Digital Re-print - November | December 2011

Database for animal diet formulation techniques: A glance to last decade

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872



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Database for animal diet formulation techniques:
A glance to last decade

by Dr Pratiksha Saxena, School of Applied Sciences, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, India


number of techniques have been in use for animal diet formulation for more than 100 years.

For an effective animal diet, different nutrient ingredients are combined in such a way that they provide all necessary nutrition at different stages of production. Different class of animal has different requirement of energy to maintain growth, metabolism, reproduction and lactation. While formulating animal diet, other factors are also considered; such as digestibility, acceptability of nutrient ingredients, cost factor and minimum presence of toxic elements. Objective of animal diet formulation is to produce an effective diet at minimum cost to provide appropriate energy to animal.

Fixed vs non-fixed formualtions
A number of techniques have been formulated for the purpose of animal diet formulation. Fixed formulation techniques and non-fixed formulation techniques have been derived. Nutrient ingredients formulation cannot be altered arbitrarily in fixed formulation diet. Benefit of this kind of diets is; less amount of variation in dietary composition, controlled diet and less negative influence on well being of animals. But lower quality or lower price nutrient ingredients cannot be introduced time to time in this type of diet because of fixed formulation. While in non-fixed formulation diet, low price ingredients, non-assayed components and required concentration of components can be introduced. Initially, Linear-programming technique was used as main tool for non-fixed formulation. In the era of changing technology, a number of tools and software have been developed in this regard. The past decade has witnessed a great change in the field of animal diet formulation, as it is the high time when optimisation techniques other than linear programming were used very well for the purpose of diet formulation. Chance constrained programming, separable programming, multi-objective approach, sensitivity analysis and other methods used for this purpose have given a new dimension to feed formulation techniques. In this article, an attempt has been made to consider most of the work of last decade.

Linear programming
A combination spreadsheet is represented for ration formulation using linear programming [VandeHaar M J, Black J R, 1991]. Chance-constrained programming is used to formulate commercial feeds for animals [William B Roush, Robert H Stock, Terri L Cravener and Thomas H D’Alfonso, 1994]. Two non-linear optimisation problems are formulated as an iterative sequence of linear programming problems
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References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must purchase this article.Alan G Munford 1999]. The first is concerned with the problem of meeting the nutrient requirements of the dairy cow in the case when nutrient requirements are taken to be a function of the diet fed. The second problem is concerned with formulating batches of animal feed when raw material nutrient content is variable, and it is necessary to meet nutrient requirements with a given probability. A model is developed to achieve a final calving weight of 600kg for large breed replacement dairy heifers [P R Tozer, 2000]. A smallholder dairy project was undertaken by the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development [MoLFD, the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)]. The project is led by the Ministry with primary funding from the UK Department for International Development (DFID) [Muriuki H, Omare A, Hooton N, Waithaka M, Ouma R, Staal S J, and Odhiambo P 2003]. A base linear program is developed and then variability of crude protein content of ration ingredients is incorporated by three methods; right hand side adjustment, incorporation of a safety margin and stochastic programming. Cattle diet is formulated in an Argentinean farm [Jose M Cadenas, David A Pelta, Hector R Pelta, Jose L Verdegay, 2004] by applying fuzzy linear programming. This problem is solved by using decision support systems (DSS) named SACRA (a Spanish acronym for support system for the construction of diets) that is specifically developed for this problem. SACRA is based on PROBO, an already experimented DSS developed by the authors. The tests carried out with SACRA have shown a high level of satisfaction from the side of decision makers. An Excel solver non-linear programming technique was used to optimise performance response to energy density in broiler feed [Guevara V R 2004]. This period can be coded as resolution for optimisation model of animal diet formulation. In these period, linear assumptions of animal diet formulation is overcome by introducing nonlinear programming technique for animal diet formulation [Saxena Pratiksha, 2006]. This technique mainly uses three important nutrient ingredients; Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN), Crude Protein (CP) and Dry Matter (DM). Genetic algorithms are applied for the cost optimisation of the feed mixtures and a software is developed by using Delphi environment, which provides flexible, extensible and user-friendly framework for tuning the heuristic relevant parameters and improving the solution

quality [M Akif �ahman, Mehmet Çunka�, �eref �nal et al]. Dynamic programming technique is used to determine optimal marketing and feeding policies for beef cattle [Kennedy J O S 2008]. Open and closed formula laboratory animal diets and their importance in research was described by Dennis E Barnard, Sherry M Lewis, Beverly B Teter, and Julius E Thigpen, 2009. Extensions of the classical Markowitz meanvariance portfolio optimisation model was done by P Bonami, M A Lejeune, 2009. An exact solution approach was proposed in which the uncertainty in the estimate of the expected returns and the integer trading restrictions are simultaneously considered. The proposed algorithmic approach rests on a nonlinear branch-and-bound algorithm that features two new branching rules. A spreadsheet feed problem was set up with 11 ingredients and 11 constraints [W B Roush, J Purswell and S L Branton, 2009]. The LP and SP solutions were determined using the Excel Solver algorithm. Two problems compared LP and SP solutions at 50 and 69 percent probabilities for the protein constraint. Results for the 69 percent probability problem showed a difference in the formulated rations. The LP reduced cost was US$34.25 and the SP reduced cost was US$34.52, showing the respective amounts that the cost of wheat would have to be reduced to be included in the solution. The shadow price and the Lagrange multiplier were US$2.73 and US$2.71, respectively, for the amount of increase in diet cost that could be expected by a unit of change in the protein requirement.

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Multi-agent modeling
A multi-agent modeling approach [A Hamel, I Bouvarel, S Pinson, M Lessire, P Lescoat, 2009] is used for simulation of vegetal raw material in poultry production chains. This simulation method (Avisim) represents dynamics of raw materials as a feed compound, poultry markets and evolution of individual and collective decision-making process within pulty forms. The purpose of AviSim is to represent the dynamics of human activities and decision to establish the formulation matrix. It works on Java language and simulates the production process and provides the results. The details of the simulation run (exchanges between agents, external events, undertaken decisions, etc.) can also be viewed. This simulation program has four agents, Formulator, Integrator, Purchaser, Manufacturer and Manager. AviSim simulates the poultry production process following four firms functioning layers, which consist of the simulation of (i) the upstream

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FEATURE dynamics (raw materials market) and raw materials purchase processes (ii) feed formulation (iii) feed manufacturing and the management of raw materials storage (iv) and finally, poultry production planning evolutions. Each agent simulates the activities of corresponding functioning layer. To simulate the dynamics of firm environments (raw materials poultry markets) a conceptual agent is defined, called EMA (Event Manager Agent). EMA generates randomly external events), and firm agents react to these events. AviSim is based on a discrete simulation mode, where each simulation step represents one week of production. The simulation process evolves according to firm production objectives and domain agents behaviours. A multi-objective stochastic model is formulated confronting the cost of the ration with the probabilities of meeting the nutrient requirements of the animal can enhance the process of animal diet formulation [Peña T, Lara P, Castrodeza C 2009]. A method called Precision feeding is proposed to improve the utilisation of dietary nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and thus reduce feeding costs and nutrient excretion [Pomar, Candido 2009]. After determining feed potentials, diet is improved by addition of enzymes or feed treatments. Using this approach, it has been estimated that feeding costs can be reduced by more than 4.6 percent, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion can both be reduced by more than 38 percent. A LP technique is derived to investigate, analyze and indicate how best the available local ingredients can be combined effectively and efficiently to formulate least-cost ration for broilers [Bassam Al-Deseit, 2009]. The result of this study showed that the least cost ration for starter broiler produced by linear programming model consists of 68.0 percent yellow corn, 25.07 percent soybean, four percent wheat bran, 0.5 percent fish meal, 0.5 percent Ca diphosphate, 0.1 percent lysine, 0.32 percent methoinine, 0.3 percent limestone, 0.3 percent NaCl, 0.5 percent ready premix, 0.4 percent soya oil and 0.01 percent vitamins and mineral mix. For the finisher ration the results showed that the ration consists of 67.5 percent yellow corn, 20.45 percent soybean, five percent wheat bran, 0.25 percent fish meal, 1.5 percent ca diphosphate, 0.25 percent lysine, 0.35 percent methoinine, 0.3 percent limestone, 0.5 percent NaCl, 3 percent ready premix, 0.75 percent soya oil and 0.15 percent vitamins and mineral mix. Sustained feed manufacturing will depend upon finding solutions to such limitations. Solutions to this limitation will include innovations towards the development of broad-based multiple formulation approaches that attempt to collectively optimise stakeholder needs step by step. Application of Genetic Algorithm is proposed Rosshairy [Abd Rahman, Chooi-Leng Ang, and Razamin Ramli, 2010] to obtain minimum cost diet for farmed animal. GA is integrated with other Artificial intelligence techniques that come from bees’ family and is based on Artificial Bee Algorithm. In this algorithm, two types of Artificial Bee Algorithm are considered; Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm and Marriage in Honey Bee Optimisation (MBO) algorithm. ABC framework is chosen here to increase the exploration and exploitation in basic GA algorithm. By incorporating GA, ABC and MBO, this algorithm is expected to produce great solution for feed mix problem. A linear fuzzy model is developed [D. Darvishi SalooKolayi, A. Teimouri Yansari, S. H. Nasseri, 2010] in which composition based inference function works for single input and single output systems. It demonstrates differencing operation and with extensive limitations, there is collection of responses. Minimise cost 1476.9 and 1222.5 Rial/ kg is achieved at and respectively. The use of fuzzy model approaches allows nutritionists and dairy producers to manage better a heterogeneous population of cows in a herd via formulating the ration. In addition, a nutrition fuzzy model is more mechanistically based and therefore permits a more robust application of scientific knowledge. Feed product had been formulated both with linear and stochastic programming on different probability levels with nutrient averages and the standard deviation of a key nutrient in ingredient batches from two vendors [Csikai, A 2011]. Integration between supplier quality management and feed formulation brings the benefits of more consistent product quality, lower costs of rations, accuracy in planning, support in ingredient purchasing decisions, better traceability, improvement of supplier performance, and internal quality management processes.

Energy density and preformance
A non-linear programming Excel Workbook (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) was developed using the Excel Solver (Frontline Systems Inc., Incline Village, NV) to optimise energy density and bird performance [M Afrouziyeh, M Shivazad, M Chamani, G Dashti, S Amirdahri, 2011]. In this study, six dietary treatments (2.535, 2.635, 2.735, 2.835, 2.935, and 3.035 Mcal of ME/ kg) were fed to Hy-Line W-36 laying hens (n = 192) in phase two (from 32 to 44 weeks of age). Data were fitted to quadratic equations to express egg mass, feed consumption and the objective function return over feed cost in terms of energy density. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, the prices for eggs, corn and soybean meal were increased and decreased by 25 percent and the program was solved for the maximum profit and optimised feed mix. A feed-formula optimizing system is successfully studied based on Windows 2000 Advanced Server, with SQL Server 2000 database and ASP Web-page language and Linear programming together [XiongBen-hai, LuoQing-yao and PangZhi-hong, 2011]. It has set up one whole calculating platform to design all kinds formulas based on web technique, which can share information of feed science and animal nutrition to help directly designing feed-formulas.

Digestible amino acids
A study was conducted to determine the effects of diets formulation based on digestible amino acids of feedstuffs and nitrogen correctedtrue metabolisable energy on egg characteristics and reproductive performance of Arian broiler breeder in 50 to 64 week of age [Javad Nasr¹+, Akbar Yaghobfar², Yahya EbrahimNezhad¹, Kambiz NazerAdl 2011]. This experiment suggested that diet formulation based on AMEn+DAA significantly increased egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit, fertility, hatchability and chicken weight. A method is developed to stimulate interest in the generation and application of ileal digestibility as a method for estimating amino acid availability in poultry nutrition [I U Udo and U E Umoren, 2011].

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Feed mill and farmer study
Another study is conducted [S M Mutua, A Y Guliye, B O Bebe, A K Kahi, 2010] in Nakuru District-Kenya with 78 respondents: 19 feed millers, 37 smallholder dairy farmers, and 22 feed policy officials (10 from KEBS and 12 from NEMA) between September 2009 and April 2010. Data was collected by a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Dependent variables were classified as: Least cost of ingredients (LCI) issue consisting of nine items, Maximum profit margins (MPM) issue consisting of nine items, Minimum P-levels (MPE) in manure issue consisting of nine items. Correlation between dependent variable items: (least cost of ingredients, maximum profit margins, and minimum nutrient excretion) within each feed industry stakeholder group (feed millers, dairy farmers, KEBS and NEMA) were determined using the spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r) method. The statistical significance of differences in opinion responses between pairs of feed industry actors for the relative importance of economic, production and environmental goals; were determined using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95 percent confidence interval (CI) using SPSS for windows. Rank correlations coefficient within feed millers were significant between LCI and MPM (r = 0.54; p < 0.05) and between MPM and MPE (r = 0.46; p < 0.05). The dairy farmers showed significant correlations (0.61; p < 0.05) between MPM and MPE only. Correlation between LCI and MPM (r = 0.64; p< 0.05) within KEBS was significant. The correlations between MPM and MPE within KEBS and NEMA were not significant. The LCI and MPE were not significantly correlated for all the stakeholder groups. The NEMA did not show any significant relationship for any pair of the three formulation objectives. It was concluded that the current singular objective formulation approach is limited in dairy feed manufacturing.


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together with fat coating and new outloading and milling are supplied as a full set or individually Seed processing bins and the Humansdorp Koop are also adding for upgrading an existing plant. This has proved Although seed processing has long been an cutting edge technology - important activity in the business, the new standard in a second pelleting line, this time for high rough- to be successful not only within South Africa with massively enhanced user it has recently Resource Optimisation over 10 units sold but also - truly modern deployment significance with the age feed. experience further North in equa- taken on new opportunities completion NEWS - high ews As November thisDecember mill- torial regions with the robustness and stability you expect from Format Software level of feed 2011 a consequence of all of Africa. Now this same concept of the major turnkey project for Pioneer Hi-Bred ing activity the sales of dies and rolls for the pellet has been applied to a PeriTec wheat flour milling International (PHI), a subsidiary of the Du Pont system for OVK as described above and more Corporation of America. presses is growing at over 30 percent per annum. Perten announces formation of a to the new 10M animal feed mill. recently This plant, outside Pretoria, which produces t ainle ss internaargotec Deon Cronje, sales director, commented feeder line w it Modular millshas received of continuous unloaders screw, spray water at the inlet transgenic maize seedsh tos the highest s te e l dedicated for requirement forpneumatic, chain andFor informationtheconcept by transfer components e-mail another ain and in and pre-launch standards, please ensures that conveyor an order Process Instrumentation logical was around by In response to the a Siwertell more eco- “It has beenbucket to extend the blogging thetionalupdatesfrom followed the world I will An automatic be latest news Department in t ype Techmach initiating these new points.relates of the movement, storage, Techmach have also northern Siwertell unit is protected from nomicalship unloaderrural areas, chain only the Siwertell screw- designs since many to ourlubrication Zambia, where milling and use plants, mainly that lubricates and cools down corrosion and it is also practically ST790 -D and introducedIndian type has been demonstrated to system latest plant and built a system for Monsanto and now a further developed from the a Modular Maize Mill customers wish to apply the very types of of bearings and feed maintenance-free. end all solve the technology, t:+44 Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative functions three mandates into 1483 726 081 and grainsplant is cereals for the food and Ethiopia. er incorporating the innovative Satake/ and main problems production quickly and intermediateto be built near Addis Ababa sign up get are concept, te n Inst r ume nt s industries. To receive my reports regularlythird reference for why not in This is the Ltd (IFFCO),eParadeepsystem, s 2008 lud e by t unloading sulphur: bearings. major investAm ricas h The caused si ev a lu at io n to this Other Company projects in sub-Saharan Techmach degerming Unit. a in inc (World eunderstandably reluctant to makeblog directly or follow us on Twitter and Facebook?! high explosion risk, extreme “ E ve n w i t h p and t at i ve Siwertell enclosed screw-type unloaderfourapreassem- ments systems for me d a Proce s s are Blog executed in Nigeria, Namibia, Grain, August 2009). Typically the visits, installations, in non-productive -building structures reve nAfricaLittle,being Editorfertiliser unloaders The Global Miller by Martin corrosion and s t ringe will be used to discharge degerming, polishing , other non-essential infrastructure.” in place, there are in and Swaziland. Instrumentation Mozambique India: in 2003 a 400 t /h bled modules for cleaning, rock integration, applications nt technology regulations for environmental rare occasions on which an Siwertell 490-F was delivered phosphate and sulphur at a rated development, training, and Department to meet the explosion occurs or a fire starts, to Coromandel Fertilisers for protection.” capacity of 1,800 t/h. needs of its on-line/in-line support. The group’s initial Cargotec’s t he Per Sulphur so Cargotec has designed a unloading fertilisers and sulphur analysis customers. focus is on Siwertell ten 40 | november - december 2011 ally from 40,000 dwt ships, and S afet array based near“IFFCO wanted a tot diode y System ( ‘4S’ ) was system that reacts immediatelyGrain&feed millinG technoloGy enclosed Instruments, Inc. infr ared ( N I R ) proce ss risk upon detection and extinguishes this was followed in 2005 by an system for both developed to minimise the Perten of explosions group will environment al and safet y analysers. Theand detect fires. any fire,” Mr Paulsson said. “Fire order from Paradeep Phosphates responsible for sales and reasons,” saidthe Americas is continue is designed as new support in Anders Paulsson, The 4S to expand to prevent detectors along the conveying for a 1,600 t/h Siwertell 640-D GFMT11.06.indd 40 30/11/2011 sulphur instrumentation Sales manager, Bulk handling. process dust explosions in the line automatically stop the handling sulphur, phosphate and pleased to announce the “The companydedicated Process isconveying to the Perevacuate conveyors and start spraying fertilisers. formation of a specified a screwadded line and to ten type unloader for Department. product por tfolio. case a dust water from the fire extinguishing Component s for IFFCO’s Instrumentation high efficiency explosion pressure in Many explosion does occur, without system. To manage an explosion, system will be manufactured in and chose a Siwertell system new advances in product Ralph Hewitt Manager-Process from Cargotec because we the development are scheduled have causing damage to equipment the conveyor’s steel casings are Sweden and China for erection Instrumentation, heads and endangering the by far the most knowledge and for release in 2012. safety of reinforced with extra-thick steel, on site in Paradeep Port, Orissa, process instrumentation group. operators, personnel and other and explosion-venting valves India. With a delivery time of experience of this technology he “Process instrumentation Ralph’s experience includes first Siwertell in plant operations isfacilities. ourprevent explosions fitted along the conveyors and 12 months, the unloader is various roles system designated one of To largest areas and fires, reports Gavin for sulphur management atin of growth” the Siwertell unit is dust collectors relieve pressure.” expected to be in operation by was delivered and QC equipped with nozzles 1980. Of the processing types O ’ Re i l l y, P r e s i d e n t o f that A specially designed conveying early 2013. large grain four main and


Indian order for enclosed ship unloader includes Cargotec’s Siwertell Sulphur Safety System




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food processing facilities with Per ten Instruments, Inc companies such as Cargill, “We are very excited to ADM and Pinnacle Foods. have this highly qualified The group includes Brian g r o u p t o s e r v e o u r S c h u l t e t u s , p r o d u c t process instrumentation specialist systems customers.” “The integration, Darin formation of the Crossland product specialist Process Instrumentation applications development, Department is a further and Magnus Nilsson product d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f o u r specialist hardware and c o m m i t m e n t t o o u r customer care. In addition customers and our mutual to the dedicated st af f, success” adds Ralph. ■Per ten Instruments has ■ Process equipment upgrades and replacements New process lines and plants ■spent much of parts past More inforMation: programs ■ Optimization and support Spare and wear the ■ Service and maintenance ■18 months est ablishing Business Development Leading technologies ■ Global presence ■ Local service a ne t wor k of ve nd or s Manager capable of assisting Perten Tel: +46 8 880 990 in responding to the needs Fax: +46 8 881 210 Email: of their customers. Website: The de p ar t me nt ’s

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Mycotoxins an overview Database for animal diet formulation techniques:
A glance to last decade

African advances
Animal feed milling is one of the most buoyant activities in the agri related field

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