species are potential candidates for indigenous tree plantation programs designed for inhospitable site conditions. termites or wood. 2004). procera Hocht.26 A for at least 5 000 years. gummifera (94%). africana 22. O.8 ABC due to seed germination ranging from 0-5%. No. J.3 A B africana is known for its drought tolerance (ICRAF. O. 70.05). ICRAF. power transmission posts. The inherent adaptability of these species to marginal sites for restoration purposes can be further enhanced by an appropriate arbuscular mycorrhizal association (Tesfaye et al. Within the dry afromontane forests of the Ethiopian highlands. procera through vegetative means which is documented by Legesse Negash (2002) offers an option to seedling production and further justifies the suitability of the species to plantation programs under inhospitable sites. 1. E.05.2002). However. globules. Desta and Legesse.. In Ethiopia. The wood is suitable for making hardboard and particleboard. sci. In agreement with the present result. timber from J. occasionally reaching 18 m. stenopetal. sustain.
comparisons and level of significance were set at P≤0. 2002). 2004) which might have attributed to is good survival 55. Demel.. africana and A. 1995. belonging to the family Oleaceae. ex Endl. belongs to the family cupressaceae and commercially known as an African pencil cedar is the largest Juniper in the world (Legesse Negash . 2010
.2 BC and concluded that no germination stimulators are 16.26 A O. fencing and telegraphic poles. The result supplements other studies made on seed viability. among the tested 10 multipurpose trees and shrubs at Bako. 1997. beautiful grains and distinct scent (Legesse Negash. termite resistance. abyssinica and P. Eshetu Yirdw and Luukkanen. Legesse Negash (1990) studied 51. evergreen forest tree is the only tropical African juniper and is indigenous to the East African tropical highlands (Couralet et al. Successful planting material that can be obtained from juvenile stock plants of J. Survival (%) of different tree species at age of 52 months
Species Olea europeana Juniperus procera Albizia gumiffera Acacia nilotica Schinus molle Acacia decurrens Afrocarpus falcutus Acacia seyal Eucalyptus camandulensis Cordia africana Accia saligna
J. dev. It is also used for construction.. 2000). where the mean annual rainfall ranges from 500 to 1100 mm. Vol. procera and A. procera is an indigenous tree with multiple uses. manufacturing pencils. europea. workability. The survival of these three species was significantly higher (P<0. is a shrub or a small to medium sized tree 5-10 m in height. A. albida.5 A BC Eritrea to reforest this species have been unsuccessful 51. (2000) reported an outstanding survival of A. 2004). 1998. patula died at the early stage of the establishment. saligna (Table 1).3 A B introduced by Italian and Spanish travelers. Local attempts in 55. The deliberate propagation of 96. following Markhamia lutea. furniture. gumiffera had the highest survival. Abebe Yadessa et al. procera dominates from 2300 to 3200 m asl. procera together with its highest survival observed in the present study makes the species an important candidate for plantation schemes designed for rehabilitation of degraded sites. January.borers (Pohjonen and Pukkala 1992. regeneration ecology and asexual propagation methods of important indigenous trees (Legesse. After seasoning the wood is very durable. J. It is one of the dominant species that constitute the dry afromontane forests of Ethiopia (Tesfaye et al. procera is highly valued for the construction of orthodox churches as well as for the construction of houses mainly because of its durability. africana. 2003) which are useful to stimulate indigenous tree plantations and enhance rehabilitation and ecosystem conservation efforts.
O. immune to fungal attacks. Olive trees have Mean been cultivated for oil extraction and for edible fruit 96. Demel and Granstrom.5 A BC observed in the present study. 1997. africana cultivars has long been practiced in Mediterranean countries as well as southern Africa. 1. Successful plantations of this species have been established in South Africa since 1912 (ICRAF. Table 1. 88. 2003). The result implies that these species are not suitable to marginal sites in Arsi highlands and other areas that have similar climatic and edaphic conditions with Kulumsa.
Note: Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different Height and collar diameter growth Though survival is often used to select among species.04 BC 1. gummifera holds soil and prevents gulley erosion. j.48 A 4.
Table 2.99 A 4. the present result agrees with Orlander (1986) that reports poor survival of E.72 C 0. because of its adaptability to fairly dry conditions. camaldulensis. decurrens and E. In agreement with the current finding.97 AB 2. January. A. 2004). The root system of A. Conclusions and recommendations
Species Accia saligna Eucalyptus camandulensis Juniperus procera Acacia decurrens Cordia africana Olea europeana Shinus molle Albizia gumiffera Afrocarpus falcutus Acacia nilotica Acacia seyal
Mean 4. timber and construction wood production.24 AB 1. and in open habitats near forests (ICRAF. Diameter growth was also significantly different among species. Height (m) of different tree species at age of 52 months
Table 3. branches ascending to a flat top. In addition to their
Journal of Adama University. 2004) suggesting the potential of the species to rehabilitation programs by improving soil fertility and productivity of degraded sites.75 ABC 2.88 ABC 1. O. procera.5-30 m.05) was detected among the species in height growth over 52 months. 2010
. E.73 C 0. Higher mass loss and release of N was reported for leaves from A.
germination. africana and A. Root collar diameter (cm) different tree species at age of 52 months
Species Acacia decurrens Eucalyptus camandulensis Acacia saligna Juniperus procera Olea europeana Albizia gumiffera Cordia africana Afrocarpus falcutus Acacia nilotica Schinus molle Acacia seyal Mean 4. A.78 BC 0. growth parameters have a considerable significance to evaluate species for plantation programs targeted for fuel wood. A. Albizia species are pioneers in forest regrowth. A. gummifera has features that make it a potential species for reclamation of degraded sites. produce abundant seeds and show rapid growth (Parrotta.63 ABC 2. saligna. In view of critical vegetation loss in the mid and high altitude of Arsi. A.37 BC 1.78 BC 0.00 A 3.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. gummifera are the best species suitable for plantation programs designed for inhospitable sites in Arsi highlands and similar agroecological conditions elsewhere in Ethiopia. gummifera is a potential leguminous genus for establishment on vast areas of waste lands. provided that the fruits are collected at their appropriate developmental stage and the hard seed coats are carefully removed. 1992).46 BC 0. camaldulensis have shown the highest height growth which was significantly different from all other species except that of A. sci. known to fix Nitrogen and provides abundant leaf litter during the leaf shedding season (ICRAF.). No. Significant variation (P<0. Vol.01 BC 0. 1. J. A. Similarly. 1. camaldulensis in Harar. dev.14 AB 3.25 ABC 2. gummifera is common in lowland and upland rain-forest. camaldulensis under dry land conditions of Northern Ethiopia. gummifera belonging to the family Fabaceae – Mimosoideae is a large deciduous tree 4. these species could be of a profound importance as a potential species for restoration activities.05). saligna (P<0. gummiffera than C africana (Tesfay Teklay and Anders Malmer. Tesfaye Hunde and Mohammed Adilo (2007) reported higher growth rate of E. decurrens showing the highest diameter growth over 52 months of growing period. riverine forest. sustain.71 C
Note: Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
The present result implies that J.14 ABC 1.97 AB 3. 2004). procera and A.
dev. Sahle Y. Bekele T.. Sass-Klaassen U.(2000). Eshetu Yirdaw (2002): Restoration of the native woody-species diversity... (2003): Photosynthetically active radiation transmittance of forest plantation canopies in the Ethiopian highlands. Couralet. E. Volume II-The challenge for development. T.Forest Ecology and Management 161(53-64). T. (1995): Indigenous trees of Ethiopia. Journal of Tropical Ecology. in the degraded highlands of Ethiopia. Ambio 22: 106-109. Dendrochronological investigations on Juniperus procera from Ethiopian dry afromontane forests Demel. & Bongers F. Italy. (1997): Seedling populations and regeneration of trees in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. 112. 2010
. Alemayehu Zemedie and Ebrahim Ahmed (2000): Promising multipurpose tree species and their response to land form on highland Vertisols at Chefe Donsa. S (1993): Loss in species caused by tropical deforestation and their recovery through management. 1.. January.. ICRAF (2004): Agroforestry tree database. Forest Ecology and Management. Western Oromi. Rome. C. References: Abebe Yadessa. (1986): Growth of some forest trees in Ethiopia and suggestions for species
Journal of Adama University. (1998): Asexual propagation of Juniperus procera from Ethiopia: a contribution to the conservation of African pencil cedar. SLU Repro. (1997): Seed viability of Afromontane tree species in forest soils. 188 (17–24). African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hocht. Clarendon press. 177186. sci. Orlander. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Environmental and Agroforestry Purpose. saligna and A. A. PhD thesis. Eshetu Yirdaw and Luukkanen O. Legesse. Tekalign Mamo. using plantation species as foster trees. B. The costs of the experiment were fully financed by Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. N. Acknowledgment: We would like to thank Ato Zewge Bahiru for his unlimited contribution in managing the experiments and data collection activities. Addis Ababa Lugo. Proc. Response of the recommended species to different establishment techniques should be further investigated across different levels of degraded site conditions in order to complement the practical importance of the present finding to commercial plantation and rehabilitation programs launched in Arsi highlands.E.A. central highlands of Ethiopia. FAO (2001): State of the World's Forests 2001. 5th ESS conference.): Tree planting for Industrial. Social. 179–190
Demel. sustain. Desta. Rome. Despite their poor survival. 149–165.. 13.). EFAP (1993): Ethiopian Forestry Action Program. J. Legesse Negash (1990): Investigation on the germination behavior of wild olive seeds and the nursery establishment of the germinants. these species should be planted with appropriate establishment techniques and tending activities that improve their survival under stressful conditions. A.. Biology. Ethiopian Journal of Science 13 (1): 71-81.). Helsinki. Legesse. Oxford. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Evans J. ex Endl. j. Granstro¨m A. N. camaldulensis. Proc. a tree species reference and selection guide. Legesse. Sterck F. Therefore. Ethiopia. (2002): Successful vegetative propagation techniques for the threatened.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. 5th ESSS conference. FAO (2003): State of the World’s Forests. Diriba Bekere and Taye Bekele (2000): Growth performance of different multipurpose tree and shrub species at Bako. decurrens have shown superior growth in collar diameter and height indicating high rate of biomass accumulation in these species. uses and propagation techniques.
uses as material for rehabilitation plantation programs. 1. Betre Alemu. these species can play a pivotal role as catalytic plantation species in area closures because of the highest survival they have exhibited under degraded site conditions. (1992): Plantation Forestry in the Tropics (2nd ed. Forest Ecology and Management. Vol. Umea°. Addis Ababa. N. Parotta. Sweden. Ministry of National Resources Development and Environmental Protection. pp 145-155. G. No. FAO. Forest Ecology and Management 98. and Brown. 81–95.
1. Agroforestry systems 26: 237-248. (2003): Mycorrhizal status of indigenous trees in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. No. New Forests 19: 69-93.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. Tesfaye Abebe (1994): Growth performance of some multipurpose trees and shrubs in the semi-
arid areas of Southern Ethiopia. Pohjonen. Seyoum Mengistu and Negussu Aklilu. ex Endl.. T. (2000): Secondary forest regeneration under fast growing forest plantations on degraded Imperata cylindrica grasslands. sci. Parrotta J. 2010
. in Ethiopian forestry. Forest Ecology and Management 179 (387–399). Tesfay Tekelay and Malmer Anders (2004): Decomposition of leaves from two indigenous trees of contrasting qualities under shaded-coffee and agricultural land-uses during the dry season at Wondo Genet.A.
Journal of Adama University. Forest Ecology and Management 49: 75-85. (1992): The role of plantation forests in rehabilitating degraded tropical ecosystems. Tesfaye. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.).(1992): Juniperus procera Hocht. V. dev. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources 9(2): 281-288 Zobel B. j. 179–190. Pukkala. Eastern Ethiopia. 41: 115-133. Ethiopia Soil Biology & Biochemistry 36 (777–786) Tesfaye Hunde and Mohammed Adilo(2007): Evaluation of some multipurpose trees and shrubs grown in Harer. Toronto.. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment. Demel T. Forest Ecology and Management. eds. W. and Oberwinkler F.. Otsamo. 112. Addis Ababa. Kottke I. Talbert (1984): Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley and Sons.
selection in different climatic zones. Umea. and J. In: Proceedings of the public meetings on Integrated forest policy development in Ethiopia. Forum For Environment and Interchurch Organization for Development Cooperation. R. Canadacedar. Tumcha Belguda (2004): The vision of ministry of agriculture on natural resources of Ethiopia by 2025. sustain. January. Vol. 1..
so does the education crisis threaten the human resources of knowledge. especially in the current information era. and pleasant weather condition for most portions of its history. Ethiopia needs to expand its TVET institutions to get trained human power which is critically required for development and poverty reduction. 2002 as cited in Bedada. the root causes of the problems should be identified thereby remedial suggestions should be forwarded. To this effect. which is backward in terms of technology and economic development. 2006). Per capital income is around USD 100.5% of the total population is living in poverty. Ethiopia wants to improve the living standards of its people by fostering productivity in different perspectives. Moreover. These problems resulted in rampant poverty in the country (Woube. Similarly. Of course. there is an acute demand for highly educated and skilled manpower and technology.).The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. and the spread of fatal diseases. social tragedy. skill. Education is certainly a precondition and the most crucial factor to adjust ourselves to the changing world or modify it to fit to our needs. Administratively. the human development index is very low. 1. There is a need for conducting research on the issue of TVET institutions in line with the Ethiopian government policy of poverty reduction and making Ethiopia to be one of the middle income countries in 2020. like any other developing countries. Hence. Accordingly. attitude and self-confidence on
Journal of Adama University. dev. Despite its possession of resources. 2006). which are crucial for the different sectors of development. sustain. Ethiopia. Introduction For a nation. Many educators agree that an adequate definition of quality of education must be related to students’ achievements (outputs) as its basis. j.
Abstract This research was aimed at assessing the obstacles in job creation and employment opportunities for Technical-Vocational Education and Training institutes (hereafter TVET) graduates of Ethiopia in general and that of the Regional State of Oromiya in particular. wants to improve its productivity to upgrade the living standards of its people and cope up with the dynamics of science and technology. 45. Vol. covering a landmass of 1 million square kilometers. Just as the environmental degradation affects the ecological system on which life eventually depends. civil war. what is considered satisfactory today may become obsolete after some years. No. Although the country is endowed with favorable climate. among other things. 2003 as cited in Aregash.359 in 2001 (UNDP and World Bank. As a result. Ethiopia is a country located in the horn of Africa. 1. Adama University which individual and community development depends. and large number of livestock (first in Africa). historical relics. which is about 0. Ethiopia has been devitalized by economic decline. Despite this. the country is divided into nine Federal States and two City Administrations following the decentralized system of governance established since 1992. Ethiopia needs to expand its TVET institutions to get middle level manpower which is highly required for boosting sustainable development in the country. the Ethiopian Ministry of Capacity Building has been working with different fund raising organizations in general and with the German Development Cooperation (GTZ) in particular to realize the attainment of this mission. distinct customs. 2010
. quality in education is relative and not easy to define and measure. In line with this mission of poverty reduction and making Ethiopia to be one of the middle income countries in the 2020. It is true that the betterment and development of a nation mainly depends on the quality of education being provided. fertile land. To this end. at the present these institutions are increasing even more and more from time to time.
OBSTACLES IN JOB CREATION AND EMPLOYMENT FOR TVET GRADUATES IN ETHIOPIA: THE CASE OF OROMIYA REGIONAL STATE Bedada Mergo Lecturer. TVET institutions expanded from 17 in 1992/3 to 133 in 2003/4. research and experience show that the graduates of these TVET intuitions become job seekers rather than job creators. Ethiopia has dramatically increased the number of TVET institutions from time to time. The demands for productive work and services are growing from time to time as we are living in a dynamic world. which is one of the lowest in the world. sci. In this regard. to bridge this policypractice gap and to make the graduates to become entrepreneurs as stated in the TVET policy documents. among other things. January.
different competencies are set for the different levels of qualifications. one can apparently understand that even though these schools are remained to be the sources of people who are assumed to be productive and change agents in the country. there has always been dissatisfaction with regard to the practical ability of the graduates (MoE. Even if technical and vocational education has paramount importance in creating job opportunities. especially in Eastern and Southern Africa. In addition. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed in analyzing the data. and TVET program coordinators using questionnaire.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. before applying chi-square (x2) as a method of data
Journal of Adama University. research and experience show that after graduation even if the graduates of technical and vocational education and training schools are expected to be job creators. For instance. Even graduates from formal technical and vocational education institutions are often unable to find adequate employment. 1. descriptive survey research method was employed. No. the competencies set for the middle level technical/vocational diploma is performance of advanced vocational/entrepreneurial competencies in a selected occupation to carry out advanced skilled work activities (analysis. As a result. In many countries. Nevertheless. Thus. In other words.” In the Ethiopian TVET strategy. operation and maintenance of complex equipment/systems and workshop organization) within a non-routine work process required autonomy and particular guidance of others. 2010
. 2002 and MoE. initial and further training for all sectors. informal. Vol. dev. j. 2007) states “the Ethiopian Technical and Vocational Education and Training system delivers its services with regard to technical and entrepreneurial skills development according to the labour market. the training of the technical and vocational education and training schools should emphasize on technical subjects. especially on 70% practical and 30% theoretical training. Further. they are not able to contribute significantly to the alleviation of poverty and to sustainable development by creating and engaging in small business enterprise (National Policy Definition Information Document. 2003). The data gathered through the close-ended items of the questionnaire were analyzed quantitatively by applying a statistical method involving chi-square (x2). like in the case of other African countries. 1997).
The German Development Cooperation (GTZ) in collaboration with the Ministry of Education is doing its level best in engineering capacity building program (ECBP) in general and human resources development in particular. This reform stresses the need for creating one coherent. interviews and focus group discussions. selected TVET teachers. outcome-based TVET system which includes formal. access to technical and vocational education is often limited to adults. From the above discussions. Objectives of the study To pinpoint the major factors that attribute for Oromiya TVET graduates not to become entrepreneurs as stated in the TVET policy documents of Ethiopia and to propose feasible strategies as to how to tackle the problems. its status in Ethiopia. evaluation. Hence. is not promising. sustain. Specifically. according to the current policy. non-formal. 1. 2004). the need for making training of technical and vocational education and training institutes is to be of the type that can enable the learner to develop
practical and problem-solving skills is imperative. the root causes of the problems should be identified.). The data were collected from 100 purposely selected TVET graduates of the Regional State of Oromiya. the formal system of technical and vocational education cannot provide adequate training for those leaving general education institutions. they become job seekers. among other things. A number of reports indicate that the teachers who are involved in teaching within the technical and vocational schools lack practical skills more than the theoretical aspects. If the education and the training of technical and vocational schools have to be in line with the demands of the present day work force and the requirements of technology at large. they train young graduates who do not satisfy the demands of the works in industries and services areas (Mesfin. to bridge this policy-practice gap thereby to make the graduates of TVET institutions job creators rather than job seekers. One of the four components of ECBP is TVET Reform. they are frequently not equipped with the know-how and the material prerequisites to establish their own businesses. sci. In spite of this fact. January. the central objective of the reform (TVET Reform. Research Design In the study. This problem has a serious impact on the implementation of the technical and vocational education and training policy in general and on the students’ competence in the world of work in particular. This is so because this level is the basis and foundation of the world of work.
the results obtained from the 100 TVET graduates through the close-ended items of the questionnaire were sorted out and tallied. chi-square was employed to determine the statistical significance of differences between proportions of responses in the groups. Overall obstacles 2.00
77. namely. Making students who could not pass the EGSECE join TVET institutions without interest is one of the factors which make the graduates job seekers.64*
Journal of Adama University.11 92.00*
825. Besides. and were included in the interpretation and conclusion of the study gathered from the sample TVET graduates using close-ended items of the questionnaire are presented as follows. No.06*
93. the level of significance. Then. Vol.05. the data Table.22
84.). January. sci.00
14.30* 70. 2010
. the positively and negatively stated items were sorted out and the negatively stated items were reverse-scored and assigned scores and frequency numbers accordingly. Data gathered from the sample TVET graduates
figure out the prominent factors that hinder TVET graduates from creating their own job or get employment opportunities. Item Disagree 1+2 1 I couldn’t create my own business as I have not internalized the essence of entrepreneurship. I feel. table below. I used to devote most of my time on practicing things than listening to teachers’ lectures.04 Agree 4+5 97.96 92. the curricula of TVET institutes make the graduates job seekers as they are theory-dominated. To this effect. 1995). In so doing. Most TVET graduates in Oromiya could not create their own enterprise due to lack of vocational guidance. When I was in TVET institute.00
49. On the other hand. sustain. the value of the neutral option.
analysis. that of 'no opinion' was liquidated proportionally to the disagree and agree sides (Babbie. Socio-cultural impacts like sex roles.00* x2
14. In my opinion.28
637.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.78
95. giving little attention to being blue collars and the like have significant impacts on TVET graduates not to be job creators.02*
49. the data collected through the open-ended items of the questionnaire. minimal stakeholders’ involvement in the TEVT training program is one of the factors that make the graduates not to create their own enterprise. in all the above cases. the five-point scale was reduced into a dichotomous scale. as the central intention of the study was to Discussion This part of the study presents analysis and interpretations of the data collected from different respondents and informants. 1. was determined at p<0.
Observed Frequency No.56*
81. interviews and focus group discussions were analyzed qualitatively.44*
18. dev. In scoring the responses of the respondents.29
85. The existence of poor public-private partnership is one of the factors that make Oromiya TVET graduates not to become job creators.83
84. Absence of impact assessment or continuous support is one of the factors which hinder graduates of TVET institutions from having their own business.71
39. The prevalence of inadequate attachment between TVET institutions and companies/industries is one of the factors which make TVET graduates job seekers.89 8. 1.75
02.84.). which shows that the current trend of assigning students to TVET institutions is one of the factors which make the graduates job seekers. the magnitude and direction of the differences clearly show that the prevalence of minimal stakeholders’ involvement in the TVET training program is one of the factors that hinder the graduates not to be creators of their own businesses.05 df = 1 The expected frequency for agree and disagree columns is 50 and that of the overall obstacles are 500.84).84. 0. 2010
. 0. it is by far great.05) which is 3.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. The table also presents whether socio-cultural impacts like sex roles.38). the first item deals with whether TVET graduates internalized the essence of entrepreneurship as expected in the policy during their stay in TVET training institute. most of the graduates were not practicing things practically during their stay in their respective TVET institution. Therefore. the x2 calculated value (51. 1. The table above still presents whether the prevalence of inadequate attachment between TVET institutions and companies/industries is one of the factors which make TVET graduates job seekers. In this regard.05). Vol. 0.05 N. In this regard. the x2 calculated value (76. The above table also depicts whether the curricula of TVET institutes make the graduates job seekers as they are theory-dominated.56) is greater than the x2 table value (1. 0. the calculated x2 value is 84.44) is greater than the x2 table value (1.05) which is 3. No.
Journal of Adama University.00) by far exceeds the x2 critical value (1. the table presents the extent to which TVET graduates used to devote most of their time on practicing things than listening to their teachers’ lectures. In the table. 0. 0. giving little attention to being blue collars and the like have significant impacts on TVET graduates not to be job creators in the Regional State of Oromiya.
* P < 0. it is by far greater which indicates the fact that the existence of poor public-private partnership in Oromiya is one of the factors that makes them not to create their businesses.05) that is 3. the x2 calculated value (77. 1. As compared to the x2 critical value (1.84 As can be seen from the table above.05 =3.05) = 3. Compared to the x2 critical value (at 1.84.84. the calculated x2 value (49. This implies that they lack the know how of creating their own job as stated in the policy. The description of each of the items is presented as follows. 0. the magnitude and direction of the difference show that the majority of the graduates feel that the curricula of TVET institute do not serve the purpose they are intended for. With
this regard. the calculated x2 value of all of the items is greater than the x2 critical value (1. Hence. Regarding this.84. the chi-square calculated value (92.84. dev. Regarding this. j. Thus.05) that is 3. January.B *= p<0. X2 cri= x2 (1. sustain. sci. Concerning this. Concerning this point. This might be due to the fact that the trainees lack awareness about the real context of companies/industries thereby unable to satisfy the current demands of them.05) that is 3.84. The table above still depicts whether or not minimal stakeholders’ involvement in the TVET training program is one of the factors that make the graduates not to create their own enterprise.05) = 3. the calculated value of x2 is (48. the magnitude and direction of the differences indicate that the prevalence of inadequate attachment between TVET institutions and the nearby companies/industries is one of the factors that hinder the graduates not to be creators of their own enterprises. 0. Hence. The table also shows the degree to which poor public-private partnership affects the job creation of the graduates.32) is greater than the chi-square critical value (1. 0. In the same way. As can be seen from the table.00) is greater than the chi-square critical value (1. the magnitude and direction of the difference indicate that the graduates have not internalized the essence of entrepreneurship as expected in the policy. which is 3. The table above assesses whether or not making students who could not pass the Ethiopian General Secondary Education Certificate Examination (EGSECE) join TVET institutions without interest is one of the factors which make the graduates job seekers.
The overall results of the study showed that the inadequacies of TVET graduates in creating their own businesses or getting employment opportunities emanate from the following detail factors: ■ Inadequate experience regarding practical training on the part of the trainers. considering physical works as if they are meant only for males. focus group discussions were also made with 12 randomly selected TVET teachers. despite the expansion.05 =3. January. dev. as it is indicated in the table above. 0. the graduates of these institutions
Journal of Adama University. ■ Socio-cultural impacts like sex roles or gender stereotyping i. At the moment. the table depicts whether or not absence of impact assessment or continuous support is one of the factors which hinder graduates of TVET institutions from having their own business.05 =3. No. which apparently indicate that sociocultural impacts like gender stereotyping.e.84). giving little attention to being blue collar and so on have significant impacts on Oromiya TVET graduates not to become entrepreneurs as stated in the TVET policy documents. the same table shows whether or not most TVET graduates in Oromiya could not create their own enterprise due to lack of vocational guidance. which indicates that the factors which are incorporated into the table in this way or another affect TVET graduates not to create their own businesses. ■ Recruitment and placement of the trainees i. ■ Keen interest of the people of Ethiopia to make their children become white collars instead of becoming blue collars up on completing training programs. Vol. sustain. ■ The prevalence of experience-based rather than training-based business transaction in the country. TVET institutions have expanded significantly than ever before. Lastly. interviews were made with 8 randomly selected TVET teachers and TVET program coordinators. ■ Minimal stakeholders’ involvement in the training programs.56). Besides. However.
Regarding this.64). Compared to the x2 critical value (at 1. it is by far great.06).
■ Prevalence of inadequate attachment between TVET institutions and the nearby companies and/or industries. Moreover. the calculated value of x2 is (637. the calculated value of x2 is (70. Hence. 1. ■ Absence of follow-up studies of the graduates. j. ■ Minimal success in developing alternative financial sources. 1.30). the direction and magnitude of the differences show that lack of vocational guidance is one of the factors that are hurdles for the TVET graduates to become job creators. 0. Conclusion As Ethiopia is a developing country. ■ Existence of stagnant employment opportunities.84). ■ conducting training programs based on anticipated employment rather than on planned labour need.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop.e. To get additional information. a comprehensive improvement in education is the starting point for the all rounded development of the nation. Concerning this.). Compared to the critical value (at 1. the calculated value of x2 is (39. 2010
. it is by far great. making students who could not pass the Ethiopian General Secondary Education Certificate Examination enter into TVET institution without interest. Compared to the table value. ■ using structured and rigid curriculum in the face of changing economic circumstances. the calculated value of x2 is (49. This comprehensive improvement enables the country to get a well-trained and productive manpower. Ethiopia has been using technical and vocational education as one of the strategies for human resources development. and ■ Using a single model namely Dacum Model in designing the curriculum of TVET institutions rather than being eclectic. which clearly shows that lack of continuous support or impact assessment is one of the factors which makes graduates of TVET institutions not to be entrepreneurs. it is by far great. ■ Availability of cheap labour in the black market. sci. To this end. In general. ■ Existence of poor public-private partnership. which is the immediate need of the country. Regarding this issue. regarding the overall obstacles.
This could be effected by giving technical-vocational guidance and counseling services. dev. Moreover. apprenticeship and job placement and the like. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press. sustain. Ministry of Education. (1989): Convention on Technical and Vocational Education. References Aregash Samuel. UNESCO. Addis Ababa. the concerned bodies should prepare economic venue in which the graduates create their own jobs in the form of small business enterprises. Ministry of Education.) Belmont: Wadsworth Publication Company Higher Education. and the like to create conducive situations for the TVET graduates.Babbie. not using competency-curriculum. TVET institutions. Mesfin Silesh. there is a need for joint effort and commitment of the government. and using a single model in developing the curricula of TVET institutions and so on are the major ones. (2002): Technical and Vocational Education and Training Strategy of Ethiopia. R. 3(2) 33-68.” The Engineering Capacity Building Program
Document. j. 1. No. the initiative taken by the government of Ethiopia in organizing the graduates in micro enterprise should be strengthened through research-based strategies. (7th ed. Besides. (2002): Education and Training Policy and Its Implementation. (2006): “The State of Human Resource Development in the Ethiopian Leather and Leather Products Technology Institute. employers. (1994): Education Sector Strategy. The Practice of Social Research. E. (1994): New Education and Training Policy. Ministry of Education. creating strong link with employing sectors concerning curriculum development. Outline of the University Reform Program. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press. the mode of TVET training should be demand-driven and should take the context of Ethiopia into consideration.cultural impacts. (2007). chambers. Proceeding of Summer Research Seminar (Unpublished). Nairobi
Journal of Adama University. (2004): An Assessment of the Technical and Vocational Teacher Education Program by Technical and Vocational Teacher Educators. sci. Transitional Government of Ethiopia. stakeholders.The Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development (Ethiop. January. 1. Paris: ILO UNESCO. Transitional Government of Ethiopia. socio.” The Ethiopian Journal of Ethiopian Journal of Higher Education. level of development of the country. Vol. Addis Ababa. These inadequacies emanate from a number of factors out of which lack of practical training. (2003): Educational Statistics Annual Abstract. absence of tracer study or impact assessment. (1995). Addis Ababa: EMPDA. non-government organizations. (1997): National Policy Definition in Technical and Vocational Education: Beyond the Formal Sector. In this regard.). 3(1) 133-152.
are not in a position to create their own enterprises and/or getting employment in companies/industries. (2006): “Assessment of the Contributions of Madda WalabuUniversity to the Regional State of Oromiya. absence of attachment between TVET institutions and companies. To rectify these and similar problems. Bedada Mergo. 2010
. Building Ethiopia. Making follow-up study and sorting out skill gap thereby giving short term training to rectify it.
sci. dev. sci.j.
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