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Empowered Living Program: Christian Outpatient Ministry For Armenians In The City of Glendale
A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Course MB572 Cross-Cultural Min Practicum Dr. Betty Brewster
By Jack Hakimian Summer 2007
Table Contents Introduction Who Is The Program For
Armenians: Their Origen Armenians: Their Religion Armenians: Their Language 2 5 5 6 7 8 Armenians: International Presence
Armenians: Current Ideologies
8 12 12 14 15 16 18 21 23 23 23 28 32 33
Armenians: In the City of Glendale
Glendale: Population Glendale: Economics Glendale: Housing Glendale: Education Glendale: Spiritual & Social Roots Glendale: Narcotics Related Arrest How Will The Program Work Program Summary Program: Treatment Models Program: Intense Out Patient Program: Team Approach Program: Holistic Christian Curriculum Conclusion Bibliography
Alcohol abuse cost the United States 184.6 billion dollars a year. Most of that cost came from lost of productivity, deaths, or alcohol-related illnesses.1 Drug abuse in general cost us 109.8 billion dollars (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998).2 Health-care expenses in 1995 for substance abuse problems accounts for 20% of Medicaid cost and 25% of Medicare cost.3 Medical cost associated with drug abuse in 1988 was $6.0 billion.4 Money lost due to premature deaths was $16.2 billion, and cost connected with crime, crashes, and fires was $20.4 billion.5 As you can see the predicament of drugs is a major crisis in United States of America. According to experts it is the most problematic concern facing the country of Armenia too. According Dr. Robert Winslow of San Diego State University, “…...80 percent of crimes committed in Armenia in 1992 were drug related”.6 In 1992 Armenia began an anti crime campaign that increased the total number of persons brought into formal contact with the criminal justice system. Statistics showed that for intentional homicides the contact increased by 91.9%, for robbery 154.9%, for rape 20%, for theft 200% and for drug-related crimes 4000%.7 Seventy percent of the narcotics confiscated by police in Armenia were imported from neighboring countries.8
Nace, Edgar P and Joyce A. Tinsley. 2007. Patients With Substance Abuse Problems: Effective Identification, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 10. 2 Nace, Edgar P and Joyce A. Tinsley, 10. 3 Nace, Edgar P and Joyce A. Tinsley, 10. 4 Nace, Edgar P and Joyce A. Tinsley, 10. 5 Nace, Edgar P and Joyce A. Tinsley, 10. 6 http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/rwinslow/asia_pacific/armenia.html 7 http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/rwinslow/asia_pacific/armenia.html 8 http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/rwinslow/asia_pacific/armenia.html
Geographically Armenia sits on the crossroads of drug trafficking from Asia to Europe.9 In the last 10 years it has become a major route for people transporting drugs from Iran (opiates), Russia and Georgia (opium, heroin, cannabis).10 Because Armenia’s borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan are closed, heroin dealers traffic to Turkey mainly thru Georgia.11
According to Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and the Silk Road Studies Program, two organizations affiliated with the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins,
“Seizures are small and similarly to many post-Soviet societies, corruption is rampant; the ministry of interior and other law enforcement bodies are allegedly heavily involved in drug smuggling, which led to the decrease in reporting drug offences in the last few years. Hence if for example 453 cases were reported in 2002, only 368 cases were reported in 2003. Most cases were reported in Yerevan, Shirak marz, Syunik marz and Lori marz. Cases revealed close links between the law enforcement bodies and criminal networks”
http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/rwinslow/asia_pacific/armenia.html http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/inside/research/narcotics_crime/FactSheet/2004/Armenia.pdf 11 http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/inside/research/narcotics_crime/FactSheet/2004/Armenia.pdf 12 http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/inside/research/narcotics_crime/FactSheet/2004/Armenia.pdf
Corruption is high and the users are spreading. The main age and social group of users are between 18-20 (47%) and the struggling working class (60%).13 Dr. Robert Winslow reports,
“According to the Centre of Toxicology, the number of registered cases of drug use has increased from 610 in 1996 (66% hashish and 34% opium) to 1,438 (90% of hashish and 10% of opium) in 1998” writes. According to the Centre, the number of drug addicts is close to 300, while the operative data of the Special Department of the Interior Ministry indicate the figure of 20,000”
The question I want to raise in this paper is, “What city and country are these young Armenian adults ages 18-20 trying to flee to? If, Glendale, California here in America could they be transporting with them an epidemic birthed in Armenia and sustained in America? If so, what it is the city with the highest population of 1st generation immigrants doing to confront, minimize, and prevent these problems? In his October 15, 2007 executive speech Robert S. Mueller, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, specifically pointed out the growing corruption of organized crime in Glendale by the Armenians. He said,
“I want to turn to organized crime for a moment. Public perception of organized crime may be largely based on “The Sopranos,” but the reality is far different. While La Cosa Nostra still poses a threat, criminals from Asia, Armenia, Albania, and Russia have become major players here at home. These groups run drugs, launder money, and threaten witnesses. But, like other multinational corporations, they are diversifying, from human trafficking to health care fraud. In Glendale, California, Armenian organized crime has established a presence. The unsolved murder rate is high; incidents of fraud, bribery, and witness intimidation run rampant. Many residents are scared silent, and our state and local counterparts are not adequately staffed to address the problem”14
Consequentially my goal through this 2007 summer practicum was to work with Christian Outreach for Armenians Church Recovery Team to develop a department that
will begin to address the issues of addiction and criminal behavior amongst the Armenian populace of Glendale. Our outcome based goal is to minimize the problem of chemical dependency and narcotic related arrest by 30-40% in the next 5 years. In this paper I will present my discoveries about the target group such as their history, culture, societal influences and the present statistics of Armenian drug related arrest. Then I will finish this paper by proposing some practical steps needed to have a successful drug recovery ministry “in” and “through” the church. My suggestions will be based on 6 months of actual work experience with the “Empowered Living Recovery Team” (iempowered.org) and research from various literature and Armenian drug recovery professionals in the field. By utilizing a multi-disciplinary approach I have summed up what I believe are essential facts for an Armenian drug recovery ministry to understand theoretically and the practical ingredients needed in order to create a powerful ministry that brings transformation and prevention.
Who Is The Program For
Armenians: Their Origen The program is specifically designed for the people of Armenian Descent. Armenians are people who find their origins from the southwestern part of Asia, just east of Greece and north of “Asia Minor”.15 Around 1000 B.C. the people living there were known as “the people of Urartu” the where Ararat derives from.16 Around 800 B.C. a group of Aryan from the northwest mixed with the original inhabitants and formed what
Ara S. Avakian. 1977. The Armenians In America, The IN AMERICA Series. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Company, 11. 16 Ara S. Avakian, 11.
we know today as the “Armenian” people. The mixture caused these physically strong mountain people to develop a culture, “accustomed to the rigors of the severer climate and the achievements of high culture”.17 According to Armenian tradition they developed the name “Hai” due to Noah’s great grandchild by the name of Haik who fought his cousin Bel for the purpose of being able to live freely in that mountainous area. After defeating him he started a nation called “Hai”. The accuracy of this story is disputed, nevertheless it reveals the deep Biblical connection Armenians feel, to see their identity rooted in the ancient Biblical narratives.
Armenians: Their Religion
This leads me to another aspect of the Armenians history as a religious people. The chief spirituality of the pre-Christian Armenian religion was Aramazd better know as i.e., Ahura Mazdā, the Lord Wisdom of Zoroastrianism.18 His evil opponent, Angra Mainyu, the Frightful Spirit, is attested in Armenian as Haramani or, in a later form, Arhmn. Before Christianity the Armenians were animist, who believed that natural objects had divine personalities.19 According to tradition the Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew came to Armenian and preached the Gospel with good reception from the people, only to eventually become martyr’s in the Holy Land.20 The first 250 years Christianity flourished underground and then eventually became mainstream with the radical missionary work of St. Gregory. According to tradition under intense persecution
Ara S. Avakian, 11. James R. Russell. 2005. The Armenians: Past And Present In The Making Of National Identity. In 2 Early Armenian Civilization, edited by E. H. a. M. Kurkchiyan. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 35. 19 Ara S. Avakian, 13. 20 Ara S. Avakian, 14.
by King Tiridates, St. Gregory was able to convert the king to Christianity.21 Then a few centuries later under the leadership of Mesrop Mashdotz the Armenians created an alphabet so they can read and the Holy Scriptures in their language. According to Paula Devejian, “The first sentence translated into Armenian was: "That men may know wisdom and instruction, understand words of insight" (Proverbs 1.1).”22
Armenians: Their Language The language of the Armenians, most likely came from the Aryan invaders around 800 B.C. Before the official Armenian alphabet, the language was transmitted orally. As Christianity grew the priest mainly read from Greek and Assyrian text.23 But due to the illiteracy of many priests the patriarch Sahak and the scholar Mesrop Mashdotz started working on the development of their own alphabet so they could translate the Bible into Armenian.24 After they were done the Bible was considered the “Queen of Translations”.25 The first written Armenian language was called the grabar. The Armenian language has changed since then. The common everyday language is called ashkharabar. Scholars consider the Armenian language a pleasant sound to the ear, because each letter is pronounced fully with no stress.26
Paula Devejian. 2006. God, in Your Grace Transform Our Societies. The Ecumenical Review (58.1-2 ), 1. 22 Paula Devejian,1 23 Ara S. Avakian, 16. 24 Ara S. Avakian, 17. 25 Ara S. Avakian, 17. 26 Ara S. Avakian, 17.
Armenians: International Presence Due to hundreds of years of persecution, foreign rule, and genocide Armenians now have an international presence in the Diaspora. Presently the statistics claim the following: Los Angeles area, Fresno, San Francisco, CA (up to 1 million); rest of US (500,000); Canada - Toronto and Montreal (45,000); S. America - Argentina (100,000); France - Paris, Marseilles (200,000); UK - London (15,000), Greece (15,000); rest of Europe (10,000); Turkey - Istanbul (50,000); Lebanon - Beirut (100,000?); Syria (120,000); Iran (100,000); other Middle East (Kuwait, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Gulf States, Iraq, Egypt) (25,000); Bulgaria (15,000); Australia (20,000). Probably over 1 million Armenians live outside Armenia in the former Soviet Union (Russia, Georgia in particular).27
Armenians: Current Ideologies
The ideologies of Armenians vary due to their assimilation into various geographies that dealt with their own particular political and socials issues. For example some current Armenians are more nationalistic than others. When the Armenian Republic collapsed in the late 1920’s the Soviet Union came in from Russia and the Turkish nationalist came in from Anatolia.28 Most Armenians were happy that the Soviets came because they allowed a certain portion of freedom from the Turks and amongst themselves. But, not all agreed to this vassal type relationship, like Dashnaktsutiun party who according to Sunny,
Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan. 2005. The Armenians: Past And Present In The Making Of National Identity. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 126. Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 113.
“Because of Lenin's support for the anti-imperialist struggles of the Muslim East, Soviet Armenia soon gave up its claims to Turkish Armenia in the 1921 Treaties of Kars and Moscow. Defeated and displaced by the Bolsheviks, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutiun), now the major diaspora political party, opposed these 'anti-national' policies and adopted a vehement hostility towards the new regime”29
Nevertheless the Soviet made great efforts to convince Armenians that the Soviet system was superior to capitalism, that Soviet democracy was a higher form of democracy, and that history was on the side of socialism. Many Armenians until this day are affected by the communist ideology which explains why they have such a hard time adjusting to the competitive capitalistic culture of America.30 This has led to a dependence upon welfare and white collar crime to survive economically.
Some Armenians who migrated into the Middle East before and after the 1915 genocide rub shoulders with Islamic colonial powers and likewise have developed mindsets similar, but yet distinctively Armenian for the sake of survival.31
One writer by the name of Panossian argues that current Armenians are actually broken down into two main ideologies of “East” and “West”. He writes,
“…………. as far back as the early nineteenth century, Armenians were organized around two different centers that competed with each other in terms of both culture and ideology. The Western trend, based in Constantinople, now Istanbul, was stimulated by French and Italian liberalism to acquire a reformist ideology laced with pragmatism and realism. The Eastern trend was based in Tiflis, now Tbilisi, and was shaped by the romanticism of Russian and German schools of thought and in particular by their revolutionary ideas. The two identities,
Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 113. Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 115. 31 Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 132. The authors claim: “After the Genocide, survivors fled first to Aleppo and then onwards around Syria, to Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Palestine, and Egypt, enlarging already existing settlements of Armenians and creating new ones. These countries closest to the old homelands were until recently the amorphous centre of the Armenian diaspora. As Adalian notes, 'the role of [these] communities in the modern Armenian diaspora cannot be over-emphasized' (p. 102). While influenced by the colonial powers in the region, Armenians in these countries developed a modern identity with considerable continuity with the past in the same region, surrounded by many of the same peoples. Armenian language use not only continued but actually increased, through mass education and literacy”
Western and Eastern, were divided by geography and evolved separately as parallel rather than integrated leadership groups. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the distinction between the two sides had become evident in the cultural and nationalist literature of Armenia, both in respect of the language used and the distinctive political agendas formed on either side of the division. After the 1915 Genocide and the consequent mass emigration from Western Armenia, the Western aspect of Armenian identity became the dominant self-image of the diaspora, whereas the Eastern shoot put down roots in Soviet Armenia. The subsequent isolation during the Soviet period pushed the two groups even further apart. Turning to the contemporary identity differences between the homeland and the diaspora, Panossian comes to the conclusion that the concept of Armenianness carries different meanings for people in Armenia from those it holds for residents of the diaspora. Today the two are recognizably distinct cultural entities despite being united by the collective memory of belonging to the same nation with its rich and extensive history. This situation poses serious questions about the future. Is the gap between diaspora and homeland likely to widen over time, or might an ongoing interplay between the two parts of the nation lead eventually to their being reunited? Is the Republic of Armenia capable of gaining the legitimacy of a genuine homeland so that it can either convince its lost citizens to come back or unite them on the basis of its own agenda? Will the diaspora continue to sustain its internal communications and articulate its own ideological programme, or will its members slowly become assimilated into other nations and lose interest in Armenia's cause? More deeply, is nationalism, ethnic or otherwise, Armenian or any other, on the way to becoming out of date and fading into the past of an increasingly globalized world? These are open questions, to be decided by history.”32
Despite the difference of ideologies, Armenians still have a sense of oneness. Especially, in “feeling” Armenian and having an emotional connection to the homeland.33 They are a people who have been wounded by the 1915 Genocide and have lived in the midst of constant wars and oppression.34 Even though their land is rugged and isolated, the Armenian high ground sits in the intersection of the greatest countries and wars of history. Russell states concerning Armenia,
“…between the powers of the West (Greece, then Rome, then Byzantium, and now Turkey) and the East (Achaemenian, Parthian, Sasanian, and Islamic Iran); and between those of the North (Scythian, Cimmerian, Alan, and other Caucasian peoples, and now Russia) and the South (Assyria and later Mesopotamia, and then the Arabs). Armenia has been assaulted incessantly and conquered often, especially, given the prevailing layout of its mountain ranges, by the great powers to the West and East, though raids by Caucasian tribes are a constant through antiquity as well. Armenia's geography and history together militate against centralized rule, and Armenians have rarely enjoyed full political independence. The threat and reality of invasion and of foreign, often oppressive, rule is a constant in Armenian history, from ancient to modern times. It is to be expected, then, that Armenian identity is a vital issue,
Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 22. Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 43. 34 Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 25.
a political matter, sharply defined and generally contrasted to a world around it perceived to be threatening.”35
Why spend so much time on the elaborating the history, culture and ideology of the Armenian people? In order to work with them socially in the present time, one must understand how the past has shaped their worldview and survival instinct. Armenians are an ethnically proud and exclusive people for a reason. They find it hard to assimilate fully into other cultures, except for reasons of survival. Most Armenians understand objectively or intuitively that their history is rich and complicated with suffering and war. They know they belong to a deep culture that has written it’s history with blood. The young especially know this by looking into the faces of their elders and hearing their voices, even if they didn’t learn it by reading books. This is why others of different cultures who have come from a stable past are not able to understand the Armenian and why they are the way they are. Historically they know they were the first nation to adopt Christianity as their official government religion. Knowing this history comes to play when treating an Armenian addict. They struggle with an addiction, but there is always a deep sense of pride that I have not found in many ethnicities. Also, due to the history, strong communal awareness and deep religious base the shame level of an addict is more intense than an American who has been shaped by privatized, individualistic thinking. Knowing this about the Armenian can aid the social worker in their appeal for change. Individualistic language may not be as effective, as connecting the addict to his past and present community. Dr. Sherwood Lingenfelter writes, “We must look through multiple windows if we are to genuinely apprehend the transforming power of the gospel and
Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 25.
apply kingdom principles interculturally. Each believer sees through a glass, narrow and constraining, but together as disciples with different perspectives, we can begin to comprehend the wider impact of the Scriptures in a pluralistic world.”36
Armenians: In the City of Glendale As stated in the introduction the purpose of this program is for the Armenian people living in the city of Glendale, California. Let me briefly state some background information on the city and examine how these realities could be one component out of many that are shaping the current drug epidemic and rising drug related crimes and incarcerations.37
Glendale: Population During the 2000 census, the city population was 194,973. According to the State of California the estimates are now 206,308.38 Since 1980 there has been an increase of over 55,000 people.39 This makes Glendale the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the seventeenth largest city in the state of California.40 Out of a population of about 206,308 people 26% of them are Armenian. That equals about 53, 640 persons. However, according to the LA Times:
“Glendale is home to 85,000 Armenian Americans. The surge in immigration began in the 1970s and has fundamentally altered the city”.41
Lingenfelter, Sherwood G. 1988. Transforming Culture. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Publishing Group, 21. 37 Herzig, Edmund and Marina Kurkchiyan, 136. 38 http://www.ci.glendale.ca.us/planning/census.asp 39 http://www.ci.glendale.ca.us/planning/census.asp 40 http://www.ci.glendale.ca.us/planning/census.asp 41 http://www.latimes.com/wireless/avantgo/la-me-kebab4nov04,0,7403426.story
The rest of the ethnicities are as follows: Mexican (11%), Korean (7%), Filipino (6%), German (6%), Irish (5 %), English (5%), Iranian, Italian (3%) and so on. 42 Concerning the density, the city website writes:
“The population density in the city has also increased over time as available land has been developed. The overall density for the city is 6,373 people per square mile, but this varies widely--hillside areas have densities as low as 1,133 people per square mile while some Census tracts near downtown exceed 30,000 people per square mile.”43
Currently, the city is experiencing amazing growth, most likely due to its closeness to Downtown Los Angeles and the job opportunities the city provides. Additionally, most Armenians coming from the diaspora don’t want to experience what Cashin labels as “integration exhaustion”, so they keep moving into Glendale where they sense a greater feeling of community.44 The negative aspect of this strong communal presence in Glendale has resulted in excessive opportunities for leisure and confusion of societal roles. Migrating from countries with high grid communal roles which resulted in greater accountability for ones action to a society that emphasizes low grid roles with little community accountable becomes difficult for immigrant families, especially their children to adjust.45 Most 1st generational parents work hard to catch up or maintain themselves economically, especially in California. In the process they are unaware that an American individualistic worldview is shaping their children, not to mention an inherent selfishness due to sin, thus bringing tension into the home, fracturing parent-child bonds,
http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/genealogyInfo.php?locIndex=10208 http://www.ci.glendale.ca.us/planning/census.asp 44 Sheryl Cashin. The Failures of Integration: How Race and Class Are Undermining the American Dream. New York, NY: Public Affairs, 2004, pg 9. 45 Lingenfelter, Sherwood G., 27. Author writes, :The idea of grid focuses on how people in social game categorize and constrain individual players by distinctive positions and roles. …In weak grid social game, players make few social distinctions among their members.”
making their children, especially the boys, vulnerable to destructive behavior, like gangs drugs and crime. Min Zhou writes, in the Annual Review of Sociology,
“Children with poorly educated and unskilled parents, in contrast, often find themselves growing up in underprivileged neighborhoods subject to poverty, poor schools, violence and drugs, and a generally disruptive social environment. Many immigrant children attend public schools in their neighborhood with a clear numerical majority of minority students. In Los Angeles County, for example, 57 unified school districts out of a total of 83 contain over half of nonwhite students, and 34 have more than three quarters of US-born minority and other immigrant students. In major immigrant-receiving cities such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, and Miami, at least a third of the students in the entire school system speak a language other than English at home”46
In Glendale 96,399 (61.2%) of the population who are 16 and over are in the labor force. These workers spend about 25 minutes on average traveling back and forth to work. 47 People ages 25 to 34 make on average $41,642 a year. In comparison to the state average which is $44,424 and the national average which is $41,414 their income is lacking, especially when you consider cost of living of California in contrast to most other states. People ages 35-44 make on average $47,322 a year. In comparison to the state average which is $54,365 and the national average which is $50,654, again there income is greatly lacking. City of Glendale website claims, “The median household income for Glendale lags behind that of other local cities and even the County”.48 This low income level in comparison to the high housing cost is a contributing factor to the high percentage of children raised in Armenian homes with both parents working, or the father not there to help contribute towards the child’s moral development. Social
Zhou, Min. 1997. Growing Up American: The Challenge Confronting Immigrant Children and Children Of Immigrants. Annual Review of Sociology 23, 1. 47 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=& _county=Glendale&_cityTown=Glendale&_state=04000US06&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&p gsl=010 48 http://www.ci.glendale.ca.us/planning/census3.asp
programs like ours have to consider these factors and how we can help create a community that promotes healthy family development and economic relief. We need to have the city, county, federal and private sectors involved if we want to help bring long term change to poverty and the unhealthy casual effects...
The total housing units in Glendale are 73,713. Renter-occupied housing units are 44,263, which makes up 60.0% of the cities housing. That California average of renteroccupied housing in a city is 40.6%. The nation is 30.8%. That means Glendale in comparison to other cities has an extremely high number of renters. My question is who makes up most of these renters in comparison to homeowners? Also, the average household size has increased in the city of Glendale. The cities explanation is,
“Some of the causes for the increase in household size may include an increase in the prevalence of extended families due to recent immigration, an increase in births, and the high cost of housing. A high cost of housing may cause young adults to continue to live with parents, or unrelated persons can share a housing unit to cut living expenses such as rent or utilities” 49
This tells me that there is a need for both parents to work which creates a problem for children and teenagers. The church has to find ways to help relieve their burden with possible low cost child-care, pre-schools and after church programs. Also, the church can be involved in the process of helping raise these children, so that we prevent the chemical dependency epidemic. In relation to housing I often hear the parishioners of the church complain that the housing and building structures, especially in the southern area (South of 134 freeway) are too congested. The city does not have suitable common areas for
human interaction, except for parks and privately owned business that expect remuneration. The only place to really interact is the parks, which are also congested with athletes, teenagers, families, and the elderly. With the current research by urban designers we know this type of landscape can be problematic. Every aspect of a city plays a role in building a sense of community worth living in and living for. Such aspects to consider are smooth traffic flow, pedestrian-friendly streets, fence free properties, common public and play spaces and front porches.50 Legates and Stout claim, “Architecture may not determine human behavior, but implicit in the following selections is the notion that bad design can numb the human spirit and good design can have powerful, positive influences on human beings”.51 Also, in the overall development or redevelopment of the city we must consider the harmony of the structures with the “natural environment”. City like Glendale must design “with” nature, rather than against nature.52 It must consider how it will be a “sustainable” city that doesn’t excessively use up natural resources towards its own demise.53
In Glendale 25,871 of the residents are high school graduates, which make up 19.2% of the population. 37,506 have some college, or associate's degree, which makes up 27.8% of the residents. 28,149 of the resident have a Bachelor's degree, which makes up 20.8% of the population. Those with Master's, professional or doctorate degree are 15,139, which is 11.2% of the population. These statistics show that almost half of the
Stout, Le T. Richard & Frederic. 1996. The City Reader. New York, NY: Routledge Publishing, 79 Stout, Le T. Richard & Frederic, 79. 52 Stout, Le T. Richard & Frederic, 79. 53 Stout, Le T. Richard & Frederic, 80.
population does not even have a completed Bachelor’s degree which is essential in our day and time and could be problematic for the cities future. This could play a role in the development of the youth and how they learn to cope with other American nationals who are educated and ahead economically. Many minority youth like Armenians, Hispanics, etc are developing what experts call “oppositional cultures”.54 This happens when those minorities feel oppressed and separated from a people who are growing materially and constantly propose an ideology of “freedom”.55 Zhou, Min claims,
“Because students in schools shape one another's attitudes and expectations, such an oppositional culture negatively affects educational outcomes. School achievement is seen as unlikely to lead to upward mobility, and high achievers are seen as sell-outs to oppressive authority”.56 Matute-Bianchi (1986, 1991) found that the relationship between scholastic achievement and ethnicity did not hold for native-born Chicanos and Cholos, who had been uprooted from their Mexican heritage and were trapped in a caste-like minority status. They reacted to their exclusion and subordination with resentment, regarded efforts toward academic achievement as "acting white," and constructed an identity in resistance to the dominant majority white society. Suarez-Orozco (1991) reached similar conclusions about native-born Mexican Americans, who perceived the effect of the educational system as continued exploitation.
Educational factors in Glendale are detrimental in our understanding of drug and alcohol dependency. A whole drug culture is being bred in our own schools. If schools measure their success by test scores and graduates then the problem is most likely not going to get better. But, if character formation is part of the mission of a school, as well as parents and community then education means much more than just inputting and outputting data. The church should consider it’s influence in the school districts and recognize the direct correlation between Christian morals and educational progress and contextualized education that values the culture and background of it’s constituents. The feedback I get
Zhou, Min. Zhou, Min. 56 Zhou, Min.
from students that attend our church is that many “white” teachers have no respect for their Armenian heritage or the issues related to the Genocide. That alone justifies their rebellion towards the academic institution and their proclivity to walk the easier route of “mediocrity” or “failure”.
Glendale: Spiritual & Social Roots
In examining the historical data of the city my goal was to find spiritual patterns that will be helpful for spiritual prayer warfare. Barna writes,
“A church that strives to evangelize its community without saturating its efforts in prayer is like a race-car driver that jumps into his car at the stating line and discovers that the tank has not been filled with gasoline”.57
Specifically we were looking for patterns of human behavior, the presence of aberrant Christian groups or cults, and major historical news that would give us insight into the activities of Satan and his forces (Ephesians 6:12). Historical sources reveal that the city of Glendale was conceived in racism and greed. White farmers tried to take away the land through intimidation from the Mexican landowners of Glendale, Burbank and Eagle Rock. In the book Glendale Community Book it reads:
“During the pastoral days of California, the land held by Don Jose Verdugo enjoyed peace but by 1846, the influx of white settlers had become an armed invasion. The Mexican rulers unified against the invaders, termed Yankees, but without trained armies, they fought a losing battle. In 1847 Gov. Pio Pico capitulated and the Days of the Dons were on the wane.” 58
George Barna. Evangelism That Works. Ventura, Ca: Regal Books, 1995, 162. C. W. Parcher, Glendale Community Book (Glendale: California: John W. Akers, 1957) pg 1.
After the covetous attempts of seizure failed a greedy Jewish banker stripped the Verdugo family of their land by issuing them in a moment of desperation a high percentage loan. 59 A Glendale Historian explains the details:
“The breakup of the great Rancho Rafeal was attributed to an event which the owners at the time probably looked on as a minor financial transaction. As had been emphasized, there was little “cash money” available in those times. Money was wanted, some report say for the Portosueo house. Anyway, Julio ad his wife borrowed $3,445.34, such an odd amount hinting at the sum including the cost which the pair had to pay in conducting the transaction. They got the loan from Jacob Elias and were allowed two years to pay. Interest was at 3 percent a month, compounded. Interest of 36 percent a year compounded was a stiff charge for the money secured but it is doubtful if Julio could have done any better elsewhere. The loan was abstained in 1861. When the note came due and Julio couldn’t pay, a foreclosure action was instituted. In 1864, the trial court awarded Elias $10,795. The judgment also granted Julio a homestead, carved for the rancho. Elias protested that he should get all and appealed the case. On retrial the court’s decision, rendered in 1865, gave Elias $15,955.02, plus interest at 3 percent a month. Julio was willing to accept the first judgment, partly because he was demanding a homestead and the treatment failed it on him. The final decision came in 1869-four years later, by which the accumulated interest, fees and other charges raised the judgment to a grand total of $58,750 in repayment of a $3,440 loan.”60
How does this background information affect our understanding of the present status of Glendale? Should it raise questions as to how the city is confronting and dealing with racism? Has racism moved from being overt to covert? Charles Murray in a 1984 article called, “Choosing A Future” wrote concerning the new face of racism by whites towards blacks, “Beginning in the last half of the 1960s, the black poor were subjected to new forms of racism with effects that outweighed the warning of the old forms of racism”.61 The churches, social organizations, and Christians in general must confront the roots of a city if they are going to have deep and penetrating transformation on a systemic level.
. Caswell Perry E Parcher & Carroll W.. Glendale Area History (Glendale: California: Eric Schneirsohn Xanadu Galleries Publishing,1981) pg 27. 60 Caswell Perry E Parcher & Carroll W, pg 27. 61 Stout, Le T. Richard & Frederic, 234.
John Dawchild in his book, “Taking Our Cities For God”, shares a story of a city that could not progress because of one ugly incident in the past. He writes,
“In one Midwest city I studies, radically inspired injustice seems to be the only major lot on an otherwise wholesome past. And it all seems to be focused on one shameful incident. A white mob, outraged over an unsolved crime, lynched an innocent African American man. People told me this story as vividly as though it happened yesterday. Thus, the incident has lost none of its power to create guilt and bitterness, even though it happened many generations ago”.62
In this work we must consider who the Armenian people are today and how the past has shaped their ideologies, feelings, social involvement and priorities. Also, we must consider the city of Glendale and how economical factors, housing issues, population, educational problems and spiritual, social roots are affecting their lives today and how the larger community is responding to them in connection to their social ills and chemical dependency crisis.
Dawchild, John. 2001. Take Our Cities For God. Lake Mary, FL: Charisma House.
Glendale: Narcotics Related Arrest
As you can see according to the September 2007, Crime Statistics and Activity Report, “Vice/Narcotics”, “Drunk Driving” and “Grand Theft” arrest were up a considerable amount in contrast to September 2006 data. The difference from last year to this year totaled for narcotics 67, drunken driving 105 and grand theft 114. All three of these crimes are interrelated and all three had the highest crime increase, in comparison to the other categories (see website: www.ci.glendale.ca.us/police). Like, the country of Armenia, the city of Glendale on a micro level is also experiencing an increase of drug related crimes and things don’t seem to be getting better. In fact nothing will change unless there is systemic change in Glendale. Robert Linthicum writes,
“When we talk about systemic change, therefore, we recognize that significant change cannot occur in a society unless the articulated values of that society are truly embraced, and that cannot occur unless structures function to implement those values and unless individuals who
run those structures work for the interest of the people. Only when individuals and structures and values change, do you have systemic change”64
How Will The Program Work
The program is committed to having a holistic approach that takes into consideration all the essential components affecting chemical dependency behavior.65 We seek to do this without leaving the foundation of scripture and evidence based research.66 We see that the objective evidence of both are not in contradiction, but complimentary for the practitioner who seeks to bring transformative results.67
Program: Treatment Models
What type of specific treatment model or ideology will we utilize? We seek to understand and develop an interdisciplinary model that takes into consideration the moral, physical and social elements that effect human behavior, in our case namely addiction. To take an extreme position on any one of the three primary treatment models is problematic and unwise. We see in scripture that all three factors (moral, physical
Linthicum, Robert. 2003. Transforming Power: Biblical Strategies for Making a Difference in Your Community. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 25, 26. 65 Bean, Philip and Teresa Nemitz. 2004. Drug Treatment: What Works? New York: Routledge, 31. 66 2 Timothy 3:16, Matthew 5:17-19 67 Thombs, Dennis L, 14-16. According to the author “evidence based research” shows that schools and community based prevention education works. If young students perceive that substance use is uncommon (not prevalent) and socially unacceptable among their peers, then they are less likely to initiate or continue substance use. Also, treatments programs (inpatient & outpatient) bring about significant change. For more actual statics see pages 14-16.
[genetic], social) can play a role in shaping human actions. Firstly, the “addiction as sin model” postulates that chemical abuse is an evil choice that springs forth from a depraved nature.68 By “evil” we don’t mean on the same level as murder, rape, or theft. But, something that clearly violates the “will of God”. The actions could lead to greater consequences, or be less detrimental than the consequences of “murder”.69 The Bible does affirm the view of moral choice, responsibility and outcome. Jesus claimed, “For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false testimony, slander. These are what make a man 'unclean'………”70 Paul the Apostle list drug abuse and alcoholism as vice that conceives from the sinful nature and leads to spiritual death. He wrote in Galatians 5:19-21
“The acts of the sinful nature are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity and debauchery; idolatry and witchcraft (medication); hatred, discord, jealousy, fits of rage, selfish ambition, dissensions, factions and envy; drunkenness, orgies, and the like. I warn you, as I did before, that those who live like this will not inherit the kingdom of God”
But, God’s perspectives on an issue such as this should always be interpreted in light of all that the Bible teaches. It is important when developing a biblical position to do an inductive analysis of the entire scripture and then deduce your final position on a matter.71 This type of systematic approach keeps the practitioner balanced and flexible, realizing that scripture allows a certain type of flexibility based on the context or a person’s individual needs.72
Thombs, Dennis L. 2006. Introduction to Addictive Behaviors. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 4, 5. Thombs, Dennis L, 4, 5. 70 Matt 15:19-20For 71 T. D. Alexander and B. S. Rosner. 2001. New Dictionary Of Biblical Theology Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. 72 Romans 14, 15
A Second cause of addiction, postulated by the experts is genetics. This view is called, “disease model”. According to Dennis L. Thombs, "The exact nature of the illness (disease model) is not fully understood at this point, but many proponents of the disease models believe that the illness has genetic origins.”73 This view is mainly advocated by medical doctors, the alcohol industry, and the recovery movement. All of them have their reasons, but due to time and space I will not elaborate on their reasoning. But, what we do know is that scientist don’t fully understand how the interconnectiveness of genes and society work together to form a persons character and predispositions. That is why some believe that the interaction between genotype and environment generates an enormous number of individual traits and characteristics, which are referred to as the person’s “phenotype”.74 This theory looked at impartially does not contradict the biblical anthropology of humans which clearly states that we have inherited a sinful nature that has contaminated and even distorted the “good material world” that God created. With such a view sin has affected and can affect our genetic makeup (personality, disposition, etc) to some degree, and as result mar the image of God.75 Even the church fathers like Tertullian considered our humanity as a second nature (alia natura) with an “irrational element” in the soul (is the present soul immaterial, material or a combination of both).76 Kelly, J. N. D. describes the church father Cyprians’ views of humanity as, “Cyprian,
Thombs, Dennis L, 6. Thombs, Dennis L, 24. 75 According to Genesis 1:31 all that God created in the material world was good. In Romans 5:12, Paul argues that sin entered the world through Adam and was passed down biologically and spiritually to all his descendents. Sin as we know has caused humans to be depraved and have a mutual propensity to rebel against God laws (Romans 8:7, 8). This rebellion now makes the good bodies that God has created instruments of sin and death (Romans 7: 5, 24). Since geneticist admit that thy don’t really understand how genes affect human behavior, due to the spiritual interconnectiveness of humans, we can rightly concur that certain traits and personality types can be passed down as basic structural units of heredity and thus play a role in ones behavior. That role does not mean there is “genetic determinism”, but as one author noted, “parameters of risk as well as protection”. 76 Kelly, J. N. D., 176.
who describes the effects of original sin, in language which is to become classical, as ‘wounds’ (vulnera). The Savior came, he states, in order to heal the wounds received by Adam and to cure the serpent’s poison”77 It should be noted that a biological influence in ones DNA does not equal “genetic determinism”, but merely sets parameters of what are possible traits of behavior a person can expect to have if certain environmental and cognitive elements are there. As Thombs claims, “Clearly, for complex human traits, genes are not destiny but parameters of risk as well as protection”.78 Third cause of addiction, it is believed by some is the environment. This model is called the “maladaptive model” or “behavior disorder”.79 The assumption is that a person’s social environment such as family, friends, and community affect their behavior.80 The person is viewed as a victim of uncontrollable circumstances and learning conditions.81 Some behavioral scientists hold the “social learning theory” which advocates that a person does have some cognitive responsibility and control over their response to the environment. But, overall the primary influence will always be the surroundings.82 Behavioral scientist in this field will avoid passing “right” and “wrong” judgments upon the addict, because that would mean that the addict is evil or irresponsible.83 Rather they seek to educate, change the person’s environment and teach the skills needed to avoid relapse.84 Again this theory of environmental influence does not contradict the Biblical perspective when held in tension with other factors. For
Kelly, J. N. D., 176. Thombs, Dennis L, 24. 79 Thombs, Dennis L, 8. 80 Thombs, Dennis L, 8. 81 Thombs, Dennis L, 8. 82 Thombs, Dennis L, 8. 83 Thombs, Dennis L, 8. 84 Thombs, Dennis L, 9.
example in Psalm 1:1 it reads, “Blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked or stand in the way of sinners or sit in the seat of mockers……..”. The verse is assuming that if a person surrounds himself with a negative environment or counsel that person will be led astray from God’s path. We know that this is not always the case, but usually the case. Or else how would some of us be able to evangelize wicked people who seek to corrupt our ways? How many people have been born into homes that provided a bad example that led a person into painful consequences? Jesus knowing the power of temptation warned people to avoid being a source at all cost, because God will hold sources of temptation under fierce judgment.85 Another verse that emphasizes the power of “environment” is in 1 Corinthians 15:33. Paul claims, “Do not be misled: "Bad company corrupts good character”. Both of the verses warn against “bad environments”, because they assume that the surroundings can powerfully influence conduct. That is why the Bible calls people to “flee” certain settings.86 Ones ability to handle the lure is impossible, due to human weakness. Scripture presupposes that we don’t always have the power to resist external forces, like the behavioral scientist. But, there are exceptions where people can choose against the grain of normative behavior and choose to do something supernatural, as is the case of Joseph, Daniel, Jeremiah, Paul, Peter and Christians who have lived radically in the face of sinful and oppressive forces. A fourth model that I want to propose as a cause of addiction, that is minimized and ridiculed by secular and even religious practitioners is the “spiritual warfare model”. This is the belief that there are spiritual powers known as angels of “light” and angels of
1 Corinthians 6:18, 1 Corinthians 10:14, 1 Timothy 6:11, 2 Timothy 2:2
“darkness” that can manipulate and even control human behavior.87 Scripturally and historically this view has always been held by the church. Justin Martyr ((100–165) the great apologist wrote on the human condition, “Swarming everywhere, they (demons) have obsessed men’s souls and bodies, infecting them with vice and corruption”.88 He also wrote”…..the race of men, who from Adam’s time have fallen under the death and deceit of the serpent”.89
Program: Intense Out Patient
The program we want to implement is a 6-12 month Outpatient Program. There are commonly two types of outpatient programs. The first one is called a “Day Hospital”; also know as a partial hospital. According to Nace and Tinsley, the name “refers to a structured program of group psychotherapy, educational lectures, and individual counseling that takes place 6-8 hours per day 5-6 days per week”.90 The second one is commonly called an Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP).91 This type of program is held in the evenings for 3-4 hours for patients who are encouraged to work during the day.92 Currently our program is seven days schedule of expectation for the addict and their family. Below is a sample of what a typical daily\weekly schedule should like: Monday
• • • • • • 6:30-7:00 am – Devotional Time – Connect with God 7:00-7:30 am – Family Breakfast – Connect with Family 8:00 -5:00 pm – Work- Connect with Community 6:00-7:00 pm - Relax @ home– Connect with Self 7:00-8:00 pm – Dinner – Connect with Family 8:00 – 10:00 pm – OUTPATEINT 12 STEP GROUP- Connect with God, Self, & Group 11:00 pm – Bed Time
Ephesians 2:2; 6:12 Kelly, J. N. D. 1978. Early Christian Doctrines: Revised Edition. New York, NY: HarperOne, 167. 89 Kelly, J. N. D., 167. 90 Nace, Edgar P and Joyce A. Tinsley, 88. 91 Nace, Edgar P and Joyce A. Tinsley, 88. 92 Nace, Edgar P and Joyce A. Tinsley, 88.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
6:30-7:00 am – Devotional Time – Connect with God 7:00-7:30 am – Family Breakfast – Connect with Family 8:00 -5:00 pm – Work- Connect with Community 6:00-7:00 pm - Relax @ home – Connect with Self 7:00-8:00 pm – Dinner – Connect with Family 8:00 – 10:00 pm –BIBLE STUDY GROUP & PARENT EDUCATIONAL GROUP- Connect with God, Self, & Group 11:00 pm – Bed Time 6:30-7:00 am – Devotional Time – Connect with God 7:00-7:30 am – Family Breakfast – Connect with Family 8:00 -5:00 pm – Work- Connect with Community 6:00-7:00 pm - Relax @ home– Connect with Self 7:00-8:00 pm – Dinner – Connect with Family 8:00 – 10:00 pm – FAMILY OUTING – Connect with Family 11:00 pm – Bed Time 6:30-7:00 am – Devotional Time – Connect with God 7:00-7:30 am – Family Breakfast – Connect with Family 8:00 -5:00 pm – Work- Connect with Community 6:00-7:00 pm - Relax @ home– Connect with Self 7:00-8:00 pm – Dinner – Connect with Family 8:00 – 10:00 pm – OUTPATEINT 12 STEP GROUP & ONE ON ONE COUNSELING- Connect with God, Self, & Group 11:00 pm – Bed Time 6:30-7:00 am – Devotional Time – Connect with God 7:00-7:30 am – Family Breakfast – Connect with Family 8:00 -5:00 pm – Work- Connect with Community 6:00-7:00 pm - Relax @ home – Connect with Self 7:00-8:00 pm – Dinner – Connect with Family 8:00 – 10:00 pm – OUTPATEINT 12 STEP GROUP- Connect with God, Self, & Group 11:00 pm – Bed Time 8:30-9:00 am – Devotional Time – Connect with God 9:00-10:00 am – Family Breakfast – Connect with Family 10:00 -12:00 pm –LIFE SKILLS LEARNING & GROUP TIMEConnect with God, Self, & Group 12:00-5:00 pm - Relax @ Home – Connect with Self 6:00-7:00 pm – Dinner – Connect with Family 7:00 – 10:00 pm – FAMILY OUTING – Connect with Family 12:00 am – Bed Time 7:00-7:30 am – Devotional Time – Connect with God 8:00-9:00 am – Family Breakfast – Connect with Family 9:00-12:00 pm – Supervised Activity - Open 12:00-1:00 pm – Family Lunch- Connect with Family 1:00 – 6:00 pm – FAMILY WORSHIP SERVICE 6:00-7:00 pm – Dinner – Connect with Family 7:00-10: 00 pm - Relax @ Home – Connect with Self & Family 11:00 pm – Bed Time
At all times the young person shall be supervised while in the program. Especially, when they get out of a 28 day treatment center. Their brain is not completely healed from drug
abuse. It is triggering emotional memories, thus creating cravings.93 Environmental cues are also working on an unconscious level making it hard to make clear decisions that seem obvious to normal people. 94 According to Debra Jay,
“When the addicts and alcoholics using these brains say ‘I’m going to do it my way,’ it doesn’t take too much imagination to know where ‘my way’ is going to lead: back to alcohol ad drugs. Understanding the limitations of the addicted bring in early recovery makes it easier to understand the battle cry of recovery: “Just follow the directions!” In other words, you can’t trust your brain. So listen to what other people tell you to do if you hope to stay sober”95
That is why it is imperative that families follow the programs structure and revitalize their family which has been slowly dying for causes unknown to us at that early stage of treatment. To keep the addict serious about recovery we will also do random drug testing once or twice a week. If they are court ordered or under 18 years of age then the parent has a right to know the results of the testing. But, if they are in the program out of their own will, or in some kind of contractual agreement with their families it is up to client in that context to disclose the outcomes of the test at family meetings or at home. The research shows that addictions are a family problem and not merely an individual issue. Therefore the program is focused on cultivating family closeness by mandating shared meals, weekly fun outings (Wednesday & Saturday), Sunday family worship, and family counseling time (pastoral, psychotherapy, etc). We strongly teach the families that addicts need “tough love” and “justice” when it comes to their treatment. Many Armenian families treat the addicts with grace (undeserved merit) and give them gifts with the hope
Debra Jay. 2006. No More Letting Go: The Spirituality of Taking Action Against Alcoholism and Drug Addiction. New York, NY: Bantam Dell Pub Group. 267. 94 Debra Jay, 267-268. 95 Debra Jay, 267-268.
that their children will repay them with obedience and sobriety.96 Addicts never give back what is expected, because they have lost connection with love, justice and equity on physiological, sociological and spiritual level. We can say that in their addiction their soul is dead and unable to feel love that comes from God.97 Their addiction operates on one principle, live for thyself and only thyself.98 Also, what is vital is that we help parents to get disciplined & empowered by God. Many Armenian parents have developed destructive actions or attitudes. They think they can do everything themselves, and make their children change. They get caught up in what Carmen Renee Berry calls the “Messiah Trap”.99 She defines it as “The Messiah Trap asserts that when the Messiah “helps” others, they are benefited. The truth of the matter is, Messiahs hurt when they help”.100 Soon as they do good, the excitement leads to their downfall again. Because they were operating on emotions and not God’s authentic power or truth. 101 They have lost all hope that their human child can change with a power greater then himself. They will say that they believe that God has the power to change, but my child will most likely not utilize that power because he his stupid or evil beyond hope. With such negative words they confuse their children. They demand repentance, but expect nothing but death. In their anxiety they confuse the addict even more and add on to the addiction a
Debra Jay, 289. Paul emphasizes this Theo- Anthropological view in Ephesians 2:1-5 concerning the spiritual deadness and sinfulness of humans, apart from God saving action. He writes, “As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins, 2 in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient. 3 All of us also lived among them at one time, gratifying the cravings of our sinful nature and following its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature objects of wrath. 4 But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, 5 made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions-it is by grace you have been saved”. 98 Debra Jay, 289. 99 Berry, Carmen Renee. 1988. When Helping You Is Hurting Me. New York, NY: HarperSanFrancisco, 56. 100 Berry, Carmen Renee, 56. 101 May, Gerald G. 1988. Addiction & Grace. New York, NY: HarperOne, 48.
spirit of hopelessness and despair. Dallas Willard describes this hopeless state of the professing Christians by stating, “When we examine the broad spectrum of Christian proclamation and practice, we see that the only thing made essential on the right wing of theology is forgiveness of individual sins”.102 The he writes, “Transformation of life and character is no part of the redemptive message. Moment-to-moment human reality in its depths is not the arena of faith and eternal living”.103
• • •
Recognizing their need for God’s parenting love & discipline Recognizing their need for God’s direction Reestablishing trust & respect o Developing Character o Developing Consistency o Developing Honesty Teaching them the power of relationship followed by rules and consequences (rewards or disciplines) Understanding the power of fellowship & protection
Program: Team Approach
Through this program we want to apply a team model of leadership. Even though I am the executive director, I want to utilize the varied gifts and experiences each member brings to the organization, so that we can achieve our outcome goal of minimizing addiction 30-40% in the next 5 years in the city of Glendale. In fact without a clear outcome based goal it is very difficult to have an effective team that senses a clear purpose. Katzenbach and Smith write, “….one of our fundamental beliefs is that a common performance objective is much more motivating for effective teams than the
Willard, Dallas. 1988. The Divine Conspiracy: Rediscovering Our Hidden Life In God. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 41. 103 Willard, Dallas, 41.
desire to be a team”.104Below is a list of the team members already working with the leadership team and some players that will be recruited in time. The two main qualifications we are looking for is spiritual maturity and emotional intelligence.105 Both of these components are vital in this kind of people work.
Administrators Chemical Dependency Counselors Lay Volunteers Marriage & Family Therapist Medical Doctor Pastoral Counselor Psychiatrist Psychotherapist Public Relations\Promotions Representative
1 1 (2 in school) 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
Program: Holistic Christian Curriculum
As far as curriculum we will work with content that is Christian based, due to the Christian history and influence within the Armenian community as previously noted in the background section. Just for these families to confront and expose the issues of drug abuse in their family is shameful enough, but to turn around and place them into a secular or religiously pluralistic program like AA (Alcoholics Anonymous), or NA (Narcotics Anonymous) adds insult to injury.106 This maybe a one reason for the lack of Armenians
Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith. 2001. The Discipline of Teams. New York, NY: John Wiley & Children, Inc, xii. 105 Daniel Golema, Richard Boyatzis & Annie McKee. 2002. Primal Leadership: Realizing The Power Of Emotional Intelligence. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press, 5. The author writes, “If people’s emotions are pushed toward the range of enthusiasm, performance can soar; if people are driven toward rancor and anxiety, they will be thrown off stride” 106 Jeff. VanVonderen, 2004. Good News for the Chemically Dependent and those who Love Them. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Bethany House, 123.
in these American sponsored meetings and their unwillingness, unless court ordered to seek outside help. As one author put it,
“To say that it is not possible for someone to recover from chemical dependency without a relationship with Christ would be incorrect. My opinion, however, is that that the only adequate source of life, value, and meaning is a relationship with God through Jesus Christ. Only value and meaning received as a gift because of Christ’s sacrifice on the cross can erase the message of shame so deeply engrained by our own lack of performance in life and relationships. From the place of Christ-earned value and life, a person can confidently go on to steps three, four, and five. From a place of self-generated worth, a person can proceed only tenuously”107
Surely our emphasis will be on a Christian understanding of “Salvation and Empowered Living by the Spirit” that Paul so powerfully expounded on in Romans chapter 8.108 Also, as a Christians we don’t believe in a strict psychotherapeutical approach that doesn’t call the addict to change (repent from) his behavior for fear that the addict will have “paradoxical reaction”.109 Rather in the context of love and non parental or persecutor role a counselor can challenge the person to stop using the chemical.110 In fact a counselor cannot even examine root causes until the addict has begun to sober up and restore their thinking. The key ingredient is that the therapist has to have a clients trust and utilize “Miller’s Motivational Interviewing”.111 Rotgers and Davis write “Miller avoided the strategy of persuading clients to adopt an often pejorative label. He simply asked them about their drinking, what bothered them about it, what bad things happened when they were drinking, and what, if anything they thought they might do about it. And,
Jeff. VanVonderen, 123. Howard Clinebell. 1998. Understanding and Counseling Persons with Alcohol, Drug, and Behavioral Addictions. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 274-276. 109 Claude Steiner.1971. Games Alcoholics Play. New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 121. 110 Claude Steiner, 121. 111 Fredrick Rotgers and Beth Davis. 2006. Treating Alcohol Problems. Hoboken: New Jersey: John Wiley & Children, Inc, 31.
lo and behold, no denial!”112 Some call this manipulation, but God calls it “love”. A love that uses ones authority, and skills to build trust for the purpose of leading the person down a new life. Once the addict admits that they have a problem, you now have an opportunity to show them how their actions and thoughts are contradicting each other. It can be a gentle challenge that questions there desire to live in harmony with their convictions and thoughts about what is right.
We have looked at the target population of this program, mainly Armenians. Their history, culture, language, development and presence in this world. We have looked at their present situation in Glendale and how their history from the ancient past in the mother country of Armenia is still affecting them today. Armenians, like most other cultures, are dealing with their own drug epidemic and life’s everyday issues as they come. Historically Armenians have been a people caught up in wars, suffering and political turmoil. Still, they have survived as one of the oldest cultures in the world. Surely, Christianity and their ethnic exclusivism have played a role in their preservation. Yet, here in the diaspora they find themselves lost. As Armenian Christians God has called the church to live out what the prophet Jeremiah declared, “...seek the peace and prosperity of the city to which I have carried you into exile”.113 Armenian Christians can only seek this peace and prosperity, if they themselves are under the “Banner of Yahweh
Fredrick Rotgers and Beth Davis, 31. Jeremiah 29:7
(The LORD)”.114 Pray for us as we seek to birth a movement of change by God’s Holy Spirit and Truth. When Frank Buchman the founder of the Oxford Group who became the catalyst for the AA’S Twelve Steps discovered the liberating truth of Christ transforming power, he was bent on sharing the message of freedom everyday of his life.115 It is said that Buchman's spirituality included four components he believed were vital for living a life of passion and virtue:116
1. a daily "quiet time" during which he claimed to receive "divine guidance" by which he lived all aspects his life 2. public and private confession of sin 3. restitution for harm done to others in the past; and 4. evangelism of these principles to those who were still "defeated by sin."
Through these simple spiritual practices each day this man has now affected the lives of thousands and millions of people. Jesus stated the promise two thousand years ago, and it rings true for us today who seek to dependent upon Him. He cried out,
"I am the true vine, and my Father is the gardener. He cuts off every branch in me that bears no fruit, while every branch that does bear fruit he prunes so that it will be even more fruitful. You are already clean because of the word I have spoken to you. Remain in me, and I will remain in you. No branch can bear fruit by itself; it must remain in the vine. Neither can you bear fruit unless you remain in me”117
Exodus 17:15-16 - Moses built an altar and called it The LORD is my Banner. He said, "For hands were lifted up to the throne of the LORD. The LORD will be at war against the Amalekites from generation to generation." 115 Selby, Saul. 2000. Twelve Step Christianity: The Christian Roots And Application Of The Twelve Steps. Center City, Minnesota: Hazelden Pittman Archives Press, 6-7. 116 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_N._D._Buchman 117 John 15:1-4
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