ABSTRACT People can be exposed to chromium through breathing, eating or drinking and through skin contact with chromium

or chromium compounds. The level of chromium in air and water is generally low. In drinking water the level of chromium is usually low as well, but contaminated well water may contain the dangerous Chromium (IV) or hexavalent chromium. Chromium (VI) is classified as a strong oxidation agent and it poses a great deal of toxicity to organisms due to its carcinogenetic where it can alter genetic materials and cause cancer. The main human activities that increase Chromium (VI) concentrations are chemical, leather and textile manufacturing, electro painting and other Chromium (VI) applications in the industry. These applications will mainly increase concentrations of Chromium in water. This health-risky

situation has lead to many researches and investigations on determining the presence and quantity of chromium in biological and environmental samples. In the present study, an absorption method for the determination of Chromium (VI) concentration is proposed and this method is operated spectrophotometrically by tracing the presence of Chromium (VI) at a wavelength of 435 nanometres. The concentration of Chromium (VI) in the water sample tested is determined to be 26.12 parts per million where this value is more than what has been standardized by state and federal regulatory agencies.

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to demonstrate the proper method of diluting solution to prepare a series of standard solutions in the range of 1 to 100 parts per million (p. Chromium (VI). Chromium ions are commonly found in either trivalent. are undeniably toxic at low aqueous solution concentrations. It is found that naturally alkaline rivers and lakes have much lower risk of such heavy metal contamination of chromium ions in comparison with naturally acidic water streams. Chromium (VI) is known to be a strong oxidizing agent. 2 . Chromium (III). Chromium (VI) formation is favored by an oxidizing environment. or hexavalent. which apparently poses a high risk yet negative impact to humans and animals due to its carcinogenetic properties.p.m) to be used in the calibration of the spectrophotometer. OBJECTIVES The objectives of conducting this experiment are to determine the Chromium (VI) content which present in simulated lake water sample using a spectrophotometer. such as chromium. while Chromium (III) is favored by a reducing environment. states. to analyze whether the simulated lake water sample tested is suitable for drinking water and agriculture purposes. That is why there are lots of studies that have been done profusely in order to determine the health-risky chromium in environmental as well as biological samples. and thus.INTRODUCTION Many heavy metals.

M is molarity. V is volume. five standard solutions will be prepared in differences concentration which is in range 1 to 100 parts per million of Chromium (VI) by diluting it with solvent which is distilled water. it lead a numerous of federal environmental agencies to do researches in order to determine the presence of Chromium (VI) in many natural samples such as lake. river and many more. electro painting and other Chromium (VI) applications in the industry. heavy metals can be identified via absorption of wavelengths of light. A. lakes and water streams which are nearer a typical congested with automobiles areas are the most susceptible areas to be contaminated by such chromium. The amount of light absorbed is linearly proportional to the concentration of the solution metal ions. 3 . Automobiles industries is also one of the common source of chromium contamination in natural waters as it is contain a component in various automobile brakes as well as parts of engine. leather and textile manufacturing. For every chemical species they will absorbs different wavelengths of light. Absorption spectroscopy operates on the measuring principle of light before and after it passes through an aqueous metal solution. The absorption spectroscopy will be used in this experiment to identify low level concentrations of Chromium (VI) in a lake water sample. Chromium that is deposited on highroads originated from brake dusts and exhaust of automobile engine can unfavorably permeate into any water streams nearby via flowing rainwater. By using absorption spectroscopy. For the purpose of light to be absorbed by chemical species. and the subscripts i and f refer to the initial and final values (Helmenstine. Therefore. the light must be set to a specific wavelength.).THEORY The main human activities that increase Chromium (VI) concentrations are chemical. The amount of light absorbed by the chemical species in the sample is equivalent to the difference in the amount of light before it enters the sample and after it exits the sample. Absorption spectroscopy is function to detect the wavelengths of light absorbed by a metal in solution. M. The volume of dilute solutions can be calculate by using the solution dilution formula which is: MiVi = MfVf Where. Due to its cancer-risk character and toxicity even at low concentrations. In this experiment.

then obviously the sample has absorbed some of the light (Ingle. therefore if the concentration of the solution is halved. The molar absorbance. 4 . As what has been standardized by state and federal regulatory agencies. J. Thus. a straight line passing through the origin will be obtained. the water sample that is more than 0. A = absorbance value (dimensionless. If I is less than Io. the intensity (I0) of the light passing through the reference cell is measured.10 parts per million concentration of Chromium (VI) can be concluded to be contaminated and thus it is not suitable for drinking or agricultural purposes. The intensity (I) of the light passing through the sample cell is also measured for that wavelength. The relationship between absorbance (A) and the two intensities is given by: The quantitative analysis by using spectrophotometer is based on Beer-Lambert Law which is: A = εLC Where. A compound with a high molar absorbance is very effective at absorbing light at the appropriate wavelength.cm) L= path length of the cuvette in which the sample is contained (cm) C = concentration of the compound in solution (mol / L) According to Beer-Lambert Law it states that absorbance value is depends on the total quantity of the absorbing compound in the light path through the cuvette. so is the absorbance value. thus no units is represented) ε = molar absorbance (L / mol. is a constant for a particular substance.For each wavelength of light passing through the spectrometer. if a graph of absorbance versus concentration of the compound solution is plotted. D et al 1988). and hence low concentrations of a compound with a high molar absorbance can be easily detected. ε.

m of standard Chromium (VI) solution of 6. 60. Lake water sample.p. 40. 19.4.05 millilitres. 5 .64 and 32.8.p.m of diluted solution of Chromium (VI) 5 set of 300 p. 80 and 100 p. 12.23. 25.APPARATUS / REAGENTS Distilled water spectrophotometer 10 millilitres square cuvette bottle pipette 5 set of 10 millilitres of 20.

The tab delimited files containing the absorbance data for each of the five standards solutions was opened. and the concentration (x-value) of Cr (VI) in the simulated lake water sample were calculated. 20mL of the 300.00 ppm Cr (VI) standard solution was obtained.00 ppm were prepared. 3. One of the standard solutions must have a concentration of 1.00 ppm and one must have a concentration of 100.PROCEDURE 1. All chromium solutions were poured into the Waste Container when the experiment is concluded. 7. The absorbance concentration for the Cr (VI) standards (from most to least concentrated) were entered. Students are to choose the concentration of the three remaining standard solutions (concentration must be within the 1. 5. 2. The absorbance of the water sample at was substituted into the equation for the for each line produced in step 6. 6 . 10. for one of the absorbance bands was selected (this might be an arbitrary determination as the absorbance fluctuates near the wavelength of the maximum absorbance).00 mL volumetric flask. and the corresponding absorbance reading standard solutions were recorded. A Beer-Lambert curve was prepared by plotting the absorbance versus data in the table in step 5.00 mL each of five standard solutions having concentration of 1. 10. The data was recorded.00 ppm. pipettes and distilled water is used to prepare the standard solutions. 4.00 ppm range). Using the serial dilution method. The absorbance spectra of the 5 solutions were recorded and an absorbance spectrum of the simulated lake water sample using the spectrometer. 6.00 tp 100.00 to 100.

324 1.4 12.4 1.2 0 0 -0.252 Absorbance value for water sample: 0.64 32.RESULT Table 1: Determination of absorbance value using spectrophotometer Concentration (ppm) 20 40 60 80 100 Volume of Cromium (IV) (mL) 6.2 1 Absorbance 0.23 25.05 Absorbance 0.504 0.9997 Figure 1: Absorbance versus concentration 7 .6 0.4 0.0051 R² = 0.8 19.237 0.0126x .0.8 0.017 1.2 20 40 60 Concentration (ppm) 80 100 120 y = 0.751 1.

23 mL 80 ppm = 25.4 mL 20 ppm = 6.324 x = x =26. 8 .05 mL 2. From graph.0126x – 0. 40 ppm = 12.4 mL Mg/L = ppm For concentration 40. M1V1 = M2V2 (156 mg/L) V1 = (20mg/L)(50 mL) V1 = 6.12 ppm The concentration value of chromium (VI) contain in water sample is 26. the equation of linear line is given as: y = 0.0051 x = Substitute the value of y which is 0.SAMPLE OF CALCULATION 1.12 parts per million.64 mL 100 ppm = 32. 60. 80 and 100 ppm.8 mL 60 ppm = 19.

no average value can be obtained from the results.p. to analyze whether the water sample tested is suitable for drinking water and agriculture purposes. and so the accuracy of the value taken is not much realistic. The water sample used to examine for presence of chromium is assumed to be contaminated as the source of water sample is located near a roadway where road users with automobiles use it every day. Other than that. Thus. the square cuvette bottle might not be cleansed properly with distilled water each time before it is used for another test. In addition. This also will lead to inaccurate contents of either standard solutions or the chromium solution. natural waters are regarded to be toxic if the concentration of Chromium (VI) is any higher than 0. Based on the consideration of state and federal regulatory agencies.100 parts per million. a few steps might be done inaccurately such as wrong way of holding the square cuvette bottle used to contain the diluted solutions might also lead to errors. This is due to rivers. Any fingerprints or smudge imprinted on the outer surface of the cuvette can become an unfavourably interference for the solutions to absorb wavelengths of light in the spectrophotometer. lakes and any water streams which are near to congested areas have the highest risk or most susceptible to contain heavy metals such as chromium itself and is then classified as contaminated water source. The water sample tested is then concluded to be unsafe and unhygienic for drinking water for public consumption or even agricultural purposes. On the other hand. according to the values of concentration of chromium (VI) which is apparently calculated to contain 26.12 parts per million. the experiment conducted to determine the absorbance value of diluted solutions that contain chromium (VI) is done only once. and thus. to demonstrate the proper method of diluting solution to prepare a series of standard solutions in the range of 20 to 100 parts per million (p.DISCUSSION This experiment is conduct to accomplish several objectives which is to determine the Chromium (VI) content which present in water sample using a spectrophotometer.m) to be used in the calibration of the spectrophotometer. These show that there is a significant content of chromium ions in the water. Besides that. 9 . the reading of absorbance by the instruments may not be accurate. Thus.

10 parts per million as what has been standardized by state and federal regulatory agencies. Try to detect another heavy metal that may contain in sample water which can cause harmful to organisms such as copper (II). From the results obtained. the water sample can be concluded to be contaminated and thus it is not suitable for drinking or agricultural purposes. Since it is more than 0. crash or deposited on the surface of cuvette must be avoided. Tested the same value of concentration of Chromium (VI) more than once in order to get the average result. 10 . irritation of the pharynx and larynx.12 parts per million. bronchospasms and edema to human being. the concentration of Chromium (VI) in the water sample tested is 26. 2.CONCLUSION The objective of doing this experiment is to determine the concentration of Chromium (VI) via absorption was achieved. asthmatic bronchitis. This is due to the high concentration of Chromium (IV) content that is mainly toxic to organisms and can result various types of disease such as in ulceration and perforation of the mucous membranes of the nasal septum. any finger print. This is because it can disturb the absorption of light by the aqueous heavy metal. 3. RECOMMENDATION 1. To make sure the accurate reading.

Prentice Hall. M. D. 2. Helmenstine. and S.REFERENCES 1. New Jersey (1988). 11 . R. A. Concentration Units & Dilutions (2003). Spectrochemical Analysis. Crouch. J. Ingle J.

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