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43 During the second phase, members define their roles and responsibilities, decide how to reach their goals, and iron out the rules governing how they interact. Un fortunately, this stage often produces conflict, resulting in storming pg. 43 Tension subsides, roles are clarified, and information begins to flow among memb ers. pg. 43 Group members have established routines and a shared language. They develop loyalty and a willingness to resolv e all problems. A can-do mentality pervades as they progress toward their goal. Fights are clean, and members continue working together without grudges. Best of all, information flows freely , deadlines are met, and production exceeds expectations. pg. 44 Negative behavior is shown by those who constantly put down the ideas and suggestions of others. They insult, criticize, and aggress against others. They waste the group s time with unnecessar y recounting of personal achievements or irrelevant topics. pg.45 groupthink. This is a term coined by theorist Irving Janis to describe faulty decision-making processes by team members who are overly eager to agree with one another. pg.45 Reaching Group Decisions Majority, consensus, Minority, averaging, Authority rule with discussion. pg. 46 The key business advantage of diversity is the ability to view a project and its context from multiple perspectives. pg. 47 Poorly functioning teams avoid conflict, preferring sulking, gossiping, or bickering. A better plan is to acknowledge conflict and a ddress the root of the problem openly using the six-step plan outlined earlier. pg. 47 Tactful, constructive disagreement is encouraged. pg. 47 Effective team members are genuinely interested in achieving team goals instead of receiving individual recognition. pg. 48 Effective teams often have no formal leader. Instead, leadership rotates to those with the appropriate expertise as the team evolves and moves fr om one phase

to another. pg. 49 No meeting should be called unless the topic is important, can t wait, and requires an exchange of ideas. pg. 50 A good agenda, as illustrated in Figure 2.4 , covers the following information: -S tart time and end time -B rief description of each topic, in order of priority, including the names of individuals who are responsible for performing some action -P roposed allotment of time for each topic pg. 51 don t give a quick recap to anyone who arrives late. pg. 58 Studies of Fortune 500 companies report that soft skills such as listening, writing, and speaking a re most likely to determine hiring and career success. 41 Listening is especially important in the workplace because we spend so much time doing it. Although estimates vary, it is thought t hat most workers spend 30 to 45 percent of their communication time listening. 42 Executi ves spend 60 to 70 percent of their communication time listening. 43 pg. 58 Although workplace executives and employees devote the bulk of their communicati on time to listening, research suggests that they re not very good at it. -Experts say that we listen at only 25 percent efficiency. In other words, we ig nore, forget, distort, or misunderstand 75 percent of everything we hear. pg. 58 Poor listening habits may result from several factors. Lack of training is one s ignificant factor. Few schools give as much emphasis to listening as they do to the development of reading, speaking, and writing skills. In addition, our listening skills may be less than perfect because of the large number of competing sounds and stimuli in our lives that interfere wit h concentration. Finally, we are inefficient listeners because we are able to process speech much faster than others can speak. While most speakers talk at about 125 to 175 words per minute, listeners can listen at 450 words per minute. 45 The resulting lag time fosters daydreamin g, which clearly reduces listening efficiency. pg. 59 The simple truth is that consumers feel better about companies that value their opinions.

pg. 60 untrained listeners: -You tune out some of what the customer is saying because you know what the answer is. -You are quick to mentally criticize grammar, voice tone, and speaking style. You focus on style. -You tend to become distracted by emotional words and have difficulty controlling your angry responses. -You interrupt the customer. Trained Listners: -You listen for the customer s feelings and assess the situation. -You listen completely, trying to really understand every nuance. This enthralls speakers. -You control your anger and refuse to fight fire with fire. -You are silent for a few seconds after a customer finishes to be sure the thought is completed. pg. 63 Researchers have found that when verbal and nonverbal messages contradict each o ther, listeners tend to believe and act on the nonverbal message. pg. 64 Each of us sends and receives thousands of nonverbal messages daily in our busin ess and personal lives. pg. 64 -Eye contact: -Facial expression: squinting the eyes, swallowing nervously, clenching the jaw, smiling broadly Posture and Gestures Time -Space: A team leader who arranges chairs informally in a circle rather than in straight rows or a rectangular pattern conveys her desire for a m ore open, egalitarian exchange of ideas. -Territory: We all maintain zones of privacy in which we feel comfortable. Figure 2.11 categorizes the four zones of social inte raction among Americans, as formulated by anthropologist Edward T. Hall. Notice that we North Americans are a bit standoffish; only intimate friends and family may stand closer than ab out 1 feet. If someone violates that territory, we feel uncomfortable and defensive and may ste p back to reestablish our space. -Appearance of Business Documents -Appearance to people Fill in questions: __________(groupthink) describes faulty decision making processes by team member s who are overly eager to agree with one another. a key to a successful meeting is developing and adhering to a/an _______(agenda)

, listing each of the topics to be discussed an estimate of time for each item a nd an ending time.