Apart from the efforts by me, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project.

I would like to show my greatest appreciation to Mr. Neeraj Sharma. I can’t say thank you enough for his tremendous support and help. I feel motivated and inspired every time I ask for his guidance. Without his encouragement and briefing, this project would not have materialized. I also acknowledge great help from Ms. Preeti Singh and Ms. Nidhi Garg to sail me through the seminar part of the task & accept my report. Then I would also thank my Institution and authorities without whom this project would have been a distant reality.

Last I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers.The support received from all my family & friends in the form of blessings and wishes has been a constant driving force to work through it.

Hina Varshney



1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….1 2 History of Holography………………………………………………………………2 3 Holography ………………………………………………………………………….2 4 Holographic Memory………………………………………………………………..3 4.1 Implementation………………………………………………………………….4 4.2 Recording of data in holographic memory system……………………………6 4.3 Retrieval of data from holographic memory system………………………….6 4.4 Multiplexing……………………………………………………………………..7 5 Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) ………………………………………………..9 6 Merits of Holographic Memory ……………………………………………….....11 7 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………...11 8 Possible Applications ……………………………………………………………...12 9 Comparision of Discs ……………………………………………………………....13 10 Recent Developments ……………………………………………………………..13 10.1 Latest news on HVD………………………………………………………….15 11 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………15 12 References …………………………………………………………………………17


Devices that use light to store and read data have been the backbone of data storage for nearly two decades. Compact discs revolutionized data storage in the early 1980s, allowing multi-megabytes of data to be stored on a disc that has a diameter of a mere 12 centimeters and a thickness of about 1.2 mm. In 1997, an improved version of the CD, called a digital versatile disc (DVD), was released, which enabled the storage of full-length movies on a single disc. CDs and DVDs are the primary data storage methods for music, software, personal computing and video. A CD can hold 783 megabytes of data. A double-sided, double-layer DVD can hold 15.9 GB of data, which is about eight hours of movies. These conventional storage mediums meet today's storage needs, but storage technologies have to evolve to keep pace with increasing consumer demand. CDs, DVDs and magnetic storage all store bits of information on the surface of a recording medium. In order to increase storage capabilities, scientists are now working on a new optical storage method called holographic memory that will go beneath the surface and use the volume of the recording medium for storage, instead of only the surface area. Three-dimensional data storage will be able to store more information in a smaller space and offer faster data transfer times. Holographic memory is developing technology that has promised to revolutionalise the storage systems. It can store data upto 1 Tb in a sugar cube sized crystal. Data from more than 1000 CDs can fit into a holographic memory System. Most of the computer hard drives available today can hold only 10 to 40 GB of data, a small fraction of what holographic memory system can hold. Conventional memories use only the surface to store the data. But a holographic data storage system uses the volume to store data and is capable of recording multiple images in the same area utilizing light at different angles. Additionally, whereas magnetic and optical data storage records information a bit at a time in a linear fashion, holographic storage is capable of recording and reading millions of bits in parallel, enabling data transfer rates greater than those attained by traditional optical storage. It has more advantages than conventional storage systems. It is based on the principle of holography.


Dennis Gabor, a renowned physicist, is considered the Father of Holography and Holographic Technologies. Dennis wrote a paper in 1948 that has become the foundation of modern Holography. The first practical optical holograms that recorded 3D objects were made in 1962. Several types of holograms can be made. Transmission holograms, are viewed by shining laser light through them and looking at the reconstructed image from the side of the hologram opposite the source. A later refinement, the "rainbow transmission" hologram, allows more convenient illumination by white light rather than by lasers. Rainbow holograms are commonly seen today on credit cards as a security feature and on product packaging. These versions of the rainbow transmission hologram are commonly formed as surface relief patterns in a plastic film, and they incorporate a reflective aluminum coating that provides the light from "behind" to reconstruct their imagery. Another kind of common hologram, the reflection or Denisyuk hologram is capable of multicolor-image reproduction, using a whitelight illumination source on the same side of the hologram as the viewer. Specular holography is a related technique for making three-dimensional imagery by controlling the motion of specularities on a two-dimensional surface. It works by reflectively or refractively manipulating bundles of light rays, whereas Gaborstyle holography works by diffractively reconstructing wave fronts. One of the most promising recent advances in the short history of holography has been the mass production of low-cost solid-state lasers, such as those found in millions of DVD recorders and used in other common applications, which are sometimes also useful for holography. These cheap, compact, solid-state lasers can, under some circumstances, compete well with the large, expensive gas lasers previously required to make holograms and are already helping to make holography much more accessible to low-budget researchers, artists and dedicated hobbyists. It was thought that it would be possible to use X-rays to make holograms of molecules and view them using visible light. However, X-ray holograms have not been created to date.

Holography is a method of reproducing a three-dimensional image of an object by means of light wave patterns recorded on a photographic plate or film. Holography

is sometimes called lens less photography because no lenses are used to form the image. The plate or film with the recorded wave patterns is called a hologram. A hologram is a block or sheet of photosensitive material which records the interference of two light sources. To create a hologram, laser light is first split into two beams, a source beam and a reference beam. The source beam is then manipulated and sent into the photosensitive material. Once inside this material, it intersects the reference beam and the resulting interference of laser light is recorded on the photosensitive material, resulting in a hologram. Once a hologram is recorded, it can be viewed with only the reference beam. The reference beam is projected into the hologram at the exact angle it was projected during recording. When this light hits the recorded diffraction pattern, the source beam is regenerated out of the refracted light. An exact copy of the source beam is sent out of the hologram and can be read by optical sensors. Precise laser equipment is used at the factory to create the hologram. A recording material which can recreate recorded images out of natural light is used so the consumer does not need high-tech equipment to view the information stored in the hologram. Natural light becomes the reference beam and human eyes become the optical sensors. Today we see Holographic Images on our ATM and Credit Cards or Microsoft Software as proof of authenticity and thus preventing counterfeiting or piracy.

Holographic memory is a technique that can store information at high density inside crystal or photopolymer. As current storage techniques such as DVD reach the upper limit of possible data density (due to the diffraction limited size of the writing beam), holographic storage has the potential to become the next generation of storage media. The advantage of this type of data storage is that the volume of the recording media is used instead of just the surface. This three-dimensional aspect allows for a phenomenon known as Bragg selectivity to be utilized, whereby many information laden holograms can be superimposed or multiplexed in the same volume of medium. It is necessary to Bragg detune each hologram recorded with respect to its neighbors. This can be achieved by a number of methods, e.g. rotation of the media with respect to the recording object and reference beams or changing the wavelength or phase of the recording laser beams for each hologram. Like other media, holographic media is divided into write once (where the storage medium undergoes some irreversible change), and rewritable media (where the

change is reversible). Rewritable holographic storage can be achieved via the photo-refractive effect in crystals. Comparison of Storage Medias: Storage medium Access time Data transfer rate Storage capacity 4.1. Holographic memory 2.4µs 10gbps 400Mbits/cm2 RAM memory 10-40ns 5mbps 4.0Mbits/cm2 Magnetic disk 8.3ms 5-20mbps 100Mbits/cm2


The components of Holographic data storage system is composed of  Blue-green argon laser  Beam splitters to spilt the laser beam  Mirrors to direct the laser beams  LCD panel (spatial light modulator)  Lenses to focus the laser beams  Lithium-niobate crystal or photopolymer  Charge coupled device camera They can be classified into three sections namely recording medium, optical recording system and photo detector array. The laser is used because it provides monochromatic light. Only the interference pattern produced by the monochromatic beam of light is stable in time. Lithium niobate crystal is used as photosensitive material on which hologram is recorded. It has certain optical characteristics that make it behave as photosensitive material. CCD camera detects the information in the light, converts to digital information and forward it to computer. The various components & terms are described as below:  Signal Beam: A signal beam or object beam is one of at least two laser beams used to write hologram. The signal beam is the beam that carries the information to be stored in the hologram. In the case of a holographic picture, this beam is reflected off of the thing you want to take a picture of into the media. In the case of holographic data storage, the beam has some kind information encoded into it (for instance, it can be sent through a transparency or a spatial light modular).


 Reference Beam: A reference beam is a laser beam used to read and write hologram. It is one of two laser beams used to create a hologram. In order to read a hologram out, some aspects of the reference beam (namely its angle of incidence, beam profile and wavelength) must be reproduced exactly as when it was used to write the hologram. As a result, usually reference beams are Gaussian beam or spherical wave beams (beams that radiate from a single point) which a fairly easy to reproduce.  Refractive Index: A property of a material that changes the speed of light, computed as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light through the material. When light travels at an angle between two different materials, their refractive indices determine the angle of transmission (refraction) of the light beam. In general, the refractive index varies based on the frequency of the light as well, thus different colors of light travel at different speeds. High intensities also can change the refractive index.  Dichroic filter: A dichroic filter or thin-film filter is a very-accurate color filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors. By comparison, dichroic mirrors and dichroic reflectors tend to be characterized by the color(s) of light that they reflect rather than the color(s) they pass.

 Spatial Light Modulator (SLM):A spatial light modulator is used for creating binary information out of laser light. The SLM is a 2D plane, consisting of pixels which can be turned on and off to create binary 1.s and 0.s. . It is possible to pull the shade down over a window to block incoming sunlight. If sunlight is desired again, the shade can be raised. A spatial light modulator contains a twodimensional array of windows which are only microns wide. These windows block some parts of the incoming laser light and let other parts go through. The resulting cross section of the laser beam is a two dimensional array of binary data, exactly the same as what was represented in the SLM. After the laser beam is manipulated, it is sent into the hologram to be recorded. This data is written into the hologram as page form. It is called this due to its representation as a two dimensional plane, or page, of data.



When the blue-green argon laser is fired, a beam splitter creates two beams. One beam, called the object or signal beam, will go straight, bounce off one mirror and travel through a spatial-light modulator (SLM). An SLM is a Liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows pages of raw binary data as clear and dark boxes. The information from the page of binary code is carried by the signal beam around to the light-sensitive lithium-niobate crystal. Some systems use a photopolymer in place of the crystal. A second beam, called the reference beam, shoots out the side of the beam splitter and takes a separate path to the crystal. When the two beams meet, the interference pattern that is created stores the data carried by the signal beam in a specific area in the crystal -- the data is stored as a hologram.



An advantage of a holographic memory system is that an entire page of data can be retrieved quickly and at one time. In order to retrieve and reconstruct the holographic page of data stored in the crystal, the reference beam is shined into the crystal at exactly the same angle at which it entered to store that page of data. Each page of data is stored in a different area of the crystal, based on the angle at which

the reference beam strikes it. During reconstruction, the beam will be diffracted by the crystal to allow the recreation of the original page that was stored. This reconstructed page is then projected onto the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, which interprets and forwards the digital information to a computer. CCD is a 2-D array of thousands or millions of tiny solar cells, each of which transforms the light from one small portion of the image into electrons. Next step is to read the value (accumulated charge) of each cell in the image. In a CCD device, the charge is actually transported across the chip and read at one corner of the array. An analog-todigital converter turns each pixel's value into a digital value. CCDs use a special manufacturing process to create the ability to transport charge across the chip without distortion. This process leads to very high-quality sensors in terms of fidelity and light sensitivity. CCD sensors have been mass produced for a longer period of time, so they are more mature. They tend to have higher quality and more pixels. The key component of any holographic data storage system is the angle at which the second reference beam is fired at the crystal to retrieve a page of data. It must match the original reference beam angle exactly. A difference of just a thousandth of a millimeter will result in failure to retrieve that page of data.





Once one can store a page of bits in a hologram, an interface to a computer can be made. The problem arises, however, that storing only one page of bits is not beneficial. Fortunately, the properties of holograms provide a unique solution to this dilemma. Unlike magnetic storage mechanisms which store data on their surface, holographic memories store information throughout their whole volume. After a page of data is recorded in the hologram, a small modification to the source beam before it reenters the hologram will record another page of data in the same volume. This method of storing multiple pages of data in the hologram is called multiplexing. The thicker the volume becomes, the smaller the modifications to the source beam can be.

 Angular Multiplexing: When a reference beam recreates the source beam, it needs to be at the same angle it was during recording. Harnessing this property, angular multiplexing changes the angle of the source beam by very minuscule amounts after each page of data is recorded. Depending on the sensitivity of the recording material, thousands of pages of data can be stored in the same hologram, at the same point of laser beam entry.  Wavelength Multiplexing: Used mainly in conjunction with other multiplexing methods, wavelength multiplexing alters the wavelength of source and reference beams between recordings. Sending beams to the same point of origin in the recording medium at different wavelengths allows multiple pages of data to be recorded. Due to the small tuning range of lasers, however, this form of multiplexing is limited on its own.  Spatial Multiplexing: Spatial multiplexing is the method of changing the point of entry of source and reference beams into the recording medium. This form tends to break away from the non-mechanical paradigm because either the medium or recording beams must be physically moved. Like wavelength multiplexing, this is combined with other forms of multiplexing to maximize the amount of data stored in the holographic volume. Two commonly used forms of spatial multiplexing are peristrophic multiplexing and shift multiplexing.  Phase-Encoded Multiplexing: The form of multiplexing farthest away from using mechanical means to record many pages in the same volume of a holograph is called phase-encoded multiplexing. Rather than manipulate the angle of entry of a laser beam or rotate or translate the recording medium, phaseencoded multiplexing changes the phase of individual parts of a reference beam. The main reference beam is split up into many smaller partial beams which cover the same area as the original reference beam. These smaller beamlets vary by phase which changes the state of the reference beam as a whole. The reference beams intersects the source beam and records the diffraction relative to the different phases of the beamlets. The phase of the beamlets can be changed by non-mechanical means, therefore speeding up access times.

The Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology developed between April 2004 and mid-2008 that can store up to several terabytes of data on an optical disc the same size as a CD, DVD or Blu-ray disc. It employs a technique known as collinear holography, whereby a green and red laser beam

are collimated in a single beam. The green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc. A red laser is used as the reference beam to read servo information from a regular CD-style aluminium layer near the bottom. Servo information is used to monitor the position of the read head over the disc, similar to the head, track, and sector information on a conventional hard disk drive. On a CD or DVD this servo information is interspersed amongst the data. A dichroic mirror layer between the holographic data and the servo data reflects the green laser while letting the red laser pass through. This prevents interference from refraction of the green laser off the servo data pits and is an advance over past holographic storage media, which either experienced too much interference, or lacked the servo data entirely, making them incompatible with current CD and DVD drive technology. Standards for 100 GB read-only holographic discs and 200 GB recordable cartridges were published by ECMA in 2007, but no holographic disc product has appeared in the market.
Holographic Versatile Disc structure
1.Green writing/reading laser (532 nm ) 2.Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm) 3. Hologram (data)(shown here as brown) 4. Polycarbonate layer 5. Photopolymeric layer (data-containing layer) 6. Distance layers 7. Dichroic layer (reflecting green light) 8. Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light) 9. Transparent base P. Pit pattern


Map source : New High Definition Video Technologies Road Map (2004–2010) From Maxell Corporation of America shows the road map of HVD

6. MERITS OF HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY  Huge Storage Capacity: Holographic memory offers storage capacity of about 3.9 TB, which is approximately 6,000 times the capacity of a CD-ROM, 830 times the capacity of a DVD, 160 times the capacity of single-layer Blu-rayDiscs, and about 48 times the capacity of standard computer hard drives.  Efficient Retrieval: Speed of retrieval of data in tens of microseconds compared to data access time of almost 10ms offered by the fastest hard disk today.  Faster Data Access: Information search is also faster in holographic memory. Consider the case of large databases that are stored on hard disk today. To retrieve any piece of information you first provide some reference data. The data is then searched by its address, track, sector and so on after which it is compared with the reference data. In holographic storage entire pages can be retrieved where contents of two or more pages can be compared optically without having to retrieve the information contained in them.  High Transfer Rates: The HVD also has a transfer rate of 1 gigabit/s.  Resistance to damage: If some parts of the medium are damaged, all information can still be obtained from other parts. Also it has no moving parts. So the limitations of mechanical motion such as friction can be removed.

 Expensive Medium of Storage: The reading/ writing process on HVD is very expensive as compared to CD/DVD. The devices used are of high cost and not easily available. Therefore it is an expensive media for personal use.  Requires High Accuracy: During the retrieval of data the reference beam has to be focused at exactly the same angle at which it was projected during recording. A slight error can cause a wrong data page to be accessed. It is difficult to obtain that much of accuracy.  Multiplexing: It also requires the consistent alignment of data layers with the reader. Reading one layer of holographic image is relatively easy; reading multiple layers (otherwise known as "multiplexing") is a lot more difficult. The slightest defect in the recording medium or the position of the medium to the optical reader reduces the clarity of output.  High Performance Optical Devices: The crystal used as the photographic filament must have exact optical characteristics such as high diffraction efficiency, storage of data safely without any erasure and fast erasure on application of external stimulus light ultra violet rays.

 Hologram Decays with Repeated Access: With the repeated number of accesses the holograms will tend to decay.

There are many possible applications of holographic memory. Holographic memory systems can potentially provide the high-speed transfers and large volumes of future computer systems. One possible application is data mining. Data mining is the process of finding patterns in large amounts of data. Data mining is used greatly in large databases which hold possible patterns which can’t be distinguished by human eyes due to the vast amount of data. Some current computer systems implement data mining, but the mass amount of storage required is pushing the limits of current data storage systems. The many advances in access times and data storage capacity that holographic memory provides could exceed conventional storage and speed up data mining considerably. This would result in more located patterns in a shorter amount of time. Another possible application of holographic memory is in petaflop computing. A petaflop is a thousand trillion floating point operations per second. The fast access in extremely large amounts of data provided by holographic memory systems could be utilized in petaflop architecture. Clearly advances are needed in more than memory systems, but the theoretical schematics do exist for such a machine. Optical storage such as holographic memory provide a viable solution to the extreme amount of data which is required for petaflop computing. Holographic memory can be used as extended DRAM with 10ns access time, Hard disk drives, CD ROMs of large storage capacity and rock mounted (combining numerous DASDs) of petabytes storage capacity. Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) & Holographic Versatile Card (HVC) is an optical disc technology still in the research stage which would hold up to 3.9 terabytes (TB) of information. The enormous storage capacity enables the holographic media to work as efficient back-up devices. The entire computer system can be stored on one HVD. Its storage capacity also usher high defination videos & movies Holographic media provides an interesting medium for video gaming, remote teaching, video conferencing, millitary & space applications.

Development and marketing At the National Association of Broadcasters 2005 (NAB) convention in Las Vegas, InPhase conducted public demonstrations of the world’s first prototype of a commercial storage device at the Maxell Corporation of America booth. The three main companies involved in developing holographic memory, as of 2002, were InPhase and Polaroid spinoff Aprilis in the United States, and Optware in Japan. Although holographic memory has been discussed since the 1960s, and has been touted for near-term commercial application at least since 2001, it has yet to convince critics that it can find a viable market. As of 2002, planned holographic products did not aim to compete head to head with hard drives, but instead to find a market niche based on virtues such as speed of access. InPhase Technologies, after several announcements and subsequent delays in 2006 and 2007, announced that it would soon be introducing a flagship product. InPhase went out of business in February 2010 and had its assets seized by the state of Colorado for back taxes. The company had reportedly gone through $100 million but the lead investor was unable to raise more capital. In April 2009, GE Global Research demonstrated their own holographic storage material that could allow for discs that utilize similar read mechanisms as those found on Blu-ray Disc players.

Blu-ray Intial cost for re- `800 approx cordable disc Intial cost for re- `90,000 approx corder/player Intial storage ca- 54GB pacity Read/Write speed 36.5 mbps HD-DVD `400 approx HVD

`5000 approx `1,30,000approx
300GB 1 gbps

`90,000 approx
30GB 36.5 mbps



The research on holographic memory is taking place in well guarded and rich companies like IBM, ROCKWELL and InPhase. InPhase has developed a holographic memory of size slightly larger than a DVD. It has a capacity of about 100GB. They are trying to push it upto 1TB. IBM and ROCKWELL claims to have developed a recording medium less sensitive than lithium niobate crystals. Holography System Development Forum The Holography System Development Forum (HSD Forum; formerly the HVD Alliance and the HVD FORUM) is a coalition of corporations purposed to provide an industry forum for testing and technical discussion of all aspects of HVD design and manufacturing. As of February 2011, the HSD Forum comprised these corporations
                     

Sony Hoplon Infotainment Alps Electric Corporation, Ltd. CMC Magnetics Corporation Hitachi Mitsubishi Apple Inc. Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc. (DIC) EMTEC International (subsidiary of the MPO Group) Fuji Photo Film Company, Ltd. Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc. Lanix LiteOn Technology Corporation Moser Baer, (India) Mexican Digital Media Storage Organization Mitsubishi Kagaku Media Company, Ltd. (MKM) Nippon Kayaku Co., Ltd. Nippon Paint Company, Ltd. Optware Corporation Pulstec Industrial Company, Ltd. Shibaura Mechatronics Corporation Software Architects, Inc.

    

Suruga Seiki Company, Ltd. Targray Technology International, Inc. Teijin Chemicals, Ltd. Toagosei Company, Ltd. Tokiwa Optical Corporation

Standards On December 9, 2004 at its 88th General Assembly, the standards body Ecma International created Technical Committee 44, dedicated to standardizing HVD formats based on Opt ware’s technology. On June 11, 2007, TC44 published the first two HVD standards: ECMA-377, defining a 200 GB HVD "recordable cartridge" and ECMA-378, defining a 100 GB HVD-ROM disc. Its next stated goals are 30 GB HVD cards and submission of these standards to the International Organization for Standardization for ISO approval.

GE Global Research, the technology development arm of the General Electric, on 20th July 2011 announced a major breakthrough in the development of next generation optical storage technology. GE’s research team successfully demonstrated a micro-holographic material that can support data recording at the same speed as Blu-ray discs. GE now plans to start sampling the new discs and optical drives to interested parties in the coming months. This result was built upon the demonstration of a threshold micro-holographic storage material that can support 500GB of storage capacity in a standard DVD-size disc back in April, 2009. GE’s achievements in recording speed, along with other technical improvements that have been made over the past two years are important steps toward commercialization of micro-holographic storage technology.

The future of holographic memory is very promising. The page access of data that holographic memory creates will provide a window into next generation computing by adding another dimension to stored data. Finding holograms in personal computers might be a bit longer off, however. The large cost of high-tech optical

equipment would make small-scale systems implemented with holographic memory impractical. Holographic memory will most likely be used in next generation super computers where cost is not as much of an issue. Current magnetic storage devices remain far more cost effective than any other medium on the market. As computer systems evolve, it is not unreasonable to believe that magnetic storage will continue to do so. The current storage in a personal computer operates on the same principles used in the first magnetic data storage devices. The parallel nature of holographic memory has many potential gains on serial storage methods. However, many advances in optical technology and photosensitive materials need to be made before we find holograms in computer systems. Therefore the question for the future that remains is whether are they affordable to general public to be used as backup systems????


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/hvd.htm http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Holographic_Versatile_Disc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holographic_data_storage http://hvd-forum.org/ http://www.xbitlabs.com/news/storage/display/20110720093314_GE_s_Hol ographic_Storage_Tech_Enabling_500GB_Discs_Steps_Closer_to_Commercializa tion.html 6. www.maxellcanada.com/pdfs/c_media/optical_stor_tech.pdf 7. http://www.ehow.com/about_6064819_holographic-storagetechnology.html#ixzz1T99qzVu7 8. PC Quest Magazine 9. Chip magazine 10. Holographic Display System ,Copyright © 2009 William H. Mook, Jr .