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MESRA, RANCHI EC4107 Module 1: CARRIER CONCENTRATIONS: The Fermi level, Electron and Hole concentration at equilibrium, Direct and Indirect recombination of electrons and holes, Hall effect, Steady-state carrier generation, Quasi-Fermi levels. (7) Text Books: 1. Solid State Electronic Devices B. G. Streetman, PHI 2. Semiconductor Devices- Jusprit Singh, Jhon Wiley Eastern. 3. Physics of Semiconductor Devices S. M. Sze. Module 2: TRANSPORT PHENOMENA: Drift and Diffusion of Carriers, Recombination, Continuity and Diffusion equations, HynesShockley experiment. (5) Text Books: 1. Solid State Electronic Devices B. G. Streetman, PHI 2. Semiconductor Devices- Jusprit Singh, Jhon Wiley Eastern 3. Physics of Semiconductor Devices S. M. Sze. Module 3 : P-N JUNCTIONS: The Contact Potential, Space Charge at a junction, Steady state condition, Current at a junction, Carrier injection, Junction breakdown, Time variation of stored charge, P-N junction capacitance, Graded junction. (6) Text Books: 1. Solid State Electronic Devices B. G. Streetman, PHI 2. Semiconductor Devices- Jusprit Singh, John Wiley Eastern Module 4: JUNCTION DIODES: Varactor Diode, Concept of negative resistance Devices, Tunnel Diode, Current and Voltage in an illuminated junction, Photo Diode, Photo detector, Solar Cells, Light Emitting Diode, Metal Semiconductor Junction. Principle of PIN photo detector and Avalanche photodiode, Noise in photo detectors, Detector response time, Photodiode materials. (8) SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

Text Books: 1. Solid State Electronic Devices B. G. Streetman, PHI 2. Optical Fibre Communications G.Keiser,3/e,McGraw Hill. Module 5: Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT): Charge transport and current in a BJT, Current transfer ratio, Terminal currents, Generalised biasing, Charge control analysis, BJT switching, Turn-on and Turn-off transients, Base narrowing, Frequency limitations of a transistor. (5) Text Books: 1. Solid State Electronic Devices B. G. Streetman, PHI 2. Physics of Semiconductor Devices S. M. Sze. Model 6: FET, MOSFET: Principle of Operation and I-V Characteristics of FET, MESFET, MOSFET, MOS Capacitor, Threshold voltage in MOSFET. (6) Text Book: Solid State Electronic Devices B. G. Streetman, PHI Module 7: CCD & FABRICATION: The basic CCD, Improved CCD p-n junction fabrication. Text Books: 1. Solid State Electronic Devices B. G. Streetman, PHI 2. Integrated Electronics Millman & Halkies, Tata McGraw. (3)


Module 1 : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Explain how the energy levels of individual atoms form energy bands in a solid. Define the concept of holes in a semiconductor. With the help of energy-band diagram, explain the difference between metal, semiconductor and insulator. How does a semiconductor behave at 0oK? Distinguish between direct and indirect band gap semiconductors using E-K diagram. Write short notes on: (i) Effective mass (ii) Extrinsic Semiconductor (iii) Intrinsic semiconductor. What is Electron hole pair? Prove that hole can be treated as positively charged particle Define Fermi level in a semiconductor. Draw the Fermi levels for intrinsic, n-type semiconductors. Also show that the probability that a state E above the Fermi level EF is filled equals the probability that a state E below is empty. Explain the concept of effective density of states in valance and conduction band. Prove the following relation in a semiconductor: No Po = ni2 A semiconductor has the intrinsic carrier concentration of 1.6 1016 m-3 and bandgap 1.25 eV at room temperature. Find out effective density of states Nc and Nv for effective mass ratio mn* / mp* = 4 (KT = 0.026 eV) A Si sample is doped with 1021 As atoms/m3. What is the equilibrium hole concentration Po at 300o K? Where is EF relative to Ei? (for Si, ni = 1.5 x 1016 m-3) A Si sample is doped with 6 1015 cm-3 doners and 2 1015 cm-3 acceptors. Find the position of the Fermi level with respect to E i at 300 K. What is the value and sign of the Hall coefficient? Define intrinsic level and explain its importance in determining electron and hole concentration. Explain temperature dependence of carrier concentration. Also explain intrinsic, extrinsic and ionization regions in n0 vs 1000/T plot. Explain effect of temperature and doping on Mobility. Distinguish between Impurity scattering and lattice scattering. Define the term mobility in a semiconductor. Derive the expression for current density Jx = q(n n + p p) Ex = Ex What is Hall Effect? Derive the necessary expressions by which hole concentration and hole mobility can be determined from Hall effect.

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Derive the expression for recombination lifetime in case of direct recombination in a semiconductor. What is indirect recombination? Explain the term trapping center and recombination center. In a Si sample 1013 EHP/cm3 are created optically every microsecond with n 0 = 1014 cm3 and n = p = 2 sec. Calculate the steady state excess electron (or hole) concentration. What is Quasi-Fermi level? A sample of Si is doped with 1017 phosphorus atoms-cm3. What would you expect to measure for its resistivity? What Hall Voltage would you expect in a sample 100 m thick if Ix = 1 mA, Bz = 1 kG = 10-05 Wb-cm2? ( n = 700 cm2/V-s)

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Module 2 : 1 Explain the term diffusion and mean free time. Derive the expression for hole diffusion current in a semiconductor. 2 Define electrostatic potential and electron potential energy and also provide related expression. 3 Explain the terms drift current and diffusion current in a semiconductor. Derive the expressions for total current densities (due to both drift and diffusion) for electron and hole in a semiconductor. 4 Qualitatively discuss the direction of the following when electric field and carrier gradients (of holes and electrons) are in positive x direction. (a) Drift current densities (b) Diffusion current densities (c) Particle (electron and hole) flow due to diffusion (d) Particle (electron and hole) flow due to drift Establish Einstein relation D/ = kT/q. 6 An intrinsic Si sample is doped with donors from one side such that Hd = N0e-ax. Find an expression for E (x) at equilibrium over the range for which Nd>>ni. Evaluate E (x) when a = 1 ( m)-1. 7 Develop continuity equation and diffusion equation for charge carriers in a semiconductor. 8 Under steady state carrier injection, define diffusion length for electrons and holes. Describe the physical significance of the diffusion length. Show that Lp is the average distance a hole diffuses before recombining. Describe Haynes-Shockley experiment for the measurement of diffusion coefficient.

11 Discuss the basic principles of Haynes-Shockley experiment and discuss how we get minority carrier mobility through it. 12 An n-type Ge sample is used to perform Haynes-Shockley experiment. The length of the sample is 1 cm, and the two probes (1) and (2) are separated by 0.95 cm. The battery voltage E0 is 2 volt. A pulse arrives at paint (2) 0.25 ms after injection at (i); the width of the pulse t = 117 s. Calculate the hole mobility and diffusion coefficient and check the result against the Einstein relation. 13 We wish to use the Haynes-Shockley experiment to calculate the hole life time TP in an n-type sample. Assume that the peak voltage of the pulse displayed on the oscilloscope screen is proportional to the hole concentration under the collector terminal at time d, and that the displayed pulse be approximated as gaussian. The electric field is varied and the following data taken; for td = 250 s, the peak is 25 m V; for td = 50 s, the peak is 100 mV. What is p? Module 3 : 1 Discuss how depletion region forms in a p-n junction and on which factor it depends. 2 Define carrier injection and equilibrium Fermi energy. Also derive the related expression. 3 Define contact potential and prove that it can be given by Vo= kT/q ln(pp/ pn) Also prove that pp/ pn = nn/ np = eqVo/kT

4 What is depletion region of a p-n junction? Find out the expression for it. Draw the necessary diagrams for charge density and electric field distribution within the depletion region. 5 Aluminium is alloyed into an n-type Si sample (Nd = 1016), forming an abrupt junction of circular cross=section, with a diameter of 0.02 in. Assume that the acceptor concentration in the alloyed regrown region is Na = 4 X 1018 cm-3. Calculated contact potential Vo and width of the depletion region W at equilibrium (300 K). 6 An n-type sample of Ge contains Nd = 1016 cm-3. A junction is formed by alloying with In at 160oC. Assume that the acceptor concentration in the regrown region equals the solid solubility at the alloying temperature. Calculate the Fermi level positions at 300 K in the p-and n-regions and determine the contact potential. 7 Draw the I-V characteristics of a p-n junction diode and find out the diode equation. 8 Explain how the width of the depletion region of a p-n junction changes due to (a) forward bias, (b) reverse bias.

9 Draw the necessary diagrams for transition region width; electrostatic potential and energy band of a p-n junction under (a) equilibrium condition (b) forward bias condition (e) reverse bias condition. 10 Write short notes on: (a) Zener Breakdown, (b) Avalanche Breakdown, (c) Graded junction. 11 Explain the concept of p-n junction capacitance. What is voltage-variable capacitance? Derive the expression for voltage-variable capacitance for a p+ - n junction. 12 Explain the charge storage capacitance and find out expression for it.

13 Explain the carrier injection and find the expression for excess electron/hole concentration in term of equilibrium electron/hole concentration. 14 Discuss the majority carrier current.

15 What is the transient-on and transient-off time for a diode? How it could be improved? 16 17 18 Explain the reverse recovery transient for a p-n junction. How it could be reduced. Explain and give the expression for storage delay time. What is breakdown? Explain the Zener and Avalanche breakdown.

19 Find the expression for transient current, stored charge and junction voltage for a p-n junction. 20 Explain the graded index junction and give expression for calculating depletion region of a graded junction. Module 4 : 1 2 What is breakdown diode? How it can be used as a voltage regulator in a circuit? Explain the operation principle of a varactor diode. What is hyper-abrupt junction?

3 Describe the operation principle of a tunnel diode. Draw and explain the I-V characteristics of a tunnel diode. 4 What is photodiode? Obtain the expressions for current and voltage in an illuminated junction. 5 Derive the expression of operation of a LED. Why silicon not used as an LED material? 6 i. Write short notes on: Solar Cell, (b) Photo detector.

7 What is Schottkey effect? Describe about the charge of band diagrams of an ntype and a p-type semiconductor metal junctions with the help of necessary band diagrams. 8 What is a hetero junction? Draw the energy band diagrams for an ideal hetero junction between a p-type, wide band gap semiconductor and an n-type narrow band gap semiconductor. 9 10 Give the construction, working and applications of PIN diode. Describe the principle of PIN photo detector and APD photo detector.

11 Define the quantum efficiency and responsivity of (a) PIN photodiode and (b) APD photo-diode 12 Describe RAPD structure. Explain why it is reach through.

13 Draw the equivalent circuit of a photo detector and discuss the different types of noises. 14 Define Signal to power ratio (S/N) and minimum detectable optical power for a photo detector. Give two condition for obtaining high S/N ratio. 15 Discuss the various factors which affect the response time. What is rise and fall time of a photo-detector? 16 If the quantum efficiency for a InGaAs photo detector is around 90% at wavelength 1300nm, Calculate responsivity of the detector. Also Calculate cut-off wavelength for In0.53Ga0.47As whose band gap Eg=0.73 eV. Module 5 : 1 2 3 Draw the various current components in a p-n-p bipolar junction transistor What are the requirements of a good transistor? Explain its amplification principle. Describe the operation principle of a p-n-p transistor.

4 Define current transfer ratio and base-to-collector current amplification factor for a BJT. 5 6 Explain how amplification, using a BJT, is possible.

Write short notes on: I. BJT Fabrication II. Early effect III. BJT switching Obtain the expressions for the terminal currents in a p-n-p transistor.

8 Sketch the energy band diagrams for an n-p-n and a p-n-p transistor, where normal active bias is applied. 9 What are the four operation regions of a BJT? Explain the conditions in cut-off and saturation region. 10 11 12 13 14 What is saturation regime? What do you understand by over saturation? Obtain the Ebers-Moll equations for a BJT. Analyse the Charge control model of a BJT. Find the expression for Current Transfer Ratio for BJT. Explain the early effect.

15 Using the Ebers-Moll equations, draw the equivalent coupled-diode model of a transistor. 16 Sketch vs. Ic over a wide range of current, and discuss decrease in for both small and large currents in a BJT. 17 18 Module 6 : 1 2 3 Explain the operation principle of a FET. Draw and explain the current-voltage characteristics of a FET. Obtain the expression for saturation drain current in a FET. Explain the break down mechanism in a BJT. Obtain the expression for transit time in a p-n-p transistor.

4 Write short notes on: (i) MESFET, (ii) MOS Capacitor, (iii) MISFET, (iv) MOSFET. 5 6 7 What is Short Channel Effect in a FET? What are the differences between BJT and FET? What is pinch-off condition in a FET? Derive the expression for pinch-off voltage.

8 Sketch the construction of a MOSFET and explain how a channel can be produced in it. Derive the condition for pinch-off voltage. What is the threshold voltage in a MOSFET. 9 What do you mean by depletion mode and enhancement mode? Draw the I-V characteristics of a MOSFET in these two modes

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Explain the principle of working of ideal MOS capacitor. Derive expression for maximum value of depletion width of a ideal MOS capacitor.

What is CCD? What are the different applications of CCDs?

2 Describe the steps of fabrication process of the p-n junction with help of neat diagram. 3 4 Describe the different techniques of fabricating p-n junction Describe the modified CCD structure and explain its working.