This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
YEAR/SEM-II/III DATE: 16.08.2011 PART-A 9×2=18 MARKS 1. What is hole and electron in PN Junction Diode. The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge. hole is an electric charge carrier with a positive charge, equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity to the charge on the electron. 2. Define Ripple Factor. Ripple factor can be defined as the variation of the amplitude of DC (Direct current) due to improper filtering of AC power supply. it can be measured by RF = vrms / vdc 3. What is Zenar Breakdown? A reverse electric field at the junction causes a strong force to be applied on a bounded electron by the field to tear it out of its covalent bond. The new hole-electron pair which is created increases the reverse current, called zener breakdown. 4. State some applications of PN junction diode. PN junctions have been used as rectifiers in power supplies, detectors in RF,circuits, Zener diodes which are voltage regulators, clippers, LED's, PIN diodes are RF switches. 5. What is early effect? The Early effect is the variation in the width of the base in a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) due to a variation in the applied base-to-collector voltage. 6. Define Barrier Potential. The natural difference of potential that exists across a forward biased pn junction. Potential barrier is the energy inserted in order to go against the passage of electron. 7. Draw the output waveform of Half Wave Rectifier and Full Wave Rectifier. HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
FULL WAVE RECTIFIER
signage. With increase in temperature. video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). equilibrium occurs at a lower barrier potential. smaller size. The 'depletion region' is so named because it is formed from a conducting region by removal of all free charge carriers. Understanding the depletion region is key to explaining modern semiconductor electronics: diodes. leading to their increased drift across the junction. They are used in a wide range of applications. LCDs have displaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. How Depletion layer is formed PN junction diode. bipolar junction transistors. watches. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2). (ii)Describe the construction and characteristics of LED. releasing energy in the form of photons. more minority charge carriers are produced. instrument panels. and since they do not use phosphors. It is found that the Vb decreases by about 2 mV/deegre celcius. field-effect transistors.(8) A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. electronic visual display. electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device. (8) A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display. etc. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting.8. improved robustness. gaming devices. and telephones. LCs do not emit light directly. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Discuss the Effect of a Temperature in PN junction diode. longer lifetime. . PART-B 1(b)(i)What is LCD? Explain the working principle and characteristics with neat sketch. and faster switching. including computer monitors. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. As a result. and variable capacitance diodes all rely on depletion region phenomena. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays. they cannot suffer image burn-in. They are common in consumer devices such as video players. leaving none to carry a current. and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. clocks. calculators. television. aircraft cockpit displays. 9. When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on).
and other domestic appliances. except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage. for an amplifier stage). LEDs have allowed new text. a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode close to the Zener breakdown voltage." The device was named after Clarence Zener. while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. and sensors to be developed. (a) (i) How Zenar Diode can be used as a Voltage Regulator. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. Because the total load current passes through this transistor. or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications. who discovered this electrical property. (8) SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties. with an Unregulated input DC voltage and a Regulated output DC voltage. For example. (ii)Explain the operation of series and shunt voltage regulators. "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR Shunt Regulator shown is a DC to DC converter. . the so-called Zener voltage. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions. video displays." Other components which make up the circuit are the current limiting resistor (R1) and the Zener diode (CR1).2 V across a wide range of reverse currents. it is sometimes called a "pass transistor. DVD players. a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3.2 V will exhibit a voltage drop of very nearly 3. By contrast with the conventional device. the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance. In the case of a large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow). but will also permit it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage. 2.automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps. Unless this current is limited by circuitry.g. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e. turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. (8) A Zener diode is a special kind of diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode. Notice that this regulator has a transistor (Q1) in the place of the variable resistor found in figure 4-32. a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. the diode will be permanently damaged due to overheating. The schematic for a typical series voltage regulator is shown in figure 4-34. The operational voltage of the shunt regulator will depend on the Zener diode used [CR1] and the transistor [Q1].
and the emitter is common to both. (b)Draw and explain the input characteristics and output characteristics of common emitter configuration. (16) common-emitter amplifier is one of three basic single-stage bipolar-junction-transistor (BJT) amplifier topologies. In this circuit the base terminal of the transistor serves as the input. wherein Ic = f2(Vce. The family of input characteristic curves may therefore be described by the function f1 wherein Vbe = f1(Vce. Ib).Transistor Q1 is an NPN transistor which needs to be able to work with the voltages used in the design. A transistor circuit is said to be in common-emitter configuration if the emitter is the terminal common to both the input and the output. while the family of output curves may be described by the function f2. for the commonemitter configuration. With the addition of Resistor Rs the reference input is not connected to the reference of the output [the negative terminals]. the input current and output voltage are usually considered the independent variables. and the collector current Ic as the ordinate. the collector is the output. which are all drawn on the same plot. In the analysis of transistor circuits. . Ib). Thus. Different output curves are generated for different values of base current Ib. while the dependent variables are the input voltage Vbe and the output current Ic. the independent variables are the input current Ib and the output voltage Vce. Figure 1 shows an example of a common-emitter transistor circuit's Vce-Ic curves for different values of Ib. The output curves corresponding to f2 are drawn with the collector-to-emitter voltage Vce as the abscissa. typically used as a voltage amplifier.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.