III CONGRESSO INTERNACIONAL DE TURISMO DE LEIRIA E OESTE
The identification of training needs in the tourism sector: matching the market needs with the educational offer
Susana Rodrigues CDRSP – Centre for Rapid Sustainable Product Development, CIGS – Centre for Sustainable Management Instituto Politécnico de Leiria firstname.lastname@example.org Aurélia Almeida Escola Superior de Turismo e Tecnologia do Mar de Peniche Instituto Politécnico de Leiria email@example.com Florinda Matos Management Research Center ISCTE - IUL, Lisbon, Portugal firstname.lastname@example.org Nuno Abranja ISCE - Instituto Superior de Ciências Educativas email@example.com
The purpose of this research was to understand and identify the organizations’ training needs, in the Tourism sector, in the Leiria Region, part of the central region of Portugal. This study was developed to help the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria to strategically define and suit their training offer in their area of influence, to the market needs. The aim was to identify the training qualifications required by individuals from top to bottom in the organization, i.e. in all professional categories; the areas of training required and to whom. Fifty two questionnaires were collected within travel agencies, hotels, and restaurants. The results showed that the overall on average individuals identify training needs in the tourism industry, as needed, with means >= 2,5 and >=3,5. When analysed the training needs by the organizational categories, Managing Directors/Top mangers identify management and tourism management as the areas most needed. Middle managers also identified management as a training need. All the professional categories among post graduate course, bachelors, technical courses and continuous training, stated continuous training as the qualification that they wish to attend. Keywords: Training, Tourism, Qualifications
commerce. The tourism. Batalha.
This study was sponsored by and conducted for the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.e. Leiria. managers and policy makers dealing with regional and industry policy. Figueiró dos Vinhos. molding. Intellectual capital is a key element of organizational competitiveness. Marinha Grande. being a source of intellectual capital can be a driver of organizational and regional competitiveness. The Leiria Region was defined by this study as the Leiria district plus the Ourém council. It allows to fulfil the demand as well as to (re)organize the offer. Leiria Region represented 22 % of the active population of the Central Regional. Porto de Mós and Ourém. It should provide and form individuals with the knowledge and the necessary competences for the enterprise requirements. Identify for whom in the organisation hierarchy training was needed. It is believed that the education offered should match the industry demand. The region is known for its significant entrepreneurial capacity. namely at the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria. little attention has been given to the identification of organizations’ training needs in the tourism sector. The Polytechnic Institute of Leiria has that responsibility towards the community. Pombal. Those councils were chosen due to their geographic proximity and their historical representativeness as the area of influence of the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (see Figure 1). Bombarral. dynamism and by settling people due to its employability capacity. (whether leisure. The purpose of this research was to: Comprehend and identify the training needs of the tourism industry in the Leiria Region. to fulfil a gap in research. Peniche.INTRODUCTION
There is vast literature on methods and techniques for the identification of training needs. Castanheira de Pêra. The identification of the industry’ training needs would be most valuable for academics. in 2003. especially in the Leiria Region. heath and tourism sectors. in a total of 17 councils. Caldas da Rainha. A conglomerate of competitive organizations centered in one region sustains regional competitiveness. Draw up a set of suggestions that help the decision makers. Alcobaça. to strategically suit their educational offer to the market needs in the tourism industry. i. The outcome would be an important tool in the process of the education decisionmaking offer. based on 123 interviews and over 2050 questionnaires. The Polytechnic Institute of Leiria. Alvaiázere. Identify the organizational areas in which training was needed. Pedrógão Grande. plastics. According to the National Institute of Statistics.
. business or religious) is socially and economically important for the Leiria region. wood and furniture. Óbidos. Understanding the firms’ training needs allows the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria to match the training offer to the market needs. Nazaré. However. the major educational center of the Leiria Region. It would identify the necessary knowledge-based competencies towards the Region’s competitiveness. This research is part of a broad study of training needs conducted in autarchies. Identify the training qualifications needed by individuals. Ansião. This research was the first in-depth study of the training needs in the Leiria Region.
mapadeportugal. based on general knowledge and transferable. Training needs hinder employees in the fulfillment of their job responsibilities and
BNET – http://dictionary. 2000). even if directed at an area of expertise. Groot. the author characterizes the training as an adjustment imperative to the growing expectations of learners and a level of versatility to prepare in many ways. 1998) and the efficacy of the tertiary sector in providing quality graduates for the industry.html. tourism operation. tourist information.
. implying a continued and an articulated education since the initial training. Training is important as it provides individuals and organizations with the necessary skills and knowledge towards competitiveness. own technical and methodological skills that promote self learning and multivariable social skills.bnet.net/
The rapidity of the tourism growth has raised a number of concerns about the adequacy of human resource provision both regionally and within specific countries (WTO. and van den Brink. 1990. transport. Define training is a complex task and possibly an impossible mission. travel agency. We understand tourism as a cluster of different sectors interrelated and complementary. Based on BNET1. Figure 1 – The Leiria Region. the geographic representativeness
Portugal The 17 councils that form the Leiria Region
Source: http://www. As evidenced by IPL (2000). Based on this analysis. catering. "qualified" and "not qualified" take place in shorter periods. We highlight the hospitality. among many others. in relation to the same individual. we can define Training Needs as:
a shortage of skills or abilities which could be reduced or eliminated by means of training and development. It defines training as a concept of bandwidth. related to tourism. This broad and diverse range of professional functions.com/definition/training+needs. to take the student to acquire cognitive knowledge of general and specific nature. Training would help individuals to respond adequately to the organizational dynamics and to their job task demands (Dubin. Accessed on 15/09/2009. promote gradually the need to train and qualify people able to respond adequately to the increasing needs of tourism consumers and build skills for the current reality training. planning.The tourism industry was selected for this research as a result of its economic and social impact and the contribution to the region development.
Goldstein. and Garofano. There is a vast literature on training needs. productivity. The acquisition of training needs can be an intimidating mission. particularly when we are talking about individuals. motivation. this training was specifically directed to the hospitality. Some researchers have developed methods and techniques for the “identification of training needs – (ITN)” Truelove (2006). which was later renamed the National Institute of Tourism Studies. (2000) work showed how to achieve results from training. organisational and regional competitiveness. there is few to none literature in the industrial and regional context. or arise from changes in the workplace. on the 4
. Any company has to recognize that not only is the human capital of their employees a major asset. analyzed the impact of individual and contextual influences on training effectiveness. (2004) developed an integrated model of training evaluation and effectiveness. This gap needs to be filled by training. Nonetheless. P. They recognise a liaison between knowledge. However. developed a framework for the analysis of training needs.. both in Lisbon. Find the answers to training needs. (2002) and Caetano. Performance was understood by them as the individuals’ necessary competences and attitude to do the job effectively. Campbell. 2005). Armstrong (1996) corroborates this point of view as also defends that training needs measurement is about the identification of the gap between what is happening and what should be happening. knowledge. The National Centre for Tourism and Hospitality. et al. Brinkerhoff. I. The year 1963 was decisive for the national tourism training. Training can no longer be an afterthought. overlooking the needs of tourism itself.(1991) and Sleezer. Salas. it is also a depreciating asset that needs continuing investment. As Thompson (2009) says. Organizational training requires program development. and Chiaburu. researchers have emphasized the importance of training for the acquisition of continuous knowledge and competences. assessment of needs and evaluation (Goldstein. now under the umbrella of Tourism of Portugal. (2007) discussed the training evaluation.. Other schools of hospitality and tourism training were established afterwards. They may be caused by a lack of skills. or also called “learning needs” (Cook. (1998). Cascio’s. P. performance and competiveness. in relation to Portugal. Taylor.School of Hospitality and Tourism of Lisbon (1957). with the aim of protecting the school in Lisbon and create another in Algarve.prevent an organization from achieving its objectives. Therefore. (1970). was created by the Portuguese government in 1965. Researchers have also focused their attention on the development of analytical models to evaluate training needs. (1988). is an important step to win “value for money” in a market.
According to Nobel Laureate Gary Becker. and O’Driscoll. private. closely related to the emergence of the first vocational school of hospitality and tourism in the country . and Tekleab (2005). professor of economics and sociology at the University of Chicago. but it was only in 1991 with the foundation of the School of Hospitality and Tourism of Estoril. that the higher education tourism has broadened. M. Alvarez. because it marks the birth of two regular courses of tourism. Training in tourism is. how to evaluate them in order to create organizational impact. one at the Instituto de Novas Profissões and the other at the Higher Institute of Languages and Administration. Al-Athari and Zairi. Individuals and organizations would undertake training if they had an effective and positive impact in return. 1993). or understanding. 1986.(1993) analyzed training at the organizational level. As suggested by Mabey and Salman (1995) training needs analysis (TNA) is a data collection process that helps the organization to compare its current training needs with its desired level of performance.
resulting in more contented consumers. as: mentoring and coaching. A trained staff is happier and more likely to stay put. more have available for other activities. seminars. Higher education providers must confront the need to offer a university level and quality education. This research identifies for the tourism industry in the Leiria Region. on-the-job training. To see an example. which training areas are needed. It must become an integral part of staffing and business strategy of any company.identification of the areas of training required by individuals and the qualification search according to their professional category. Many companies think that once employees are trained. When it is not planned for. etc. Therefore. conferences. Motorola calculated that every dollar spent on training yields an approximate 30 percent gain in productivity within a three-year period. and the level of qualifications required by individuals from top to bottom. workshops. And betterquality work means better-quality products and services. Motorola also used training to reduce costs by over $3 billion and increase profits by 47 percent5. This paper evaluates the career experiences and perceptions of graduates from the School of Hotel and Tourism Management at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the School of Hospitality. it is not like that. 2008). it is necessary to create a written and a well-thought out plan for training. of a growing and tighter demand. Victoria University School of Hotel and Tourism Management. Planning the training should be an essential part of the performance management system and career planning for each professional. education assistance. McKercher and Waryszak3 (2003) the identification of training needs is essential towards competitive edge. Tourism and Marketing. emphasising intellectual development.. The quality. trainingorientated programmes. The training needs planning must be the result of a focused and disciplined process to determine what training is actually needed. with the desire evident amongst some students for practical. International trends that indicate a strong interest about the "industry" of tourism have been demanding qualified professionals who are able to improve customer expectations and needs. because their self-esteem improves. As we can see in a comparative study of Hospitality and Tourism Graduates in Australia and Hong Kong. theory and problem solving. "Learning to Succeed in Business with Information Technology" Motorola
. The authors believe that the issues identified in this study are universal concerns faced by university-level tourism and hospitality providers. everyone knows the tourism company needs. they are more likely to leave the corporation for another company. There is a very stark shortage of professionals who add value to these organizations. made by King2. competitiveness and employability are watchwords to pursue a constant continuing education and integration of a citizenship space in an increasingly diversity (Mezomo. any effort to satisfy training needs will usually result in failure. Tourism and Marketing at Victoria University in Australia towards the programmes that they undertook. Hong Kong Polytechnic University 4 Source: “The 2001 Global Training and Certification Study" CompTIA and Prometric 5 Tim Lane et al. The diversity of tourism and the heterogeneity that characterizes the consumer of this activity also involves the construction of diverse professional profiles that contribute effectively and efficiently to increase the quality in tourism. A Louis Harris and Associates
School of Hospitality. demonstrating that is a real challenge especially for educational institutions responsible for higher education of these persons (Abranja. which get better their morale in the workplace and their loyalty to their employer. Training is a vital tool in a company life because the less time and money the top of the firm have to spend on monitoring and guiding employees. When we think in qualified people. The method selected should best fit the needs of both employee and business. Just a two percent increase in productivity has been shown to net a 100 percent return on investment in training4. There are many methods. But actually. 1999).
Esichaihul and Baum (1998) analyzed the relationship between the role of the public and private sectors and the inherent human resource problems in the hotel sector in Thailand. inclusive.The importance of the identification of specific areas of knowledge in the tourism sector is very central. regional and national levels. It is believe that the current recession will shape our learning functions in the coming years. while companies that spend over $273 per employee have turnovers of 7 percent6. labour market and education policies (Baum et al. We can claim. American Society for Training and Development: http://www. the global recession weighs heavily on everyone’s mind. The private sector could have a greater involvement in contributing to the development strategy of tourism human resource development. The learning function is critically important to helping an organization to achieve a competitive advantage in a troubled economy. A Hackett Benchmarking and Research report shows that companies that spend $218 per employee on training have more than a 16 percent voluntary turnover. Without strong support by the government.howardcc. 1997). Accessed on 17/09/2009. in an effort to examine common and different themes in market environments.astd. Almost every hotel claims to be people-oriented and the most important is the person. a very small number follow through on these claims and invest on the human resource development. The training needs theme is not only a private problem but a public too. some significant differences are observed which reflect different guest markets and national priorities. Recent studies suggests that small hotel organizations tend to favour informal training methods and usually value training which is specific to the job in question. whereas of those who considered their company's training opportunities to be excellent. About the government involvement in human resource development in tourism industry. The study suggests that government involvement in human resource development in Thailand is required because of the absence of a developed and education-conscious private sector. but some companies are weathering this storm because they understand the value of having skilled talent to grow the organization. Nankervis and Debrah (1995) explored contemporary management practices in a selection of hotels in Australia and Singapore. The government is widely perceived to have a responsibility to undertake a supportive role to ensure that basic tourism education and training activities are initiated. The human resource development activity is almost exclusively directed at the solution of immediate work problems rather than the long-term development of people. Accessed on 15/09/2009.
. The human resources and its intellectual capital have clearly become a significant attribute for those firms where people are potential assets in the search for competitive advantage. would benefit from a close integration of human resource. 41 percent planned to leave within a year. Thailand currently confronts major human resource problems. between 1991 and 1993. There is a lot of work to do until convince many employers in the hotel industry. Stakeholders. only 12 percent planned to leave. Human resource training is a key strategic tool within the tourism and hospitality industries that allow quality and market positioning of tourism at local. However. Whilst many similar practices are employed in both countries. the development of human resources in the hotel industry in Thailand may be insufficient. Thus hotels in Singapore suffer from labour scarcity and have been forced to employ a broad range of training strategies to ensure
Howard: Community College: http://coned. We feel that human resource field move forwards but there is a very distant way to walk still. Few industries are immune to the down economy. In the perception of ASTD7.edu/. It is a comparative study undertaken by survey in both countries. of the benefits to be derived from human resource development.org/content/research/doYourOwn/. and commitment and co-operation from the industry and education.poll reports that among employees with poor training opportunities.
Several new transfer variables also emerged from the data. and take place after or during training involving trainers and supervisors. Only the interviews allow capturing the complexity and richness of the information given by individuals. and to whom in the organizational hierarchy. transfer measurement. The results of this study on hotel management practices in the two countries may apply to hoteliers in any countries. The lack of previous studies in identifying the training needs in the tourism sector in the Leiria Region compelled the use of interviews. in relation to tourism in order to understand the matching of training supply to the needs of market labour. and firms’ collaborators were conducted. the training needs in the tourism sector. This study with the goal of obtaining a comprehensive understanding and a holistic view of the training needs in the Leiria Region has used different information and method sources. and job-relevant training. many lifestyle businesses not appreciating the links between skills. Activities gathering trainers’ attention as best practices include: supervisory support activities. Findings suggest that interventions for bolstering training transfer are best carried out in the work context. Burke and Hutchins (2008) analyzed best practices for supporting training transfer. top managers. training and competitiveness. Haven-Tang and Jones (2008) have studied the labour market and skill needs of tourism in Wales. It is nuclear to develop an inventory of market-wide training. Australian hotels have an available labour market but require sophisticated training and career development programmes. Data were gathered from a sample of training professionals of American Society of Training and Development (ASTD). data was collected using a variety of methods. Understand the different motivations and expectations of the Tourism Region associations. face-to-face unstructured and semi-structured interviews with the different Region Tourism association’s managing directors. indicating that the existing transfer models can be further refined. Managing 7
. opportunities to perform. dominate Welsh tourism. There was a need to: Understand the phenomena. It used secondary and primary data (information source triangulation) and qualitative and quantitative data (methodological triangulation). i. each one representing one part of the councils of the Leiria Region) and firms’ perspective. This study proposes a refined model of transfer to extend human resource development theory.e. Qualitative data was collected in the form of interviews. design and delivery phase. the firms’ managing directors.adequate staffing. interactive training activities. The goal was to capture different perspectives as it is believe that the position that individuals occupy in the organizations’ hierarchy reflect different training needs. to assure service quality and productivity. coaching. Understand the opportunities and threats of the development of determined training offer. In-depth. Identify the areas of training needed. deskilling and overseas recruitment. In opposite. Comprehend the complexity of the training needs both by the different local Tourism Region associations (there are 3 in the Leiria Region. and its collaborators.
To test the research aims. Micro-businesses. This research is quantitative in nature. and typically not undertaking training. Employer interviews identify skills gaps and persistent recruitment difficulties with responses including downsizing. as well as the trends of its evolution.
a research survey instrument was developed and applied. Caldas da Rainha. This choice was based on the perception that at the tourism industry only large firms or firms that area driven by quality would be aware of the added value of qualified human recourses to their firms. 14 from restaurants and 5 that did not identified its business. this response rate is considered satisfactory. Only individuals from large firms’ dimension or with high quality status (e. The firms’ collaborators were interviewed because they feel the problems at the operational level and know which competences area needed for its resolution. With the exception of 5 interviews that were made by phone. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used for the analysis of the results. There is a general understanding that different tasks in the organizations have different training needs. taking between 60 up to 90 minutes long. Batalha. all the other interviews were conducted face-to-face at the firms’ facilities. This research is quantitative in nature and the qualitative data was gathered with the aim to increase reliability and the validity of the research findings only. Nazaré. and ensured that the most important issues have been addressed. The response rate obtained was 10% of the total questionnaires sent and 17% of the firms inquired. Due to their position and experience. Ourém. Castanheira de Pêra. Leiria. 3 with top managers from restaurants. they hold important information and are able to give a global overview of the tourism industry. They have different points of view from the managing directors that see the organisations from the top and as a whole. Figueiró dos Vinhos and Pedrógão Grande. 10 from the Travel Agencies. representing the councils of Alvaiázere. The goal was that for the selected firms. and therefore it is necessary to understand that differences in order to be able to correctly define the training offer.
FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS
. Nevertheless. Ansião. 16 interviews were conducted: 3 with top managers/managing directors of the Tourism Region associations (1 from the Tourism Region of the Center. and consequently willing to identify training needs and undertake the pathway of learning. Marinha Grande. 1994). A highly detailed questionnaire was developed for the tourism industry. (representing the councils of Bombarral.g. For a universe of 235 firms 506 questionnaires were sent. 7 with top managers/managing directors from hotels or hotels groups. The use of hybrid strategy allows the researcher to reach a deeper understanding of the overall setting (Morse. as a result of their deep understanding of the industry as a whole and its evolution. representing the councils of Alcobaça. or fine restaurants) were inquired. Fifty-two valid questionnaires were collected during 2005. The interviews took place between September 2004 and March 2005. Questionnaires were sent to the mailing list given by the 3 different Region Tourism associations that cover the Leiria Region councils. Óbidos and Peniche). as it is above the average response in the tourism sector. and 1 from the Tourism Region of Oeste. 23 from hotels and hostels. Before the administration of the survey instrument. Qualitative data was assessed through content analyses. 1 from the Leiria-Fátima Tourism Region. and 3 with managing directors from travel agencies. Based on secondary and qualitative primary data collected. Pombal and Porto de Mós. the current study pilot tested the questionnaire. The use of qualitative data imbued the research data with confidence. 5 stars hotel. different individuals from different organizational hierarchical position would answer the questionnaire identifying their specific training needs. In total.directors/top managers were selected for interviewing.
the following scale of mean was considered: <2. firstly the identification of training needs by General Areas of Training would be presented. but it is believed that they could be key training areas in the near future. by professional category.5 were considered. respectively. 2. it would be discussed.The comments to the results were based on the statistic mean. For the findings and data analysis.5 <= e <3. with means: 2.5 strongly needed For the data analysis.5 would be considered like slightly needed 2. Figure 1 – Identification of the General Areas Training Needs
.71 and 2. Respondents (see Fig.5 much needed > = 4.6 for Management. Touristic Management and New Areas of Training. only those findings that presented a mean >= 3.92. Secondly. Thirdly Specific Areas of Training Needs required by Professional Category would be shown. Fourthly the type of qualifications whished by each professional category to achieve knowledge would be identified.5 <= e <4.5 needed 3. restaurants and travel agencies.
Identification of training needs by General Areas of Training
The questionnaire was divided in three broad areas of training: Management. Using a five-point Likert-style rating scale (1= no need to 5 = strongly need). The Touristic Management area includes specific areas related to the accommodation. 2) identified all the tree areas of training as needed. Touristic Management and New Areas of Training. The New Areas of Training cover areas which are currently little developed.
New areas of training in the sector
2. are just necessary.5).1 and 3. 2) that: For Managing Directors/Top Managers the training on Management it is very necessary (mean 3.5). there is no need for training in any area of knowledge (average means bellow 2.5).70
2. Figure 2 – Identification of Training Needs by General Areas of Training by Professional Category
.1 respectively. i. respectively. they need knowledge on management and business administration. does not necessary mean that they do not need it. Instead it may underline the fragile contractual relationship that Apprentices may have with companies.e.0. and the potential risk that firms will take if they decide to invest on training for them.80
2. being at first the Management with means of 3. The research findings revealed (see Fig. For Middle Managers training on Management it is also very necessary (mean 3.60
2. The fact that the Apprentices do not pointed any need for training.9 and 3. scoring 2. For Apprentices.90
Identification of Training Needs by General Areas of Training by Professional Category
To the previous question the professional category for analyses was added. For Supervisors and Operationals all the areas of training are necessary.
It would be expected that training on management would be the most needed by Managing Directors/Top Managers and Middle Managers. Touristic Management and New Areas of Training in the Sector. As they run the companies. and the two other areas.
while Supervisors and Apprentices have distinct choices (see Fig.00
3.00 2. and “Waiter Service” (mean 3. Supervisors have chosen “Work Organization” (4. It is also interesting to note that on a national and international competition level the quality of the services drives customers’ country choices. “Human Resources Management and Labor Legislation”. individuals identify the training areas that area related to their daily tasks.Apprentices: New Areas of Training in the sector Operationals : New Areas of Training in the sector Supervisors: New Areas of Training in the sector Middle Managers: New Areas of Training in the sector
Managing Directors/Top Managers: New Areas of Training in the sector Apprentices : Touristic Management Operationals : Touristic Management Supervisors: Touristic Management Middle Managers: Touristic Management Managing Directors/Top Managers: Touristic Management Apprentices : Management Operationals : Management Supervisors: Management Middle Managers: Management Managing Directors/Top Managers: Management 2. Operationals acknowledged “Welcoming and Service Techniques” (4. interrelationships. including better human resource management as a way to increase work productivity and cut costs. which in this sector area based on the creation of liaisons. The results showed that Managing Directors/Top Managers and Middle Managers have similar training needs.2). The above areas of training reflect the professional concerns of responding to the increasing demanding on the quality of the services. “English”.1) and “Customer Management”.4).9) as the most necessary training areas. and “Strategic Management” with an mean of 4. Middle Managers pointed out training on “Communication.3): Managing Directors/Top Managers identified “Human Resources Management and Labor Legislation”. Image and Marketing” (mean 4.5). For the Apprentices there is no area in which they consider much necessary (mean above 3. (3. Image and Marketing” with mean of 4.50
3.0) and “English” (3. As expected.
. “Hygiene and Work Safety”. “New Tourism Trends” (mean 4) as the training areas most needed.9) and “Public Relations/Protocol” (3. The areas that they consider necessary are “Welcoming and Service Techniques” and “Hygiene and Work Safety” (mean 3.1 followed by close by “New Tourism Trends” and “Communication.0). The identified training areas also reflected the need for work organization.9).3). “Customer Management”.50
Identification of Specific Areas of Training Needs by Professional Category
Individuals were asked to indentify the areas in which they most needed training. “French” and “Bar Service” (mean 3.
internet e intranet Inglês
Análise financeira e controlo de gestão
Serviço de andares/Serviço de quartos
Higiene e segurança no trabalho
Direcção ou gestão de alojamento
Nutrição e dietética Direcção ou gestão de restauração e bebidas Gastronomia
Novas tendências do turismo
Enologia e serviço de vinhos
Gestão de clientes
Serviço de mesa
Serviço de bar
Gestão e controlo da qualidade
Organização de eventos e espectáculos
Técnicas de atendimento e acolhimento
Práticas de agência de viagens
Serviço de mesa Serviço de bar
Práticas de agência de viagens Novas tendências do turismo Arte culinária Engenharia alimentar Microbiologia Webmarketing
Assistentes de direcção
Chefes ou Supervisores
Identified the areas of training needs most needed by individuals in the tourism sector.5
Enologia e serviço de vinhos
1.Figure 3 – Specific Areas of Training Needs by Professional Category
Gestão estratégica Gestão de clientes Comunicação.5
3. internet e intranet Inglês Francês Alemão Espanhol Italiano Gestão hoteleira Técnicas de atendimento e acolhimento Animação turística Decoração
Chefes ou Supervisores
Organização de eventos e espectáculos Higiene e segurança no trabalho Gestão e controlo da qualidade Direcção ou gestão de alojamento Serviço de andares/Serviço de quartos Limpeza/Arrumação/Rouparia/Lavandaria Recepção/Portaria Nutrição e dietética Direcção ou gestão de restauração e bebidas Gastronomia
2. The following section identifies the needs of training qualification by professional category.5
Directores gerais Assistentes de direcção
. imagem e marketing Gestão dos recursos humanos e legislação no trabalho Relações públicas/Etiqueta e protocolo
Gestão de compras e aprovisionamento Gestão ambiental/Eficiência dos recursos Organização do trabalho
Contabilidade/Fiscalidade Informática (básica e avançada). it is important to know next the best way to achieve it. imagem e marketing Gestão dos recursos humanos e legislação no trabalho Relações públicas/Etiqueta e protocolo Gestão de compras e aprovisionamento Gestão ambiental/Eficiência dos recursos Organização do trabalho Análise financeira e controlo de gestão Contabilidade/Fiscalidade Informática (básica e avançada).
it was identified as “much needed” with mean above 4.5 3 2. due to its time schedule flexibility.8 and 4. is followed by Continuous Training (mean 4. The Continuous Training plays any important role on the (re)qualification of the professionals in the tourism sector. especially for Apprentices is that does not require any standard qualifications level to undertake it. all the other professional categories stated first choose Continuous training as most preferred training qualification to obtain knowledge i. As a second choice Supervisors and Operationals indicate Vocational/Professional Courses (mean of 3.5 2 1. (mean of 3.e.4 up to 5 years) Masters /Post Graduated Courses Continuos Training Technical Courses (1 Year) PhD Vocational/Professional Courses e-Learning Bachelor
Managing Directors/Top Managers Supervisors Apprentices
Middle Managers Operationals
Individuals may have chosen Continuous Training as their first option. and very specific training knowledge. 4) that with the exception of the Apprentices. namely within the tourism sector. which of those training qualifications they would like to attend to fulfil their training needs. As third choice appear the Technical courses (mean of 3. Masters and Post-graduate courses. Bachelors of Honour (4 up to 5 years). Bachelors. and e-learning.2 respectively).1) and Technical Courses. By identifying the qualification required by individuals within organizations and the areas of training that they need.5 1
Bachelor (Hon . this research provides important insights to educational decision makers as well as to academics.) For the Apprentices the first choice for training qualifications is the Vocational/Professional Courses (mean 4.Identification of Training Qualification Needs by Professional Category
4.The respondents were asked to indentify among Phd. This preference for learning qualification. The results would help to strategically adequate the educational offer to the 13
This paper seeks to explore and develop an in-depth understanding of the organizations’ training needs in the Leiria Region. Technical courses (these courses are in between the Bachelors and the vocational/professional courses).7 and 4. Other reason.0 respectively.5 4 3. Vocational/Professional Courses. The results showed (see Fig. Figure 4 .2.8). Continuous training (short term training). short term.3).
M. Vol. R. 26. performance. K. Alvarez. (2002): 241-251. K. V. L. and effectiveness. D. E. 1988. S. Achieving results from training: How to evaluate human resource development to strengthen programs and increase impact. and Weick. A..1002/hrdq. 2007. M. S.. M. Policy Dimensions of Human Resource Management in the Tourism and Hospitality Industries. Jr Managerial behavior. J. Vol. Additionally. Wiley Periodicals.wiley. Lawler.com). D. E. A. Inc. A.. In International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Dunnette... London: Jossey-Bass Publishers. E. Salas.
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