The content of this supplementary note links with the following chapters 9 (page 211), 16 (page 374)
What is the affective response? The affective response is evaluative; it is no longer based only on simple knowledge. It includes: • • • • Feelings Preferences Intentions Favourable or unfavourable judgements.

Several operational measures are also available to market analysts, with attitude as a central concept.

The evoked and consideration sets The brands that become alternatives to the buyer's choice decision are generally a small number, collectively called the evoked set. The size of the evoked set is at best a fraction of the brands that the buyer is aware of and a still smaller fraction of the total number of brands that are actually available in the market.

Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource material

© Jean-Jacques Lambin, 2007 Published by Palgrave Macmillan

1977). To identify the consideration set. one has to know the brands considered as valid alternatives for the next purchase occasion.1. The notion of the consideration set is important. and at the same time have no intention to buy or to repurchase. whereas the average size of the consideration set is three to five brands (Jarvis and Wilcox. It is in the producer's interest to know which brands or suppliers are on the short list of potential customers.’ In this definition. A classical definition of attitude is the one given by Allport (1935): ‘The mental process by which an individual – on the basis of past experience and stored information – organises his perceptions. As illustrated in Figure Web 3. beliefs and feelings about a particular object and orientates his future behaviour. What is ‘attitude’? A central notion in affective response is the concept of attitude.3: MEASURING THE AFFECTIVE RESPONSE 2 The consideration set is the sub-set of brands known and/or tried. Figure Web 3. 2007 Published by Palgrave Macmillan . there is little chance that a brand will get adopted if it is not part of this set. it is believed that the average number of known brands may vary between ten and twenty according to the class of products. which have a non-zero probability to be selected by the buyer. In the consumer goods sector. a buyer can be familiar with a brand and even have experienced the brand.1 The Evoked and the Consideration Sets Rejected Tried Brands ( ex post evaluation ) Neutral Repeat purchase Considered One Several Occasional purchase Known Brands (Evoked set) Untried Brands (ex ante evaluation) Unfitted Existings Brands Neutral Considered Unknown Brands The consideration set is more restrictive than the evoked set. we find the three levels or components of market response: Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource material © Jean-Jacques Lambin. The composition of the consideration set varies over time and as a function of the consumption situation.

conversely. 1956 and Fishbein. Let us briefly review the basic ideas of this notion: Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource material © Jean-Jacques Lambin. Attitude is oriented and reflects feelings. Prediction: knowledge of attitudes helps predict the market response to a new or modified product. 1967) also consider that attitude is persistent. Attitude is dynamic and is a predisposition to respond. The multi-attribute product concept defined in the Note 2: Measuring the cognitive response serves as the conceptual basis for modelling attitude. but also in marketing research (Wilkie and Pessemier. the following facts are generally accepted: • • • When buyers' attitudes towards a brand become more favourable. 1973). Consumers' attitudes help explain market shares held by different brands (Assael and Day. as such. it has predictive value (behavioural component). Since measures of attitude are likely to be taken before a purchasing decision. control and prediction. Two estimation procedures can be used for measuring a multi-attribute model: the ‘compositional’ approach or the ‘decompositional’ or ‘non-compensatory’ approach. considerable attention has been given during the last twenty years to attitude measurement issues. To be more precise. not only in psycho-sociology research (Rosenberg. that it is structured. The compositional multi-attribute model The multi-attribute product concept is defined in Note 2. 1967). 1968). an unfavourable attitude heralds its decline. Given the importance of this notion. which is progressively stored by the individual (cognitive component). without having to rely on ex-post observations. Control: measures of attitudes taken ‘before’ and ‘after’ help evaluate the effectiveness of strategies aimed at changing the attitude towards the brand. Experimental studies in this area have shown that although measures of attitude are not infallible. they are of great importance for market analysis because they enable diagnosis. and that its intensity may vary widely or retain a state of neutrality. its use tends to grow and. the firm needs to intervene to maintain and to reinforce favourable attitudes. in the sense that it has internal consistency and is based on evaluative criteria. As the number of competing products and brands increases. Psycho-sociologists (see Fishbein. • • • Diagnosis: knowledge of a brand's strengths and weaknesses helps identify opportunities and/or threats facing a brand. positive or negative. 2007 Published by Palgrave Macmillan . they predict actual behaviours reasonably well. although it can be modified. These two approaches will be examined successively. or evaluation regarding the object (affective component).3: MEASURING THE AFFECTIVE RESPONSE 3 • • • Attitude is based on a series of information about the object being evaluated.

55 7. Each individual does not necessarily attach the same importance to attributes. the market analyst needs an importance score for each attribute and an evaluation (or performance) score of the brand with respect to each attribute.41 0.98 0. based on processing the stored information.68 7.50 7. ** Determinance is obtained by multiplying the importance score by the differentiation score and by standardising those products to have a sum equal to 1. 2007 Published by Palgrave Macmillan .08 5.. Individuals' attitude is structured.95 7. associating the degree of expected satisfaction or utility with the degree of presence of the attribute in the object.58 7.25 Autonomy 8 8 9 8 8 2 0.20 1.97 0.10 0.98 0.25 2.30 1. Individuals have a utility function for each attribute.09 7 9 8 9 7 7 0.1 A Compositional Multi-attribute Model Brands of laptop computer Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D Brand E Brand F Importance Differentiation* Determinance** * CompactNess 6 7 5 7 8 9 0.07 1.60 7.85 7. A numerical example is given in Table Web 3.00 1.00 7.23 8 8 8 7 6 6 0. *** The mean score is calculated using the importance scores.e. The most widely used multi-attribute model is the model developed by Fishbein (1967) and by Bass and Tarlarzyk (1969) which can be formalised as follows: Aij = Where: Aij wjk xijk n k =1 ∑w n jk ⋅ xijk = attitude of individual j about brand i = relative importance to individual j of attribute k = perceived degree of presence of attribute k in brand i by individual j (score) = number of determinant attributes (k=1 to n) This formula is a weighted average of evaluation scores.00 1.86 7.80 1. Table Web 3.15 0.1.00 5. i. Individuals hold certain beliefs about the degree of presence of attributes in each brand that is evaluated. where six brands of laptop computer are evaluated according to five determinant attributes.00 Differentiation of a particular attribute is measured by the standard deviation of the scores on that attribute. while the adjusted mean score is determined using the determinance scores. Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource material © Jean-Jacques Lambin.06 Overall score*** Mean Adjusted 7.56 0.38 Attributes Power Keyboard Screen 9 7 9 9 5 5 0.3: MEASURING THE AFFECTIVE RESPONSE 4 • • • • • Individuals perceive a brand or a product as bundle of attributes. To estimate this model.

the buyer first ranks criteria or attributes in order of importance. the remaining products are subjected to compensatory evaluation or lexicographic ordering. evaluation is no longer compensatory because one criterion dominates. The selected computer. the potential buyer adopts a conjunctive model allowing him to eliminate products not satisfying his minimal requirements. Exhibit Web 3. all brands or choice alternatives are compared on the most important attribute. the multiplicative relations between importance and performance. will be that which is ‘globally’ best for this buyer. for example. The buyer will favour the brand(s) that exceed the minimum requirements on all-important criteria. i. The procedure is continued until a final superior brand remains to be chosen or until no further brands can be eliminated. In this kind of situation. CONJUNCTIVE MODEL The buyer has some minimum cut-off level in mind for each important attribute. At the first stage.e. This way of evaluating brands is not necessarily the most effective – one can imagine. we can verify that the Fishbein's model is compensatory. if there is a ‘tie’ between several brands). In this example. The most common observation is a two stage choice procedure. A high score on one attribute will not compensate for a below minimum level on another. Non-compensatory models of attitude In the previous example.1 Non-compensatory Decision and Attitude Models DISJUNCTIVE MODEL Instead of setting minimum standards on different attributes and rejecting alternatives that do not meet all those minima. the most powerful. If not (for example. Next. low points on an attribute are compensated by high points obtained for other attributes. Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource material © Jean-Jacques Lambin. that an individual may face an absolute constraint on a price level.3: MEASURING THE AFFECTIVE RESPONSE 5 If the potential buyer evaluates brands in a linearly additive fashion. This fact allows high scores in some attributes to compensate for low ratings in others. the most convenient keyboard. He or she rejects alternatives that fall below the minimum on any one of those attributes. etc. the selected laptop computer will not necessarily be the most compact nor the one with the most readable screen. then the inferior brands are eliminated and comparisons are made among the tied brands using the second most important attribute.1 the major non-compensatory models of attitude are defined. If one brand scores higher on the most important criterion than any other brands. In Exhibit Web 3. then it is chosen. the buyer sets a high standard for one or few attributes and then considers buying only those brands meeting or exceeding the standards on these attributes only. the model suggests that brand D will be preferred by the market. the summation over all attributes and the nature of the scores show that it is a linear compensatory attitude model. however. In this model. LEXICOGRAPHIC MODEL In a lexicographic model. At the second stage. taking into account all of the relevant attributes and their relative importance. 2007 Published by Palgrave Macmillan .

December.8. and is not a determinant in the choice. it is with respect to determinant attributes that it is interesting to situate different competing brands in the market. (1967). in : Fishbein M. pp. Journal of Marketing Research. 4.W. Attitudes and Awareness. But the ranking of computers B and C is modified when the determinance scores are used. A Study of Attitude Theory and Brand Preferences. and Day G.. New York. Attitudes and Prediction of Behavior.10-17. Consumer Behavior Applications of Theory.A. This method would prevent rendering the task of respondents too demanding. Bass F. Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. 3. which is a measure of perceived difference between brands with respect to each attribute. which help differentiate among objects being evaluated.477-492. (ed. (ed. Allport G.1 global attitude scores are calculated first with the importance scores and then with the determinance scores.798-844.). Determinance reflects the ability of a particular attribute to discriminate among alternative brands.P. (1935).93-95. ‘importance’ and ‘determinance’: • • • Salience corresponds to the fact that the attribute is in the respondent's mind at a given moment. Journal of Advertising Research. as illustrated in Table Web 3. New York. Fishbein M. Clark University Press. Vol. Worcester. in Murchison C. John Wiley and Sons. A simpler method would be a measure of dispersion for differentiation score (such as standard deviation of evaluation scores). Some Theoretical Foundations and Empirical Evidence. for example. (1977). In the example of Table Web 3.3: MEASURING THE AFFECTIVE RESPONSE 6 Measuring attribute determinance To empirically measure attitude. Ma. Determinance is obtained by multiplying scores of importance and differentiation. Importance reflects the value system of the individual. (1969). but also a differentiation score. a scale of 1 (no difference) to 5 (great difference). The model predicts that individual j will prefer computer D. pp.9.A. it clearly doesn't allow discrimination among them. above.S. McGraw-Hill Book Company Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource material © Jean-Jacques Lambin.M. A Handbook of Social Psychology.). Assael H.. Attitudes. If an important attribute is equally represented in all competing brands. Differentiation may be measured by a direct question about perceived differences between brands for each attribute using. Evoked Set.W.B. determinance refers to important attributes. Clearly. 2. the attributes used as choice criteria by the target group must be identified. Jarvis L. p. 5. in : Howard J. p. and Wilcox J. (1968). A distinction must be made between attribute ‘salience’. Bibliography 1. 2007 Published by Palgrave Macmillan . Vol.1. and Tarlarzyck W. Thus. So measuring determinance implies not only a measure of importance. Predictors of Market Shares.

Vol.3: MEASURING THE AFFECTIVE RESPONSE 6. Issues in Marketing's Use of Multi-Attribute Attitude Models. 7.428-441. (1956). Vol.367-372. 2007 Published by Palgrave Macmillan . Journal of Marketing Research. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Cognitive Structure and Attitudinal Affect.10.L. (1973). 7 Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource material © Jean-Jacques Lambin. Rosenberg M. pp. and Pessemier E. Wilkie W. November.A. pp.53.J.

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