Check Opening to On Site Detention Pond(OSD), Pipe Control Outlet and Spillway.

1. Intake Opening To On Site Detention Pond.
Qinto pond = 0.018 m3/s
i) Try

350

x

125

mm Openning.

A =

0.35

x

0.125

=

P =

0.35

+

0.125

x

2
0.0438 m

2

R =

A/P

=

0.073 m

S =

1
650

=

0.002

= 0.600

m

1/n x A x R 2/3 x S 1/2

Q =
=

1
0.015

x

0.044

=

0.02

>

3
0.018 m /s

x

0.073

2/3

x

0.002

1/2

(o.k)

Adopt 350 x 125 mm Opening.
2. Pipe Control Outlet.
3
Qout from the pond = 0.016 m /s

i) Try
A =

100
3.14

mm dia. Pipe.
x

P = 2 x 3.14 x
R =

A/P

Say, level at OSD is 0.00 m.
Assume water level at OSD
=
And water level at roadside drain =
H = 0.6 - 0 =

=

0.100

2

0.050

/

4

=

0.008

m2

= 0.314 m

0.025 m

Q = A1 V1 = A2 V2
V =

0.016

/

0.008

=

2.038

m/s

2
2
4/3
Sf = V n / R

= 2.038 2 x
= 0.128

0.015

V12
2g

0.5 V22
2g

hL =

+

=

1.5

x 2.038

=
=

0.318 +
0.394 m

2

2

/

0.025

+

Sf.

/

4/3

L

2 x 9.81

+ 0.128

0.077

<

0.6 m

Adopt 100 mm dia.Pipe.

(o.k)

0.6

0.60
0.00
0.60

m
m
m

3. Spillway.
Qspillway

=
=
=

Q10
Q2
0.018 - 0.016
3
0.002 m /s

From Equation 20.9,
1.5
Qspillway = C sp . B. H p
Trial dimensions:

Qspillway

B
Hp

=
=

0.3 m
0.075 m

C sp

=

1.38

=

1.38

x

0.3

=

3
0.009 m /s

>

(From Design Chart 20.2)
x

0.075

1.5

0.002 m3/s

(o.k)

ON SITE DETENTION POND (OSD)
2
(A) Pre -Development Runoff From Typical Plot For Semi-D (Area = 260 m )

Design data
Location of Site

Alor Star (Kedah)

2-year ARI 24-hour rainfall depth, 2P24h

(Figure 13.3)

120 mm

Catchment area for this development

0.026 Ha

Design ARI

=

2

year

Time of Concentration for Natural Catchment
tcs =

Fc * L
A 1/10 * S 1/5

Where,
tcs = the time of concentration (minute)
Fc = a conversion factor,
2
58.50 when area is in km
or

92.50 when area is in Ha

L = length of flow path from catchment divide to outlet (km)

0.015 km

A = catchment area (km2 or Ha)
S = slope of stream flow path (m/km)
Thus, tcs =

5.02

1%

Minutes

Fitted IDF Equation to determine rainfall Intensity,
In(RItc)

R

It

2
3
= a +b In(tc) + c(In (tc)) + d (In (tc))

From Equation 13.2

Where,
R

It = the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI and duration t

R = average return interval (years)
t = duration (minutes)
a to d are fitting constants dependent on ARI.
If tc is less than 30 min, then assume tc is 30 min to determine its' intensity and rainfall depths
follow with adjustment to get the actual rainfall intensity.
Coefficients for the IDF Equations, (30 < t < 1000 min) from Table 13.A1.
tcs (min)

30
60
Fd =

Location

ARI(year)

a

b

c

d

Alor Star

2

5.6790

-0.0276

-0.0993

0.0033

a

b ln (tc)

1.85

I (mm/hr) Pd (mm)

c (ln(tc))2 d (ln(tc))3

5.6790
-0.0939
-1.1487
5.6790
-0.1130
-1.6646
(Value interpolated from Table 13.3)

0.1298
0.2265

96.183
62.045

48.091
62.045

From Equation 13-3, Pd
Rainfall depth

=

P30 -FD(P60-P30)

Intensity of rainfall

(for tcs =

5.02

min)

2

P tcs =

22.28

mm

(for tcs =

5.02

min)

2

I

266.24

mm/hr

2
I tcs = 266.24 mm/hr
Therefore,
From Design Chart 14.4 (Vol.5, pg 14-25), for rural area, C =
(Medium Soil -Open Crop = Categrory B)

Determination of Peak Flow, Q2
From Equation 14.7, Q2 = (C x I x A) /360
(C x 2 I tcs x A)
Q2 =
360
=

5.54
360

=
=

0.015
15.38

m3/s
L/s

tcs

0.800

=

2
(B) Post -Development Runoff From Tyipical Plot For Semi-D (Area = 260 m )

Location of Site

Alor Star (Kedah)

Design ARI

=

Catchment area for this development

10

year

0.026 Ha

Drain Length, Ld

=

10.67

m

Overland Flow Distance, Lo

=

24.38

m

Land Slope, S

=

0.2

%

From Design Chart 14.1 (Vol. 5, pg 14-23)
with Ld = 24.38 m, Slope = 0.2 %, and Paved Surface n = 0.015
Overland Flow Time, to
=
6.20
min
Estimated Drain Velocity, Vd

=

0.75

m/s

Total Time in Drain, td

=

0.24

min

Design ARI

=

10

year

Time of Concentration, tc

=

to + td

=

6.44

Fitted IDF Equation to determine rainfall Intensity,
In(RItc)

min

R

It

2
3
= a +b In(tc) + c(In (tc)) + d (In (tc))

From Equation 13.2

Where,
It = the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI and duration t

R

R = average return interval (years)
t = duration (minutes)
a to d are fitting constants dependent on ARI.
If tc is less than 30 min, then assume tc is 30 min to determine its' intensity and rainfall depths
follow with adjustment to get the actual rainfall intensity.
Coefficients for the IDF Equations, (30 < t < 1000 min) from Table 13.A1.
tcs (min)

Location ARI(year)
Alor Star

30
60

10

a

b

c

d

5.6422

0.1575

-0.1329

0.0056

a

b ln (tc)

5.6422
5.6422

0.5357
0.6449

I (mm/hr) Pd (mm)

c (ln(tc))2 d (ln(tc))3
-1.5374
-2.2279

Fd =
1.64
(Value interpolated from Table 13.3)
= P30 -FD(P60-P30)
From Equation 13-3, Pd

0.2203
0.3844

129.130
85.075

64.565
85.075

Rainfall depth

(for tc =

Intensity of rainfall
Therefore,

10

I tc =

6.44

(for tc =

288.28

6.44

min)

10

P tc =

30.93

min)

10

I

288.28 mm/hr

tc

=

mm

mm/hr

From Design Chart 14.3 (Vol.5, pg 14-24), for urban area, C =
0.860
(Urban Residential Fully Built Up With Limited Gardens = Categrory 4)
Determination of Peak Flow, Q10
From Equation 14.7, Q10 = (C x I x A) /360
(Cx 10 I tc x A)
Q10 =
360
=

6.45
360

3
= 0.0179 m /s
=
17.91 L/s
Determination of Permissible Site Discharge, PSD

The following equation is used to determine the PSD in L/S.
PSD =

(a2 -4 b)

a2

For above ground storage,
a = (4

Qa

=

tc
88.17079

) (0.333 tc

Qp

+ 0.75 tc + 0.25 tcs)

Qa

b = 4 Qa Qp
=
1101.729
Where,
tc = Post-development time of concentration (S)
tcs = Pre-development time of concentration (S)

386.23
301.22

Qp = Pre-development peak discharge with storm duration equal to tc (L/s)
Qa = Post-development peak discharge with storm duration equal to tcs (L/s)
Thus, the required PSD for the above ground storage

=

15.0717 L/S

Determination of Site Storage Requirement, SSR
The following equation is used to determine the SSR in m3.
SSR = 0.06 td (Qd - c - d)
For above ground storage :
c = 0.875 PSD (1 - 0.459

d=

0.214

PSD
Qd

)

PSD2
Qd

Table for Post Development Peak Discharge for Design Storm (10 year ARI) Storage

15.38
17.91

Storm
Rainfall
Duration, Intensity, I
Impervious Area
td
(mm/hr)
(Minutes)
C
A (Ha)
0.00
282.08
0.900
0.018
1.29
291.08
0.900
0.018
2.57
292.08
0.900
0.018
3.86
277.60
0.900
0.018
5.15
261.91
0.900
0.018
6.44
247.35
0.900
0.018
7.72
234.29
0.900
0.018
9.01
222.65
0.895
0.018
10.30
212.24
0.890
0.018
11.59
202.91
0.883
0.018
12.87
194.48
0.882
0.018
14.16
186.84
0.880
0.018
15.45
179.88
0.880
0.018
16.74
173.50
0.790
0.018
18.02
167.63
0.780
0.018
Table for Site Storage Inflow
Storm
Duration,
Qd (L/S) PSD (L/S)
td
(Minutes)
0.00
1.29
2.57
3.86
5.15
6.44
7.72
9.01
10.30
11.59
12.87
14.16
15.45
16.74
18.02

17.364
18.031
17.897
16.811
15.702
14.701
13.818
12.993
12.231
11.564
11.023
10.498
10.029
8.846
8.426

15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072
15.072

Pervious Area
C
0.741
0.759
0.728
0.695
0.667
0.643
0.622
0.605
0.583
0.570
0.558
0.540
0.520
0.510
0.500

A (Ha)
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008

c

d

SSR (m3)

7.934
8.128
8.090
7.761
7.378
6.982
6.585
6.166
5.729
5.298
4.912
4.498
4.091
2.875
2.361

2.800
2.696
2.716
2.892
3.096
3.307
3.518
3.741
3.975
4.204
4.410
4.630
4.847
5.495
5.769

0.000
0.557
1.095
1.427
1.616
1.704
1.722
1.668
1.562
1.433
1.315
1.164
1.011
0.478
0.321

CA

Qd (L/S)

0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.018
0.018

17.364
18.031
17.897
16.811
15.702
14.701
13.818
12.993
12.231
11.564
11.023
10.498
10.029
8.846
8.426

From Site storage inflow hydrograph
The maximum Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

=

1.722

m3

The Critical Duration

=

7.72

minutes

Percentage added to the volume to compansate for the construction inaccuracy and
inevitable loss in storage due to build up of vegetation growth over time =
10%
Therefore, the required SSR

=

With allowable water depth of 0.6 m, the required area of pond =
So,the OSD is 3.0 x 1.2 = 3.6 m2 > 3.16 m2

1.894

m3

3.16

m2
(O.K)

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