Course Guide

Course Code CTH316

Course Title Hebrew Syntax

Course Developer/Writer Dr. David Moomo
Bible Society of Nigeria
Apapa, Lagos

Dr. Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale
National Open University of Nigeria
Victoria Island, Lagos

Course Editor Dr. Afolorunso Olalekan Dairo
Olabisi Onabanjo University
Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State

Course Coordinator Dr. Jacob A. Owolabi
National Open University of Nigeria
Victoria Island, Lagos

Programme Leader Dr. Godwin I. Akper
National Open University of Nigeria
Victoria Island, Lagos














NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

ii

National Open University of Nigeria
Headquarters
14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way
Victoria Island
Lagos

Abuja Annex
5, Dar es Salaam Street
Off Aminu Kano Crescent
Wuse II, Abuja
Nigeria

e-mail: centralinfo@nou.edu.ng
URL: www.nou.edu.ng

National Open University of Nigeria 2011

Printed 2011

ISBN: -------------------------------------

All Rights Reserved

Printed by ---------------------------------
For
National Open University of Nigeria



















CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

iii
Content Page

Introduction 4
What you will learn in this Course 4
Course Aims 4-5
Course Objectives 5
Working through this Course 6
Course Materials 6
Study Units 6
Set Textbooks 6-7
Assignment File 7
Presentation Schedule 7
Assessment 7
Tutor-Marked Assignments 8
Final Examination and Grading 8
Course Marking Scheme 8
Course Overview 8-9
How to get the Best from this Course 9-10
Tutors and Tutorials 10
Summary 11


























CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

iv
Introduction

CTH316: Hebrew Syntax is a one-semester 3-credit unit course. The
course is available toward the award of first degree in Christian
Theology. The course material can also be useful for students in other
levels of Christian Theology. Besides, those who wish to broaden their
knowledge on religious ideas, especially the role of biblical languages in
the understanding of the Old Testament can find this course material
beneficial.

This course is made up of 22 units. It will begin with a review of
CTH313-Biblical Grammar, which is a prerequisite to this course. After
this preview, meant to strengthen previous studies, we will start off from
principles of syntax of Hebrew Grammar where we will explore all the
nuances of the various moods of the Hebrew verb.

The Course Guide tells you briefly what the course is about, what you
are expected to know in each unit, what course materials you will be
using and how you can work your way through the materials. It also
emphasizes the need for Tutor Marked Assignments (TMAs). Detailed
information on TMAs is found in a separate file, which will be sent to
you later. There are periodic tutorial classes that are linked to this
course.


What You Will Learn in this Course

The overall aim of CTH316 is to help you develop a systematic growth
in the use of biblical Hebrew so that you can get to the level where you
can access the original language and do your translation/interpretation
without recourse to any existing translation of the Old Testament. This
will help you in your personal Bible study, sermon preparation and the
development of study guide for use in the Church.

Course Aims

· The aim of this course is to help you discover the importance of
language in the understanding of the Old Testament literature
since the Old Testament was originally written in the Hebrew.
This will be achieved by:

· Reviewing the major components of grammar studied in CTH313

· Giving you the distinctive traits of Hebrew verbs in terms of
tense, mood, number, person and the voice (active or passive)

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

v
· Giving you the distinctive traits of Hebrew nouns in terms of
number, person and gender.

· Giving you tips of translation process so that you can begin to
translate from small units of sentences.

· Giving you various Hebrew vocabularies that occur commonly in
the Bible and the various shades of meaning they possess.

· Introducing you to biblical exegesis through translation and
interpretation of actual Bible texts


Course Objectives

To achieve the aims set out above, there are set overall objectives.
Besides, each unit has its specific objectives. The unit objectives would
be included in the beginning of each unit. You should read them before
you start working through the unit. It is advisable that you refer to them
during your study of the unit to check on your progress. At the end of
every unit, you should also revise the unit objectives. In this way you
can be sure that you have done all you are expected to do in the unit.

Listed below are the broader objectives of this course. It is expected that
by meeting these objectives, the overall aims of the course must have
been achieved. At the end of this course, you should be able to:

· Discuss the formation of the various moods of the Hebrew verbs.

· Discuss the functions of the various moods of the Hebrew verbs.

· Write any numeral in Hebrew.

· Explain syntactical functions of participles.

· Explain syntactical functions of infinitives.

· Translate any given passage in the Hebrew Bible.

· Undertake brief exegesis of any given passage in the Hebrew
Bible.




CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

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Working through this Course

To complete this course, you are required to read the study units, read
the recommended books and the other materials provided by the
National Open University (NOUN). Each unit contains self-assessment
exercises, and at points during the course you are required to submit
assignments for assessment purposes. At the end of this course there is a
final examination. Below you will find listed all the components of the
course and what you have to do.

Course Materials

Major components of the course are:

1. Course Guide
2. Study Units
3. Textbooks
4. Assignments file
5. Presentation schedule

You must obtain these materials. You may contact your tutor if you have
problems in obtaining the text materials.

Study Units

There are twenty-one study units in this course. They are listed as
follows:


Each unit contains a number of self-tests. In general, these self-tests
question you on the material you have just covered or require you to
apply the material in some ways, and thereby, help you to gauge your
progress and to reinforce your understanding of the material. Together
with your tutor marked assignments, these exercises will assist you in
achieving the stated learning objectives of the individual units and of the
course.

Set Textbooks

These textbooks are recommended for your study in this course:

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy.
Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books.

Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

vii

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in
Israel.

Books are however very scarce in the area of languages however some
websites can give you assistance in seeing what the original manuscripts
look like and not a full study. For these sites see the following:

www.bible.org
www.religion-online.org
www.biblestudies.org

Assignment file

In this file you will find all the details of the work you must submit to
your tutor for marking. The marks you obtain from these assignments
will count toward the final mark you obtain for this course. Further
information on assignment will be found in the assignment file itself and
later in this Course Guide in the section on assessment.

Presentation Schedule

The presentation schedule included in your course materials gives you
the important dates for the completion of your tutor marked assignments
and attending tutorials. Remember, you are required to submit all your
assignment as and when due.

Assessment

There are two aspects to the assessment of this course. First are the tutor
marked assignments; second, there is a written examination. While
working on your assignments, you are expected to apply information
and knowledge acquired during this course. The assignments must be
submitted to your tutor for formal assessment in accordance with the
deadlines stated in the assignment file. The work you submit to your
tutor for assessment will count for 30% of your total course mark. At the
end of the course, you will need to sit for a final three-hour examination.
This will also count for 70% of your total course mark.




CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

viii
Tutor Marked Assignments (TMAs)

There are fifteen tutor assignments in this course. You need to submit all
the assignments. The best three (that is, the three with the highest grades
of fifteen assignments) will be counted. The total mark of the best three
will be 30% of your total course mark.

Assignments for the units in this course are contained in the Assignment
File. You should be able to complete your assignments from the
information and materials contained in your set textbooks, reading and
study units. However, you are advised to use other references to broaden
your viewpoint and provide a deeper understanding of the subject.

Final Examination and Grading

The examination will consist of questions you will come across in tutor
marked assignments. You are therefore advised to revise the entire
course after studying the last unit before you sit for the examination.

Course Marking Scheme

The table below gives a breakdown of the course mark:

Assessment Marks
Assignments 1-21 Three assignments, best three
marks of the assignments counts
for 30% of course marks.
Final examination The final examination counts for
70% of overall marks.
Total 100% of course marks
Table 1: Course Marking Scheme

Course Overview

This table brings together the units, the number of works you should
take to complete.

Unit Title of Work Week’s
Activity
Assessment
(end of unit)
Course Guide
1 The Article Assignment 1
2 The Prepositions Assignment 2
3 The Conjunction and the
Adjectives
Assignment 4
4 Introduction to the Noun in
Hebrew
Assignment 4
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

ix
5 The Pronouns Assignments 5
6 Basic Principles of Syntax Assignment 6
7 The Perfect Verb in Hebrew Assignment 7
8 The Imperfect Verb in Hebrew Assignment 8
9 The Imperative, Infinitive and
Participles in Hebrew Verbs
Assignment 9
10 The Stems of the Hebrew Verb Assignment 10
11 The Perfect of other Verb Stems Assignment 11
12 The Imperfect of other Verb
Stems
Assignment 12
13 The Imperative, Infinitive and
Participles in other Verb Stems
Assignment 13
14 The Irregular Verbs Assignment 14
15 The Waw Consecutive Assignment 15
16 The Numerals Assignment 16
17 Hebrew Verbs and the Principles
of Syntax
Assignment 17
18 The Verb in the Indicative Mood Assignment 18
19 The Verb in the Subjunctive and
Voluntative Moods
Assignment 19
20 The Imperative and the
Infinitive
Assignment 20
21 The Participles Assignment 21
22 Practical Examples of Syntactic
Relation
Assignment 22
23
24
25
Table 2: Course Overview


How to Get the Best from this Course

In distance learning the study units replace the university Lecturer. This
is one of the great advantages of the distance learning system. You can
read and work through specially designed study materials at your own
pace.

Each of the study units follows a common format. The first item is an
introduction to the subject matter of the unit and how a particular unit is
integrated with the other units and the course as a whole. Following this
is a set of learning objectives. These objectives enable you know what
you should be able to do by the time you have completed the unit. The
objectives should guide your study. After studying the units must cross
check whether you have achieved the objectives. If you adhere strictly to
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

x
this art of checking whether the objective is achieved or not, you will
definitely improve your chances of passing the course.

The main body of the unit guides you through the required reading from
other sources. This will usually be either from your set books or from a
Reading section. Whenever you need help, don t hesitate to call and
ask your tutor to provide it.

1. Read through this Course Guide thoroughly.

2. Plan your study schedule. You should refer to the course
overview for more details. Find out the time you are expected to
spend on each unit and when and how to turn in your
assignments.

3. Stick to your study schedule. Don t allow anything to get you
distracted from your study schedule.

4. Turn to Unit 1 and read the introduction and objectives for the
unit.

5. Gather the study material you need. All you need or a unit is
given in the Overview at the beginning of each unit. The study
unit you are working on and one of your set books should be on
your desk at the same time.

6. Work through the unit. The content of the unit has been arranged
in a sequential order. Instructions would be given on where to
read from your set books or other articles. Use the unit to guide
your reading.

7. Review the objectives for each study unit to confirm you have
achieved them.

8. Don t proceed to the next unit, until you are sure you have
achieved the objectives of the unit you are working on.

9. Don t wait until your assignment is returned before working on
the next unit. Keep to your schedule.

10. When you complete the last unit, you can be preparing for exams.
Be sure that you have achieved the unit objectives (listed at the
beginning of each unit) and the course objectives (listed in this
Course Guide).


CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

xi
Tutors and Tutorials

There are 8 hours of tutorials provided in support of this course. The
dates, times and location of these tutorials, together with the name and
phone number of your tutor will be communicated to you. This will be
done as you are allocated to a tutorial group.

Your tutor will mark and comment on your assignments, keep a close
watch on your progress and on any difficulties you might encounter and
provide assistance to you during the course. You must mail your tutor
marked assignments to your tutor well before the due date (at least two
working days are required). They will be marked by your tutor and
returned to you as soon as possible. Do not hesitate to contact our tutor
by telephone, e-mail or discussion board if you need help. The following
might be the circumstances in which you will find help necessary.
Contact your tutor if:

· You do not understand any part of the study units or the assigned
readings.

· You have difficulty with the self-tests or exercises, and

· You have a question or problem with an assignment, with your
tutor s comment on an assignment or with the grading of an
assignment.


You should try your best to attend the tutorials. This is the only chance
to interact with your tutor by asking questions which are answered
instantly. You can raise any problem encountered in the course of your
study. To maximize the benefits of the course tutorials, it is advisable
that you prepare a question list before attending them. When you
participate in the discussions your intellectually life will be deeply
enriched.

Summary

CTH316 exposes you to the background history and development of
Old Testament Text as well as the biblical Hebrew. It will also lead you
to a working knowledge of the language and the ability to consult the
original language of the Bible thereby enriching your knowledge of the
Bible. On successful completion of this course, you will be able to
answer questions such as:

1. What are the functions of the indicative mood?
2. How is the imperative mood formed?
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

xii
3. What are the various uses of the infinitive?
4. What is the difference between the participle and the infinitive?
5. What is the difference between the perfect and the imperfect
state?
6. What does the cohortative function of the voluntative mood stand
for?
7. How would you translate a relative perfect?
8. How would you translate a perfect of experience?
9. How many forms of imperfect exist in Hebrew language?
10. Hiow does the imperative mood functions in the Hebrew
language?






































CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

xiii

Course Code CTH316

Course Title Hebrew Syntax

Course Developer/Writer Dr. David Moomo
Bible Society of Nigeria
Apapa, Lagos

Dr. Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale
National Open University of Nigeria
Victoria Island, Lagos

Course Editor Dr. Afolorunso Olalekan Dairo
Olabisi Onabanjo University
Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State

Course Coordinator Dr. Jacob A. Owolabi
National Open University of Nigeria
Lagos

Programme Leader Dr. Godwin I. Akper
National Open University of Nigeria
Lagos










NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA








CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

xiv

National Open University of Nigeria
Headquarters
14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way
Victoria Island
Lagos

Abuja Annex
5, Dar es Salaam Street
Off Aminu Kano Crescent
Wuse II, Abuja
Nigeria

e-mail: centralinfo@nou.edu.ng
URL: www.nou.edu.ng

National Open University of Nigeria 2011

Printed 2011

ISBN: -------------------------------------

All Rights Reserved

Printed by ---------------------------------
For
National Open University of Nigeria


















CTH316 Hebrew Syntax

xv

CONTENTS PAGES

Module 1 4

Unit 1 The Articles
Unit 2 The Prepositions
Unit 3 The Conjunction and the Adjective
Unit 4 Introduction to the Noun in Hebrew
Unit 5 The Pronouns
Unit 6 Basic Principles of Syntax
Unit 7 The Perfect Verb in Hebrew
Unit 8 The Imperfect Verb in Hebrew

Module 2

Unit 1 The Imperative, Infinitive and Participles in Hebrew Verb
Unit 2 The Stems of the Hebrew Verbs
Unit 3 The Perfect of other Verb Stems
Unit 4 The Imperfect of other Verb Stems
Unit 5 The Imperative, Infinitive and Participles of Other Verb
Stems
Unit 6 The Irregular Verbs
Unit 7 The Waw Consecutive
Unit 8 The Numerals

Module 3

Unit 1 Hebrew Verbs and the Principles of Syntax
Unit 2 The Verb in the Indicative Mood
Unit 3 The Verb in the Subjuncttive and the Voluntative Moods
Unit 4 The Imperative and the Infinitive
Unit 5 The Participles
Unit 6 Practical Examples of Syntactic Relations








CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
16
MODULE 1

UNIT 1: THE ARTICLE

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 Introducing the Article in Hebrew
3.3 Table for Writing Articles in Hebrew
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

You are welcomes to the first unit of this module. We will begin with a
review of the articles. In the first part of this course, that is, CTH313-
Hebrew Grammar, you have been taught the formation of the articles in the
Hebrew language as well as their functions. You might need to revise this
and also revise the formation and the functions of the article in the English
language.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Write the definite article in Hebrew
· State the main rule governing the writing of articles in Hebrew
· List the exceptions to the rule of writing articles in Hebrew
· State the difference between the definite and the indefinite article

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
|¨N
earth (f)
_¨¨
way
¨`¨2
covenant (f)
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
17
2¨"
sword
¨2¨
word
|¨3
priest
_"C
king
2` "L
peace
¨. L
year (f)
NB: The nouns marked (f) are feminine nouns in the Hebrew language.

3.2 Introducing the Article in Hebrew

Unlike the English language where we have the definite and indefinite
article, but like the Greek language, there is no indefinite article in the
Hebrew language. The indefinite article is always indicated by the absence
of the definite article.

Under normal conditions, the definite article is a prefix that is joined to the
word so that it becomes one word along with its noun both in writing and
pronunciation. However, it is important to note that unlike the Greek
language, the definite article in the Hebrew language is not gender or
number sensitive, that is, it does not change form due to gender or number.

The rule of writing the definite article in Hebrew is this: the consonant he
(¨) and would be joined to the noun with the vowel pathah and would add a
dagesh forte in the following consonant, if the consonant accepts a dagesh
forte. Using the Hebrew word for voice as an example, "` ¸ would be
translated a voice and "`¸¨ would be translated the voice .

After treating the main rule, let us now turn our attention to the exceptions
to the main rule.

· For the consonants that do not take dagesh forte, the vowel before
the consonants would be heightened. This implies that the pathah
under the ¨ would become a kamets. For example, for the word
LN¨ , instead of LN¨¨ , we would have LN¨¨ . You must also
remember at this point that ¨ and " are said to be doubled by
implication and so the vowel pointing of the article would remain the
same as in 2¨ " ¨ .
· Even for this exception above, there are further exceptions. These
few exceptions are better learnt as part of the vocabulary along with
its main principle so that when you come across it in other words,
you would remember it. The first of the words is |¨N (earth). With
the definite article, |¨ N would now be written as |¨ N¨ (the earth).
The second word is 2. (people), which would now be written as
2.¨ (the people) with the definite article. The third word is ¨¨
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
18
(mountain) and with the definite article it would be written as ¨¨ ¨
(the mountain).
· Finally, the normal article, when it comes before " , unaccented ¨
and unaccented . would be written as ¨ . A good example of this is
." (festival) which would be written as ." ¨ (the festival).

3.3 Table for Writing Articles in Hebrew

Having gone through all these, the principles can be summarized in this
table as follows:

Definite
Article Form
Circumstance of Use Example
¨
The normal article form
"` ¸¨ (the voice)
¨ Article before N, ¨ and . 2N¨ (the father)
¨ Article before ¨ and " 2¨" ¨ (the sword)
¨ Article before " , unaccented ¨
and .
."¨ (the festival)

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have studied the use of articles in the Hebrew language.
You have been taught that there is no indefinite article in the Hebrew
language and the absence of the definite article implies the indefinite
article. You have learnt that the normal way of writing the definite article is
to attach ¨ which is pointed with a pathah along with a dahgesh forte in the
next consonant to the word that would carry the definite article. The use of
a dagesh forte in the first letter of the substantive thus would create
exceptions especially when the first consonant of the substantive happens to
be a guttural.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· There is no indefinite article in the Hebrew language and the absence
of the definite article implies the indefinite article.
· The normal way of writing the definite article is to attach ¨ which is
pointed with a pathah along with a dahgesh forte in the next
consonant to the word that would carry the definite article.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
19
· The use of a dagesh forte in the first letter of the substantive thus
would create exceptions especially when the first consonant of the
substantive happens to be a guttural.
· For the consonants that do not take dagesh forte, the vowel before
the consonants would be heightened from pathah to a kamets. For
example, for the word LN ¨ , instead of LN¨¨ , we would have
LN¨ ¨ .
· Because ¨ and " are said to be doubled by implication the vowel
pointing of the article would remain the same as in 2¨ " ¨ .
· When the normal article comes before " , unaccented ¨ and
unaccented . it would be written as ¨ . A good example of this is ."
(festival) which would be written as ." ¨ (the festival).

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Add the proper article to the following words:

2` , 2¨ l , ¨` N, ¨" ` , 2N, _ L" , "N, 2` "L, 7`7, ¨7 "

Translate the following to Hebrew

The man, the father, the day, the sword, the heart, the son, the priest, the
brother, the year, the waters

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER STUDIES

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.


CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
20
UNIT 2: THE PREPOSITIONS

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 Introducing the Hebrew Prepositions
3.3 Inseparable Prepositions
3.4 Preposition |C
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit we have gone through a study of the definite article in
the Hebrew language. You have been taught that there is no indefinite
article in Hebrew and that the absence of the definite article implies the
presence of the indefinite article. In this unit, we are going to go through
another impotant group of words in language: the prepositions. In this unit
you would learn about the different types of preposition and how they are
written.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you would be able to:

· Identify the prepositions of the Hebrew language
· Differentiate between the separable and the inseparable prepositions
· Write a preposition to any given Hebrew word

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
¨` N
light
¨` 2
house
¨2
daughter (f)

blood
_ L"
darkness
2`
sea
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
21
2` ¸C
place
N`2.
prophet
"` NL
Saul

3.2 Introducing the Hebrew Prepositions

As in other languages, the prepositions are used to denote the relationship
between two substantives. In the Hebrew language however, there are two
types of prepositions: the inseparable and the separable prepositions.

3.3 Inseparable Prepositions

The inseparable prepositions in the Hebrew language are three and they are
written as prefixes to the word they are to work with. The three inseparable
prepositions are:

2 in, by, with
3 as, like, according to
" to, for, at

As you would have noticed, each of the prepositions above carries about
three different meanings. In this case, the context would eventually decide
which of the three meanings you are going to use. Having seen the
prepositions, the next thing is to go on and examine the usage of these
prepositions.

If you are very observant, you would have noticed that all the three
prepositions above carry a shewa, and this would have implications for its
usage. In the normal usage, the preposition would be prefixed to the
substantive. The following are examples:

2L 2 in a name or by a name or with a name
¨2¨ 3 according to a word, like a word
"` ¸" to a voice, for a voice

The following are the exceptions to this normal rule:

Exception 1

Before a simple shewa, the shewa of the preposition would become a hirek
as in the following examples:

¨`¨22 by a covenant; the Hebrew word ¨`¨ 2 means covenant
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
22
¨C¨23 like cattle; the Hebrew word ¨C ¨2 means cattle

Exception 2

If the preposition is to be prefixed to a compound shewa, the simple shewa
of the preposition would take the short vowel of the class of the compound
shewa. Examine the following example closely:

¨LN 3 like who; the Hebrew word ¨LN has hatheph pathah as its
compound shewa and thus the preposition 3 takes pathah as
its vowel.

Exception 3

If the preposition is to be prefixed to the word that has a definite article, the
h of the definite article would be substituted with the consonant of the
preposition. Examine the following examples closely:

2` ` 2 in the day; this is the combination of 2` ` ¨ (the day) and the
preposition 2 (in). You would note that instead of having
2` ` ¨ 2 we have 2` ` 2 because the consonant of the
preposition (in this case, 2) has taken the place of the
consonant of the definite article (¨).

LN¨ 3 like a head; this is the combination of LN¨ ¨ (the head) and
the preposition 3 (like). You would note that instead of
having LN¨¨3 we have LN¨3 because the consonant of the
preposition (in this case, 3) has taken the place of the
consonant of the definite article (¨).

The following are the summary of all that has been explained above:

· The inseparable preposition is pointed with a shewa except if the
word to which it is prefixed beings with a consonant that is also
pointed with a shewa or a word that already have the definite article.
· When two vocal shewas follow one another, the shewa of the
preposition becomes a hirek.
· If the second shewa is a compound shewa, the shewa of the
preposition would become the short full vowel of the same class of
the compound shewa.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
23
· If the preposition is prefixed to the word that already has a definite
article, the consonant of the definite article is substituted with the
definite article of the preposition.

3.4 Preposition |C

Preposition |C is a unique preposition of the Hebrew language. It is unique
because it could be written in two different ways. As an inseparable
preposition, it is written as C, pointed with hirek and with a dagesh forte in
the following consonant. A good example is "` ¸C (from a voice).

It could also be written as a separate word but joined with a makkeph to the
word it should be prefixed to. This is used mostly when it is to be used
along with a word that already carries the definite article. A good example
is "` ¸ ¨ ¯|C (from the voice).

Exception 1

If |C is to be prefixed to a word beginning with ¨ and ", since they are
doubled by implication and do not take the dagesh forte, it would be written
as it should have been written but without the dagesh forte. For example,
with |`", it would be written as |` "C .

Exception 2

If |C is to be prefixed to a word beginning with N . and ¨, it would be
written as C. This is because the gutturals would reject being doubled;
hence the hirek would be heightened to a tsere. A good example is ¨` NC
(from light).

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have learnt about the two categories of Hebrew preposition,
namely the separable prepositions and the preposition |C that can be
written both as a separable and inseparable preposition. You have learnt
that the inseparable prepositions are written as a prefix joined to the
substantive and they carry shewa as their vowel. |C in its case would be
joined with a makkeph to the substantive especially when the substantive
carry the definite article. As an inseparable preposition, |C would loose the
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
24
final nun and then be prefixed to the substantive which would now carry a
dagesh forte in its first consonant.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· There are three main inseparable prepositions in the Hebrew
language which are written as prefixes to the substantive. The three
are: 2 (in, by, with); 3 (as, like, according to) and " (to, for, at).
· In the normal usage, the preposition would be prefixed to the
substantive. The following are examples: 2L 2 (in a name or by a
name or with a name); ¨2 ¨3 (according to a word, like a word) and
"` ¸" (to a voice, for a voice).
· Note however that before a simple shewa, the shewa of the
preposition would become a hirek as in ¨`¨ 22 (by a covenant).
· If the preposition is to be prefixed to a consonant carrying a
compound shewa, the simple shewa of the preposition would take
the short vowel of the class of the compound shewa as in ¨L N3
(like who).
· If the preposition is prefixed to the word that has a definite article,
the ¨ of the definite article would be substituted with the consonant
of the preposition as in 2`` 2 (in the day).
· Preposition |C could be written as an inseparable preposition as in
"` ¸C (from a voice) and as a separable preposition as in "` ¸¨ ¯|C
(from the voice).

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Pronounce and translate the following words:

LN¨ C, ¨`. 2 , |2 " , 2` ¸C 2 , ¨2 ¨3 , N`2 . C , ¨`.¨ ¯|C , 2¨ 2 , _ L, ¨` "


Translate the following to Hebrew:

To the day, in a name, for the man, from head to heart, by the covenant,
from darkness to the light, for a man, according to the word of God, the
daughter, the son

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
25
7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.























CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
26
UNIT 3: THE CONJUNCTION AND THE ADJECTIVE

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 Introducing the Conjunction
3.3 Introducing the Adjective
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit we have dealt with the prepositions. You have known
that the prepositions are written as prefixes to the substantive in Hebrew.
You should have also know that there are four prepositions in Hebrew with
preposition |C being the fourth one and could be written separately but
joined with a makkeph to the substantive or written as a prefix like the
others. In this unit however, we are going to focus our attention on the
conjunction and the adjectives.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Explain how the conjunction is written in Hebrew
· List the exceptions to the general rule of writing the conjunctions
· Identify the type of adjective used in any piece of writing
· Identify the normal word order in Hebrew language
· Write the preposition in Hebrew
· Use any adjective attributively or predicatively

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
|` ¨N
lord
"` ¨.
great
L¨"
new
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
27
2""
bread
¨"`
child
|.
tree
¨.
time (f)
L` ¨¸
holy
2`C¨
perfect

3.2 Introducing the Conjunction

Under normal conditions, the conjunction (that is, the word that is used to
join words and thoughts together) is written as a waw with a shewa. In
Hebrew, it would be ` . An example is ¨" ` ` (and a child).

Exception 1

Like all other rules that have been treated before, the writing of
conjunctions also has exceptions. The first exception to the rule is when the
conjunction is to come before 2, C, and £. In this case, it would be written
as a shurek. Examples are: 2` ¸C ` and |2` .

Exception 2

Also, before the consonants that are pointed with simple shewas, the
preposition would also be written like shurek as in exception 1 above. A
good example is ¨` C¨ ` (and likeness).

Exception 3

When the preposition is to follow consonants that are pointed with
compound shewas and not simple shewas as in exception 2 above, the waw
of the conjunction would drop its shewa and take the short vowel of the
same class with the compound shewa. A good example is the Hebrew word
`. N` (and I). If you examine this word very well, you will notice that, the
consonant waw is pointed with pathah, the short vowel of the a class
vowel, to which the compound shewa belongs.

Exception 4

You need to observe this exception very well because it is a little bit
complicated and it concerns only one Hebrew word. Before the word `¨ ` ,
the conjunction would be written as `. Thus with the conjunction, you
would have `¨`` (instead of `¨` ` ). This is so because two vocal shewas
cannot follow one another, thus, the first shewa is pressed to a hirek.
Remember also that when a yodh follows a hirek immediately, it becomes a
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
28
vowel called hirek-yodh; and because two vowels cannot follow one
another without any intervening consonant, the shewa cannot be retained.

3.3 Introducing the Adjective

Like in the Greek language, the adjective in the Hebrew language can be
used both attributively and predicatively.

The Attributive Use

The adjective is said to be used attributively if it modifies or qualifies a
substantive. In this case, the adjective would come after the substantive
noun and it would agree with the noun in gender, number and definiteness.
In other words, if the noun is feminine and singular and also an indefinite
noun, the adjective would also be feminine, singular and indefinite.
Examples are: 2` I 2L (a good name); 2` I¨ 2L ¨ (the good name);
"` ¨. ¨` 2` I¨ "` ¸ ¨ (literally: the voice, the good and the great; in
polished English: the good and the great voice). I would advice that when
you translate that you first do a literal translation before polishing the
translation to smooth English. Doing this would show you how close in
thought most African culture are to the first century Palestinian thought.

The Predicative Use

The adjective is said to be used predicatively when it adds the verb to be to
the substantive. In this case, the adjective would agree with the substantive
in gender and number but would not take the definite article and would also
stand before the substantive. For example, "`¸¨ 2`I (the voice is good);
"` ¨. ¨` "` ¸¨ 2` I (the voice is good and great).

It is very important at this point to let you know a very important
grammatical and syntactical issue. The normal order in which the adjectives
and the substantives are written is as discussed above. However, for the
purpose of emphasis, this order can be inverted. When this is done, the
word that is placed in the first position is the emphasized word. For
example, though the phrase 2` I ¨ 2L¨ would rightly be translated the
good name, the emphasis would be on the adjective good .

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have studied how the conjunction is written in the Hebrew
language, which is the use of the consonant waw pointed with a shewa.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
29
You have also been told that the presence of a shewa under the waw would
lead to some changes especially with another consonant pointed with a
simple or a compound shewa. You have also been taught that the adjective
can be used attributively and predicatively and you should be able to
identify the way in which the adjective has been used.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have been taught in this unit:

· The conjunction is written as a waw with a shewa, that is, `
· Before 2, C, and £ it would be written as a shurek that is, `
· Before the consonants pointed with simple shewas, the preposition is
written like shurek
· Before consonants pointed with compound shewas the waw of the
conjunction would drop its shewa and take the short vowel of the
same class with the compound shewa.
· The adjective is used attributively if it modifies or qualifies a
substantive. In attributive use, the adjective would come after the
substantive noun and it would agree with the noun in gender,
number and definiteness.
· The adjective is used predicatively when it adds the verb to be to the
substantive.
· In predicative use, the adjective would agree with the substantive in
gender and number but would not take the definite article and would
also stand before the substantive.
· When word order is reversed, the first word carries the emphasis.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Translate the following words to English


"` ¨. , "` ¨. |.¨, |.¨ 2`C¨ , 2` I ¨ ¨" ` ¨, ¨"` 2` I, 2¨ N¨, |` ¨N¨,
L`¨¸ ¨" ` ¨ , 2` I¨ , 2`I¨ |2 ¨ , _ L"¨ , 2¨ "¨ "` ¨. ¨ , _ L"¨, L` ¨¸¨
_"C ¨, |` ¨N`

Translate the following words to Hebrew

A great day, the good brother, in the great day, the great man is good, the
lord and the son, father and daughter, light and darkness, the tree is perfect,
the bread is holy.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
30

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.


























CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
31
UNIT 4: INTRODUCTION TO THE NOUN IN HEBREW

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 Cases in Hebrew Noun
3.3 Marking the Direct Object
3.4 Showing Direction and Motion
3.5 Construct Relation
3.6 Gender and Number
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit, we have examined various grammatical and syntactical
issues that are supposed to be the ground rules for the language. In this unit,
we would be looking at the nouns and the various salient issues affecting
the nouns. I would implore you to go back to the course material on Greek
Grammar and study the introduction to the nouns. This would serve as a
reminder to you on the general issues relating to the nouns, especially the
cases and the functions of the cases.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Show how case function is determined in Hebrew language
· Identify the marking of a direct object
· Explain how motion or direction is written in Hebrew
· Define construct relation
· Explain the use of construct relation
· Discuss how plural forms are written in Hebrew
· Discuss the formation of the genders in Hebrew



CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
32
3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
¨"N
one
2`. £
faces
¨LN
woman
¨2.
servant
"3
all, every
2¨.
evening
¨£
mouth
¨¨` ¨
law,
instruction
"¨N
tent

3.2 Cases in Hebrew Noun

Nominative Case

Unlike the Greek language, the nominative case in the Hebrew language
does not have identical case endings. The best way to locate the nominative
case noun in the Hebrew language is the position of the noun within the
sentence. Under normal conditions in the Hebrew language, the nominative
case noun, which performs the functions of the subject of the sentence,
comes after the finite verb.

Genitive Case

The genitive case is the case that indicates the possessive noun. This is
done in Hebrew by a special construction called the construct relations. As
the content would have shown you, this would be treated shortly.

Ablative Case

The ablative case is the case of separation. This function in the Hebrew
language is fulfilled by the use of the preposition ¯|C .

Dative Case

This is the case of interest and in the Hebrew, this function is fulfilled by
the use of the preposition ".

Locative Case

The locative case is the case that shows the spatial position of nouns. This
function is fulfilled by the preposition 2 in conjunction with the context.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
33
Other words that can also be used for this are: "., ¨"¨ ,¯"N ,"SN and
`.£" among others.

Instrumental Case

The instrumental case is the case that gives us an idea of the instrumentality
through which certain things are done. This function is fulfilled by the
preposition 2 and 2. in conjunction with the context. Please note that it is
the context that would help decide the difference between the locative and
the instrumental cases.

Accusative Case

The accusative case is the case that designates the direct object. However,
in the Hebrew language, this is not marked by identical word endings but
by the position of the object in the sentence. In the Hebrew language, the
direct object, under normal conditions, follows the subject of the sentence.

3.3 Marking the Direct Object

When a direct object carries the definite article, it is usually marked in the
Hebrew language by the word ¨N. Please note that this word cannot be
translated as it is only marking the direct object carrying the definite article.
It is also present only in prose and not in poetry.

3.4 Showing Direction and Motion

Direction and motion towards a place in the Hebrew is indicated by the use
of kamets that is followed by he, that is, ¨ . In this case, the kamets, which
is a vowel would become the vowel pointing for the last letter of the word
(which under normal conditions would be a consonant). For example while
¨¨¨ would be translated the mountain , ¨¨¨ ¨ would be translated
towards the mountain .

3.5 Construct Relation

In the Hebrew language, when two nouns are placed immediately after one
another without any punctuation mark or any other word, they are said to be
in construct relations. The governing substantive of the two nouns would be
said to be in construct state and the other would be in the absolute state. For
example, in the phrase L`N¨ 7` 7 (this phrase would be translated the
horse of the man or the man s horse in polished English) the governing
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
34
substantive is 7` 7 and would be in the construct state while L`N¨ would
be in the absolute state. In this construction, the first noun (substantive)
would be the governing substantive and it would never take the definite
article even if the other does. Whenever this construction takes place, the
two words would form a compound word. The following are examples of
some nouns in construct relation:

L`N ¨2 ¨ a word of a man a man s word
|2 ¨ ¨` the hand of the son the son s hand
|¨N ¨ "3 (the) all of the earth the whole earth
¨`¨` ¨¨ ` ¨ law of Yahweh Yahweh s law

3.6 Gender and Number

Unlike the Greek and the English language, Hebrew has only two genders:
masculine and feminine. In terms of numbers however, while the other two
languages has only two forms, that is, singular and plural, Hebrew language
has three forms, namely: singular, plural and dual. The dual number is used
specifically for objects that go in pairs like ears, eyes and feet. Below are
the various endings for the gender and the number:

Gender State Singular Plural Dual
Masculine Absolute
7` 7 2`7` 7 2` 7` 7
Construct
7` 7 `7` 7 `7` 7
Feminine Absolute
¨7` 7 ¨` 7` 7 2` ¨7` 7
Construct
¨7` 7 ¨` 7` 7 `¨7 ` 7

Please take note of the following:

a. The masculine singular noun of the Hebrew language has no
identical ending. The position of the word in the sentence indicates
its function.
b. To form the plural form of the masculine noun, the suffix 2` is
usually added to the masculine singular form.
c. The normal feminine singular ending is ¨ `hich is identical with the
sign of direction or motion. In this case, the context would tell you
whether it is a feminine noun or the sign of direction. But note
please that most words ending in ¨ are feminine nouns. Examples
are ¨¨ L (princess), ¨7 ` 7 (mare) and ¨2 ` I (good).
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
35
d. To form the plural of the feminine noun, all you need to do is to add
the suffix ¨` as in the following examples: ¨`¨` ¨ (generations) and
¨` 2` I (good ones-a substantive use of an adjective).
e. In the dual form of numbers, the ending for the masculine and the
feminine nouns are similar and it is 2` as in 2` ¨` (a pair of hands)
and 2` . l N (a pair of ears)

Please note that there are some irregular plurals that need to be studied on
their own. They are treated briefly below:

a. There are some masculine nouns that their plural form is identical
with the feminine plural noun ending as in ¨`2N (fathers), ¨` C` ¸C
(places), ¨` "` ¸ (voices) and ¨`CL (names).
b. There are some feminine nouns that their plural form is identical
with the masculine plural noun ending as in 2`.` ` (doves), and
2`"C (words; this is from another Hebrew word for word, ¨" C ).
c. There are some nouns that have two plural forms; one in the
masculine and the other in the feminine. Examples are ¨`¨
(generation), ¨`L (song) and ¨. L (year).
d. Finally, there are some nouns that are found only in the plural and
never in the singular form. These include 2` C L (heavens), 2`C
(waters) and 2`. £ (faces).

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have been taught the various cases and how they are formed
in the Hebrew language. Most especially is the use of construct relation in
expressing the possessive case. Finally, the use of gender and number is
also explained. You are also taught that there are only masculine and
feminine genders in Hebrew (that is, there is no neuter noun) and there are
also three numbers (singular, plural and dual). You have also been shown
some nouns that are regarded as irregular nouns.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· When a direct object carries the definite article, it is usually marked
in the Hebrew language by the word ¨N.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
36
· Direction and motion towards a place in the Hebrew is indicated by
the use ¨ .
· When two nouns are placed immediately after one another they are
said to be in construct relations.
· The governing substantive of the two nouns would be said to be in
construct state and the other would be in the absolute state.
· Unlike the Greek and the English language, Hebrew has only two
genders: masculine and feminine.
· In terms of numbers however, while the other two languages has
only two forms, that is, singular and plural, Hebrew language has
three forms, namely: singular, plural and dual.
· The dual number is used specifically for objects that go in pairs like
ears, eyes and feet

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Translate the following to English

2` . ,L`N ¨2¨ ,|2 ¨ ¨` ,|¨ N¨ "3 , ¨`¨` ¨¨` ¨

Translate the following to Hebrew:

The law of the covenant, the man toward the mountain, the word of God is
perfect, the instruction for the king, the son of the prophet, the good
woman.

7.0 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
37
UNIT 5: THE PRONOUNS

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 A Brief Introduction to the Pronouns
3.3 Personal Pronouns
3.4 Demonstrative Pronouns
3.5 Relative Pronouns
3.6 Interrogative Pronouns
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have been introduced to the Hebrew nouns and
their various cases in the Hebrew language. In this unit, you would be
examining the pronouns which should literally follow after the study of the
nouns because they pretty run along the same rules since the pronouns are
used instead of the nouns. The various aspects of the pronoun would be
examined in this unit.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Differentiate between subject and object pronouns
· Write the demonstrative pronouns in Hebrew
· Differentiate between the singular and the plural pronouns
· Identify the relative pronoun in Hebrew
· Write out all the interrogative pronouns






CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
38
3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
¨l
this (m)
N` ¨
that (m)
`C
who
¨Nl
this (f)
N`¨
that (f)
¨C
what
N` ¨
that (m)
`N
where
¨LN
who, which, what


3.2 A Brief Introduction to the Pronouns

As the name suggests, pronouns are the words used in place of nouns. Their
use basically helps to reduce monotony that would have arisen as a result of
continuous use of a particular noun. There are various classes of the
pronoun, namely: personal, demonstrative, relative and interrogative
pronouns.

3.3 Personal Pronouns

There are two classes of personal pronouns: the subject personal pronoun
and the object personal pronoun. In the Hebrew language, the subject
personal pronouns are written as distinct words and are called separate
forms. The object pronouns are also of two types. The first type is usually
attached to a noun thus indicating a genitive relationship. They are the
fragments of personal pronouns that are attached to the substantive. The
other pronouns are usually attached to a verb and thus indicate an
accusative relationship. Below are the separate forms of subject personal
pronouns:

Singular Plural
Pronoun Meaning Pronoun Meaning
`. N
I
` .".
we
`3. N ` .". N
¨¨N
you (masculine)
2¨N
you (masculine)
¨N
you (feminine)
¨. ¨ N
you (feminine)
N` ¨
he
2¨, ¨C ¨
they (masculine)
N`¨
she
|¨, ¨. ¨
they (feminine)

It is important for you to note that these pronouns are not used under
normal conditions to express the subject of the verb because the Hebrew
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
39
verb always contains the pronominal subject. In this case, the subject
pronoun is used more in the Hebrew to express an emphasis of the subject-
nominative. This is called the casus pendens. For example, the Hebrew
word "LC means (he ruled). If I now say "LC N` ¨ would then be
translated as for him, he ruled (the emphasis is on he).

3.4 Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that are used to point out (that is,
demonstrate) what is being talked about. They can be in the singular or in
the plural and can also point to what is far and what is near. Below are the
demonstrative pronouns of the Hebrew language:

Singular Plural
Gender Hebrew English Gender Hebrew English
Masculine
¨l
this Common
¨"N
these
Feminine
¨Nl
Masculine
N` ¨
that Masculine
2¨ or
¨C¨
those
Feminine
N`¨
Feminine
|¨ or ¨.¨

Please note that the pronouns should conform to the rules that are
applicable to the adjectives, especially with regard to the use of the article.
This is to say that when they are used attributively, they take the article but
when they are used predicatively, they would not take the article. The
following examples illustrate the use of the demonstrative article:

2` I L`N ¨l this (is) a good man
2` I¨ L`N¨ ¨l this (is) the good man
¨l ¨ L`N¨ this man
¨Nl ¨ ¨LN¨ this woman
¨l ¨ 2` I¨ L`N¨ this good man

If you examine the above sentences carefully, you would discover that the
first two sentences are predicative use of the pronoun. As we have said
earlier, when use predicatively, the demonstrative pronouns did not take the
definite article but when used attributively, they take the definite article.



CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
40
3.5 Relative Pronouns

There is only one relative pronoun in the Hebrew language. It is written as
¨LN . This same word is translated as who , which and that . Thus, it is
the context that would help you to determine the actual meaning. It has to
be noted however that in the later development of Hebrew, a shortened
form of the relative pronoun developed and it is in two forms: L or L.
These occurrences are however rare.

3.6 Interrogative Pronouns

The interrogative pronouns, as their name goes, are pronouns that are used
to ask questions. There are two interrogative pronouns: `C (meaning who
and is used to refer to human beings) and ¨C (meaning what and is used
to refer to inanimate things). Study the following examples very well:

¨¨N `C who are you?
N`¨ ¯¨C what is that?

You need to note however that the vowel pointing of the interrogative
pronoun (¨C ) would vary depending on the consonant which follows the
pronoun. This is due to the fact that most of the time; ¨C is joined to the
word that follows it by a makkeph.
a. If the word that follows ¨C carries a dagesh forte, it would be
pointed with pathah as written above, for example, _ " ¯¨C meaning
what to you?
b. If the word that follows ¨C starts with either ¨ or ", it would be
pointed with pathah as written above because ¨ and " are said to be
doubled by implication, for example, N`¨ ¯¨C meaning what is
that?
c. If the word that follows ¨C starts with either N, . or ¨, it would be
pointed with kamets as written above because N, . and ¨ do not
receive the dagesh forte, for example, ¨" N¯¨C meaning what are
these?
d. If the word that follows ¨C starts with a guttural that is pointed with
a kamets, it would be pointed with a seghol as written above, for
example, `¨ `L. ¯¨C meaning what have I done?

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
41
Before concluding the discussion on interrogative pronouns, it is important
for you to know that there is a Hebrew word `N meaning where which is
usually used with the demonstrative pronoun (¨l ) to form an interrogative
pronoun. A good example is _ ¨¨¨ ¨l ¯`N which would be translated
which way?

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have studied the major pronouns of the Hebrew language.
These include the personal, the demonstrative, the relative and the
interrogative pronouns. By now, you should be able to distinguish between
the various pointing of the interrogative pronoun (¨C) which is dictated by
the consonant that follows. You have also seen the two forms of the
personal pronoun, that is, the separate forms and the others that are written
as suffixes to the noun.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· There are two classes of personal pronouns: the subject personal
pronoun and the object personal pronoun.
· In the Hebrew language, the subject personal pronouns are written as
distinct words and are called separate forms.
· The object pronouns are also of two types. The first type is usually
attached to a noun thus indicating a genitive relationship.
· The other pronouns are usually attached to a verb and thus indicate
an accusative relationship.
· The subject pronoun is used more in the Hebrew to express an
emphasis of the subject-nominative. This is called the casus pendens.
· Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that are used to point out (that
is, demonstrate) what is being talked about.
· The demonstrative pronouns conform to the rules that are applicable
to the adjectives, especially with regard to the use of the article.
· There is only one relative pronoun in the Hebrew language.
· The interrogative pronouns, as their name goes, are pronouns that
are used to ask questions.




CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
42
6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Translate the following to English:

N` ¨ N` ¨¨ ¨¨¨ 2N ¨ ¨LN L`N¨ ¨l ¨ ¨2¨¨ ¨2¨ ¨ ¨l ¨2¨ N`2. ¨ `C
2` I¨ _ "C¨

Translate the following to Hebrew:

This great house, who (is) the priest?, this (is) the new covenant, he (is) the
perfect light, I (am) the good prophet, this (is) the way to the holy
mountain, lord and God to the man

7.0 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.














CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
43
UNIT 6: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SYNTAX

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 Word Order in Hebrew Sentence
3.3 The Comparative Degree
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous units, that is, from unit one to the last unit, we have
discussed various aspects of the Greek grammar. We have touched on the
noun, the pronouns, the conjunction, the adjectives and the prepositions
among others. Having gone this far, it is time for us to begin considering
the sentence in Hebrew. Thus, in this unit, we would examine the basic
principles of syntax, that is, the word order in the Hebrew language.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· State the part of the sentence that takes the first place in the Hebrew
sentence.
· Explain the style of placing emphasis in the Hebrew sentence.
· Discuss the formation of the comparative degree in the Hebrew
sentence.
· List all the word order in the regular manner

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
"¨N
tent
¨"` .
burnt
offering
¨` ¨
generation
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
44
2"` .
age,
eternity
¶73
silver

many
I£ LC
judgement
sentence
"` ¨
spirit,
breath




3.2 Word Order in Hebrew Sentence

In the Hebrew sentence, the verb usually takes the first position. You need
to remember however that since the Hebrew verb carries its subject, the
verb can be a complete sentence in the English translation. For example, the
Hebrew verb ¨3 C means he sold . The major exception to this rule is the
negative particle and the interrogative pronoun. Examine the following
sentences as examples:

7` 7 L`N¨ ¨3 C The man sold a horse
7` 7 L`N¨ ¨3 C N" The man did not sell a horse
7` 7 ¨3 C `C Who sold a horse?

In the above sentences, the negative particle (N" ) and the interrogative
pronoun (`C ) comes before the verb because they would take precedence.

Another time that a word may take precedence over the verb is when the
writer wishes to place emphasis on a particular word. The word to be
emphasized would then be placed in the first position. This is what happens
in the following sentence: 7`7 L`N¨ ¨3 C `" . The personal pronoun (`" )
receives the emphasis in this sentence and thus it would be translated to
me the man sold a horse .

The second ground rule is that the subject (if it is to be used) would follow
the verb. A good example is, 2`¨" N ¨CN which means God said .

The third ground rule is that the subject would be followed by its modifiers.
Remember that the adjective would have to agree with the substantive in
gender, number and definiteness. Examine the following examples closely:

2` I¨ 7` 7¨ the good horse
2`2` I¨ 2`7` 7¨ the good horses
¨` 2` I¨ ¨` 7` 7¨ the good mares

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
45
The first example is the masculine singular while the second is the
masculine plural and the third one is the feminine plural. Note the changes
in the modifiers.

The demonstratives, if there is any, would come after the adjectives.
Remember also that the demonstratives behave like the adjective. When it
is used attributively, it carries the article and follows the substantive. You
can revise this as treated in the earlier unit. Note that if the adjective is
used, it would be followed by the demonstrative and the two would agree
with the substantive in gender, number and definiteness. Look at the
following example closely:

¨l ¨ 2` I¨ "` ¸ ¨ this good voice.

In the above example, the substantive is singular and it carries the definite
article. It is followed by the adjective which is also singular and also carries
the definite article. Finally, it is followed by the demonstrative article
which is also singular and carries the definite article.

The next sentence element in the structure is the direct object of the verb.
Remember also that if the direct object carries the definite article, it would
be preceded by the particle ¨N. Look at the following example:

7` 7¨ ¨N L`N¨ ¨3C the man sold the horse.

In conclusion, the following is the regular word order in the Hebrew
language: verb, subject (the modifiers and demonstrative pronoun), direct
object (and its modifiers) and the indirect object. Any deviation from the
above word-order is mainly for the purpose of emphasis. The following is a
bigger emphasis:

`L` ¨¸¨ |¨3" N`¨¨ ¨2 ` I¨ ¨7 ` 7¨ ¨N ¨l ¨ "` ¨. ¨ L`N¨ ¨3 C which
would be translated This great man sold that good mare to the holy priest .

3.3 The Comparative Degree

In the Hebrew language, the comparative degree is expressed through the
use of the preposition ¯|C . For example, `|2¨ ¯|C L`N¨ "` ¨. which
would literally read great is the man from the son and thus in polished
English would translate the man is greater than the son .


CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
46
4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have exclusively dealt with the order of words in the
Hebrew sentence. You have been told that the verb usually takes the first
position followed by the subject (if there is any) and then the modifiers of
the subject. After this, come the demonstrative pronouns which would be
followed by the direct object and then the indirect object. You have also
been told that for the purpose of emphasis, any word can come to the first
position.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The verb usually stands in the first position in the Hebrew sentence.
· The subject would normally follow the verb.
· The subject is followed by the modifiers.
· After this come the adjective which would behave like the adjective.
· The demonstrative comes after the adjectives
· The direct object would come after the demonstrative
· Finally, the indirect object would come last.
· However, for the purpose of emphasis, any word can take the first
position.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Translate the following words to English:

¨2¨ ¨ ¨l , ¨l¨ ¨2¨ ¨ , 2N ¨ ¨LN L`N¨ , N` ¨¨ ¨¨ ¨ , 2`I¨ _"C¨ N` ¨
`N`2. ¨ `C , ¨l¨ L` ¨¸¨ 2L ¨ , ¨2 ¨ ¨Nl ¨

Translate the following to Hebrew:

This great house, who (is) the priest? he (is) the perfect light, I (am) the
good prophet, this (is) way to the holy mountain, lord and God to the man.

7.0 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
47

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.































CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
48
UNIT 7: THE PERFECT VERB IN HEBREW

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 Introduction to the Verb
3.3 The Verb in the Perfect State
3.4 Vowel Changes in the Perfect Verb
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous modules we have studied other elements of the sentence,
like the nouns, the pronouns and the adjectives among others. In this unit
however, we are going to zero in on the verbs. Treating the verbs at this
point is deliberate because there are very many aspects of the Hebrew verb.
In this unit however, we would be limited to the verb in its perfect state.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· State the functions of the state in the Hebrew verb.
· Define complete and incomplete state in the verb.
· Write out all the afformatives in the Hebrew perfect verb.
· Identify vocalic afformative.
· Define consonantal afformative.

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
L¸2
he sought
"LC
he ruled
¨3l
he remembered
_¨2
he blessed
¨¨3
he cut
"¨.
he was great
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
49
¨2¨
he spoke
|¨.
he gave




3.2 Introduction to the Verb

Unlike the verb of the other languages you have studied like the English
and the Greek languages, the verb in the Hebrew language has no tense.
Remember that it is the tense that indicates the time of action. The time of
the action of the Hebrew verb is indicated by the context of the passage. As
a result of this, the inflections of the Hebrew verb indicate the state of
action and not the time of action. These infections of the Hebrew verb are
called afformatives. By way of definition, these afformatives are remnants
of personal pronouns which are added to indicate variations in person,
number and gender. These would be studied later in this unit.

3.3 The Verb in the Perfect State

As you have studied in the Greek language earlier, the fundamental part of
any verb is the root of that verb. Once you have determined the root of the
verb, you would be able to identify its inflections and then know what the
interpretation should be.

The root form or the lexical form (that is, the form of the verb you would
be able to locate in the lexicon,) of the Hebrew verb is the third person
masculine singular of the perfect state of the verb. Under normal
conditions, this root of the Hebrew verb is made up of three consonants. If
you examine all the vocabularies above, you would discover that all of
them have three consonants. The three consonant composition of the root of
the verb is characteristic of all Semitic languages, of which Hebrew is one.
In fact, there are some verbs like "I¸ that are regarded as strong because
in all their forms, they retained the three consonants.

As with the consonants of the verbs, the vowels of the third masculine
singular perfect, that is, the root form of the verb would also remain
unchanged except when the laws of syllable and tone requires a change
when the afformatives are added. The afformatives for the perfect state of
the verbs are as follows:





CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
50
Singular Plural
Person Gender Afformative English Afformative English
Third Masculine (None) he
`
they
Third Feminine
¨
she
Second Masculine
¨
you (m)

you (m)
Second Feminine
¨
you (f)

you (f)
First Common

I
` .
we

3.4 Vowel Changes in the Perfect Verb

Before we begin to examine the vowel changes in the perfect verb, it is very
important for us to see the changes in action by examining the full
inflection of one of the perfect verbs in the Hebrew language. In doing this,
we shall use "I ¸ as an example:

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸
he killed
` "I¸
they killed
Third Feminine
¨"I ¸
she killed
Second Masculine
¨"I ¸
you killed
2¨" I¸
you killed
Second Feminine
¨"I ¸
you killed
|¨"I¸
you killed
First Common
`¨"I¸
I killed
` ."I¸
we killed

If you examine the above paradigm very well, you would discover that as
the afformatives were joined to the root word, some of the vowel pointing
begins to change. We will now point out the affromatives, define them and
explain the rules guiding them.

Vowel Changes with Vocalic Afformatives

A vocalic afformative (also known as vowel afformative) is an afformative
beginning with a vowel. There are two vocalic afformatives in the Hebrew
language, and these are: ¨ and ` . Since they begin with a vowel, it is not
possible for them to form separate syllables, because they have to attach
themselves to the final (last) consonant of the word.

The basic rule to follow in placing vocalic afformative is this: an open pre-
tonic syllable before vocalic afformatives would volatilize, that is, become
vocal. Let us examine the word "I ¸ . When you add the vocalic
afformative of the third person feminine, instead of having ¨" I ¸ which
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
51
would have been the most logical thing, the word ¨" I¸ is used. As you
can see, the pathah of the teth became a shewa, which is going to be a vocal
shewa because it is a volatilized vowel resulting from the pull of the kamets
from the adjoining vocalic afformative. In terms of accent, the vowel
preceding the shewa would receive the metheg.

Vowel Changes with Consonantal Afformatives

The consonantal afformative is one that begins with consonants; in this
case, 2¨ and |¨ are the only consonantal afformatives that take the accent.
As with the vocalic afformative, the consonantal afformative before an
open pre-tonic syllable will volatilize. These consonantal afformatives draw
the accent from the penult (if you have forgotten what this means, consult
the Greek Grammar (CTH215) course material), and thus make the vowel
of the antepenult to receive the metheg or volatilize, but most times it
volatilize. If you examine 2¨ "I¸ in the paradigm above, you would
discover that the kamets of the first consonant of the word has to become a
volatilized shewa.

The only exception to this rule of the consonantal afformatives is the
second feminine singular afformative ¨ . Because ¨ cannot form a
separate syllable on its own unlike 2¨ and |¨ , it attaches itself to the
ultima. Let it be known to you that ¨ is a remnant of ¨N a word in which
the shewa is vocal; this it retains the vocal aspect of the shewa. For clarity
sake, let us examine the word in which it appears: ¨"I¸ . The dagesh forte
in the taw also show that the shewa of the " is a syllable divider. Since the
"I is a closed syllable, the addition of ¨ made it half open. That syllable
thus becomes a half-closed syllable.

Please note that if you want to form the simple perfect form of any strong
verb, all you need to do is to exchange the three consonants of "I ¸ with
that of the new verb. You can practice this with the vocabularies above.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have studied about the perfect state of the Hebrew verb.
You have been taught that the perfect state of the verb is the root of any
verb in the Hebrew language and the simplest verb form is the third person
masculine singular of the perfect verb. You have also learnt that to indicate
person, number and gender, vocalic and consonantal afformatives are added
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
52
to the verb. In the process of this addition, certain changes take place in the
vowel pointing, the rules for which you have also learnt.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The perfect state of the verb is the root of any verb in the Hebrew
language.
· The simplest verb form is the third person masculine singular of the
perfect verb.
· To indicate person, number and gender, vocalic and consonantal
afformatives are added to the verb.
· Before vocalic afformatives an open pre-tonic syllable will
volatilize.
· Before consonantal afformatives an open pre-tonic syllable will
volatilize.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Translate the following words to English:

`¨" LC , ` ¨¨3 , ¨.¨., 2¨ "¨. , ¨" LC, |¨., ¨¨3 l , ` .¨2¨ , ¨" ¨.
`|¨3¨ 2 , 2` I ¨ L`N" ¨`¨2¨ ¨N ¨¨ 3

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.


CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
53
UNIT 8: THE IMPERFECT VERB IN HEBREW

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 Introducing the Imperfect State
3.3 The Verb in the Imperfect State
3.4 Notes on the Imperfect Verb
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit, we have been introduced to the verb. You have been
taught that the perfect state of the verb is the root of any Hebrew verb and
that the masculine singular form of the perfect is the simplest form of the
verb. In this unit, we will begin to examine the imperfect verb, which seems
to be the opposite of the perfect verb. You need to note especially the
differences between the two states of the verb.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· State the functions of the imperfect verb in the Hebrew language.
· Distinguish between the perfect and the imperfect of the verbal
forms.
· Write out all the afformatives in the Hebrew imperfect verb.
· Write out all the preformatives in the Hebrew imperfect verb

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
L¨¨
tread, seek
2¨¸
draw near
723
wash
¶¨ L
burn
¨£3
cover
¨2 L
break in pieces
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
54
¨2¸
bury
_" L
cast, throw



3.2 Introducing the Imperfect State

The imperfect state of the verb in the Hebrew language is used to express
the unfinished action of the verb. The imperfect state in its formation is
preceded by the fragments of the personal pronouns and these are called
preformatives. The major distinguishing mark between the perfect and the
imperfect is the use of the preformatives in the imperfect state. While the
perfect state of the verb never used the preformative but afformatives; the
imperfect state uses the preformatives predominantly and also afformatives
in some cases.

Though in the translations of these verbs in this course material, the past
forms of the verbs would be used, you must remember that the action of
these verbs could be in the present or past or future. The main function of
the imperfect state is to show what is known as the incipient incomplete
action (this lays emphasis on the beginning of the action) or the
frequentative incomplete action (this lays emphasis on the repetition of the
action). Please note that no matter the mood, or form, or person in which
the imperfect state of the verb occurs, let your translation show the
incomplete action.

3.3 The Verb in the Imperfect State

As you have been taught earlier on, the imperfect state of the verb is formed
using the fragments of the personal pronouns. This would be expressed
using the same word: "I ¸ .

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸ `
he began
to kill
` "I¸`
they began
to kill
Third Feminine
"I¸ ¨
she began
to kill
¨. "I¸ ¨
they began
to kill
Second Masculine
"I¸ ¨
you began
to kill
` "I¸¨
you began
to kill
Second Feminine
`"I¸¨
you began
to kill
¨. "I¸ ¨
you began
to kill
First Common
"I¸ N
I began to
kill
"I¸ .
we began
to kill
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
55
Examine the table above and note where the preformatives and the
afformatives are used as this same paradigm that would be useful for any
other strong Hebrew verb.

3.4 Notes on the Imperfect Verb

The ground form for most imperfect is "I¸` . But please note that the
vowel of the preformative is hirek (which is derived from the original
pathah) except that under the consonant N, it changes to seghol which that
consonant prefers.

The next vowel for the imperfect is the defective holem. This is the long
tone for o that is heightened from the original kibbuts. Please note that the
stem vowel would volatize before the vowel afformative. The preformative
¸` is a closed syllable. Consequently, the shewa under the qoph is a
syllable divider.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have studied the imperfect form of the Hebrew verb. You
have learnt that the imperfect form of the Hebrew verb is used mainly to
express unfinished action or the repetitive action. In whatever form it
comes, the unfinished action must be carried out in its translation. The
imperfect is also distinguishable from the perfect form of the verb in its use
of the preformative and sometimes the afformative in its various forms.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The imperfect state of the verb in the Hebrew language is used to
express the unfinished action of the verb.
· The imperfect state in its formation is preceded by the fragments of
the personal pronouns and these are called preformatives.
· The major distinguishing mark between the perfect and the imperfect
is the use of the preformatives in the imperfect state.
· The main function of the imperfect state is to show what is known as
the incipient incomplete action (this lays emphasis on the
beginning of the action) or the frequentative incomplete action (this
lays emphasis on the repetition of the action).


CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
56
6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Write the full imperfect form of the following verbs:

"LC "I¸ ¨C L 2¨ 3

Translate the following to Hebrew:

I began to write, we will begin to speak, she proceeded to lie down, you
visited the son and the daughter repeatedly, we began to sell a tent and a
house, they began to judge by the word of the mouth.

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.















CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
57
MODULE 2

Unit 1: The Imperative, Infinitive and Participles in Hebrew Verb
Unit 2: The Stems of the Verb
Unit 3: The Perfect of other Verb Stems
Unit 4: The Imperfect of other Verb Stems
Unit 5: The Imperatives, Infinitives and Participles of other Verb
Stems
Unit 6: The Irregular Verbs
Unit 7: The Waw Consecutive
Unit 8: The Numerals

UNIT 1: THE IMPERATIVE, INFINITIVE AND
PARTICIPLES IN HEBREW VERB

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 The Imperative in Hebrew Verb
3.3 The Infinitive in Hebrew Verb
3.4 The Participle in Hebrew Verb
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit, you have learnt about the imperfect form of the
Hebrew verb. You have been taught that the imperfect is used mainly to
express unfinished action with emphasis on the incipient and the repetitive
actions. You have also been taught that the major distinguishing mark
between the perfect and the imperfect state of the verb is that the perfect
never use the preformative while the imperfect use the preformative mainly
and also the afformative alongside in some cases. In this unit however, we
would be discussing the imperative, the infinitive and the participle.



CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
58
2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Discuss the formation of the imperative in the Hebrew language.
· Identify the two forms of the infinitive in the Hebrew verb.
· Distinguish between the absolute and the construct infinitive.
· Discuss the functions of the infinitive.
· Discuss the function of the participle.

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
2¨3
he wrote
¨¸£
he visited
L2"
he put on
¨3C
he sold
¨C L
he kept
_"C
he reigned
23 L
he lay
down
I£ L
he judged


3.2 The Imperative in Hebrew Verb

The imperative in the Hebrew language is used mainly for affirmative
commands. In its form, the imperative is identical with the second person
imperfect verb except that it drops the preformative.

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Second Masculine
"I¸
you kill
` "I¸
you kill
Second Feminine
`"I¸
you kill
¨. "I¸
you kill

You will discover in the above table that there are some words that the first
consonants are pointed with the hirek. This occurs because after the
removal of the preformatives, two consonants pointed with shewa followed
one another. However because two simple shewas cannot stand together,
the first shewa is pressed into a hirek. This occurs only at the second
feminine singular and the second masculine plural.

In the Hebrew language, the imperative is never used with a negative.
Prohibitions are expressed either by N" (not) with the imperfect and "N
(not) with the jussive. The jussive would be studied later.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
59

3.3 The Infinitive in Hebrew Verb

There are two forms of the infinitive in the Hebrew language, namely: the
absolute infinitive which is very rare and the construct infinitive which is
more common.

The Absolute Infinitive

The absolute infinitive is written as "`I¸ and it does not permit the use of
any prefix or suffix. It characteristically throws the idea of the verb forward
without defining time, action or subject. It also paints an action without
regard to agent, time or circumstance. It usually accompanies a finite verb
for added emphasis or to denote the continuance of the action. Let us
examine the following phrases:

`¨¨C L ¨` CL keeping, I have kept
_ "C ¨ _` "C ruling, you begin to rule

You need to be careful however that you do not confuse the absolute
infinitive with the Hebrew participle.

The Construct Infinitive

The usual form of the construct infinitive is written in the following form:
"I¸ . This form, unlike the absolute infinitive is used frequently with
prepositions prefixed as in "I¸" which would be transferred to kill .
This form is usually identical with the second masculine singular
imperative. Please note this is the Hebrew infinitive that is comparable to
the English infinitive.

3.4 The Participle in Hebrew Verb

The Hebrew participle is presented as continuous and unbroken action. In
the simple stem, the verb has two forms: the active and the passive
participle. For example, examine the following forms:

The active form: "I` ¸ or ("I¸ ) one who kills (killer)
The passive form: "` I¸ killed (one killed, dead)

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
60
Before we go into the next section of the verbs, let us run a summary of the
forms of the verb that we have treated so far, using "LC as the main verb:

The Perfect

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"LC
he ruled
` "LC
they ruled
Third Feminine
¨" LC
she ruled
Second Masculine
¨" LC
you did
rule
2¨" LC
you ruled
Second Feminine
¨" LC
you did
rule
|¨" LC
you ruled
First Common
`¨" LC
I ruled
` ." LC
we ruled

The Imperfect

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"LC `
he was
ruling
` "LC`
they were
ruling
Third Feminine
"LC ¨
she was
ruling
¨. " LC ¨
they were
ruling
Second Masculine
"LC ¨
you were
ruling
` "LC¨
you were
ruling
Second Feminine
`" LC¨
you were
ruling
¨. " LC ¨
you were
ruling
First Common
"LC N
I was
ruling
"LC .
we were
ruling

Please note that "LC` may be translated as he began to rule .

The Imperative

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Second Masculine
"LC
rule you
` "LC
rule you
Second Feminine
`" LC
rule you
¨. "LC
rule you



CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
61
The Infinitive

Absolute Infinitive: "` LC ruling
Construct Infinitive: "LC to rule

The Participles

Active Participle: "L` C or "LC one who rules (a ruler)
Passive Participle: "` LC ruled (under subjection)

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have studied three forms of the Hebrew verb, namely: the
imperatives, the infinitives and the participles. You have learnt that the
Hebrew imperative is used only for afformative commands. The imperative
is never used with the negatives. You have also learnt that there are two
forms of the infinitive: the absolute and the construct infinitives. You have
also been taught that the construct infinitve is the one similar to the English
infinitive. The participle also represents a continuous or unbroken action. It
also has two forms: the active and the passive.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The Hebrew imperative is used only for afformative commands; it is
never used with the negatives.
· There are two forms of the infinitive: the absolute and the construct
infinitives.
· The construct infinitve is the one similar to the English infinitive.
· The participle represents a continuous or unbroken action. It also has
two forms: the active and the passive.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Translate the following to English:

`£¨¨ ` ¨C L ¨C LN "LC 2¨3 2` ¨3 ¨` C" ¨. ¨£7 ` .L¨¸ `" LC ` 2¨3
`2` ` ¨ ¨N ` ¨3l


CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
62
Translate the following to Hebrew:

We began to learnt to keep the head and the heart, you were repeatedly
great, keeping you did regularly keep the covenant, we started pursuing the
horse toward the mountain, they wrote in the way, the spirit blessed the
prophet, he gave the burnt offering to the priest, I used to visit, they began
to stumble, remember you.

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.



















CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
63
UNIT 2: THE STEMS OF THE VERB

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 Introducing the Hebrew Verb Stem
3.3 Characteristics of the Hebrew Stems
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit, you have been exposed to the three major elements of
the Hebrew verb, namely: the imperative, the infinitive and the participles
of the verb. You have seen the difference between the absolute and the
construct infinitive and the fact that the imperative in the Hebrew language
is not used for negative command. In this unit, you would be going to
examine the stems of the Hebrew verb. Before now, all that you have seen
about the Hebrew verb is just only one stem. In this unit, you would
examine all the stems and the characteristics of these stems.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· List all the stems of the Hebrew verb
· List the characteristics of each of the verbs
· Identify the stem of the verb through their characteristics
· Differentiate between a weak and a strong verb

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
"L3
he stumbled
¨£7
he numbered
¨3 "
he captured
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
64
L¨¸
he was holy
¨C"
he learned
¶¨¨
he pursued
L¨¨
tread, seek
2¨¸
draw near
723
wash


3.2 Introducing the Hebrew Verb Stem

The form of the Hebrew verb you have studied so far is the Simple Qal
stem of the verb. Apart from this stem there are six other stems of the
Hebrew verb. Each of these stems represents a different aspect of the
primary meaning of the verb. You started with the qal stem because this is
the basic stem. All other stems are derived from the qal stem and are
formed by means of prefixes, vowel changes and the doubling of some
letters.

The meaning of the Hebrew verb is presented in three degrees, namely: the
simple, the intensive and the causative. As an example of these three
degrees, let us use the word love . In the simple, it would be translated to
love ; in the intensive, it would be translated to love passionately and in
the causative, it would be translated to cause to love . It is also important
for you note that each of these also have the active and the passive forms.
The intensive form also has the reflexive form. Having come this far, we
can now name the seven stems of the Hebrew verb, using "I ¸ as our
paradigm:

The Simple Active (Qal) "I¸ he killed
The Simple Passive (Niph al) "I ¸ . he was killed
The Intensive Active (Pi el) "I ¸ he killed brutally
The Intensive Passive (Pu al) "I¸ he was killed brutally
The Intensive Reflexive (Hithpa el) "I¸¨¨ he killed himself
The Causative Active (Hiph il) "`I¸¨ he caused to kill
The Causative Passive (Hoph al) "I¸ ¨ he was caused to kill

3.3 Characteristics of the Hebrew Stems

QAL

Qal is the simple verb stem of the Hebrew language. Apart from this, it is
the lexical form of the Hebrew verb. Qal is identified by the absence of any
adjoining letter.


CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
65
Niph‘al

Niph al (". £. ) is the passive form of the Qal stem. It is characterized by
the letter nun that is prefixed to the word. This nun is usually supported by
a syllable divider or it is assimlitated to the following consonant. Please
note that in some words, the niph al may be reflexive.

Pi‘el

Pi el (".£ ) is always active but it is the intensive active. It is characterized
by the use of the hirek under the first consonant and the doubling of the
middle consonant as in the example above. The middle consonant is
doubled by the use of the dagesh forte. It may be iterative or emphatic.

Pu‘al

Pu al (". £ ) is the intensive passive form of the verb. It is characterized by
the presence of the shurek under the first consonant and the doubling of the
middle consonant through the use of dagesh forte.

Hithpa‘el

Hithpa el (".£¨ ¨ ) is the reflexive stem of the Hebrew verb. It is
characterized by the use of the prefixing of ¨ and the doubling of the
middle consonant.

Hiph‘il

Hiph il ("`. £¨ ) is the causative active form of the verb. It is characterized
by the prefixing of the ¨ which is pointed with the hirek or the pathah.

Hoph‘al

Hoph al (".£ ¨ ) is the causative passive form of the verb. It is
characterized by the prefixing of the ¨ which is pointed with the kamets.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have been exposed to all the various stems of the Hebrew
verb. You have also been taught how to distinguish the seven stems from
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
66
another and the proper way to translate these stems. These stems are as
follows: qal, niph al, pi el, pu al, hithpa el, hiph il and the hoph al.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· Qal is the simple verb stem of the Hebrew language. Qal is identified
by the absence of any adjoining letter.

· Niph al is the passive form of the verb. It is characterized by the
letter nun that is prefixed to the word.

· Pi el is the intensive active form of the verb. It is characterized by
the use of the hirek under the first consonant and the doubling of the
middle consonant as in the example above.

· Pu al is the intensive passive form of the verb. It is characterized by
the presence of the shurek under the first consonant and the doubling
of the middle consonant through the use of dagesh forte.

· Hithpa el is the reflexive stem of the Hebrew verb. It is
characterized by the use of the prefixing of ¨ and the doubling of
the middle consonant.

· Hiph il is the causative active form of the verb. It is characterized by
the prefixing of the ¨ which is pointed with the hirek or the pathah.

· Hoph al is the causative passive form of the verb. It is characterized
by the prefixing of the ¨ which is pointed with the kamets.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Write all the seven stems of the Hebrew verb listing their functions and
characteristics.

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
67

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.

































CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
68
UNIT 3: THE PERFECT OF OTHER VERB STEMS

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 The Perfect of the Niph al
3.3 The Perfect of the Pi el
3.4 The Perfect of the Pu al
3.5 The Perfect of the Hithpa el
3.6 The Perfect of the Hiph il
3.7 The Perfect of the Hoph al
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have been exposed to the other stems of the
Hebrew verb, making seven stems in all. You have been taught the
characteristics of all the seven stems and how they are written as well as
translated. In this unit however, we are going to be concerned with the
perfect from of the other stems because you have studied the perfect form
of the qal stem. You are required to study in details the how these stems are
written because as far as the strong verbs are concerned, the only difference
would be the three consonants of the verbs.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Write all the stem of any verb
· Identify any stem of the verb
· Translate accurately the perfect form of these stems

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
69
Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
¶¨ L
burn
¨£3
cover
¨2 L
break in pieces
¨2¸
bury
_" L
cast, throw
¨¨ L
ruin
¨¨ L
bow down
I" L
slaughter
LL¸
collect


3.2 The Perfect of the Niph‘al

As you have learnt earlier, the niph al is the simple passive stem of the
Hebrew verb. The following are the forms of the perfect form of the
niph al:

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸ .
he was
killed/he
killed
himself
` "I¸.
they were
killed
Third Feminine
¨"I ¸.
she was
killed
Second Masculine
¨"I ¸.
you were
killed
2¨" I¸.
you were
killed
Second Feminine
¨"I ¸.
you were
killed
|¨ "I¸ .
you were
killed
First Common
`¨"I¸ .
I was
killed
` ."I¸.
we were
killed

3.3 The Perfect of the Pi‘el

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸
he killed
brutally
` "I¸
they killed
brutally
Third Feminine
¨"I ¸
she killed
brutally
Second Masculine
¨"I ¸
you did
kill
brutally
2¨" I¸
you killed
brutally
Second Feminine
¨"I ¸
you did
kill
brutally
|¨"I¸
you killed
brutally
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
70
First Common
`¨"I¸
I killed
brutally
` ."I¸
we killed
brutally

3.4 The Perfect of the Pu‘al

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸
he was
killed
brutally
` "I¸
they were
killed
brutally
Third Feminine
¨"I ¸
she was
killed
brutally
Second Masculine
¨"I ¸
you were
killed
brutally
2¨" I¸
you were
killed
brutally
Second Feminine
¨"I ¸
you were
killed
brutally
|¨"I¸
you were
killed
brutally
First Common
`¨"I¸
I was
killed
brutally
` ."I¸
we were
killed
brutally

3.5 The Perfect of the Hithpa‘el

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I ¸ ¨¨
he killed
himself
` "I¸¨ ¨
they killed
themselves
Third Feminine
¨"I ¸¨¨
she killed
herself
Second Masculine
¨"I ¸¨¨
you did
kill
yourself
2¨" I¸¨¨
you killed
yourselves
Second Feminine
¨"I ¸¨¨
you did
kill
yourself
|¨"I¸ ¨¨
you killed
yourselves
First Common
`¨"I¸ ¨¨
I killed
myself
` ."I¸¨¨
we killed
ourselves

For this stem, there are certain rules that are to be observed and never to be
forgotten:
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
71

a. In cases where the prefix ¨¨ precedes the consonants known as the
sibilants, that is, 7, L and L , the ¨ of the prefix would change place
with the sibilant. For example, the hithpa el of ¨C L would be
written as ¨C ¨L¨ (he kept himself).
b. In cases where the prefix ¨¨ precedes the following consonants: ¨ ,
¨ and I, the ¨ of the prefix would be assimilated. For example, the
hithpa el of ¨¨ I would be written as ¨¨I¨ (he purified himself).
c. In cases where the prefix ¨¨ precedes S, the ¨ of the prefix would
be changed to I and the two would be transposed. For example, the
hithpa el of ¸¨S would be written as ¸¨ IS ¨ (he sanctified
himself).

3.6 The Perfect of the Hiph‘il

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"`I¸¨
he caused
to kill
` "`I¸¨
they
caused to
kill Third Feminine
¨"`I¸ ¨
she caused
to kill
Second Masculine
¨"I ¸ ¨
you did
cause to
kill
2¨" I¸¨
you
caused to
kill
Second Feminine
¨"I ¸¨
you did
cause to
kill
|¨"I¸ ¨
you
caused to
kill
First Common
`¨"I¸ ¨
I caused to
kill
` ."I¸¨
we caused
to kill

3.7 The Perfect of the Hoph‘al

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸ ¨
he was
caused to
kill
` "I¸¨
they were
caused to
kill
Third Feminine
¨"I ¸¨
she was
caused to
kill
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
72
Second Masculine
¨"I ¸¨
you were
caused to
kill
2¨" I¸¨
you were
caused to
kill
Second Feminine
¨"I ¸¨
you were
caused to
kill
|¨"I¸ ¨
you were
caused to
kill
First Common
`¨"I¸ ¨
I was
caused to
kill
` ."I¸¨
we were
caused to
kill

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have been given the perfect form of all the other Hebrew
stems beginning from the nipha al (the simple passive) to the hoph al (the
causative passive). You have also been given the characteristics of each of
these stem as they bring out the various forms in gender and person.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

a. The following are the exceptional cases in the hithpa el stem:
b. In cases where the prefix ¨¨ precedes the consonants known as the
sibilants, that is, 7, L and L , the ¨ of the prefix would change place
with the sibilant.
c. In cases where the prefix ¨¨ precedes the following consonants: ¨ ,
¨ and I, the ¨ of the prefix would be assimilated.
d. In cases where the prefix ¨¨ precedes S, the ¨ of the prefix would
be changed to I and the two would be transposed.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Translate the following to English:

2¨¨ C" , `.¨2¨ , ¨" ¨., ¨ ¨C L, ¨. ¨., |¨¨2¸ , ¶¨ ¨ , ¨¨ £7, ` .¨3l ¨
"L 3 , `¨" LC

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
73
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.































CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
74
UNIT 4: THE IMPERFECT OF OTHER VERB STEMS

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 The Imperfect of the Niph al
3.3 The Imperfect of the Pi el
3.4 The Imperfect of the Pu al
3.5 The Imperfect of the Hithpa el
3.6 The Imperfect of the Hiph il
3.7 The Imperfect of the Hoph al
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have been exposed to the perfect form of all the
stems of the Hebrew verb. The word "I ¸ was used as the guinea pig for
the entire paradigm so that you can see the nuances from stem to stem,
gender to gender, number to number and person to person. In this unit, you
would be going to study the imperfect form of all the other stems.
Remember that you have examined the imperfect of the qal stem earlier on.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Write the imperfect form of any verb in any stem
· Identify any imperfect verb
· Translate accurately the imperfect form of these stems







CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
75
3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
2` ¨C
high place
2N.
oracle
¨` ¸
collect, wait for
¨3" C
Queen (f)
¨. .
before
|I¸
small, younger
¨N.
leather bag
.I.
plant (vb)
¨`¸
wall

3.2 The Imperfect of the Niph‘al

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸ `
he was
being
killed
`"I¸`
they were
being
killed
Third Feminine
"I¸ ¨
she was
being
killed
¨. "I¸ ¨
they were
being
killed
Second Masculine
"I¸ ¨
you were
being
killed
` "I¸¨
you were
being
killed
Second Feminine
`"I¸¨
you were
being
killed
¨."I¸ ¨
you were
being
killed
First Common
"I¸ N
I was
being
killed
"I¸ .
we were
being
killed

If you observe the above table very well, you would discover that the vowel
pointing are fairly regular, except for the first person common singular
which began with aleph that prefers a seghol as its vowel.

3.3 The Imperfect of the Pi‘el

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I ¸ `
he began
to kill
brutally
` "I¸`
they began
to kill
brutally
Third Feminine
"I ¸ ¨
she began
¨. "I ¸ ¨
they began
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
76
to kill
brutally
to kill
brutally
Second Masculine
"I ¸ ¨
you did
begin to
kill
brutally
` "I¸¨
you began
to kill
brutally
Second Feminine
`"I ¸¨
you did
begin to
kill
brutally
¨. "I¸ ¨
you began
to kill
brutally
First Common
"I ¸ N
I began to
kill
brutally
"I¸ .
we began
to kill
brutally

3.4 The Imperfect of the Pu‘al

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸ `
he was
being
killed
brutally
` "I¸`
they were
being
killed
brutally
Third Feminine
"I¸ ¨
she was
being
killed
brutally
¨. "I¸ ¨
they were
being
killed
brutally
Second Masculine
"I¸ ¨
you were
being
killed
brutally
` "I¸¨
you were
being
killed
brutally
Second Feminine
`"I¸¨
you were
being
killed
brutally
¨. "I¸ ¨
you were
being
killed
brutally
First Common
"I¸ N
I was
being
killed
brutally
"I¸ .
we were
being
killed
brutally




CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
77
3.5 The Imperfect of the Hithpa‘el

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I ¸ ¨`
he began
to kill
himself
` "I¸¨`
they began
to kill
themselves
Third Feminine
"I ¸ ¨¨
she began
to kill
herself
¨. "I ¸ ¨¨
they began
to kill
themselves
Second Masculine
"I ¸ ¨¨
you did
begin to
kill
yourself
` "I ¸¨ ¨
you began
to kill
yourselves
Second Feminine
`"I ¸¨ ¨
you did
begin to
kill
yourself
¨. "I ¸ ¨¨
you began
to kill
yourselves
First Common
"I ¸ ¨N
I begin to
kill myself
"I ¸ ¨.
we began
to kill
ourselves

3.6 The Imperfect of the Hiph‘il

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"`I¸`
he began
to cause to
kill
` "`I¸`
they began
to cause to
kill
Third Feminine
"`I¸ ¨
she began
to cause to
kill
¨. "I¸ ¨
they began
to cause to
kill
Second Masculine
"`I¸¨
you did
begin to
cause to
kill
` "`I¸¨
you began
to cause to
kill
Second Feminine
`"`I¸¨
you did
begin to
cause to
kill
¨. "I¸ ¨
you began
to cause to
kill
First Common
"`I¸N
I began to
cause to
"`I¸.
we began
to cause to
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
78
kill kill

3.7 The Imperfect of the Hoph‘al

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Third Masculine
"I¸ `
he was
being
caused to
kill
` "I¸`
they were
being
caused to
kill
Third Feminine
"I¸ ¨
she was
being
caused to
kill
¨. "I¸ ¨
they were
being
caused to
kill
Second Masculine
"I¸ ¨
you were
being
caused to
kill
` "I¸¨
you were
being
caused to
kill
Second Feminine
`"I¸¨
you were
being
caused to
kill
¨. "I¸ ¨
you were
being
caused to
kill
First Common
"I¸ N
I was
being
caused to
kill
"I¸ .
we were
being
caused to
kill

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have been taken through the imperfect of the remaining
stems of the Hebrew verb. If you have observed the table very well, you
would discover that there are some words that are the same for different
persons and gender. In this case, it is the context that would help you to
determine what the right interpretation or translation would be. You need to
memorize these paradigms and it would help you to get the imperfect stem
of every other strong verb.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
79
· The imperfect of the Hebrew verb is characterized by the use of
prefixes and sometimes suffixes.
· There are times when words in different persons and genders would
be identical. In such cases, the context would help you to determine
the right translation.
· These paradigms are identical with other strong or regular Hebrew
verbs.

6.0 TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENTS

Translate the following to English:

,¨2L` ,` L¨¸ ` ,¨2¨¨ ,` ¨¸ £` ,2`¨¸N ,`2 ¨¸¨ ,¨`3 l . ,|¨. ` ,"`¨. .
`¨¨3. ,¨2LN ,¨2 ¨¨ N ,` ¨£ 7` ,"L3 N ,` 3`" L¨

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.










CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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UNIT 5: THE IMPERATIVES, INFINITIVES AND
PARTICIPLES OF OTHER VERB STEMS

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 The Imperatives of the other Stems
3.3 The Infinitives of the other Stems
3.4 The Participles of the other Stems
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have been exposed to the imperfect form of all the
stems of the Hebrew verb. The word "I ¸ was used as the guinea pig for
the entire paradigm so that you can see the nuances from stem to stem,
gender to gender, number to number and person to person. In this unit, you
would be going to study the imperatives, the infinitives and the participles
of all the other stems. Remember that you have examined the imperatives,
the infinitives and the participles of the qal stem earlier on.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Write the imperatives of any verb in any stem
· Identify the infinitives of any verb in any stem
· Identify the participles of any verb in any stem
· Translate accurately these forms of any verb in any stem






CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
¨. 2
deal
treacherousl
y
_C7
support
L£¨
seize, catch
"¨2
separate
(Hiphil)
¨2.
was strong
.£¨
thrust, strike
¨. 7
shut, close
¨2 L
cease, rest
LL¸
collect

3.2 The Imperatives of the other Stems

The stem of the imperative is identical with the stem of the imperfect.
Please note that the passive stems, that is, the pu al and the hoph al have no
imperatives. Remember also that the imperative is only available in the
second person (both in the masculine and feminine as well as the singular
and the plural). Remember that the imperative in the Hebrew language is
used mainly for affirmative commands.

The Imperative of the Niph ‘al

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Second Masculine
"I¸ ¨
be killed
(kill
yourself)
` "I¸¨
be killed
(kill
yourselves)
Second Feminine
`"I¸¨
be killed
(kill
yourself)
¨. "I¸ ¨
be killed
(kill
yourselves)


The Imperative of the Pi ‘el

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Second Masculine
"I¸
you kill
brutally
` "I¸
you kill
brutally
Second Feminine
`"I¸
you kill
brutally
¨. "I ¸
you kill
brutally

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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The Imperative of the Hithpa ‘el

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Second Masculine
"I¸ ¨¨
kill
yourself
` "I¸ ¨ ¨
kill
yourselves
Second Feminine
`"I¸¨ ¨
kill
yourself
¨. "I ¸ ¨¨
kill
yourselves


The Imperative of the Hiph‘il

Singular Plural
Person Gender Hebrew English Hebrew English
Second Masculine
"I¸ ¨
cause one
to kill
` "`I¸¨
cause one
to kill
Second Feminine
`"`I¸¨
cause one
to kill
¨. "I¸ ¨
cause one
to kill

Note that except for the Pi el all the imperatives form have the ¨
throughout. Note also the change of ` in the hiph il imperfect to in the
hiph il imperative second person masculine singular.

3.3 The Infinitives of the other Stems

As you have learnt earlier on, there are two forms of the infinitve called the
absolute and the construct infinitive. Remember also that in using the
infinitives prepositions and suffixes may be added.

Stems Absolute English Construct English
Niph‘al "I¸ ¨
("I¸ . )
being killed
"I¸ ¨
to be killed
Pi‘el "I¸ ("I ¸ )
killing brutally
"I¸
to kill brutally
Pu‘al "I¸
being killed
brutally
"I¸
to be killed
brutally
Hithpa‘el "I¸ ¨¨
killing one s self
"I¸ ¨¨
to kill one s
self
Hiph‘il "I¸ ¨
causing to kill
"`I¸¨
to cause to kill
Hoph‘al "I¸ ¨
being caused to
kill
"I¸ ¨
to be caused to
kill
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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Note:
· To form the infinitive of any strong verb, all you need to do is to
write the imperfect form and remove the preformatives along with
its characteristic vowels.
· The characteristic vowel of the infinitive absolute is the or ` except
in the causative stems that uses the while the infinitive construct
retains the vowel of the imperfect.
· The Hithpa el infinitive absolute and the pu al infinitive construct
are not found in the Hebrew Old Testament.
· There are two forms of the infinitive absolute for the niph al and the
pi el. You may come across either form as they are both correct.

3.4 The Participles of the other Stems

Each of the Hebrew stem as you have learnt earlier has a participle form.
Because you have studied the participle of the qal stem before, we will
concentrate here on the remaining stems.

Stem Participle Meaning
Niph‘al "I¸ .
killed (one killed) or killing one s self
Pi‘el "I ¸ C
killing brutally (one killing brutally)
Pu‘al "I ¸ C
being killed brutallt (one killed brutally)
Hithpa‘el "I ¸ ¨C
killing one s self (one who kills himself)
Hiph‘il "`I¸C
causing to kill (one who causes to kill)
Hoph‘al "I¸ C
caused to kill (one caused to kill)

Note:

· The final vowel of each form of the participle must be a long vowel.
· The niph al participle is identical with the niph al third person
masculine singular, except that the final vowel in a long form.
· The characteristics of the intensive and the causative participles is
the C which replaces the ` of the imperfect along with the long final
vowel.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have learnt the forms of the imperatives, the infinitives
and the participles of the remaining stems of the verb forms. You have
been taught that the passive stems (pu al and hoph al) have no
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
84
imperatives. You have also seen the two forms of the infinitive for each
of the stems and the participles. The final vowel of the participle is
always long and the C is characteristic of the intensive and the causative
participles as it replaces the ` of the imperfect form.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The passive stems (pu al and hoph al) have no imperatives.
· There are two forms of the infinitive for each of the stems namely
the absolute and the construct.
· The final vowel of the participle is always long and the C is
characteristic of the intensive and the causative participles as it
replaces the ` of the imperfect form.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Translate the following words to English:

¨2 L" ¨` C" ¨2 ¨" "`¨ 2C ¨. 7. L¨¸C ¨2 ¨ 2`¨¸ C ¨¸£ C ¨CL¨
_C 7 ¨¨3 ¨ `L¸2 ¨¨ 3" L¨ ¸¨¨ "


7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.



CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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UNIT 6: THE IRREGULAR VERBS

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 The Statives
3.3 The Weak Verbs
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have been exposed to the imperative, the infinitive
and the participle forms of the remaining stems of the Hebrew verb. The
word "I ¸ was used as the guinea pig for the entire paradigm so that you
can see the nuances from stem to stem, gender to gender, number to
number and person to person. Up to this point, all the verbs that you have
learnt are the so called strong and regular verbs. In this unit, we are going
to begin the examination of the verbs known as the irregular verbs which is
made up of statives and weak verbs.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Explain the irregularity in the irregular verbs
· Define the statives
· Identify the weak verbs
· List all the classes of the weak verbs
· Enumerate the characteristics of each class of weak verbs
· Identify any of the irregular verb in the Hebrew text





CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
2. .
steal
|2¸
collect
I"C
escape
¨£7
mourn
¶I L
overflow
23 L
rise early
(Hiph il)
¨IC
rain
"£.
fall
¨23
was heavy

3.2 The Statives

Welcome to the beginning of your study of the irregular verbs in the
Hebrew language. We are starting with the study of the statives. How do
we explain the statives? The statives can be likened to the English verbs
that are known as the intransitive verbs. They are characterized by the fact
that they usually express a state of being or condition, and thus they do not
take the direct object. These statives, in the qal are intransitive and in the
pi el are transitive. For example, the Hebrew word ¨C " in the qal would
mean learn but in the pi el would mean teach . Despite the difference of
these verbs however, they still follow same rules and patterns as followed
by the strong verbs. The following are the more common statives you will
come across:

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
¨23
was heavy
"¨.
was great
"3 L
was wise
|¸l
was old
"3`
was able
"3 L
was bereaved
|I¸
was small
¸l "
was strong
N¨`
was afraid
¸¨S
was
righteous
23 L
he lay down
L¨¸
was holy
2"L
was whole
2¨¸
was near
¸"¨
was far off

3.3 The Weak Verbs

By now you must be used to the vowel pointing of the regular and strong
verbs and the principles that are behind these vowel pointing. If you are not
yet sure of your mastery of these vowel pointing, I would advise that you
go back and undertake a full revision of all the verbs to this point. This is
because our study of the weak irregular verbs would only contain the
conditions that cause variations in the vowel pointing.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
87
The first of these are the gutturals and the letter ¨. You need to go back and
refer to our study of the gutturals and their characteristics that affect the
vowels that accompany them. These verbs would still retain their
consonantal form but the changes would affect the vocalization. The second
set of letters that also affect vocalization are ., ` and `. There are conditions
that would make these consonants disappear entirely or change them to
vowels. These would also be studied later. The third and the last set of these
are the verbs that have identical letters for their second and third
consonants.

A convenient system for classifying these weak verbs have been developed
through the use of the old Jewish paradigm word: ". £ . The consonants of
this word is very instructive as the first letter £ stands for the first
consonant; the second letter . stands for the second and the last letter "
stands for the third consonant. Thus, as an example, a Pe Nun verb is a verb
that has a nun as its first consonant. Using this paradigm word, the weak
verbs can be classified into eleven separate categories:

1. Pe Guttural
2. Ayin Guttural
3. Lamedh Guttural
4. Pe Nun
5. Lamedh Aleph
6. Lamedh He
7. Double Ayin
8. Ayin Waw
9. Ayin Yodh
10. Pe Yodh
11. Pe Waw

From now, these eleven categories would now be studied on their own
thus allowing you to see their peculiarities.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have studied the two forms of the irregular verbs called
the statives and the weak verbs. You have learnt that the statives are
similar to the intransitive verbs in the English language and the usually
express a state of being rather than an action. The weak verbs on the
other hand are the verbs that do not follow the regular vowel pointing
because of the presence of a guttural in the word.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
88
5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· Statives are similar to the intransitive verbs in the English
language.
· Statives express state of being rather than an action.
· Weak verbs are verbs that do not follow the normal vocalization
rules because of the presence of a guttural in the word.
· There are eleven categories of the weak verb.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

List the eleven categories of the weak verb with an example each and
explain the reasons for the changes in its vocalization.

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.











CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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UNIT 7: THE WAW CONSECUTIVE

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Vocabulary Study
3.2 The Imperfect with Waw
3.3 The Perfect with Waw
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit we have examined the use of pronominal suffixes with
both the substantives and the verbs. You have learnt that when the direct
object of the verb happens to be a pronoun, it may be written as a
pronominal suffix to the verb. In this unit, we are going to study the use of
the waw into details. If you would recall, we have studied the use of the
waw as a conjunction earlier but this time we would look into the use of the
waw as the waw consecutive.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Differentiate between the waw conjunction and the waw consecutive
· Explain the form of verb that the waw consecutive would follow

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Vocabulary Study

Hebrew English Hebrew English Hebrew English
"3N
eat
¨` ¨
be
NL.
lift up
¨CN
say
.¨`
know
¨C.
stand
N` 2
come in,
enter
NS`
go out, exit
¨L.
do, make

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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3.2 The Imperfect with Waw

As you have studied earlier, waw can be used as a simple conjunction. It is
usually written as ` except when it becomes ` before 2, C and £. This
usage is called the waw conjunctive. The waw conjunctive is used to join
two words together whether nouns or verbs. It is usually prefixed to the
noun or verb no matter its form. The simple conjunction is usually
translated and, but, or for .

When contrary to the regular shewa pointing, the waw is pointed with a
pathah and a dagesh in the following consonant, it would now be called a
waw consecutive. The waw consecutive is usually prefixed to the imperfect
form of the verb. In its usage, it joins the imperfect to its precedent and also
shows that the imperfect is a definite consecution of its precedent. As a
consequence, it would be translated as and, and then, and as a
consequence, furthermore, and as a result . For example, ¨`N `¨`
would be translated let there be light and ¨` N `¨` ` would be translated
and then there began to be light .

It is important for you to note that unlike the older translations of the Bible
that expresses the imperfect as perfect (see the King James Version as an
example) with the waw consecutive, the imperfect verb would form series
of actions which are judged from the point of view of the first verb and
beginning from that point are verbs expressing incomplete action in
consecution. An action in consecution would not be viewed as the
completion of an action. This understanding would change the meaning of
many Bible passages. Let us take the verse used as an example above. The
King James Version rendered it as let there be light and there was light
but the correct interpretation would be let there be light and there began to
be light which implies that even the light we have now is still the same
light we have until now.

3.3 The Perfect with Waw

There are cases however where after a simple imperfect, the verb or verbs
that would follow are going to be in the perfect state with the waw
consecutive. In this case, the verbs connected with ` would form in the
mind of the author one series in which all the verbs with the waw
consecutive are judged from the point of view of the first verb. A good
example is the sentence below:

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
91
The man will keep (¨C L` ) the law and he will rest (¨2 L` ) on the
Sabbath and he will not sell (¨3 C` N" ) anything.

In this sentence, the first verb is in the imperfect, the second verb is the
perfect with the waw and the third verb is also in the imperfect.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have examined the use of the waw consecutive wherein the
waw is used along with the imperfect verb to convey the idea of a series of
actions that are not competed as the imperfect state of the verb always
convey the incomplete action. As you have been taught, the understanding
of the waw consecutive would change our understanding of some
traditional understanding or translation of the Bible verse.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The waw pointed with a pathah and a dagesh forte in the following
consonant is called a waw consecutive
· The waw consecutive is usually prefixed to the imperfect form of the
verb
· It thus expresses an incomplete action in consecution

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Identify the waw consecutives in the following sentences and translate:

¨LN ¨¨£ ¨S _" 2` ¸ `¨C N" ``"N ¨`¨`¯¨2¨ `¨` `
`_ "33" ¨. C"N ¨LN 2L `¨`` S ¨. ¨ 2L ¨2 L` ` |` ¨`S"

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
92

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.





































CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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UNIT 8: THE NUMERALS

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 The Numerals
3.2 The Cardinal Numbers
3.3 The Ordinals
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit we have examined the use of the waw into details.
Apart from the use of the waw as a conjunction that has been studied earlier
you have also studied the use of the waw as the waw consecutive. In this
unit, we are going to examine the numerals that are commonly used in the
Old Testament. This is to enable you translate many passages on the Old
Testament after you have come to an end of this course and as you prepare
for the next one.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Identify cardinal numbers
· Identify ordinal numbers
· Write the numbers in the construct and the absolute forms

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 The Numerals

In the Hebrew language, unlike the Greek and the English language, there
are both masculine and feminine forms for the cardinal numbers from one
to ten. Apart from this, we also have the absolute and the construct forms of
these numbers as you would see in the sub-section below.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
94
The number one, is an adjective ¨" N . In its usage, it usually stands after its
noun and then agrees with it, especially in number. For example, ¨" N L`N
would be translated one man and ¨" N ¨LN would be translated one
woman .

The numeral two is a noun. In the masculine it is written as 2` . L and in the
feminine it is written as 2` ¨ L. It usually stands before its substantive and
agrees with it in number. For example, 2`L. N `.L (this could also be
written as 2`L. N 2` . L) would be translated two men and 2`L. `¨ L (this
could also be written as 2`L. 2` ¨ L) would be translated two women .

The numbers three to ten are nouns and they disagree in gender. In other
words, where there is a masculine noun, the number form would be
feminine and vice versa. They may stand before the noun in construct or
either before or after it in the absolute state. For example, 2`. 2 ¨LC "
would be translated five sons . This could also be written as 2`.2 ¨LC"
or ¨LC" 2`. 2 .

The numbers eleven to nineteen are formed by the use of two separate
words, that is, the unit along with the ten. The unit would be written in the
possessive and the noun is usually placed in the plural. For example, the
following words 2`. 2 ¨L. ¨LC " would be translated fifteen sons . As
you have seen in this example, fifteen is written as ten and five.

The numbers thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty and ninety are formed
from the corresponding units with plural terminations. This would be
written explicitly below later and ensure that you study them carefully.
Twenty is written as the plural of ten. Please note that when these words are
used, the numeral precedes the noun if the noun is singular and when the
numeral comes after the noun, then the noun is plural.

3.2 The Cardinal Numbers

Below are the list of cardinal numbers in both the masculine and the
feminine as well as in the construct and the absolute states.



Numbers
Masculine Noun Feminine Noun
Absolute Construct Absolute Construct
1
¨"N ¨"N ¨"N ¨"N
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
95
2
2` . L `.L 2` ¨ L `¨ L
3
¨L"L ¨L"L L"L L"L
4
¨.2 ¨N ¨.2 ¨N .2¨ N .2¨ N
5
¨LC " ¨LC " LC" LC"
6
¨LL ¨LL LL LL
7
¨.2 L ¨.2 L .2 L .2 L
8
¨. C L ¨. C L ¨. C L ¨. C L
9
¨. L¨ ¨. L¨ .L¨ .L¨
10
¨¨ L. ¨¨ L. ¨L. ¨L.
11
¨L. ¨"N or ¨L. `¨ L. ¨¨L. ¨" N or ¨¨L. `¨ L.
12
¨L. 2`.L or ¨L. `.L ¨¨L. 2`¨ L or ¨¨L. `¨ L
13
¨L. ¨L"L ¨¨L. L"L
14
¨L. ¨.2 ¨N ¨¨L. .2 ¨N
15
¨L. ¨LC " ¨¨L. LC"
16
¨L. ¨LL ¨¨L. LL
17
¨L. ¨.2 L ¨¨L. .2 L
18
¨L. ¨. C L ¨¨L. ¨. C L
19
¨L. ¨. L¨ ¨¨L. .L¨

From this point you would just be given a few numbers which would guide
you on how to write the other numbers. The first set of numbers would be
given with masculine nouns while the second set would be given with
feminine nouns.

Numbers with Masculine Nouns

Figures Numbers in Hebrew
20
2`¨ L.
21
2`¨ L. ` ¨"N
30
2`L"L
40
2`.2¨ N
50
2`LC"
60
2`LL
70
2`.2 L
80
2`. C L
90
2`. L¨
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
96
100
¨"N ¨NC
200
¨` NC `¨ L
300
¨` NC L"L
400
¨` NC .2 ¨N
500
¨` NC LC"


Numbers with Feminine Nouns

Figures Numbers in Hebrew
600
¨` NC LL
700
¨` NC .2 L
800
¨` NC ¨. C L
900
¨` NC .L¨
1000
¨"N ¶"N
2000
2`£"N `.L
3000
2`£"N ¨L"L
4000
2`£"N ¨.2¨ N
5000
2`£"N ¨LC"
6000
2`£"N ¨LL
7000
2`£"N ¨.2 L
8000
2`£"N ¨. C L
9000
2`£"N ¨. L¨
10000
2`£"N ¨¨ L. or ¨2 2¨


3.3 The Ordinals

The ordinals are only separate in form from the cardinals in only
numbers one to ten because from number eleven, the forms of the
cardinals are used for the ordinals too. The ordinals from numbers one
to ten are however written as adjectives formed from the
corresponding cardinal numbers. The adjectives are formed by the
addition of the termination ` . Where possible, the ` is also inserted
between the second and the third consonant. The first ten ordinals are
written thus:

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Ordinal Hebrew Form Ordinal Hebrew Form
First |` LN¨ Sixth `LL
Second `. L Seventh `.`2 L
Third `L`"L Eighth `. `C L
Fourth `.`2¨ Ninth `.`L¨
Fifth `L`C" Tenth `¨`L.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have learnt how the numerals are written in the Hebrew
language. You have learnt that there are two forms of numerals: the
cardinals and the ordinals. You have also learnt that there are both the
masculine and feminine forms for the cardinals from number 1 to 10 as
well as the absolute and construct form of these numbers. You have also
learnt that the ordinals are separate from the cardinals only in numbers 1-10
but are similar from number 11 upwards.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· There are two forms of numerals: the cardinals and the ordinals.
· There are both the masculine and feminine forms for the cardinals
from number 1 to 10.
· There are the absolute and construct form of numbers 1-10.
· The ordinals are separate from the cardinals only in numbers 1-10
but are similar from number 11 upwards.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Write the following numbers in Hebrew:

35, 55, 105, 215, 10, 4, 61, 82, 47, 99

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
98

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.































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MODULE 3

Unit 1: Hebrew Verbs and the Principles of Syntax
Unit 2: The Verb in the Indicative Mood
Unit 3: The Verb in the Subjunctive and Voluntative Mood
Unit 4: The Imperative and the Infinitive
Unit 5: The Participles
Unit 6: Practical Examples of Syntatic Relations


Unit 1: Hebrew Verbs and the Principles of Syntax

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 The State of the Verb
3.2 The Time of the Verb
3.3 The Mood of the Verb
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

If you have followed this course from the beginning, you would have
noticed that unlike the Biblical Greek where the verb as well as the noun is
inflected, the verb is the only portion of the Hebrew language that is
inflected. This thus shows that the study of the Hebrew verb is of prime
importance in understanding the various nuances of these verbs. In this
unit, you will begin the study of the three fundamental principles that are
important and necessary for the proper understanding of the Hebrew verb.
Please note that despite the importance of the context, the context still work
in conjunction with these three principles.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Define the perfect state of the verb
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· Describe the imperfect state of the verb
· Describe the concept of time in the Semitic mind
· Identify the various moods of the Hebrew verb
· Define each mood of the verb

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 The State of the Verb

The state of the verb is used to describe the action of the verb. There are
however only two concepts of action: complete or incomplete. The state of
action wherein the writer wishes to express an action that has been
completed in his mind, whether that action is in the present, past or future
time, it would be presented in the perfect state. Thus, it is important in the
translation of the Hebrew verb to interpret the condition of the action and
not the time of the action.

The other state is the imperfect state. This is used to describe the action that
is incomplete, continuing and incoming. It dosent matter whether it is an
ongoing action or repeated or connected in sequence in the past or in the
future time.

The state of the verb is easily locatable by the form of the verb. You can go
back to the module two and read again the perfect and the imperfect form
of the verb so that you would be able to differentiate between the two states
of the verb. However, the perfect form is objective while the imperfect is
subjective.

Please note that by virtue of the form, the imperative verb is derived from
the imperfect. The rationale is that since the imperative expresses a wish or
command, which is an action that is yet to be done, it has to be regarded as
an incomplete action, thus treated as the imperfect. Infinitives, on the other
hand are not related to any of the state of the verb. This is because though
they develop as verbal forms, their true nature is nominal or adverbial.
They are thus treated as nouns or adverbs.

3.2 The Time of the Verb

Unlike the contemporary distinction of time in the verbs, the discernment of
the time of action in the Semitic mind is not of any vital importance. In
interpreting or translating, try to avoid placing any undue attention on the
time of the action. As have been explained earlier, try to look more for the
state of the action and also check whether the action is a single action that
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dose not have direct relation to any other action or whether it is viewed as
an antecedent to another action.

3.3 The Mood of the Verb

Since actions were viewed as uncomplicated, dependent or volitional, the
mood of the verb is of tremendous importance to the Old Testament. Four
classes of mood are available in the Hebrew thought, and these are: the
indicative mood, the subjunctive mood, the imperative mood and the
voluntative mood.

The Indicative Mood

The indicative mood has no distinctive form to indicate its presence. This is
because as far as the Semitics are concerned; the perfect state of the verb is
the indicative mood, since no contingency or volition can alter an action
that is already completed.

The Subjunctive Mood

This is the mood of contingency. This contingency may be either in form of
dependency or condition. These contingencies or conditions may be classed
as follows: possibilities, desirabilities or responsibilities. In the form, there
would be a particle to indicate the presence of the condition but it is also
possible that the condition may be disclosed only through the context.
Please, do not expect an external condition for each subjunctive mood.

The Imperative Mood

This is the mood of command or strong desire. The positive commands are
expressed by the imperative mood. Note, however, that the negative
commands, that is, prohoibitions, are expressed by the imperfect form
along with a particle of negation in an imperative context. Please, note that
any imperfect form in an imperative context may be in the imperative
mood.

The Voluntative Mood

This is the mood that is used to express the volition of the speaker. The
cohortative and the jussive belong to this mood. These two are used to
express desire or urgency. Please take note that the cohortative is the
voluntative mood in the first person and the jussive is the voluntative mood
in the second or third person.
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While the cohortative is indicated by the addition of ¨ to the imperfect
form followed most of the time by the voluntative particle N. the jussive is
indicated by an internal vowel change or the specific negative or just by the
context alone. Please note that it is not only in the voluntative mood that the
internal vowel change can occur.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have been told that syntactically, three elements of the
Hebrew verb are very important, and these are the state, the time and the
mood of the verb. You have also learnt that there are two states: the perfect
and the imperfect. You have also learnt that unlike most modern languages
that see the time of the verb in terms of present, past and the future, in the
Hebrew language, what is important is the relationship of the action in the
verb to another action, that is, whether it is contemporaneous or antecedent
or subsequent. You have also learnt that there are four types of mood in the
Hebrew verb, namely: indicative, subjunctive, imperative and voluntative.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The three elements of the Hebrew verb that are very important are
the state, the time and the mood of the verb.
· There are two states of the verb: the perfect and the imperfect.
· Unlike most modern languages, the Semitic Hebrew did not see the
time of the verb in terms of present, past and the future.
· What is important in the verb is the relationship of the action in the
verb to another action, that is, whether it is contemporaneous or
antecedent or subsequent.
· There are four types of mood in the Hebrew verb, namely:
indicative, subjunctive, imperative and voluntative.
· The perfect state of the verb is always in the indicative mood
· The subjunctive mood is the mood of dependency or condition
· The imperative mood is the mood of command or strong desire
· The voluntative mood expresses the volition of the speaker.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Discuss each of the mood and their functions.

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7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies
Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.




























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UNIT 2: THE INDICATIVE MOOD

Content

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 The Indicative Perfect
3.2 The Indicative Imperfect
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have studied about the three elements of the verb
that are necessary for close examination for any meaningful syntactical
analysis. These are: the state of the verb, the time of the verb and the mood
of the verb. In this unit, you will begin to examine the interplay of these
three elements in the verb. In this unit, we are going to look at the verb in
the indicative mood. Remember that we have said earlier that the indicative
mood most of the time is the mood of the perfect state, but you will be
learning more here.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Differentiate between the indicative perfect and the indicative
imperfect.
· Identify the different uses of the indicative perfect
· Identify the various uses of the indicative imperfect

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 The Indicative Perfect

As we have indicated earlier, the perfect state of the Hebrew verb is the
state that is used to designate an action or a state of being as being
completed. The completion of the action or the state however can be either
in reality or in the thought of the speaker. Please note that this does not
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mean that the action must have necessarily occurred but it must have been
pictured as being completed. No matter the time of the action, the action
must have been completed or finished. The following are the various uses
of the perfect indicative in the Greek verb:

Narative Perfect (Perfect of Narration)

This is the use of the perfect to indicate an action or state of being that has
been completed with no reference to any other event. It is used to designate
an action that has either been completed or in the process of completion,
thus it can be in the present or in the past time. Please note that the perfect
state is used in the future time, certain conditions must exist to place in
within the range of the perfect of narration (and these would be discussed
later). The following are examples of the perfect of narration:

2`¨"N N¨ 2 ¨`LN¨ 2 which would be translated In beginning God
created.... The word N¨ 2 here is the perfect of narration denoting the past
time. Please remember that in most cases in the Hebrew thought, the
context would denote the time of the action.

¨CN ¨LN¨ ¯"N which would be translated To the woman he said... The
word ¨C N here is the perfect of narration denoting the past time.

2¨¨ 2N ¯¨N ¨7 . 2`¨"N¨ ` which would be translated And God proved
Abraham . The word ¨7 . here is the perfect of narration denoting the past
time.

¨` `¨" `¨`` S ` ¨N` `¨"¨ _"C ` N` ¨` which would be translated And
him I have appointed to be prince . The word `¨`` S here is the perfect of
narration denoting the present time. By virtue of the context, since the
person being spoken about is the reigning prince, then the time has to be in
the present.

Relative Perfect (Perfect of Relation)

The perfect of relation is used to denote a simple action that is completed in
relation to another action. It is usually a completed action completed at a
time that is previous to another action and the two actions would result in a
completed state. However there are instances where the completed action
would be viewed in relation to another action that is still in the past. The
following are examples of the perfect of relation:
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Action in Relation to a Previous Action

This type of perfect of relation is also called the pluperfect by some
grammarians. In this class, the action would be conceived of as finished
action prior to a point in the past, that is, a previous time. The following are
examples of the class of perfect of relation:

¨S` ¨LN 2¨N ¨ ¯¨N 2L 2L` ` which would be translated And he put
there the man whom he had formed . The verb ¨S ` here is pictured in
relation to the previous action of the forming of the Garden of Eden which
has been completed before the forming of man.

2` ` ¨ ¯"3 2" " "3 N N" `3 which would be translated For he had not
eaten bread . The verb "3 N here is also viewed in relation to another
action in the past.

Action in Relation to a Present Time

This use of the perfect of relation is very close to, if not identical, with the
Greek perfect. In this usage, the action is pictured as completed at some
specific moments in the past but the effects of that action continues into the
present time. The present time as used here would be the previous present
or the simultaneous past, that is, the present time of the speaker. An
example of this usage is:

¨` ¨` ¯¨N ` 2l . which would be translated They forsook Yahweh . The
concept here is that at a point in time, the Israelites turned away from the
Lord and as at the point of the prophet s statement; they were still away
from the Lord. Therefore, the verb here ` 2l . , describes an action that took
place in the past but it is still having effect into the present.

Action in Relation to a Future Time

This usage is also very close to the future perfect in English. In this usage,
the finished action is viewed in relation to another action still in the future.
A good example here is:

¨` ¨` NS` which would be translated Yahweh will have sent thee away .


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Perfect of Experience

The usage of the perfect of experience designates a statement that is
considered to be true because things of similar kinds have happened
previously. Based on this, the speaker is certain that such proposition of a
general character will hold generally. It is also known as the characteristics
perfect. Examples of this usage are:

_"`` |. . ¨"3 which would be translated the cloud dissolves and goes .
In this usage the verb ¨" 3 is used to tell what the cloud would normally
do.

`¨.¸ ¨` L .¨` which would be translated An ox knows his master . The
verb here .¨ ` is used to describe the attitude of the ox generally.

Perfect of Dependency or Perfect of Contigency

In the usage of the perfect of dependency, the action is viewed as
completed though there are some conditions present. These conditions may
be time, a condition or the fact that the action is based on the
accomplishment of another action. There are various usages of the perfect
of dependency and they are as follows:

Perfect of Certainty

This usage describes an action in the future time that is viewed as
completed based upon the authority of the speaker. In other words, the
speaker is certain of the outcome or that he has fully determined to make
certain actions occur. This is usually used for promises, decrees and threats
where the certainty of the fulfilment can make it be viewed as an already
completed action. Please note that the statements of God and about God are
usually placed in the perfect of certainty as in the following examples:

|¨N ¨ ¯¨N `¨¨. _.¨ l " which would be translated To thy seed I will
give this land . The verb `¨ ¨. here is placed in the perfect of certainty
because God is sure of what he has said.

` ¨`LC ¨` ¨` . `L` ¨ `3 which would be translated For I know that the
LORD will save his anointed . The verb . `L` ¨ here is placed in the
perfect of certainty because the prophet is sure of what God will do.

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Perfect of Prophecy

This is the use of the perfect in the future time which is viewed as complete
based solely on the authority of God. In this case, the perfect portrays
vividly and boldly a confidence that the speaker or the prophet has in the
fulfilment of the prediction. Please note that the perfect of prophecy is
found in the highest type of prophetic diction and is often thrown into the
midst of imperfects to indicate absolute confidence. The following are
examples:

` ." ¯¨"` ¨"` ¯`3 would be translated For a child shall be born . Please
note that as a result of the degree of certainy of the prophet, there are
translations that reder the verb as For unto us a child is born .

2¸. ` C 23` 3 _¨¨ would be translated A star shall proceed from Jacob .
Note that the prophet has spoken with a high degree of certainty and that is
why the translation has used the word shall as an auxiliary verb.

Perfect of Condition

There are cases where some conditional sentences would carry the perfect
verb. Remember in conditional sentences, the protasis states a condition
which would create a responsibility, obligation or necessity that are often
deemed unavoidable. The apodosis would then use the perfect to express
the inescapable nature of the responsibility, obligation or necessity. A good
example of this is the statement of prophet Isaiah in 1:9:

`.`C ¨ ¨¨ C . " `.``¨ 2¨ 7 3 I. C 3 ¨`¨ L `." ¨`¨ `¨ ¨`N2 S ¨`¨` `" `"
which would be translated Except the LORD of hosts had left us a very
small remnant, we would have become as Sodom . In this statement, the
apodosis made use of the perfect verb `.`` ¨ to express the inescapable
nature of the punishment.

Perfect of Concurrency

By this usage, the action is viewed as complete based on the occurrence of
a preceeding action. In these perfect forms, the simple waw is attached as a
prefix. Thus they can be easily identified. Please note that the perfect of
concurrency may follow any form of verb be it another perfect, an
imperfect, an imperative or even an interjection. In the process of narration,
the speaker states the narrative action and without drawing the strict
attention from the starting action, points out what also is true. Even though
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the originating action is incomplete, on the basis of the indicativeness of the
action, the following action is viewed as complete. The following are
examples:

_"N ¨L2" ` `¨` ` ¨ LN2 ¸2¨` ` CN ¯¨N` ``2 N ¯¨N L`N ¯2l .` |3 ¯".
which would be translated Therefore, let a man forsake his father and his
mother and (that having been done) he cleaves to his wife and (that being
done) they are one flesh .

If you examine the above sentence very well, you would first discover that
the two perfect of concurrency in the sentence are prefixed with a simple
waw (¸2¨` and ` `¨` ). Apart from this, their being completion is based on
the completion of earlier actions. For example, before cleaving can be
completed, the man must have left his father and mother. Also, before
becoming one flesh, the cleaving must have taken place. Another good
example is in Isaiah 40:4-5. You can look at this passage in the English
versions and also in the Hebrew if you have a copy of the Biblia Hebraica.

Please note that the concurrent perfect is always in explanation or
description of the originating action. Anytime the prerequisite action has
taken place, the description of the concurrent act would naturally fall into
place, thereby taking its completed state.

In the bid to properly understand and interpret the language and thought
pattern of the Hebrew system, some grammarians have viewed the waw
preceeding the perfect as waw conversive or waw consecutive .
However, the true position is that in a statement of successive events or acts
in the future, waw with the perfect is used after the main verb in the
imperfect or imperative. The verb fixes the starting point as the speaker
passes successively forward in thought viewing each as completed in its
turn. A good example is Leviticus 4:13 which reads:

¨"N ` L.` "¨¸¨ `.`.C ¨2¨ 2" .. ` ` . L` "N¨ L` ¨¨. ¯"3 2N `
``CLN` ¨. `L.¨¯N " ¨LN ¨` ¨` ¨` SC ¯"3C

The above sentence would be translated as follows:

If Israel shall err (` . L` ) and it be hid (2" .. ` ) and they do (` L. ` ) and shall
be guilty (` CLN` )

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If you study the above sentence very well, you will discover that the main
verb (` . L` ) is in the imperfect and the following verbs all started with the
waw. This usage could also be used in a conditional or subjunctive sense to
express command or volition and following telic particles. The following
are example:

Every man should come (N`2 ` ) to me and I would do him justice
(``¨¸¨S¨` ) 2 Samuel 15:4.

It can also be used with the imperfect to express what is general or
customary in the present or the past. A good example is Genesis 2:6 which
states:

A mist used to go up (¨" .` ) and water (¨¸ L¨` ) the earth.

3.2 The Indicative Imperfect

Any verb presented in the verb pictures an unfinished or incompleted action
whether in the past, present or future. Consequently, the action is usually
presented in movement rather than in a condition of rest . It has to be
noted that it is used mostly in two ways: the incipient (just beginning) and
the frequentative or iterative (repeated). It however does not imply mere
continuance of action. To show continuance of action in Hebrew, the
participle is used as in Genesis 2:10:

A river proceeding (NS` ) out of the garden.

The participle (NS` ) is used here to show the continuous action of the
flowing of the river. Now to the usages of the indicative imperfect:

Incipient Imperfect

This is an action that begins at a time subsequent to another action or state.
It is an action that may have its beginning in the mind of the author. The
continuation of the action after the beginning may be visualized, but the
beginning of that action is also in view. This could also be used in two
ways:

The Simple Incipient

The simple incipient imperfect is an imperfect which pictures only the
beginning of the action. This is why in translation, such incipient imperfect
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would begin with began to, or begin to, or will begin to . These imperfects
may be either past, present or in the future. Let us examine the following
examples:

¨LC¯¨`L` lN which would be translated Then Moses began to sing
(Exodus 15:1). The emphasis is on the starting of the singing by Moses.
This is also an action in the past.

|¨ N ¯`3"C ` 2S` ¨` which would be translated Kings of the earth begin
to set themselves . The emphasis here is on the seting together of the kings.
The action here is also in the present.

The Progressive Incipient

The progressive incipient imperfect pictures an action that has started but
with emphasis on the progression of the action. Consequently, the
translation would make use of the phrase, proceeded to . As with the
simple incipient, it could also be in the past, present or future. The
following are examples:

2`32¨ ¯"N ". " . ¨ ¯|C ¨` ¨` ¯_N"C ".` ` which would be translated I
proceeded to bring you up out of Egypt (Judges 2:1). The emphasis here is
on the process of leading the children of Israel out of Egypt. It is an action
in the past.

A good example for the present time is found in Psalm 2:2 which would be
translated kings of the earth begin to set themselves against the Lord. The
verb pictures the commencement of action in the present time.

For an example of the use of the incipient imperfect in the future, a good
one is found in Numbers 24:17 which would be translated I begin to see
him (`. N¨N ) but not now; I begin to behold him (`. ¨` LN ) but not near .
The two verbs here picture the commencement of an action in the future.

The progressive incipient pictures an action that has started, but the
emphasis of this usage is on the progression of the action. These they of
verb are translated with the use of phrases like proceeded to . These types
of verb may also be in the past, present or the future.

In the present time, Judges 2:1 offers a good example:

23¨ N N`2N` 2` ¨SC C 23¨ N ¨". N ¨CN ` `
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This sentence would be translated And he said, I proceeded to bring you
up (¨" .N ) out of Egypt .

In the present, we have a good example in 1 Samuel 24:21 which would be
translated I know that thou will surely proceed to be king . The verb
(_"C ¨ ) pictures the state of the man cuurently enthroned as king.

For the future time, another example is in Exodus 9:5 which will be
translated Tomorrow the LORD will proceed to do (¨L.` ) this thing in
the earth .

The Frequentative Imperfect

The frequentative imperfect is used to describe reiterated actions, habits,
customs or universal truths. The following are the sub-usages of the
frequentative imperfects:

The Simple Frequentative

The simple frequentative is an action, which though has occurred
repeatedly, has no reference to habit, custom or progress. A good example
of this usage is Isaiah 1:11 which would be translated For what to me is
the multitude of your sacrifices . In this passage, the verb said is in the
simple frequentatives ansd would be properly translated the LORD said
repeatedly . The repeatition of the statement does not mean that it has
become a habit. Another example is Genesis 24:19 which would be
translated I shall draw water for thy camel . The verb translated draw is
put in the simple frequentative thus would be better translated draw water
repeatedly . The drawing of the water does not become a habit in any way.

The Characteristic Frequentative

The characteristic frequentative are actions that are accustomed to occur
often in certain limits and truths universally admitted and facts that may
occur at any time. A good example could be found in Psalm 15:4 which
would be translated those who fear the LORD he honours . The
characteristic frequentative here used implies that the LORD will honour
those who fear him at all times.




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The Progressive Frequentative

The progressive frequentative is the use of the imperfect in which the
author views the action as being either in the process of being repeated or
of progressing in the frequent actions. A good example here is Exodus 1:12
which would be translated And just as they continued to afflict them so
they continued to multply .

The Consecutive Imperfect

The consecutive imperfect is the use of the imperfect to complete the
consecution of an action. To do this, the two primary forms (that is, the
perfect and the imperfect) and supplemented in the Hebrew by a secondary
form by adding adding waw consecutive as a prefix to the imperfect form
of the verb. In usage as a narrative sentence, it would begin with a simple
perfect and is followed by one or two verbs in the imperfect prefixed by
waw consecutive. The waw consecutive, as you have been taught in
Hebrew Grammar is use of consonant waw pointed with a pathah with a
dagesh forte in the waw (` ). The waw consecutive is always prefixed to an
imperfect and portrays the action which is consecutive in time, purpose or
result to the preceeding action. It is also called the historical or narrative
construction.

Please note that when the imperfect carries a waw consecutive, it is usually
the progressive incipient imperfect and thus would be translated with the
phrase and then proceeded to be . They are usually used in narration or
prediction to carry forward the same idea as the originating verb indicates.
Let us the usage of this construction in Genesis 3:13 which would be
translated the serpent deceived me and so I proceeded to eat . In this
construction, the picture is that the eating of the apple is the consequence or
the result of the deceit of the serpent.

Apart from this, the construction can also be used as a perfect of
experience, a prophetic perfect. Below are examples of the prophetic
perfect that is continued by imperfects with narrative force. A good
example is Genesis 39:18 which would be translated as A son shall be
given to us...shall procced to be...and shall proceed to call . Another
example could be found in Numbers 22:21 whihc would be translated And
then Balaam procceded to arise (2¸ ` ` ) and proceeded to saddle (L2" ` ` )
and proceeded to go (_ "` ` ) and then the anger of God proceeded to be
kindled (¨" ` ` ) .

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4.0 SUMMARY

In this unit, you have studied the indicative mood and its usages in the
perfect and the imperfect verbs. in the indicative perfect, we have the
perfect of narration (this is used to indicate an action that has been
completed or in the process of being completed without reference to any
other action); the perefect of relation (this is used to denote a simple action
that is completed in relation to another action which may be in the past,
present or future); the perfect of experience (which designates a statement
considered to be true because of similarity to previous actions). Other forms
of perfect includes the perfect of contingency, the perfect of certainty, the
perfect of prophecy, the perfect of condition and the perfect of concurrency.
The indicative imperfect pictures an unfinished action whether in the past,
present or future. There are the incipient imperfect (which dsescribes an
action that begins at a subsequent time to another action); the frequentative
imperfect and the consecutive imperfect.

5.0 CONCLUSION

The following are the major things you have learnt in this unit:

· The indicative mood can be used in the perfect and the imperfect
verbs.
· In the indicative perfect, we have the perfect of narration, the
perefect of relation, the perfect of experience.
· Other forms of perfect includes the perfect of contingency, the
perfect of certainty, the perfect of prophecy, the perfect of condition
and the perfect of concurrency.
· The indicative imperfect pictures an unfinished action whether in the
past, present or future.
· There are the incipient imperfect, the frequentative imperfect and the
consecutive imperfect.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Examine the sentence below and bring out the various verbs indicative
mood and analyze their usage:

¯"N "2 N ¨C ¨¨ N `¨C ¯¨. "N` CL¯"N ¨`¨` ¨CN` `
(1)

_"` |C L _. ¨¸ N" C "N¨ L` ¯". _"CC ``¨7NC `. N` "` N L
`_ "C `" ``. 22 `¨`N¨ ¯`3 `C""¨ ¯¨`2 `L` ¯"N _"" LN

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies.

Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.


























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UNIT 3: THE SUBJUNCTIVE AND VOLUNTATIVE MOOD

Content

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 The Subjunctive Imperfect
3.2 The Subjunctive Perfect
3.3 The Voluntative Mood
3.4 The Cohortative
3.5 The Jussive
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have studied about the indicative mood in the
Hebrew language. Under this mood, you have explored all the various ways
in which the indicative mood can be used. Expectedly, a lot of materials
had to be taken at a time and resulted in the large materials. In this unit, you
would be studying the subjunctive and the voluntative mood. The
subjunctive mood is next to the indicative mood judging by the degrees of
closeness to reality. The voluntative mood as you have learnt earlier, mood
is the mood that is used to express the volition of the speaker.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit, you should be able to:

· Define the subjunctive mood
· Explain the various possibilities of the subjunctive mood
· Differentiate between the subjunctive imperfect and the subjunctive
perfect.
· Describe the form of verb used in the voluntative mood
· Explain the two major sub-forms of the voluntative mood
· Identify the persons in which the voluntative can appear



CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 The Subjunctive Imperfect

As you have learnt earlier, the subjunctive mood is the mood of
contingency. It has also been said that the contingency may be in form of
dependency or condition. You have also learnt that the dependency and or
condition can be further sub-divided into possibilities, desirabilities and
responsibilities.

The conditional ideas of the subjunctive mood are naturally expressed by
the imperfects. It is only in rare conditions, which usually occurs only in
the conditional sentences, that the perfect form of the verb may be used. It
has to be noted that the entire subjunctive mood are usually placed in the
future time. As it is, the variations in the translations would be due to the
nature of the contingency that is expressed in the context, that is, whether it
is a possibility, desirability or responsibility.

Possibility

Possibilities are usually expressed by the auxiliary could . It is also
however possible that the other forms can, may and might also occur. The
following are good examples of the use of the subjunctive to express
possibilities:

Isaiah 1:18 would be translated though your sins be as scarlet they may be
white as snow . In this statement, the verb `.`2"` is in the subjunctive and
expressing the possibility of turning the red sin into white. Please note that
the above verb is an imperfect state of the verb.

Psalm 24:3 is another good example. It would be translated Who may
ascend into the hill of the LORD . The verb used here is ¨" .` and it is
used to list the possibilities of people who can go up and see the LORD.

Desirability

In the translation of the subjunctive of desirability, the auxiliary verb
would is usually used. Please note however, that the use of these
auxiliaries is subjected to variation. A very good example of this could be
found in 1 Kings 13:8 which would be translated If you would give me
half thy house, I would not go in with you . The verbs used here are give
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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(|¨¨ ) and go in (N2 N ). The use of would in the context of the two verbs
is an indication of its expression of desirability.

Responsibility

In the translation of the subjunctive of responsibility, the auxiliary verb
should is usually used. Since, the idea of responsibility has different
shades such as obligation and necessity other auxiliary verbs such as
ought and must can also be used. A good example can be found in
Exodus 3:11 which can be translated, Who am I that I should go to
Pharaoh? The verb here is go to (_ "N) and the use of the auxiliary verb
should is an indication that it is a subjunctive of responsibility. An
example expressing the shade of necessity is 1 Chronicles 12:33 which
would be translated: To know what Israel ought to do (¨L.` ). The verb
¨L. ` expresses the idea of necessity.

3.2 The Subjunctive Perfect

As you have been taught already, the thought pattern of the Hebrew perfect
state is not used in the subjunctive. In fact, some expressions which would
have been in the subjunctive in the English language would be phrased
differently in the Hebrew language, being a Semitic language.

3.3 The Voluntative Mood

As had been said earlier, the voluntative mood is the mood that is used to
express the volition of the speaker. It is actually a modified form of the
imperfect state that is used to give expression to desire on the part of the
speaker. It is an incipient incomplete state that is used to express a varying
mood. This is also a feature of the Arabic language, but you must note that
both languages are Semitic in form.

When the cohortative is used in the first person, it would be used to express
the intention, will or desire of the author when he is the subject of the
action. The jussive would be in the second and third persons, it would be
used to express the desire, will or command of the author when some other
person is the subject of the action.

3.4 The Cohortative

The cohortative expresses the will of the speaker in reference to his own
actions. When the speaker is free, it expresses his desire or determination
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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and when the speaker is dependent on others, it expresses a wish or request.
Please, note that the form may be made more emphatic by the addition of
the particle N. . The cohortative may be used in the following ways:

To express strong determination as in Deuteronomy 12:20 which would be
translated I will eat flesh . The verb ¨" 3N used here expresses the
determination of the speaker to eat flesh.

It could also be used as an exhortation, especially if it appears in the plural
form. A good example could be found in Numbers 14:4 which would be
translated Let us return to Egypt . The verb ¨2` L. as used here pictures
the speaker as exhorting others to follow in an action he intends to
undertake.

It could also be used to express a self-excitement as in Psalm 2:3 which
would be translated Let us break assunder . The verb used here is ¨¸ ¨. . .

The cohortative could also be used to express a request or entreaty as in
Genesis 50:5 which would be translated Let me go up, I pray . The verb
used here is N. ¯¨". N .

It could also be used to express a simple consent, especially when yielding
to constraint. A good example of this could be found in Genesis 46:30
which would be translated Now let me die . The verb used here is ¨¨ ` CN .

Finally, the cohortative can be used as a conditional or final sentence as in
Psalm 2:8 which would be translated Ask of me and I will give . The verb
used here is ¨.¨N` .

3.5 The Jussive

The jussive, unlike the cohortative is used in the second and the third
persons and could be used in any of the following ways:

It could be used to express a command or injunction or prohibition in form
of a wish. Examples include Genesis 1:12 which would be translated Let
there began to be light . The form of the imperative used here is `¨ ` .

It could be used to express a simple wish as in 1 Samuel 1:23 which would
be translated Let the LORD begin to establish his word . The imperefect
used here is 2¸` .
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
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It could also be used to express permission as in Ezra 1:3 which would be
translated Let him begin to go up and build . The two verbs here are used
to express the permission to go up (". ` ) and that to build (|2 ` ` ).

It could also be used to give advice or suggestion as in Genesis 41:33 which
would be translated Let Pharaoh look out a man . The verb used here is
N¨`.

Finally, the jussive could be used to express entreaties, petitions or prayers
as in Genesis 44:33 which would be translated Let thy servant remain, I
pray . The verb used here is N. ¯2L`.

Please note that when you are in the voluntative mood, the negative particle
would be "N and not N" .

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit you have learnt about two important moods: the subjunctive and
the voluntative mood. The subjunctive mood is used to express conditional
ideas and thus, the imperfect is naturally used. The three possibilities that
could be expressed are: possibility, desirability and responsibility. The
voluntative mood on the other hand is used to express the volition of the
speaker. In the cohortative, the first person is used to express the intention,
will or desire of the speaker as he is the subject of the action. In the jussive,
the second and the third persons are used and it will express the desire, will
or command of the speaker, but with some other people as the subject of
the action.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The subjunctive mood is used to express conditional ideas and thus,
the imperfect is naturally used.
· The three possibilities that could be expressed are: possibility,
desirability and responsibility.
· The voluntative mood on the other hand is used to express the
volition of the speaker.
· In the cohortative, the first person is used to express the intention,
will or desire of the speaker as he is the subject of the action.
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· In the jussive, the second and the third persons are used and it will
express the desire, will or command of the speaker, but with some
other people as the subject of the action.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Examine the verbs in the sentences below and bring out the verbs in the
subjunctive and the voluntative mood and examine their usage:

¨`¨` ¨CN` ` `. . ¨¨` "` NL .C L` _"N _`N "N` CL ¨CN` `
(2)

``¨N2 ¨`¨`" "2l " ¨¨ CN` _¨` 2 "¸¨ ¨¸2 ¨" . .
¨L. ¨ ¯¨LN ¨N _.`¨` N `3. N` "2l 2 `L` " ¨N¨¸`
(3)

`_ `"N ¨CN ¯¨LN ¨N `" ¨" LC`

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies.

Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.












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UNIT 4: THE IMPERATIVE MOOD AND THE INFINITIVE

Content

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Positive Commands
3.2 Negative Commands
3.3 The Infinitive Absolute
3.4 The Infinitive Construct
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have studied the subjunctive as well as the
voluntative moods. You have learnt that while the subjunctive mood is used
to express conditional ideas, the voluntative is used to express the volition
of the speaker. The various ways in which the voluntative mood can be
used have also been clearly expressed. In this unit, you are going to study
the imperative mood and the infinitive, which combines both the qualities
of the verb and the noun. The imperative mood is the mood is used for
expressing commands. The two forms of command in this case, both the
negative and the positive commands would be examined and their
formation explained.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

· Explain the use of the imperfect to form positive commands.
· Explain the role of the context in forming commands.
· Explain the formation of the negative command
· Describe the formation of the infinitve absolute
· List the functions of the infinitve absolute
· Describe the formation of the infinitive construct
· List the functions of the infinitive construct
· Explain the differences between the infinitive absolute and the
infinitive construct.
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3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Positive Commands

Positive commands are usually expressed either by a special form of the
imperative or the imperfect in an imperative context. The force of the
imperfect in an imperative context appears to be practically the same as that
of the special from of the imperative. Though the imperative imperfect may
be more polite in certain situations, the two forms can also be used
interchangeably. Please note the following constructions:

The imperative form can indicate positive commands without the use of
any negative particle. This is possible because since the imperative form
would not take a negative particle, it is easy to use it for a positive
command. You should also remember that the imperative form of the
Hebrew verb is built on the form of the imperfect. It is thus, of the
incomplete state and will usually be of the simple incipient incomplete
state. The imperative form is always used with the second person and may
express the following:

a. A Command

Examples of using the imperfect to issue positive commands could be
found in the passages:
"N¨ L` `.2 ¯"N ¨2 ¨ which would be translated Speak unto the
children of Israel (Leviticus 1:2). The imperfect ¨2 ¨ is used to
express the command here.
¨`. `. ¯"N _" 2` ¸ which would be translated Arise, go to Nineveh
(Jonah 1:2). The imperfects used here are _ " and 2` ¸ and they are
used to express commands.

b. An Exhortation

As an exhortation, this form can be used to urge or persuade people to
take certain actions. Examples of this can be found in the following
passage: ¨`. 23" ` ¨`. which would be translated Break up your
fallow ground . The imperfect used here is ` ¨`. and it is used to exhort
the listerners to take a particular action.




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124
c. An Entreaty

The imperfect can also be used as an entreaty. In this case it is used as a
serious and passionate request. A good example can be found in Psalm
44:27: ` ." ¨¨¨ l . ¨C`¸ which would be translated Arise and save
us . The imperfect ¨C` ¸ is used here as an entreaty to God and not just
a simple command.

d. Permission

The imperfect form can also be used in this form to express permission.
A good example can be found in Genesis 20:15:
2L _`. `.2 2` I2 _`. £" `S¨N ¨. ¨ _"C`2N ¨C N ` ` which would
be translated And Abimelech said, Where it is good in thine eyes,
dwell . The imperfect 2L is used here to expresss permission on the
part of the speaker.

e. Strong Assurances

The strong assurances that can be used here can either be in form of
promises or threats. A good example here is the assurance given in
Psalm 28:5: 2" L` ¨` 2` I2 ¨N¨` which would be translated thou
shalt see the prosperity of Jerusalem .

Please note that there are occasions when the voluntative ¨ would be added
to an imperative. Since this ¨ is the symbol of the cohortative, the addition
of the cohortative to the imperative emphasizes the earnestness of the
command. This indicates that the author do not just call for the fulfilment
but also desire it earnestly. An example of this usage could be found in
Psalm 51:14: _ `3¨¨ 2`. L£ ¨¨ C "N which would be translated Restore
unto me the joy of thy salvation . The presence of the ¨ would make the
translation to literally read please, restore unto me the joy of thy salvation
with a lot of emphasis on the please.

All that have been treated above are the various uses of the imperfect to
express a positive command. Now, we are going to see some examples of
the use of the imperfect form in an imperative context. Please note that this
formation can also be used for negative commands. The first example
would be taken from Genesis 3:14: _ "¨ _. ". ¯". which would be
translated upon thy belly thou shalt go . The second example could be
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
125
found in Exodus 20:9: _ ¨3N" C ¯"3 ¨`L.` ¨2.¨ 2`C` ¨LL which
would be translated six days you shall labour .


3.2 Negative Commands

Negative commands, that is, prohibitions, can be expressed only by the use
of the imperfect form in an imperative context with a negative particle. The
following examples from the book Exodus are good examples:
"S¨ ¨ N" which would betranslated you shall not kill (Exodus 20:13)
2. .¨ N" which would betranslated you shall not steal (Exodus 20:15).
The distinction between the prohibitions expressed by the imperfect and
that expressed by the jussive should be made clear. In the prohibition
expressed by the imperfect, in the second person, N" (shall not) would be
used; the jussive would however take "N (do not). In the third person, the
ordinary imperfect would take N" (he shall not) while the jussive would
take N" (let him not).

3.3 The Infinitive Absolute

The infinitive absolute can be defined as the use of the verbal noun to
express the bare idea of the verbal action. It can also be used along with the
inflected form to give emphasis to the action that is being expressed. It can
also stand alone and it this case, it can be used with the force of an
exclamation or it could be used standing alone to express an adverb. Please
note that the infinitive do not take the article. Please note the following uses
of the infinitive absolute:

1. The infinitive may be used instead of the finite verb to express the
essential idea of the verb, albeit, vivdly and emphatically. The
following are good examples of the use of the infinitive instead of
the finite verb:
N2` L£" ¨¨ I£ L` "` ¯"N "N¨ L` _"C ¨CN` ` which would be
translated and the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat,
distinguishing and coming .... (1 Kings 22:30). The infinitves used
here are distinguishing (L£" ¨¨ ) and coming (N2`) and they are to
express the idea of the finite verb here.
|NS I" L` ¨¸2 .¨¨
|` ` ¨` ¨L` ¨L2 "3N
These two phrases would be translated killing of catle and
slaughtering of sheep, eating of meat and drinking of wine (Isaiah
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
126
22:13). The infinitives used here are killing (.¨¨ ), slaughtering
(I" L), eating ("3 N) and drinking (¨`¨L).

2. The infinitive may be used with the finite verb to add emphasis to
the verb or to describe the action of the accompanying verb. Please
note that when the infinitive is placed before the finite verb, it adds
an expression of intensity. Examine the following examples
carefully:

¨` ¨ `. CC "N L. "N L. ¨¨CN ` which would be transalted David
earnestly besought me (1 Samuel 20:6). This is an example of the
use of the infinitive along with the finite verb to express intensity. If
you look at the example very well, you would discover the two
words standing together ("N L. "N L. ).

` .`". _"C¨ _"C ¨ ``"N ` " ` ¨C N` ` which would be translated
And they said unto him, will you indeed rule over us? (Genesis
37:8). In this usage, the imperfect is used to add emphasis to the
finite verb and that is why in the translation indeed is used to
reinforce the emphasis.

3. The infinitive absolute can also be used to express constant progress
or the complete existence of the action. In this case, the infinitive
absolute stands after the accompanying verb. The following is an
example of this usage:
` C. ¨` N2S ¨` ¨`` "` ¨. ` _` "¨ ¨`` ¨ _"` ` which would be
translated David became greater and greater (1 Chronicles 11:9).
In this case, the infinitive absolute is used to describe constant
progress.

3.4 The Infinitive Construct

The infinitive construct, is also an abstract verbal noun that is used like the
gerund. Thus, it can take suffixes and prepositions and at the same time has
the government of its verb. The following are the various uses of the
infinitive construct:

In the first instance, the infinitive construct may be used alone. When used
alone, it may be nominal or verbal. If it appears as a noun, it can be used in
all the cases of a noun or along with a preposition. If it appears as a verb, it
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
127
can take a subject, an object or both. Let us examine the following
examples:

` ¨. . 3 ¨l . ` " ¯¨ L.N ` ¨2 " 2¨ N¨ ¨``¨ 2` I¯N" 2`¨"N ¨` ¨` ¨C N` `
which would be translated And the LORD God said, man s being alone is
not good (Genesis 2:18). In this case, the infinitive construct ¨``¨ is used
as the subject of a nominal sentence.

Let us examine this phrase: |¨ N 2`¨ "N ¨` ¨` ¨` L. 2` `2 which would
be translated In the day of the LORD God s making of the earth (Genesis
2:4). In this case, the infinitive construct ¨` L. is placed in the genitive.

In 1 Kings 3:7, there is a phrase N 2` ¨NS .¨N N" which would be
translated I know not to go out or come in . In this case, the infinitive
construct N 2` ¨NS is used in the accusative as the object of the verb.

In the second instance, the infinitve construct may be used with the
preposition ". In such usages, it could be used for any of the following:

It could be used to express design or purpose. A good example of this usage
could be found in 1 Samuel 1:3:
¨2l "` ¨` "¨ L¨ " ¨C `C` 2`C` C ` ¨`.C N` ¨¨ L`N¨ ¨". `
which would be translated now this man would go up from his city yearly
to worship and to sacrifice . In this case, the infinitive constructs ¨2 l "`
¨` "¨ L¨" are being used to express purpose.
It could also be used to express the result of an action as in 1 Kings 2:3:
¨C L" ``3¨¨2 ¨3 "" _ `¨"N ¨` ¨` ¨¨C LC ¯¨N ¨¨ C L`
which would be translated thou shall keep the charge of the LORD your
God so as to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes . The infinitive
constructs ¨3 "" and ¨C L"are used here to express the result of keeping
the charge of Yahweh.

It could also be used to express the time of an action as in 2 Samuel 18:29.
"" L" "` ¨. ¨ |` C¨¨ `¨`N¨ |.C`"N ¨CN` ` which would also be
translated And Ahimaaz said, when Joab sent . The infinitive construct
here is " " L" and it is used to tie an event to the time of another action.

The infinitive construct could also be used to express the periphrastic
future. A good example of this could be found in Genesis 15:12:
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
128
N` 2" LC L¨ `¨` ` which would be translated it began to be that the sun
was about to set .

Finally, the infinitve construct can also be used as a gerundive. A gerundive
is a Latin adjective ending in -ndus . It is formed from a verb and it
actually means must or ought or is to be . A good example is in 2 Kings
4:13: _ " ¨` L. " ¨C ¨Nl ¨ which would be translated What is it to be
done for you?

Please note that to form the negative with the infinitive, the particle `¨"2
has to be used prefixed with ". An example of this could be found in
Genesis 3:11: "3 N `¨"2" which would be translated I commanded you
not to eat . With the periphrastic or the gerundive, the negative particle is
formed with either the " or N" . A good example could be found in Amos
6:10: ¨`¨` 2L2 ¨`3l ¨" which would be translated the name of Yahweh
must not be mentioned . In this gerundive, the negative particle " , is used
here as the negative participle for the gerundive.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have studied the imperative mood and the infinitive. The
imperative mood is the mood used to express commands. There are two
forms of command: the positive and the negative commands. While
positive commands are formed either by a special form of the imperative, or
the imperfect in an imperative context, the negative commands, which are
prohibitions, are formed by the use of the imperfect in an imperative
context with a negative particle. The infinitive absolute is the use of the
verbal noun to express the bare idea of the verbal action. It is usually used
with the inflected form to emphasize the action or be used alone with the
force of an exclamation or as adverb. The infinitive construct is the use of
the infinitive as a gerund or as a gerundive.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The imperative mood is the mood used to express commands.
· There are two forms of command: the positive and the negative
commands.
· While positive commands are formed either by a special form of the
imperative, or the imperfect in an imperative context, the negative
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
129
commands, which are prohibitions, are formed by the use of the
imperfect in an imperative context with a negative particle.
· The infinitive absolute is the use of the verbal noun to express the
bare idea of the verbal action.
· The infinitive absolute is usually used with the inflected form to
emphasize the action or be used alone with the force of an
exclamation or as adverb.
· The infinitive construct is the use of the infinitive as a gerund or as a
gerundive.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1. What are the various ways in which the imperative may be used?
2. Differentiate between the functions of the infinitive absolute and the
infinitive construct.

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies.

Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.










CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
130
UNIT 5: THE PARTICIPLES

Content

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 The Participle
3.2 The Participle as a Verb
3.3 The Participle as a Noun
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

You are welcomed to the second to the last unit of this course on Hebrew
Syntax. At this point, all to be learnt about Hebrew syntax, albeit,
theoretically, would come to an end, as in the next unit, what we will do
mostly is going to be practical. In the previous unit, we have studied about
the infinitives, both as an absolute and as a construct. In this unit, we are
going to study about the participles and their syntactical functions.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit, you should be able to:

· Define a participle
· Exaplain the qualities of a participle
· Disucss the functions of a participle as a verb
· Discuss the functions of a participle as a noun
· Differentiate between a participle and an imperfect

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 The Participle

The participle is a form of verb that is used to form complex tenses.
Because of their nature, they could also be used as adjectives. The particle
is usually used when the speaker or writer wishes to lay stress on the
continuation of an action that has been described. This is because the
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
131
descriptive power of the participle is great. As a noun, the participle does
not have any idea of time and as a verb, its idea of time has to be discerned
from the context of the passage. Let us examine the robustness of this idea
from the scriptures. The participle "£. can mean falling as in Numbers
24:4; it can mean fallen as in Judges 4:22 and can also mean will be
falling as in Jeremiah 37:14. At this point, it is important to differentiate
between the imperfect and the participles. In the imperfect, the action is
multiplied (that is, carries a sense of repeatedness) while in the participle,
the action is prolonged (that is, elongated). In other words, the imperfect is
continual and the participle is continuous. A good example can be found in
Isaiah 6:2 where the two forms are used withing the same passage:

LL 2` £ . 3 LL ` " ".C C 2`¨C. 2`£ ¨ L
``. £ ¨73` 2` ¨ L2 ¨" N" 2` £. 3 which would be translated Seraphim
were standing above Him, each having six wings: with two he repeatedly
covered his face . In this example, the participle 2`¨C . would represented
the continual standing of the seraphim above the throne of God while the
imperfect ¨73 ` denotes the repeated act of covering of the face.

3.2 The Participle as a Verb

As you have learnt earlier, by virtue of their character, participles partake
together of the qualities of a verb and as well as of a noun. In the use of the
participle, you need to note however that, one quality may be emphasized
over the other, but neither would be used exclusively. In this sub-unit, we
are going to examine the functions of a participle when the verbal quality is
the prominent one.

Firstly, the participle in its verbal use may be used to describe actions or to
emphasize the duration of a given action in the past. The use of the
participle is actually expected to take us back to the event and help us to see
the figures moving in the background. A good example would be found in
Jonah 1:11: ¨.7 ` _"` ¨ 2` ¨ `3 which would be translated for the sea
was going and stormy . The use of the particple here is meant to picture the
increasing momentum of the storm that has come upon the sea. This is why
the New American Standard Bible has translated the phrase as follows: for
the sea was becoming increasingly stormy .

Secondly, the participle may be used in the sense of pulling aside a screen
to allow the readers to see what is going on at the present moment. This is
the usage that was used in Genesis 4:10: `" N 2`¸.S _`"N `C¨ "` ¸
which would be translated the voice of your brother s blood is crying out
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
132
to me . The participle here 2`¸. S is used to picture the past deed of Cain
as coming up in the present to make God to act.

3.3 The Participle as a Noun

In the sub-unit above, we have looked at the functions of the particple when
the verbal quality receives prominence. In the sub-unit, we will look at the
participle when the noun quality is emphasized. Firstly, in this case, the
participle may be used either as the subject or the object of the sentence.
For example, the Hebrew ¨l" would literally be translated one seeing ,
hence would be the noun seer .

Secondly, the participle can be used in apposition with a noun and thus
become an adjective. A good example of this would be found in Exodus
24:17: ¨" 3N LN3 which would be translated like a devouring fire . The
participle, devouring is used as an adjective to qualify the other noun, fire.

Thirdly, it is possible that the participle in its noun emphasis, to carry an
article. When this happens, the participle takes on a new emphasis, and it is
thus rendered as a relative clause. A good example would be found in
Genesis 12:7: ``"N ¨N ¨. ¨ ¨` ¨`" which would be translated to
Yahweh, who had appeared unto him. The participle that had been
rendered who had appeared would literally be translated the one
appearing .

4.0 CONCLUSION

You have learnt the participle is a form of verb that is used to form
complex tenses. Thye can also be used as adjectives. It is used mostly when
the speaker wants to lay stress on the continuation of an action that has just
been described. It also has the capability to act as a noun as well as a verb.
As a verb, it is used to describe actions or emphasize the duration of a given
action in the past. As a noun, it can be used either as a subject or the object
of a sentence. It can also be used in apposition with a noun thus becoming
an adjective and can also be used emphatically to make it to be rendered as
a relative clause.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The participle is a form of verb that is used to form complex tenses.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
133
· Participles can also be used as adjectives.
· Participles are used mostly when the speaker wants to lay stress on
the continuation of an action that has just been described.
· Participles have the capability to act as a noun as well as a verb.
· As a verb, it is used to describe actions or emphasize the duration of
a given action in the past.
· As a noun, it can be used either as a subject or the object of a
sentence.
· It can also be used in apposition with a noun thus becoming an
adjective and can also be used emphatically to make it to be
rendered as a relative clause.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1. Discuss the use of the participle as a verb and also as a noun.

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies.

Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.
















CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
134
UNIT 6: PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF SYNTACTIC
RELATIONS

Content

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Practice Passage 1
3.2 Practice Passage 2
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignments
7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION

You are welcomed to the last unit of this course on Hebrew Syntax where
attempts would be made to put into practice all the theoretical bits that have
been studied across these pages. This would give you an insight into how to
undertake syntactical analysis of the passages of the Hebrew Bible on your
own. Let me however let you know that mastering syntactical analsis has to
do more with your resilience and constant practice. If after this course, you
fail to at least once in week, lay on your hands on some passages for
practice, in a matter of months, you would have forgotten all that you have
been taught. Now, let us move on to the practice passages.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit, you should be able to:

· Explain the syntactical relations as picked up in the passages
· Undertake syntactical analysis on your own
· Derive exegetical interpretation from the passages

3.0 MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Practice Passage 1

|¨N ¨`
(2)
`|¨ N ¨ ¨N` 2` C L¨ ¨N 2`¨"N N¨2 ¨`LN¨2
(1)

¨£" ¨C 2`¨" N "` ¨` 2` ¨¨ `.£ ¯". _ L"` ` ¨2` ` ¨¨ ¨¨` ¨
`¨` N¯`¨` ` ¨` N `¨` 2`¨"N ¨CN ` `
(3)
`2` C¨ `.£ ¯".
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
135
¨` N¨ |`2 2`¨"N "¨ 2` ` 2` I¯`3 ¨` N¨ ¯¨N 2`¨"N N¨` `
(4)

N¨¸ _ L"" ` 2` ` ¨` N" 2`¨"N N¨¸ ` `
(5)
` _ L"¨ |`2`
2`¨"N ¨CN` `
(6)
`¨" N 2` ` ¨¸2 ¯`¨` ` 2¨. ¯`¨` ` ¨"` "
`2` C" 2` C |`2 "`¨2C `¨`` 2` C¨ _` ¨2 .`¸¨ `¨`

In the first verse, the first word needs close examination. It is a compound
word, made up of preposition beth and feminine noun ¨`LN¨ which means
beginning . Thus, it is clear that there is no definite article here and unlike
what most English Bible translation reads, it would actually mean in
beginning . This is theologically important because it stresses the fact that
no one knows when the beginning actually took place, and so cannot be
particularized as the most English translation implies. The second word that
calls for attention is 2`C L¨ . This word is also a combination of the definite
article and the noun and thus would translate the heavens . It is important
to note here that unlike the English language the Hebrew word for heavens
is a plural word. This is also theologically important because in the Hebrew
worldview, there are seven heavens. The first verse would then read: In
beginning God created the heavens and the earth. It is also important to
note that as far as the Hebrew worldview is concerned, the cosmos did not
just come to be by accident, they were called into being by God. It also
includes the fact that the existence of God in Hebrew theology is taken for
granted.

In the second verse, two nouns are standing side by side (though not joined
together by a makkeph). When this happens in the Hebrew language, the
two nouns are said to be in construct relations and would be translated as in
the possessive case. Hence, 2`¨"N "` ¨` would be translated the spirit of
God . There is also the word 2` C¨ which is a combination of the definite
article and the noun waters . It is important to note here also that like
heavens, waters is also written in the permanent plural. Verse two would
be translated ...

The third verse has the word ¨C N` ` , which is the combination of the waw
consecutive and the qal imperfect third person masculine singular from the
root word ¨C N meaning he said, hence the word would be translated and
he began to say . In translating this however, because the subject has been
supplied, the subject would overrule the third person pronoun. Thus,
2`¨"N ¨CN` ` would be translated And God began to say . The next
important word is `¨` which is the qal imperfect, third person masculine
singular jussive. The root word for the verb is ¨` ¨ , which means to
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
136
be hence, the word would be translated let there begin to be . The word
came up again in the third verse, but this time prefixed to the waw
consecutive. The presence of the waw consecutive would then change the
meaning to the perfect form as indicated in the translation: And God said
let there begin to be light, and there began to be light . In this second use of
`¨` ` , there comes a theological point. The light that God created then is
still the same light that we have to date.

Self-Assessment Exercise 1

Follow the examples above and try your hands on verses 4 to 6.

3.2 Practice Exercise 2

NL¨ ¨` N. 2
(2)
`¨7 "N N" `.¨ ¨`¨` ¨` ¨" ¨` Cl C
(1)

`. ". ` 22` L` `L£.
(3)
``. "¨. ` ¨` ". C `C¯". `. S`2¨`
¨` C"S N`.2 _"N¯`3 2.
(4)
``CL |.C" ¸¨S ¯`". .C2
``. C". ` ¨C¨ _¨. . LC` _I2 L `¨C. ¨¨N ¯`3 .¨ N¨ `N ¯N"

The first two words in the first verse are very important in this passage
because, they actually form the title of the psalm under consideration
though they are written as part of the psalm. It has to be noted that though
the word ¨` Cl C is a feminine noun meaning song or psalm the second
word ¨`¨" is a combination of the preposition lamedh (which can be
translated as to , for or at ) and the noun David and the words can be
translated a psalm to David or a psalm of David . Traditionally, this title
has always been used to signify the idea of possession; hence it has been
translated to mean a psalm of David thus carrying the idea that the psalm
has been written by David. This traditional position has been buttressed as a
result of the construct relationship that is expected to arise by the coming
together of two nouns.

The next word is very important and this is the word ¨`¨`. This is the
personal name of God that was revealed to Moses. The name is usually
considered too sacred for pronpunciation and thus usually written without
vowel pointings. This name however should not be pronounced Jehovah; it
is much more probably Yahweh. The word following it is the qal active
participle of the verb ¨. ¨ . It is important to note that it is the addition of
the suffix ` that caused the dropping of the final ¨. When used along with
the noun, it would be translated Yahweh is my shepherd . The last two
words in the first verse give the typial example of the use of the negative
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
137
particle. When all these words are put together, the first verse would be
translated A psalm of David. Yahweh is my shepherd, no want .

Self-Assessment Exercise 2

Following the example above, undertake an analysis of the remaining
verses.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, we have taken two familiar passages namely, Genesis 1:1-6 and
Pslam 23:1-4 for hands on exercise in syntactical and exegetical analysis.
As you would have noticed above, the meanings and subsequently
theological significances and brought to the fore as the words are analyzed
based on their usage in the passage. Also important, is the way the literal
ranslations are compared with the existing English translations. For
example, we have discovered that the article inserted into the first phrase in
English versions of the Bible is not in the Hebrew Bible and thus point out
its theological significance.

5.0 SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit:

· The article the is not part of the first phrase of Genesis 1:1.
· Some Hebrew words are permanently written in the plural such as
heavens and waters to reflect Hebraic thought on these words.
· When two nouns are standing together, they are said to be in
construct relations and thus would be translated in the genitive case.
· The word YHWH is the personal name of God that was revealed to
Moses and was considered too sacred to be pronounced; hence it is
usually written without vowels.

6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1. Take another passage of the Hebrew Bible and try to do an analysis
of the first two verses.

7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies.
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
138

Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand
Rapids: Academie Books.

Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the
Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville:
Oliver-Nelson Books.

Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition.
New York: Harper and Row.































CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
139
GLOSSARY
Hebrew English Hebrew English
N ‘Aleph L` .N
man, mankind
2N
father
` .". N
we
¨2N
vb. perish (Hi)
destory
¶7N
vb. gather (Ni)
assemble
¨2N
vb. be willing
¨7N
vb. bind, imprison
|` `2N
needy, wretched
|` ¨N
ark, chest
2¨. `2N
Abinadab
l¨N
cedar
"2N
vb. mourn
"¨N
way, path
|2N
(f) stone
¨¨N
vb. curse
2¨2 N
Abram
LN
(f) fire
|`¨N
lord, commander, master
¨LN
(f) woman, wife,
female
2¨N
man, mankind
2 Beth
¨C¨ N
(f) ground, earth
2
in, on, among
`. ¨N
Lord
¨N2
(f) well
2¨N
vb. love
2`LN 2
odious grapes
"¨N
tent, hut, habitation
¨. 2
vb. deal treacherously
¨` N
light vb. be light, shine
¨. 2
garment
lN
then
"¨2
vb. (Hi) separate, select
¨` "N
sister
¨` 2
pit, grave
¨"N
after, behind
L` 2
vb. be ashamed
`N
where?
ll2
vb. plunder, spoil
2`N
enemy
¨"2
vb. choose, prove
_`N
how? how!
"I2
vb. trust
L`N
man, husband
|I2
(f) womb
"N
God
|`2
vb. perceive, (Hi) explain
"N
unto
¨` 2
house, tent
"`"N
worthless (pl) idols
¨32
vb. weep
¨. C" N
(f) widow
¨` 32
first-born, eldest
¶"N
ox, thousand
`"2
nothingness, not
2N
(f) mother
""2
vb. mingle, confuse
2N
if, whether
¨. 2
vb. build
¨CN
(f) truth, firmness
".2
master, ba al
_¨N
length
¨.2
vb. consume (hi) kindle
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
140
¨.2
vb. seize suddenly
2. .
vb. steal
.¸2
vb. cleave, spilt
¨ Daleth
¨¸2
herd, cattle

bear
¨¸2
morning
¸2¨
vb. cleave, cling
L¸2
vb. (pi) seek, ask
¨2¨
vb. speak (pi)
"l ¨2
iron
¨2¨
plague, pestilence
"¨2
vb. flee, (hi) drive away
L2¨
honey
_¨2
vb. kneel down, bless

fish
_¨2
(f) knee
|`¨
vb. rule, judge (ni)
contend at law
¨3¨ 2
(f) blessing
¨3¨
vb. (pi) crush, trample
¨L2
flesh
¨"¨
(f) gate, door
¨2
(f) daughter, girl,
grand-daughter
¨C¨
vb. be like (pi) compare
¨¨2
(f) desolation
¨` C¨
(f) likeness, image
_` ¨2
in the midst of
¨.¨
(f) knowledge
.
Gimmel
¨¨¨ ¨
thorny plant, thistles
|` N.
pride, swelling
L¨¨
vb. tread, seek
"N.
vb. redeem, deliver
NL¨
vb. shoot, sprout
¨2.
vb. be high, be proud
NL¨
grass
¨2.
mighty one, man
|L¨
vb. (pi) anoint
¨¨.
(f) bank
¨ He
"` ¨.
great, elder
"2¨
vapour, breath, Abel
N`.
valley
¨` ¨
glory, splendour
"`.
joy, exultation
"3`¨
temple
¨".
vb. uncover, reveal (ni)
uncover one s self
|` C¨
multitude, tumult
"".
vb. roll

behold!
2.
also
_£¨
vb. turn, overturn (ni)
be chnaged
"C.
vb. deal with, do
(good or evil)
.¨¨
vb. kill
|£.
(f) vine
¨¨¨
vb. conceive
¨.
sojourner, stranger
_"¨
vb. go, walk
L¨.
vb. drive out
` Waw
2L.
rain
`
and
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
141
l Zayin "` "
strength, power
"2l
vb. sacrifice
23"
wise, skillful
"2l
sacrifice
¨C3 "
(f) wisdom
2¨l
gold
""
bulwark, wall, rampart
¨¨ l
vb. (ni) be enlightened;
(hi) teach, warn
2""
fat, marrow
¨` l
vb. be a stranger
(ni) be estranged
"""
vb. pollute, pierce
(hi) begin
¨3l
vb. remember
2` ""
dream
¨3l
male
`""
sickness
¨Cl
vb. prune (pi) sing
¸""
vb. divide, plunder
¨. l
vb. commit fornication
¨""
vb. be sick
¸.l
vb. cry out
¨C"
(f) heat, sun
|¸l
old man, elder
|"
favour, grace
.¨l
arm, strength
¨7"
mercy, kindness
.¨l
vb. sow (hi) produce
seed
L¨"
vb. plow, engrave
(hi) be silent
.¨l
seed
¨7"
vb. lack
" Heth |£"
vb. delight in
N2"
vb. hide (ni) hide
one s self
¨¨"
vb. be dismayed
(hi) terrify
"2"
line, cord
|"
arrow, handle
.. "
vb. keep a feast
¨2¨ "
(f) dry land
"¨"
vb. cease
¨¨"
vb. be angry, burn
L¨"
vb. (pi) renew
¨£¨ "
(f) reproach, shame
L¨"
fresh, new
2L"
vb. think, impute
L¨"
new moon, month
2¨"
Horeb
"` "
vb. be in pain, writhe,
bring forth
¨¨"
vb. tremble
(hi) terrify
¨C` "
(f) wall
I Teth
|` "
outside, abroad
¨` ¨I
clean, pure
¨l "
vb. see, gaze
¨¨I
vb. be clean (pi) purify
¸l "
vb. be strong, (hi) seize
"I
dew
NI"
vb. miss, sin
2¨I
before, not yet
¨NI "
(f) sin
2` I
vb. be good
`"
(adj) living, fresh
(subs) life
NCI
vb. be unclean
(pi) defile
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
142
` Yodh L23
lamb
¨` N`
river, Nile
L23
subdue
¨`¨`
one beloved
¨3
vessel
.¨`
vb. know, understand
¨3
thus, here
¨¨` ¨`
Judah
23` 3
star
. L` ¨`
Joshua
7` 3
(f) cup
2C` `
daily, by day
2"3
dog
¨. ` `
(f) dove
¨` . 3
harp, lyre
¨"`
vb. be united
¶. 3
(f) wing
2I`
vb. be good (hi) do well
N7 3
throne, seat
|` `
wine
¶73
silver, money
"3`
vb. (hi) decide, prove
¨£3
bribe, ransom
¨"`
vb. bring forth, (ni) be
born, (hi) beget
¨£3
vb. (pi) cover
(pu) be atoned for
""`
vb. wail, lament
2` ¨3
cherub
|`C`
(f) right hand
2¨3
vineyard
¸. `
vb. suck
¨¨3
vb. cut off
¶7`
vb. add, repeat
"L3
vb. stumble
¨7`
vb. chastise, admonish
2¨3
vb. write
2¸`
wine-press
¶¨3
(f) shoulder
.¸`
vb. be dislocated
"
Lamedh
|¸`
vb. awake
"
to, for, at
2` " L` ¨`
Jerusalem
¨2"
alone
"¨`
moon
L2"
vb. be clothed, put on
¸¨`
greenness, foliage
|` "
vb. lodge, pass the night
L¨`
vb. possess, inherit
2""
vb. fight, do battle
"N¨ L`
Israel
¨"` "
night
¨L`
straight, upright
¨3"
vb. capture
¨¨`
remnant
|3"
therefore
3
Kaph
¨C"
vb. learn, (pi) teach
3
as, like, according to
¨C"
why?
¨23
vb. be heavy, be honoured
"¸"
vb. take
¨` 23
honour, glory
|` L"
tongue
723
vb. wash, trample
2"
heart
` C3
as, like, as soon as
2""
bread
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
143
C Mem ¨. .
vb. (hi) declare, tell
¨NC
very, exceedingly
¨. .
before, in the presence of
¨NC
(f) hundred
"¨.
vb. banish, expel
¨C` NC
anything
¨¨.
vb. vow
¨` NC
luminary
¨¨.
vow
|NC
vb. (pi) refuse
"¨.
vb. (pi) guide, lead
7NC
vb. reject, refuse
¨¨.
river
"¨. C
tower
"` .
vb. rest
|.C
shield
"".
vb. inherit, take
¨¨C
vb. measure
L".
serpent
¨¨C
(f) measure
¨L".
(f) bronze, copper
¨` C
vb. die
_7.
libation
¨` C
death
.7.
vb. remove
¨` Cl C
psalm
¨..
lad, servant
"¨l C
east, sunrise
"£.
vb. fall
¨"C
tomorrow
L£.
soul
¨IC
rain
NL.
vb. lift, carry
|`C
species, kind
N`L.
chief, prince
¨3C
vb. sell
¸L.
vb. kiss
_N" C
angel, messenger
|¨.
vb. give, establish
¨3N" C
work, business
7 Samekh
|` "C
lodging-place
227
vb. turn, surround
""C
salt
2`27
circuit, around
¨3" C
(f) queen
7` 7
horse
¨". C
(f) offering, present
¨7` 7
mare
¨` ¸C
collection, gathering
."7
rock, crag
2` ¸C
dwelling, place, abode
¨"7
(f) fine flour
¨LC
Moses
_C7
vb. lean, support
"LC
vb. anoint
¨£7
vb. lament, mourn
"`LC
anointed one
¨£7
book
"LC
proverb
. ‘Ayin
"¸ LC
weight
2.
dark, cloud
. Nun ¨2.
vb. serve
2N.
oracle, utterance
¨2.
servant, labourer
2. .
south country
¨2.
vb. pass over
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
144
¨.
witness
¨¸¨ S
(f) righteousness
¨` ¨.
(f) testimony
¨` S
vb. (pi) command
|¨.
Eden
¨`S
rock
¨¨.
vb. hoe
¸"S
vb. laugh
¨` .
vb. bear witness, testify
|` ¨`S
Zidon
¨"` .
(f) burnt-offering
""S
prosper
2"` .
age, eternity, world
2"S
image
¶` .
bird, fowl
¨` C"S
deep darkness
¶` .
vb. fly
NCS
vb. be thirsty
¨` .
vb. awake
"CS
sprout, growth
l.
strength
¸.S
vb. cry out
2l .
vb. abandon, forsake
¨£S
vb. keep watch
¨".
vb. go up
¨"£ S
cruse
¨£.
dust
¨S
adversary
|.
tree
¨¨S
(f) adversity
£ Pe ¨£¨ S
Zarephath
¨N£
(f) side, corner
¨¨S
vb. show hostility
toward, vex
¨£
here
¸ Qoph
`¨£
fruit
"2¸
vb. (pi) receive, take
¨£
bit, morsel
|2¸
vb. collect, gather
"¨£
door
¨2¸
vb. bury
"¨£
vb. open
2¨¸
before, east
¨¨£
vb. be open, be simple
¨` ¸
collect, wait for
.L£
rebellion, transgression
¨C` ¸
height
¨£
bit, morsel
|I¸
small, younger
¨¨£
vb. be open, be
simple (pi) deceive,
entice
|I¸
vb. be little, small
"¨£
door
¨¨I ¸
(f) incense
S Tsade |` ¸
Cain
|NS
(f) flock
¨`¸
wall
N2S
host
"C¸
meal
¸¨S
vb. be right (pi, hi) justify
¨. ¸
vb. acquire
¸¨S
righteousness
LL¸
collect
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
145
¨ Resh ¸" L
vb. laugh
¨N¨
vb. see
2`L
vb. be gray, aged
|` LN¨
first, former
2`L
vb. put, place
¨`LN¨
(f) beginning
"3 L
vb. be prudent, wise
`.`2¨
fourth
"C L
vb. rejoice, be glad
|2¨
vb. lie down
¨"C L
(f) rejoicing, joy, festivity
l. ¨
vb. tremble, be agitated
N.L
vb. hate
". ¨
(f) foot
¨`. L
hairy, goat
¨¨¨
vb. rule, have dominion
¨L
prince, head, chief
¶¨¨
vb. pursue
¶¨ L
vb. burn
"` ¨
vb. be enlarged, refreshed
¸¨L
choicest vine
"`¨
vb. (hi) inhale, smell
L Shin
2` ¨
vb. be exalted, rise
"` NL
Saul
|` ¨
vb. run
"` NL
(f) Sheol, underworld
2"¨
breadth
"N L
vb. ask
¶"¨
vb. hover, brood
I2 L
rod, tribe, staff
|"¨
vb. wash, bathe
¨2 L
rest, Sabbath
¸"¨
vb. be distant, (hi) remove
¨¨ L
vb. ruin, devastate
2`¨
vb. strive, contend
N` L
emptiness, iniquity
2`¨
strife
2` L
vb. turn back, return
23¨
vb. ride
¨£` L
trumpet
23¨
chariot
¨` L
ox, bull
7C¨
vb. tread, tramble
¨" L
vb. bow down
LC¨
vb. creep
I" L
vb. slaughter
2.¨
famine
¶I L
vb. flow, overwhelm
¨.¨
shepherd
¨`L
vb. put, rest
..¨
vb. break, be evil
23 L
vb. lie down
N£¨
vb. heal, cure
"3 L
vb. forget
¨S¨
vb. delight in, be
gracious to
2" L
peace offering
"S¨
vb. slay, murder
¨¸ L
falsehood, deception
.L¨
evil, wicked
|¨ L
vb. swarm
L Sin |¨ L
creeping things (coll)
.2 L
vb. be satisfied, sated
¨¨ L
vb. (pi) serve, minister
¨¨ L
field, plain
¨¨ L
vb. drink
CTH316 Hebrew Syntax
146
¨ Taw ¨ Taw
¨N¨
form, figure
|`. ¨
sea monster
` ¨¨
waste, formlessness
¨¨N £¨
(f) glory, splendour
2` ¨¨
(f) deep, abyss
¨"£ ¨
(f) prayer
¨"¨
under, beneath, instead of
L£¨
vb. seize, catch
¨`C¨
continuity
.£¨
vb. thrust, strike
2C¨
vb. finish, complete
¨C` ¨¨
(f) heave-offering

CTH316

Hebrew Syntax

National Open University of Nigeria Headquarters 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way Victoria Island Lagos Abuja Annex 5, Dar es Salaam Street Off Aminu Kano Crescent Wuse II, Abuja Nigeria e-mail: centralinfo@nou.edu.ng URL: www.nou.edu.ng National Open University of Nigeria 2011 Printed 2011 ISBN: ------------------------------------All Rights Reserved Printed by --------------------------------For

National Open University of Nigeria

ii

CTH316

Hebrew Syntax

Content Introduction What you will learn in this Course Course Aims Course Objectives Working through this Course Course Materials Study Units Set Textbooks Assignment File Presentation Schedule Assessment Tutor-Marked Assignments Final Examination and Grading Course Marking Scheme Course Overview How to get the Best from this Course Tutors and Tutorials Summary

Page 4 4 4-5 5 6 6 6 6-7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8-9 9-10 10 11

iii

Detailed information on TMAs is found in a separate file. The course is available toward the award of first degree in Christian Theology. sermon preparation and the development of study guide for use in the Church. It also emphasizes the need for Tutor Marked Assignments (TMAs).CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Introduction CTH316: Hebrew Syntax is a one-semester 3-credit unit course. This will be achieved by: · Reviewing the major components of grammar studied in CTH313 · Giving you the distinctive traits of Hebrew verbs in terms of tense. The course material can also be useful for students in other levels of Christian Theology. It will begin with a review of CTH313-Biblical Grammar. what course materials you will be using and how you can work your way through the materials. What You Will Learn in this Course The overall aim of CTH316 is to help you develop a systematic growth in the use of biblical Hebrew so that you can get to the level where you can access the original language and do your translation/interpretation without recourse to any existing translation of the Old Testament. which is a prerequisite to this course. especially the role of biblical languages in the understanding of the Old Testament can find this course material beneficial. There are periodic tutorial classes that are linked to this course. This will help you in your personal Bible study. meant to strengthen previous studies. This course is made up of 22 units. Besides. After this preview. we will start off from principles of syntax of Hebrew Grammar where we will explore all the nuances of the various moods of the Hebrew verb. person and the voice (active or passive) iv . Course Aims · The aim of this course is to help you discover the importance of language in the understanding of the Old Testament literature since the Old Testament was originally written in the Hebrew. which will be sent to you later. The Course Guide tells you briefly what the course is about. those who wish to broaden their knowledge on religious ideas. what you are expected to know in each unit. number. mood.

person and gender. · Introducing you to biblical exegesis through translation and interpretation of actual Bible texts Course Objectives To achieve the aims set out above. The unit objectives would be included in the beginning of each unit. At the end of this course. there are set overall objectives. It is expected that by meeting these objectives.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax · Giving you the distinctive traits of Hebrew nouns in terms of number. v . · Explain syntactical functions of participles. · Undertake brief exegesis of any given passage in the Hebrew Bible. · Explain syntactical functions of infinitives. you should be able to: · Discuss the formation of the various moods of the Hebrew verbs. · Giving you tips of translation process so that you can begin to translate from small units of sentences. · Giving you various Hebrew vocabularies that occur commonly in the Bible and the various shades of meaning they possess. · Discuss the functions of the various moods of the Hebrew verbs. In this way you can be sure that you have done all you are expected to do in the unit. Listed below are the broader objectives of this course. the overall aims of the course must have been achieved. you should also revise the unit objectives. each unit has its specific objectives. · Translate any given passage in the Hebrew Bible. Besides. At the end of every unit. It is advisable that you refer to them during your study of the unit to check on your progress. You should read them before you start working through the unit. · Write any numeral in Hebrew.

these self-tests question you on the material you have just covered or require you to apply the material in some ways. you are required to read the study units. Set Textbooks These textbooks are recommended for your study in this course: Murphey. (1980). Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Together with your tutor marked assignments. Study Units There are twenty-one study units in this course. help you to gauge your progress and to reinforce your understanding of the material. Each unit contains self-assessment exercises. You may contact your tutor if you have problems in obtaining the text materials. Goodrick. vi . Course Guide Study Units Textbooks Assignments file Presentation schedule You must obtain these materials. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. 2.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Working through this Course To complete this course. these exercises will assist you in achieving the stated learning objectives of the individual units and of the course. 5. (1989). Cecil B. 4. read the recommended books and the other materials provided by the National Open University (NOUN). Edward W. At the end of this course there is a final examination. Below you will find listed all the components of the course and what you have to do. They are listed as follows: Each unit contains a number of self-tests. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. In general. and at points during the course you are required to submit assignments for assessment purposes. and thereby. 3. Course Materials Major components of the course are: 1.

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.biblestudies.bible. The assignments must be submitted to your tutor for formal assessment in accordance with the deadlines stated in the assignment file. Presentation Schedule The presentation schedule included in your course materials gives you the important dates for the completion of your tutor marked assignments and attending tutorials. there is a written examination. vii . For these sites see the following: www. second. While working on your assignments. Eibfeldt. This will also count for 70% of your total course mark. Kahle P. Germany: World Bible Societies Hebrew and English Bible (1997).. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Alt. you will need to sit for a final three-hour examination. First are the tutor marked assignments. R.org www. Assessment There are two aspects to the assessment of this course. Books are however very scarce in the area of languages however some websites can give you assistance in seeing what the original manuscripts look like and not a full study. (1977). At the end of the course.religion-online. you are expected to apply information and knowledge acquired during this course.org Assignment file In this file you will find all the details of the work you must submit to your tutor for marking. Remember. The work you submit to your tutor for assessment will count for 30% of your total course mark. you are required to submit all your assignment as and when due. Further information on assignment will be found in the assignment file itself and later in this Course Guide in the section on assessment.org www. A. O. The marks you obtain from these assignments will count toward the final mark you obtain for this course. and Kittel.

Unit Title of Work Course Guide The Article The Prepositions The Conjunction and the Adjectives Introduction to the Noun in Hebrew Week s Activity Assessment (end of unit) Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 4 Assignment 4 1 2 3 4 viii . The best three (that is. the three with the highest grades of fifteen assignments) will be counted. reading and study units. Assignments for the units in this course are contained in the Assignment File. You should be able to complete your assignments from the information and materials contained in your set textbooks.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Tutor Marked Assignments (TMAs) There are fifteen tutor assignments in this course. 100% of course marks Final examination Total Table 1: Course Marking Scheme Course Overview This table brings together the units. You are therefore advised to revise the entire course after studying the last unit before you sit for the examination. You need to submit all the assignments. the number of works you should take to complete. Final Examination and Grading The examination will consist of questions you will come across in tutor marked assignments. Course Marking Scheme The table below gives a breakdown of the course mark: Assessment Assignments 1-21 Marks Three assignments. The total mark of the best three will be 30% of your total course mark. However. best three marks of the assignments counts for 30% of course marks. you are advised to use other references to broaden your viewpoint and provide a deeper understanding of the subject. The final examination counts for 70% of overall marks.

This is one of the great advantages of the distance learning system. Infinitive and Participles in other Verb Stems The Irregular Verbs The Waw Consecutive The Numerals Hebrew Verbs and the Principles of Syntax The Verb in the Indicative Mood The Verb in the Subjunctive and Voluntative Moods The Imperative and the Infinitive The Participles Practical Examples of Syntactic Relation Assignments 5 Assignment 6 Assignment 7 Assignment 8 Assignment 9 Assignment 10 Assignment 11 Assignment 12 Assignment 13 Assignment 14 Assignment 15 Assignment 16 Assignment 17 Assignment 18 Assignment 19 Assignment 20 Assignment 21 Assignment 22 23 24 25 Table 2: Course Overview How to Get the Best from this Course In distance learning the study units replace the university Lecturer. You can read and work through specially designed study materials at your own pace. Following this is a set of learning objectives. After studying the units must cross check whether you have achieved the objectives. The first item is an introduction to the subject matter of the unit and how a particular unit is integrated with the other units and the course as a whole. These objectives enable you know what you should be able to do by the time you have completed the unit. The objectives should guide your study. If you adhere strictly to ix . Each of the study units follows a common format. Infinitive and Participles in Hebrew Verbs The Stems of the Hebrew Verb The Perfect of other Verb Stems The Imperfect of other Verb Stems The Imperative.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 The Pronouns Basic Principles of Syntax The Perfect Verb in Hebrew The Imperfect Verb in Hebrew The Imperative.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax this art of checking whether the objective is achieved or not. 7. until you are sure you have achieved the objectives of the unit you are working on. 10. you can be preparing for exams. Don t allow anything to get you distracted from your study schedule. The content of the unit has been arranged in a sequential order. x . You should refer to the course overview for more details. The main body of the unit guides you through the required reading from other sources. Don t proceed to the next unit. Gather the study material you need. Whenever you need help. 6. 9. Review the objectives for each study unit to confirm you have achieved them. you will definitely improve your chances of passing the course. Read through this Course Guide thoroughly. Don t wait until your assignment is returned before working on the next unit. The study unit you are working on and one of your set books should be on your desk at the same time. Instructions would be given on where to read from your set books or other articles. 2. Plan your study schedule. Turn to Unit 1 and read the introduction and objectives for the unit. Keep to your schedule. 5. 1. don t hesitate to call and ask your tutor to provide it. Work through the unit. When you complete the last unit. 8. Find out the time you are expected to spend on each unit and when and how to turn in your assignments. All you need or a unit is given in the Overview at the beginning of each unit. Be sure that you have achieved the unit objectives (listed at the beginning of each unit) and the course objectives (listed in this Course Guide). Stick to your study schedule. 4. 3. Use the unit to guide your reading. This will usually be either from your set books or from a Reading section.

This will be done as you are allocated to a tutorial group. To maximize the benefits of the course tutorials. Contact your tutor if: · · · You do not understand any part of the study units or the assigned readings. You have difficulty with the self-tests or exercises. You can raise any problem encountered in the course of your study. e-mail or discussion board if you need help. Summary CTH316 exposes you to the background history and development of Old Testament Text as well as the biblical Hebrew. 2. with your tutor s comment on an assignment or with the grading of an assignment. and You have a question or problem with an assignment. Your tutor will mark and comment on your assignments. The following might be the circumstances in which you will find help necessary. When you participate in the discussions your intellectually life will be deeply enriched. times and location of these tutorials. They will be marked by your tutor and returned to you as soon as possible. The dates. On successful completion of this course. You should try your best to attend the tutorials. This is the only chance to interact with your tutor by asking questions which are answered instantly. Do not hesitate to contact our tutor by telephone. keep a close watch on your progress and on any difficulties you might encounter and provide assistance to you during the course. it is advisable that you prepare a question list before attending them. You must mail your tutor marked assignments to your tutor well before the due date (at least two working days are required). you will be able to answer questions such as: 1. It will also lead you to a working knowledge of the language and the ability to consult the original language of the Bible thereby enriching your knowledge of the Bible. What are the functions of the indicative mood? How is the imperative mood formed? xi . together with the name and phone number of your tutor will be communicated to you.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Tutors and Tutorials There are 8 hours of tutorials provided in support of this course.

What are the various uses of the infinitive? What is the difference between the participle and the infinitive? What is the difference between the perfect and the imperfect state? What does the cohortative function of the voluntative mood stand for? How would you translate a relative perfect? How would you translate a perfect of experience? How many forms of imperfect exist in Hebrew language? Hiow does the imperative mood functions in the Hebrew language? xii . 9. 10.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3. 8. 7. 4. 5. 6.

Jacob A. Akper National Open University of Nigeria Lagos Course Coordinator Programme Leader NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA xiii . Owolabi National Open University of Nigeria Lagos Dr.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Course Code Course Title CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Course Developer/Writer Dr. Godwin I. Lagos Course Editor Dr. Lagos Dr. Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale National Open University of Nigeria Victoria Island. David Moomo Bible Society of Nigeria Apapa. Ogun State Dr. Afolorunso Olalekan Dairo Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye.

edu.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax National Open University of Nigeria Headquarters 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way Victoria Island Lagos Abuja Annex 5.ng URL: www. Abuja Nigeria e-mail: centralinfo@nou.edu.ng National Open University of Nigeria 2011 Printed 2011 ISBN: ------------------------------------All Rights Reserved Printed by --------------------------------For National Open University of Nigeria xiv .nou. Dar es Salaam Street Off Aminu Kano Crescent Wuse II.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax CONTENTS Module 1 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Module 2 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Module 3 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 The Articles The Prepositions The Conjunction and the Adjective Introduction to the Noun in Hebrew The Pronouns Basic Principles of Syntax The Perfect Verb in Hebrew The Imperfect Verb in Hebrew PAGES 4 The Imperative. Infinitive and Participles in Hebrew Verb The Stems of the Hebrew Verbs The Perfect of other Verb Stems The Imperfect of other Verb Stems The Imperative. Infinitive and Participles of Other Verb Stems The Irregular Verbs The Waw Consecutive The Numerals Hebrew Verbs and the Principles of Syntax The Verb in the Indicative Mood The Verb in the Subjuncttive and the Voluntative Moods The Imperative and the Infinitive The Participles Practical Examples of Syntactic Relations xv .

you have been taught the formation of the articles in the Hebrew language as well as their functions.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · · · · Write the definite article in Hebrew State the main rule governing the writing of articles in Hebrew List the exceptions to the rule of writing articles in Hebrew State the difference between the definite and the indefinite article 3.0 INTRODUCTION You are welcomes to the first unit of this module.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax MODULE 1 UNIT 1: CONTENTS 1.0 1. that is.3 Table for Writing Articles in Hebrew Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings THE ARTICLE 4.0 3. We will begin with a review of the articles.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 6.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English earth (f) Hebrew K7red%e English way Hebrew tyrib%. You might need to revise this and also revise the formation and the functions of the article in the English language.1 Vocabulary Study 3. In the first part of this course.0 2.0 5.2 Introducing the Article in Hebrew 3. CTH313Hebrew Grammar. 2.0 3.0 7. English covenant (f) Hebrew Cre)e 16 .

Cre)e would now be written as Cre)fhf (the earth). Using the Hebrew word for voice as an example. it is important to note that unlike the Greek language. that is. it does not change form due to gender or number. The third word is rhf 17 . These few exceptions are better learnt as part of the vocabulary along with its main principle so that when you come across it in other words. lwOq would be translated a voice and lwOq%ha would be translated the voice . The indefinite article is always indicated by the absence of the definite article. there are further exceptions. the vowel before the consonants would be heightened. instead of #)oroh. · For the consonants that do not take dagesh forte. but like the Greek language. for the word #)oro. The rule of writing the definite article in Hebrew is this: the consonant he (h) and would be joined to the noun with the vowel pathah and would add a dagesh forte in the following consonant. we would have #)orohf. The first of the words is Cre)e (earth).2 Introducing the Article in Hebrew Unlike the English language where we have the definite and indefinite article. if the consonant accepts a dagesh forte. However. the definite article in the Hebrew language is not gender or number sensitive. This implies that the pathah under the h would become a kamets. you would remember it. a · Even for this exception above. You must also a remember at this point that h and x are said to be doubled by implication and so the vowel pointing of the article would remain the same as in brexeh.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax sword word priest brexe rbfd%f Nh''k%o king peace year (f) K7leme MwOl#f hnf#f NB: The nouns marked (f) are feminine nouns in the Hebrew language. let us now turn our attention to the exceptions to the main rule. With the definite article. which would now be written as M(fhf (the people) with the definite article. After treating the main rule. the definite article is a prefix that is joined to the word so that it becomes one word along with its noun both in writing and pronunciation. Under normal conditions. For example. there is no indefinite article in the Hebrew language. 3. The second word is M(a (people).

0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have studied the use of articles in the Hebrew language.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax (mountain) and with the definite article it would be written as rhfhf (the mountain). The use of a dagesh forte in the first letter of the substantive thus would create exceptions especially when the first consonant of the substantive happens to be a guttural. when it comes before xf. 3. the normal article. You have learnt that the normal way of writing the definite article is to attach h which is pointed with a pathah along with a dahgesh forte in the next consonant to the word that would carry the definite article. unaccented hf and unaccented (f would be written as he. 18 .3 Table for Writing Articles in Hebrew Having gone through all these. r and ( Article before h and x Article before xf. the principles can be summarized in this table as follows: Definite Article Form %ha hf ha he Circumstance of Use The normal article form Article before ). 5. unaccented hf and (f Example lwOq%ha (the voice) b)fhf (the father) brexeha (the sword) gxfhe (the festival) 4. A good example of this is gxf (festival) which would be written as gxfhe (the festival).0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · There is no indefinite article in the Hebrew language and the absence of the definite article implies the indefinite article. · Finally. You have been taught that there is no indefinite article in the Hebrew language and the absence of the definite article implies the indefinite article. · The normal way of writing the definite article is to attach h which is pointed with a pathah along with a dahgesh forte in the next consonant to the word that would carry the definite article.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax · The use of a dagesh forte in the first letter of the substantive thus would create exceptions especially when the first consonant of the substantive happens to be a guttural. bhfzf. A good example of this is gxf (festival) which would be written as gxfhe (the festival).0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Add the proper article to the following words: Myf. for the word #)or. the waters 7. (1954). 19 . the heart. K7#exo. Cecil B. A. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Edward W. For example. Yates. (1977). 6. (1989). New York: Harper and Row. the father. Revised Edition. the day.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER STUDIES Alt. the son. the brother. MwOl#f. (1980). the priest. instead of #)oroha. dleye. M)'.. and Kittel. l)'. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. the vowel before the consonants would be heightened from pathah to a kamets. e · When the normal article comes before xf. we would have o #)oroh. sw%s. Kahle P. · For the consonants that do not take dagesh forte. Murphey. f · Because h and x are said to be doubled by implication the vowel pointing of the article would remain the same as in brexha. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). rwO). unaccented hf and unaccented (f it would be written as he. Kyle M. dsexe Translate the following to Hebrew The man. R. the year. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. O. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. the sword. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. Eibfeldt.

0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit we have gone through a study of the definite article in the Hebrew language. 2. In this unit you would learn about the different types of preposition and how they are written.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.1 Vocabulary Study 3.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you would be able to: · Identify the prepositions of the Hebrew language · Differentiate between the separable and the inseparable prepositions · Write a preposition to any given Hebrew word 3.0 5.0 7.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English light blood Hebrew tyib%a K7#exo English house darkness Hebrew tb%a Myf English daughter (f) Hebrew rwO) Md%f sea 20 .0 3.0 2.0 6.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 2: CONTENTS 1.2 Introducing the Hebrew Prepositions 3.3 Inseparable Prepositions 3. we are going to go through another impotant group of words in language: the prepositions.0 3. In this unit.0 THE PREPOSITIONS 4.4 Preposition Nmi Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1. You have been taught that there is no indefinite article in Hebrew and that the absence of the definite article implies the presence of the indefinite article.

and this would have implications for its usage. for a voice The following are the exceptions to this normal rule: Exception 1 Before a simple shewa. ' rbfdfk%. If you are very observant. each of the prepositions above carries about three different meanings. Having seen the prepositions.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax MwOqmf place )ybinf prophet lwO)#fO Saul 3. the Hebrew word tyrib: means covenant 21 . like. k%. there are two types of prepositions: the inseparable and the separable prepositions. In this case. The three inseparable prepositions are: b%. in. you would have noticed that all the three prepositions above carry a shewa. in a name or by a name or with a name according to a word. at As you would have noticed. In the normal usage. by. l. In the Hebrew language however. for. like a word to a voice. the next thing is to go on and examine the usage of these prepositions. the shewa of the preposition would become a hirek as in the following examples: tyrib:b%i by a covenant. the preposition would be prefixed to the substantive. 3. The following are examples: M#'b%. the context would eventually decide which of the three meanings you are going to use. the prepositions are used to denote the relationship between two substantives.2 Introducing the Hebrew Prepositions As in other languages.3 Inseparable Prepositions The inseparable prepositions in the Hebrew language are three and they are written as prefixes to the word they are to work with. lwOql. with as. according to to.

(like). Examine the following examples closely: MwOy%b%a in the day. means cattle If the preposition is to be prefixed to a compound shewa. You would note that instead of having MwOy%hb. b) has taken the place of the consonant of the definite article (h). (in). this is the combination of #O)rohf (the head) and the preposition k.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax hmfh'b. #O)rok%f The following are the summary of all that has been explained above: · The inseparable preposition is pointed with a shewa except if the word to which it is prefixed beings with a consonant that is also pointed with a shewa or a word that already have the definite article. 22 . · If the second shewa is a compound shewa. the h of the definite article would be substituted with the consonant of the preposition. this is the combination of MwOy%ha (the day) and the preposition b.k%i Exception 2 like cattle. we have MwOy%b%a because the consonant of the a preposition (in this case. the simple shewa of the preposition would take the short vowel of the class of the compound shewa. You would note that instead of having #O)rohfk%. we have #O)rok%f because the consonant of the preposition (in this case. k) has taken the place of the consonant of the definite article (h). · When two vocal shewas follow one another. the Hebrew word hmfh'b. the shewa of the preposition becomes a hirek. like a head. Examine the following example closely: r#eO)jk%a like who. the Hebrew word r#eO)j has hatheph pathah as its compound shewa and thus the preposition k takes pathah as its vowel. Exception 3 If the preposition is to be prefixed to the word that has a definite article. the shewa of the preposition would become the short full vowel of the same class of the compound shewa.

it is written as m. As an inseparable preposition. This is because the gutturals would reject being doubled. As an inseparable preposition.0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have learnt about the two categories of Hebrew preposition. For example. This is used mostly when it is to be used along with a word that already carries the definite article. since they are doubled by implication and do not take the dagesh forte.4 Preposition Nmi Preposition Nmi is a unique preposition of the Hebrew language. pointed with hirek and with a dagesh forte in the following consonant. Nmi would loose the 23 . Exception 2 If Nmi is to be prefixed to a word beginning with ) ( and r. it would be written as it should have been written but without the dagesh forte. % Exception 1 If Nmi is to be prefixed to a word beginning with h and x. A good example is lwOqha-Nmi (from the voice). A good example is rwO)m'' (from light). A good example is lwOq%mi (from a voice). namely the separable prepositions and the preposition Nmi that can be written both as a separable and inseparable preposition. with Cw%x. 4. it would be written as m''. You have learnt that the inseparable prepositions are written as a prefix joined to the substantive and they carry shewa as their vowel. It is unique because it could be written in two different ways. it would be written as Cw%xmi. hence the hirek would be heightened to a tsere. It could also be written as a separate word but joined with a makkeph to the word it should be prefixed to.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax · If the preposition is prefixed to the word that already has a definite article. Nmi in its case would be joined with a makkeph to the substantive especially when the substantive carry the definite article. the consonant of the definite article is substituted with the definite article of the preposition. 3.

dyfl. · In the normal usage. · If the preposition is to be prefixed to a consonant carrying a compound shewa. for a man. for. )ybinf%m. (in. the preposition would be prefixed to the substantive. the son 24 . at). · Preposition Nmi could be written as an inseparable preposition as in lwOq%mi (from a voice) and as a separable preposition as in lwOq%ha-Nmi (from the voice). %f a %a %. (according to a word. the h of the definite article would be substituted with the consonant of the preposition as in MwOy%b%a (in the day). like. the shewa of the preposition would become a hirek as in tyrib:b%i (by a covenant). rbfdfk. in a name. the simple shewa of the preposition would take the short vowel of the class of the compound shewa as in r#eO)jk%a (like who). (to a voice. K7#eO. according to) and l.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · There are three main inseparable prepositions in the Hebrew language which are written as prefixes to the substantive.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax final nun and then be prefixed to the substantive which would now carry a dagesh forte in its first consonant. from darkness to the light. rbfdfk%. The following are examples: M#''b%. from head to heart. Md%fb%. The three are: b%. k%. MwOqm%fb. (in a name or by a name or with a name). · If the preposition is prefixed to the word that has a definite article. for the man.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Pronounce and translate the following words: #O)rom'. 6. ry(ih-Nmi. by. 5. with). like a word) and lwOql. according to the word of God. ry(ib. (as. the daughter. (to. for a voice). Nb%'l. by the covenant. · Note however that before a simple shewa. i f a Translate the following to Hebrew: To the day.

Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel. 25 . (1989). and Kittel. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. Revised Edition. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Eibfeldt. R. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 7. O.. A.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. Edward W. Cecil B. (1980). Kahle P. (1954). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Kyle M. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Murphey. New York: Harper and Row. (1977). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Yates.

1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English lord Hebrew lwOdg%f English great Hebrew #Odfxf English new Hebrew NwOd)f 26 .0 6.2 Introducing the Conjunction 3. 2.0 THE CONJUNCTION AND THE ADJECTIVE 4.1 Vocabulary Study 3.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · · · · · · Explain how the conjunction is written in Hebrew List the exceptions to the general rule of writing the conjunctions Identify the type of adjective used in any piece of writing Identify the normal word order in Hebrew language Write the preposition in Hebrew Use any adjective attributively or predicatively 3. we are going to focus our attention on the conjunction and the adjectives.0 7.0 3.0 2. You have known that the prepositions are written as prefixes to the substantive in Hebrew.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 3. In this unit however.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 3: CONTENTS 1.0 5. You should have also know that there are four prepositions in Hebrew with preposition Nmi being the fourth one and could be written separately but joined with a makkeph to the substantive or written as a prefix like the others.3 Introducing the Adjective Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit we have dealt with the prepositions.

it would be written as a shurek. (and a child). Remember also that when a yodh follows a hirek immediately. it becomes a 27 . the consonant waw is pointed with pathah. Exception 2 Also. In this case.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Mxele t(' bread time (f) dleye #OwOdqf child holy C(' Mymit%f tree perfect 3.w% (and likeness).. Examples are: MwOqmfw% and Nb''w%. to which the compound shewa belongs. it would be w. If you examine this word very well. you would have yhiywI (instead of yhiy:w:).2 Introducing the Conjunction Under normal conditions. you will notice that. thus. The first exception to the rule is when the conjunction is to come before b. Thus with the conjunction. In Hebrew. A good example is tw%md. the waw of the conjunction would drop its shewa and take the short vowel of the same class with the compound shewa. the conjunction would be written as wI. the short vowel of the a class vowel. the word that is used to join words and thoughts together) is written as a waw with a shewa. the preposition would also be written like shurek as in exception 1 above. the first shewa is pressed to a hirek. the writing of conjunctions also has exceptions. Exception 3 When the preposition is to follow consonants that are pointed with compound shewas and not simple shewas as in exception 2 above. before the consonants that are pointed with simple shewas. This is so because two vocal shewas cannot follow one another. Exception 4 You need to observe this exception very well because it is a little bit complicated and it concerns only one Hebrew word. and p. An example is dleyew. A good example is the Hebrew word yni)Jwa (and I). m. the conjunction (that is. Exception 1 Like all other rules that have been treated before. Before the word yhiy:.

if the noun is feminine and singular and also an indefinite noun. 28 . In other words. the adjective would also be feminine. 3. in % polished English: the good and the great voice). lwOdg%haw: lwOq%ha bwO+ (the voice is good and great). you have studied how the conjunction is written in the Hebrew language. for the purpose of emphasis. lwOdg%haw: bwO+%ha lwOqha (literally: the voice. the adjective would come after the substantive noun and it would agree with the noun in gender. For example. this order can be inverted. The Attributive Use The adjective is said to be used attributively if it modifies or qualifies a substantive.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax vowel called hirek-yodh. the shewa cannot be retained. The normal order in which the adjectives and the substantives are written is as discussed above. In this case. For example. the emphasis would be on the adjective good . However. and because two vowels cannot follow one another without any intervening consonant. 4. the good and the great. Examples are: bwO+ M#O' (a good name). Doing this would show you how close in thought most African culture are to the first century Palestinian thought.0 CONCLUSION In this unit. The Predicative Use The adjective is said to be used predicatively when it adds the verb to be to the substantive. bwO+%ha M#'O%ha (the good name). though the phrase bwO+%ha M#O'%ha would rightly be translated the good name. number and definiteness. I would advice that when you translate that you first do a literal translation before polishing the translation to smooth English. the adjective in the Hebrew language can be used both attributively and predicatively. which is the use of the consonant waw pointed with a shewa. It is very important at this point to let you know a very important grammatical and syntactical issue. the word that is placed in the first position is the emphasized word. the adjective would agree with the substantive in gender and number but would not take the definite article and would also stand before the substantive.3 Introducing the Adjective Like in the Greek language. singular and indefinite. When this is done. In this case. lwOq%ha bwO+ (the voice is good).

in the great day. · Before b. You have also been taught that the adjective can be used attributively and predicatively and you should be able to identify the way in which the adjective has been used. the adjective would agree with the substantive in gender and number but would not take the definite article and would also stand before the substantive.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have been taught in this unit: · The conjunction is written as a waw with a shewa.f C('hf Mymit. w. number and definiteness. m. the first word carries the emphasis.f NwOd)fh. K7#eOxh. brexeha lwOdgf%h. father and daughter.f F f% #wdqf dley%eh. the adjective would come after the substantive noun and it would agree with the noun in gender. that is.a #OwOdq%fha a a a a K7lem%eh. the preposition is written like shurek · Before consonants pointed with compound shewas the waw of the conjunction would drop its shewa and take the short vowel of the same class with the compound shewa. the lord and the son. the bread is holy. the good brother. bwO+%h. light and darkness. w% · Before the consonants pointed with simple shewas. 5. In attributive use. · The adjective is used predicatively when it adds the verb to be to the substantive. K7#eOxha. 29 . the tree is perfect. Translate the following words to Hebrew A great day. bwO+%ha dleyeh. · When word order is reversed.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax You have also been told that the presence of a shewa under the waw would lead to some changes especially with another consonant pointed with a simple or a compound shewa. · In predicative use. lwOdg%F C('h. 6. Mdf)fh. the great man is good.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Translate the following words to English lwOdg%.a dleye bwO+. bwO+%ha Nb%'h.a NwOd)f. and p it would be written as a shurek that is. · The adjective is used attributively if it modifies or qualifies a substantive.

New York: Harper and Row. Cecil B. Revised Edition. (1977). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel. Yates. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. O. R. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Eibfeldt. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. A. Kyle M.. Kahle P.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 7. 30 . (1954). Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. and Kittel. (1980). Hebrew and English Bible (1997). (1989). Edward W. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. Murphey.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt.

2 Cases in Hebrew Noun 3. 2. This would serve as a reminder to you on the general issues relating to the nouns.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · · · · · · · Show how case function is determined in Hebrew language Identify the marking of a direct object Explain how motion or direction is written in Hebrew Define construct relation Explain the use of construct relation Discuss how plural forms are written in Hebrew Discuss the formation of the genders in Hebrew 31 . especially the cases and the functions of the cases.0 3. I would implore you to go back to the course material on Greek Grammar and study the introduction to the nouns.1 Vocabulary Study 3.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE NOUN IN HEBREW 4.5 Construct Relation 3.3 Marking the Direct Object 3.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 4: CONTENTS 1.0 6.0 7. we have examined various grammatical and syntactical issues that are supposed to be the ground rules for the language. In this unit.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit.0 2.4 Showing Direction and Motion 3.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3. we would be looking at the nouns and the various salient issues affecting the nouns.0 5.6 Gender and Number Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.

CTH316

Hebrew Syntax

3.0 3.1

MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study
English one servant mouth Hebrew Mynip% lk%o hrfwOt% English faces all, every law, instruction Hebrew h#%Of)i bre(e lhe)o English woman evening tent

Hebrew dxf)e dbe(e hp%e

3.2

Cases in Hebrew Noun

Nominative Case Unlike the Greek language, the nominative case in the Hebrew language does not have identical case endings. The best way to locate the nominative case noun in the Hebrew language is the position of the noun within the sentence. Under normal conditions in the Hebrew language, the nominative case noun, which performs the functions of the subject of the sentence, comes after the finite verb. Genitive Case The genitive case is the case that indicates the possessive noun. This is done in Hebrew by a special construction called the construct relations. As the content would have shown you, this would be treated shortly. Ablative Case The ablative case is the case of separation. This function in the Hebrew language is fulfilled by the use of the preposition -Nmi. Dative Case This is the case of interest and in the Hebrew, this function is fulfilled by the use of the preposition l;. Locative Case The locative case is the case that shows the spatial position of nouns. This function is fulfilled by the preposition b; in conjunction with the context.

32

CTH316

Hebrew Syntax

Other words that can also be used for this are: l(,a txat,a-l)e,lce)' and % yn'p;li among others. Instrumental Case The instrumental case is the case that gives us an idea of the instrumentality through which certain things are done. This function is fulfilled by the preposition b; and M(i in conjunction with the context. Please note that it is the context that would help decide the difference between the locative and the instrumental cases. Accusative Case The accusative case is the case that designates the direct object. However, in the Hebrew language, this is not marked by identical word endings but by the position of the object in the sentence. In the Hebrew language, the direct object, under normal conditions, follows the subject of the sentence.

3.3

Marking the Direct Object

When a direct object carries the definite article, it is usually marked in the Hebrew language by the word t)'. Please note that this word cannot be translated as it is only marking the direct object carrying the definite article. It is also present only in prose and not in poetry.

3.4

Showing Direction and Motion

Direction and motion towards a place in the Hebrew is indicated by the use of kamets that is followed by he, that is, h f. In this case, the kamets, which is a vowel would become the vowel pointing for the last letter of the word (which under normal conditions would be a consonant). For example while rhfhf would be translated the mountain , hrfhfhf would be translated towards the mountain .

3.5

Construct Relation

In the Hebrew language, when two nouns are placed immediately after one another without any punctuation mark or any other word, they are said to be in construct relations. The governing substantive of the two nouns would be said to be in construct state and the other would be in the absolute state. For example, in the phrase #Oy)ihf sw%s (this phrase would be translated the horse of the man or the man s horse in polished English) the governing
33

CTH316

Hebrew Syntax

substantive is sw%s and would be in the construct state while #Oy)ihf would be in the absolute state. In this construction, the first noun (substantive) would be the governing substantive and it would never take the definite article even if the other does. Whenever this construction takes place, the two words would form a compound word. The following are examples of some nouns in construct relation: #Oy)i rbad%; Nb%'ha dya Cre)fhf lk%f hwhy trawOt% a word of a man the hand of the son (the) all of the earth law of Yahweh a man s word the son s hand the whole earth Yahweh s law

3.6

Gender and Number

Unlike the Greek and the English language, Hebrew has only two genders: masculine and feminine. In terms of numbers however, while the other two languages has only two forms, that is, singular and plural, Hebrew language has three forms, namely: singular, plural and dual. The dual number is used specifically for objects that go in pairs like ears, eyes and feet. Below are the various endings for the gender and the number: Gender Masculine Feminine State Absolute Construct Absolute Construct Singular sw%s sw%s hsfw%s hsaw%s Plural Mysiw%s ys'w%s twOsw%s twOsw%s Dual Myisaw%s ys'w%s Myitasfw%s yt'sw%s ;

Please take note of the following: a. The masculine singular noun of the Hebrew language has no identical ending. The position of the word in the sentence indicates its function. b. To form the plural form of the masculine noun, the suffix Myi is usually added to the masculine singular form. c. The normal feminine singular ending is h which is identical with the sign of direction or motion. In this case, the context would tell you whether it is a feminine noun or the sign of direction. But note please that most words ending in h fare feminine nouns. Examples are hrf#of (princess), hsfw%s (mare) and hbfwO+ (good).

34

all you need to do is to add the suffix twO as in the following examples: twOrwOd% (generations) and twObwO+ (good ones-a substantive use of an adjective). plural and dual). the ending for the masculine and the feminine nouns are similar and it is Myi as in Myidyf (a pair of hands) and Myinaz:)f (a pair of ears) Please note that there are some irregular plurals that need to be studied on their own. i c. ry#iO (song) and hnf#O (year). hl%fm). and Myl%imi (words. (places). one in the masculine and the other in the feminine. You have also been shown some nouns that are regarded as irregular nouns. Finally. this is from another Hebrew word for word. 4. there is no neuter noun) and there are also three numbers (singular.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax d. it is usually marked in the Hebrew language by the word t)'.0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have been taught the various cases and how they are formed in the Hebrew language. To form the plural of the feminine noun. Most especially is the use of construct relation in expressing the possessive case. e. twOlwOq (voices) and twOm#O' (names). There are some masculine nouns that their plural form is identical with the feminine plural noun ending as in twOb)f (fathers). There are some feminine nouns that their plural form is identical with the masculine plural noun ending as in MyniwOy (doves). Finally. Myima a (waters) and Mynip%f (faces).0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · When a direct object carries the definite article. You are also taught that there are only masculine and feminine genders in Hebrew (that is. twOmwOqm. In the dual form of numbers. the use of gender and number is also explained. There are some nouns that have two plural forms. d. These include Myim#f (heavens). 35 . Examples are rwOd% (generation). They are treated briefly below: a. 5. there are some nouns that are found only in the plural and never in the singular form. b.

Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Hebrew language has three forms. (1980). while the other two languages has only two forms. · In terms of numbers however. Hebrew has only two genders: masculine and feminine.. Eibfeldt.#Oy)i rbad%. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. R. Edward W. Murphey. · The governing substantive of the two nouns would be said to be in construct state and the other would be in the absolute state. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. namely: singular. 36 . A. 7. Kyle M. Revised Edition. Yates.0 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READINGS Alt. plural and dual. and Kittel. · Unlike the Greek and the English language. eyes and feet 6. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. (1989). Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. the son of the prophet.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax · Direction and motion towards a place in the Hebrew is indicated by the use h f. the instruction for the king.Nb%'ha dya . that is. (1977). O. . Kahle P.Cre)fhf lk%f . Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. singular and plural. the good woman. New York: Harper and Row. the word of God is perfect. hwhy trawOt% Translate the following to Hebrew: The law of the covenant. the man toward the mountain. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Translate the following to English Myin . · When two nouns are placed immediately after one another they are said to be in construct relations. (1954). · The dual number is used specifically for objects that go in pairs like ears. Cecil B.

0 5.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 5: CONTENTS 1.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · · · · · Differentiate between subject and object pronouns Write the demonstrative pronouns in Hebrew Differentiate between the singular and the plural pronouns Identify the relative pronoun in Hebrew Write out all the interrogative pronouns 37 .0 6.0 7.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.4 Demonstrative Pronouns 3.0 2.2 A Brief Introduction to the Pronouns 3. The various aspects of the pronoun would be examined in this unit.5 Relative Pronouns 3.0 THE PRONOU NS 4.0 3.1 Vocabulary Study 3. you would be examining the pronouns which should literally follow after the study of the nouns because they pretty run along the same rules since the pronouns are used instead of the nouns.6 Interrogative Pronouns Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1. In this unit.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit you have been introduced to the Hebrew nouns and their various cases in the Hebrew language.3 Personal Pronouns 3. 2.

na)J Mt%e)a hnft')a % Mh'. 3. In the Hebrew language.3 Personal Pronouns There are two classes of personal pronouns: the subject personal pronoun and the object personal pronoun.2 A Brief Introduction to the Pronouns As the name suggests. the subject personal pronouns are written as distinct words and are called separate forms. Their use basically helps to reduce monotony that would have arisen as a result of continuous use of a particular noun.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English this (m) this (f) that (m) Hebrew Hebrew hze t)Oz )w%h )w%h )yhi y)' English that (m) that (f) where Hebrew ymi hmf r#eO)J English who what who.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3. The first type is usually attached to a noun thus indicating a genitive relationship. namely: personal. hm%fh' Nh'.)a he )w%h she )yhi Plural Pronoun wOnx. There are various classes of the pronoun. relative and interrogative pronouns. which. demonstrative. Below are the separate forms of subject personal pronouns: Singular Pronoun Meaning I yni)J ykinO)f you (masculine) ht%f)a you (feminine) t%.0 3. pronouns are the words used in place of nouns. The other pronouns are usually attached to a verb and thus indicate an accusative relationship. They are the fragments of personal pronouns that are attached to the substantive. hn%fh' Meaning we you (masculine) you (feminine) they (masculine) they (feminine) It is important for you to note that these pronouns are not used under normal conditions to express the subject of the verb because the Hebrew 38 . what 3. The object pronouns are also of two types.na wOnx.

In this case. they would not take the article.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax verb always contains the pronominal subject. he ruled (the emphasis is on he). The following examples illustrate the use of the demonstrative article: bwO+ #Oy)i hze bwO+%ha #Oy)ihf hze hze%ha #Oy)ihf t)z%ha h#%Of)ihf hz%ha bwO+%ha #Oy)ihf this (is) a good man this (is) the good man this man this woman this good man If you examine the above sentences carefully.4 Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that are used to point out (that is. demonstrate) what is being talked about. they take the article but when they are used predicatively. 39 . As we have said earlier. especially with regard to the use of the article. the demonstrative pronouns did not take the definite article but when used attributively. the Hebrew word l#amf means (he ruled). If I now say l#amf )w%h would then be translated as for him. the subject pronoun is used more in the Hebrew to express an emphasis of the subjectnominative. This is to say that when they are used attributively. they take the definite article. This is called the casus pendens. you would discover that the first two sentences are predicative use of the pronoun. Below are the demonstrative pronouns of the Hebrew language: Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Singular Hebrew hze t)Oz )w%h )yhi English this that Gender Common Masculine Feminine Plural Hebrew hl%e)' Mh' or hm%fh' Nh' or hn%fh' English these those Please note that the pronouns should conform to the rules that are applicable to the adjectives. For example. when use predicatively. 3. They can be in the singular or in the plural and can also point to what is far and what is near.

3. Thus. for example. are pronouns that are used to ask questions. There are two interrogative pronouns: ymi (meaning who and is used to refer to human beings) and hmf (meaning what and is used to refer to inanimate things). )yhi-hma meaning what is that? c. it would be pointed with pathah as written above because h and x are said to be doubled by implication. a. It has to be noted however that in the later development of Hebrew. it would be pointed with pathah as written above. If the word that follows hmf starts with either h or x. If the word that follows hmf carries a dagesh forte. for example. ( and r do not receive the dagesh forte. If the word that follows hmf starts with either ). hma is joined to the word that follows it by a makkeph. Study the following examples very well: ht%f)a ymi )yhi-hma who are you? what is that? You need to note however that the vowel pointing of the interrogative pronoun (hmf) would vary depending on the consonant which follows the pronoun. K7l-hma meaning %f what to you? b.5 Relative Pronouns There is only one relative pronoun in the Hebrew language. it would be pointed with a seghol as written above. as their name goes. If the word that follows hmf starts with a guttural that is pointed with a kamets. This same word is translated as who . hl%e)'-hmf meaning what are these? d. it would be pointed with kamets as written above because ).CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3. ytiy#oi(-hme meaning what have I done? f 40 .6 Interrogative Pronouns The interrogative pronouns. for example. This is due to the fact that most of the time. it is the context that would help you to determine the actual meaning. It is written as r#Oe)J. a shortened form of the relative pronoun developed and it is in two forms: #Oe or #Oa. which and that . These occurrences are however rare. ( or r. for example.

This is called the casus pendens. you should be able to distinguish between the various pointing of the interrogative pronoun (hmf) which is dictated by the consonant that follows.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Before concluding the discussion on interrogative pronouns. it is important for you to know that there is a Hebrew word y)' meaning where which is usually used with the demonstrative pronoun (hze) to form an interrogative pronoun. 41 . that is. are pronouns that are used to ask questions. the demonstrative. By now. the relative and the interrogative pronouns. · The other pronouns are usually attached to a verb and thus indicate an accusative relationship. · In the Hebrew language. · Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that are used to point out (that is. These include the personal. · The demonstrative pronouns conform to the rules that are applicable to the adjectives. · The interrogative pronouns. the subject personal pronouns are written as distinct words and are called separate forms. as their name goes. The first type is usually attached to a noun thus indicating a genitive relationship.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · There are two classes of personal pronouns: the subject personal pronoun and the object personal pronoun. especially with regard to the use of the article. 5. You have also seen the two forms of the personal pronoun. A good example is K7red%eha hze-y)' which would be translated which way? 4.0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have studied the major pronouns of the Hebrew language. the separate forms and the others that are written as suffixes to the noun. · The subject pronoun is used more in the Hebrew to express an emphasis of the subject-nominative. demonstrate) what is being talked about. · The object pronouns are also of two types. · There is only one relative pronoun in the Hebrew language.

I (am) the good prophet. and Kittel. (1980). (1989). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Kahle P. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 6. Hebrew and English Bible (1997).. Eibfeldt. (1977).0 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READINGS Alt. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Kyle M. R. this (is) the new covenant. Cecil B. New York: Harper and Row. this (is) the way to the holy mountain. Revised Edition. who (is) the priest?. O. Yates. (1954). Edward W. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. A. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. 42 . lord and God to the man 7. Murphey. he (is) the perfect light.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Translate the following to English: )w%h )w%hha rhfhf b)fhf r#Oe)J #Oy)ihf hz%eha rbfd%fha rbfd%ha hze tb%aha )ybin%fha ymi bwO+%ha K7lem%eha Translate the following to Hebrew: This great house. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Grand Rapids: Academie Books.

0 3. We have touched on the noun. the adjectives and the prepositions among others.3 The Comparative Degree Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 6: CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SYNTAX 4. that is.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous units. Thus.1 Vocabulary Study 3.0 3.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English tent Hebrew hlfwO( English burnt offering Hebrew rwOd% English generation Hebrew lhe)o 43 . that is. we have discussed various aspects of the Greek grammar. from unit one to the last unit.0 5. the word order in the Hebrew language. · Discuss the formation of the comparative degree in the Hebrew sentence. we would examine the basic principles of syntax.2 Word Order in Hebrew Sentence 3. Having gone this far. · Explain the style of placing emphasis in the Hebrew sentence. 2.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · State the part of the sentence that takes the first place in the Hebrew sentence. the conjunction. the pronouns.0 7. it is time for us to begin considering the sentence in Hebrew. in this unit.0 6. · List all the word order in the regular manner 3.

the verb can be a complete sentence in the English translation. A good example is. the Hebrew verb rkamf means he sold . The second ground rule is that the subject (if it is to be used) would follow the verb.2 Word Order in Hebrew Sentence In the Hebrew sentence. number and definiteness. Examine the following sentences as examples: sw%s #Oy)ihf rkamf sw%s #Oy)ihf rkam )lo sw%s rkam ymi The man sold a horse The man did not sell a horse Who sold a horse? In the above sentences. The third ground rule is that the subject would be followed by its modifiers.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax MlfwO( +p%#. The major exception to this rule is the negative particle and the interrogative pronoun.Omi f age. breath bra many 3. The word to be emphasized would then be placed in the first position. Myhilo)V rma)f which means God said . Another time that a word may take precedence over the verb is when the writer wishes to place emphasis on a particular word. the verb usually takes the first position. For example. You need to remember however that since the Hebrew verb carries its subject. Psek%e eternity judgement xaw%r sentence silver spirit. Examine the following examples closely: bwO+%ha sw%sha MybiwO+%ha Mysiw%s%ha twObwO+%ha twOsw%s%ha the good horse the good horses the good mares 44 . This is what happens in the following sentence: sw%s #Oy)ihf rkam yli. the negative particle ()lo) and the interrogative pronoun (ymi) comes before the verb because they would take precedence. The personal pronoun (yli) receives the emphasis in this sentence and thus it would be translated to me the man sold a horse . Remember that the adjective would have to agree with the substantive in gender.

it would be preceded by the particle t)'. the following is the regular word order in the Hebrew language: verb. Finally. You can revise this as treated in the earlier unit. the substantive is singular and it carries the definite article. it carries the article and follows the substantive. Look at the following example closely: hz%eha bwO+%ha lwOq%ha this good voice. The next sentence element in the structure is the direct object of the verb. it would be followed by the demonstrative and the two would agree with the substantive in gender. Any deviation from the above word-order is mainly for the purpose of emphasis. .Nb'%h-Nmi #Oy)ihf lwOdg%f which a would literally read great is the man from the son and thus in polished English would translate the man is greater than the son . Look at the following example: sw%s%ha t)' #Oy)ihf rkamf the man sold the horse. it is followed by the demonstrative article which is also singular and carries the definite article. direct object (and its modifiers) and the indirect object. subject (the modifiers and demonstrative pronoun). The demonstratives. Remember also that the demonstratives behave like the adjective. 3. if there is any. Note the changes in the modifiers. It is followed by the adjective which is also singular and also carries the definite article.#OwOdq%fha Nh''k%ola )yhiha hbfwO+%hA hsfw%s%ha t)' hz%eha lwOdg%fha #Oy)ihf rkamf which would be translated This great man sold that good mare to the holy priest .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax The first example is the masculine singular while the second is the masculine plural and the third one is the feminine plural. The following is a bigger emphasis: . number and definiteness. Note that if the adjective is used. the comparative degree is expressed through the use of the preposition -Nmi.3 The Comparative Degree In the Hebrew language. When it is used attributively. 45 . In conclusion. For example. In the above example. Remember also that if the direct object carries the definite article. would come after the adjectives.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 4. After this. the indirect object would come last. You have also been told that for the purpose of emphasis. The subject is followed by the modifiers. 46 . I (am) the good prophet. 7. bwO+%ha K7lem%eha )w%h a f f . The subject would normally follow the verb. any word can come to the first position. (1977).)ybin%ha ymi. and Kittel. Eibfeldt. O. (1980). Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. you have exclusively dealt with the order of words in the Hebrew sentence.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Translate the following words to English: rbfd%fha hze. 6. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. this (is) way to the holy mountain. for the purpose of emphasis.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · · · · · · · · The verb usually stands in the first position in the Hebrew sentence. tb%aha t)z%Oha a Translate the following to Hebrew: This great house. come the demonstrative pronouns which would be followed by the direct object and then the indirect object. However. hz%eha rbfd%fh. 5. R.0 CONCLUSION In this unit. lord and God to the man.0 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READINGS Alt. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. hz%eha #OwOdq%fha M#'Oh. The demonstrative comes after the adjectives The direct object would come after the demonstrative Finally. After this come the adjective which would behave like the adjective. b)fhf r#e)J #Oy)ih. who (is) the priest? he (is) the perfect light. any word can take the first position. )w%hha rhfh. Edward W. You have been told that the verb usually takes the first position followed by the subject (if there is any) and then the modifiers of the subject. Kahle P.. A.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Murphey. (1989). Yates. Cecil B. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Kyle M. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. New York: Harper and Row. Revised Edition. (1954). 47 .

In this unit however. 3. we are going to zero in on the verbs.0 3.3 The Verb in the Perfect State 3.0 5. 2. like the nouns.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 7.2 Introduction to the Verb 3.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous modules we have studied other elements of the sentence. Define complete and incomplete state in the verb.0 THE PERFECT VERB IN HEBREW 4. we would be limited to the verb in its perfect state.0 3. the pronouns and the adjectives among others.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 7: CONTENTS 1. Write out all the afformatives in the Hebrew perfect verb. Treating the verbs at this point is deliberate because there are very many aspects of the Hebrew verb.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · · · · · State the functions of the state in the Hebrew verb.1 Vocabulary Study 3. In this unit however.4 Vowel Changes in the Perfect Verb Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.0 6. Identify vocalic afformative. Define consonantal afformative.0 2.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English he sought he blessed Hebrew l#Oamf trak%f English he ruled he cut Hebrew rkazf ldag%f English he remembered he was great Hebrew #Oqab%f K7rab%f 48 .

The three consonant composition of the root of the verb is characteristic of all Semitic languages. By way of definition. As with the consonants of the verbs. the vowels of the third masculine singular perfect. If you examine all the vocabularies above. the inflections of the Hebrew verb indicate the state of action and not the time of action. the root form of the verb would also remain unchanged except when the laws of syllable and tone requires a change when the afformatives are added. there are some verbs like l+aqf that are regarded as strong because in all their forms. These would be studied later in this unit. you would be able to identify its inflections and then know what the interpretation should be. you would discover that all of them have three consonants. number and gender. the fundamental part of any verb is the root of that verb. 3. The time of the action of the Hebrew verb is indicated by the context of the passage.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax rbad% he spoke Ntanf he gave 3.) of the Hebrew verb is the third person masculine singular of the perfect state of the verb. the verb in the Hebrew language has no tense. These infections of the Hebrew verb are called afformatives.2 Introduction to the Verb Unlike the verb of the other languages you have studied like the English and the Greek languages. The afformatives for the perfect state of the verbs are as follows: 49 . The root form or the lexical form (that is. these afformatives are remnants of personal pronouns which are added to indicate variations in person.3 The Verb in the Perfect State As you have studied in the Greek language earlier. the form of the verb you would be able to locate in the lexicon. that is. of which Hebrew is one. Once you have determined the root of the verb. Remember that it is the tense that indicates the time of action. As a result of this. they retained the three consonants. Under normal conditions. In fact. this root of the Hebrew verb is made up of three consonants.

Vowel Changes with Vocalic Afformatives A vocalic afformative (also known as vowel afformative) is an afformative beginning with a vowel. Since they begin with a vowel. We will now point out the affromatives.+aq. because they have to attach themselves to the final (last) consonant of the word. In doing this. define them and explain the rules guiding them. you would discover that as the afformatives were joined to the root word.+aqf you killed t%.+aq. become vocal.l. There are two vocalic afformatives in the Hebrew language.+aqf Plural Hebrew English they killed w%l+. w%nl. instead of having hlf+aqf which 50 . that is.qf you killed t%fl. some of the vowel pointing begins to change.4 Vowel Changes in the Perfect Verb Before we begin to examine the vowel changes in the perfect verb. it is very important for us to see the changes in action by examining the full inflection of one of the perfect verbs in the Hebrew language. it is not possible for them to form separate syllables.qf Mte%l. When you add the vocalic afformative of the third person feminine. The basic rule to follow in placing vocalic afformative is this: an open pretonic syllable before vocalic afformatives would volatilize.+aqf you killed you killed we killed If you examine the above paradigm very well. we shall use l+aqf as an example: Person Third Third Second Second First Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Common Singular Hebrew English he killed l+aqf she killed hlf+.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Person Third Third Second Second First Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Common Singular Afformative English (None) he she hf you (m) t%f you (f) t%. Let us examine the word l+aqf . Nte%l. and these are: h f and w%. I yt%i Plural Afformative English they w% Mt%e Nt%e w%n you (m) you (f) we 3.+aqf I killed yt%il.

+aqf. the pathah of the teth became a shewa. Vowel Changes with Consonantal Afformatives The consonantal afformative is one that begins with consonants. The only exception to this rule of the consonantal afformatives is the second feminine singular afformative t%.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax would have been the most logical thing. is a syllable divider. the addition of t%. is a remnant of t%. If you examine Mt%el. Mt%e and Nt%e are the only consonantal afformatives that take the accent. Let it be known to you that t%.+aq: in the paradigm above. which is going to be a vocal shewa because it is a volatilized vowel resulting from the pull of the kamets from the adjoining vocalic afformative. 4. cannot form a separate syllable on its own unlike Mte and Nte. . As you can see. this it retains the vocal aspect of the shewa. These consonantal afformatives draw the accent from the penult (if you have forgotten what this means. all you need to do is to exchange the three consonants of l+aqf with that of the new verb. In terms of accent.%l. the vowel preceding the shewa would receive the metheg. it attaches itself to the ultima. vocalic and consonantal afformatives are added 51 . Please note that if you want to form the simple perfect form of any strong verb. let us examine the word in which it appears: t. in this case. For clarity sake. That syllable thus becomes a half-closed syllable. Because t%. You have been taught that the perfect state of the verb is the root of any verb in the Hebrew language and the simplest verb form is the third person masculine singular of the perfect verb. and thus make the vowel of the antepenult to receive the metheg or volatilize. Since the l. made it half open. you would discover that the kamets of the first consonant of the word has to become a volatilized shewa.)a a word in which the shewa is vocal. number and gender. you have studied about the perfect state of the Hebrew verb.+a is a closed syllable. The dagesh forte in the taw also show that the shewa of the l. You can practice this with the vocabularies above. consult the Greek Grammar (CTH215) course material).qf is used. You have also learnt that to indicate person. but most times it volatilize. As with the vocalic afformative.0 CONCLUSION In this unit. the consonantal afformative before an open pre-tonic syllable will volatilize. the word hlf+.

Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. 5.ha t)' trak%f % 7. A. Kyle M. Eibfeldt.m. 52 .k.g%f .r. number and gender. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Hebrew and English Bible (1997).n. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. w%tr. · To indicate person.kazf.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Translate the following words to English: yt%l#aOmf. (1954). O. Cecil B. Murphey.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax to the verb.f Ntan. Yates. vocalic and consonantal afformatives are added to the verb.Nt%ek. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek.f t%. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. certain changes take place in the vowel pointing. hlfd. %f .0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The perfect state of the verb is the root of any verb in the Hebrew language.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt.rab. the rules for which you have also learnt. Edward W. 6. bwO+%ha #Oy)ilf tyrib%. In the process of this addition. w%nr. hnft. Revised Edition. · The simplest verb form is the third person masculine singular of the perfect verb. · Before vocalic afformatives an open pre-tonic syllable will volatilize. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. · Before consonantal afformatives an open pre-tonic syllable will volatilize. and Kittel. (1977). New York: Harper and Row. Kahle P. R. hlf#O. (1989). %f ..f Mt%el.bad. (1980).dag%.

we will begin to examine the imperfect verb.0 2.0 6.1 Vocabulary Study 3. we have been introduced to the verb. which seems to be the opposite of the perfect verb.0 3. · Distinguish between the perfect and the imperfect of the verbal forms.0 3.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 8: CONTENTS 1. In this unit. · Write out all the afformatives in the Hebrew imperfect verb. You have been taught that the perfect state of the verb is the root of any Hebrew verb and that the masculine singular form of the perfect is the simplest form of the verb. 2.3 The Verb in the Imperfect State 3.0 7. You need to note especially the differences between the two states of the verb.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit. seek braqf burn rpak%f English draw near Hebrew #Orad%f Pra#o cover Hebrew sbak%f rba#O English wash break in pieces 53 .0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · State the functions of the imperfect verb in the Hebrew language.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English Hebrew tread.2 Introducing the Imperfect State 3. · Write out all the preformatives in the Hebrew imperfect verb 3.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.4 Notes on the Imperfect Verb Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.0 5.0 THE IMPERFECT VERB IN HEBREW 4.

The main function of the imperfect state is to show what is known as the incipient incomplete action (this lays emphasis on the beginning of the action) or the frequentative incomplete action (this lays emphasis on the repetition of the action).)e kill Plural Hebrew English they began w%l+.+oq.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax rbaqf bury K7l#Of a cast. or person in which the imperfect state of the verb occurs.t%i to kill you began w%l+. While the perfect state of the verb never used the preformative but afformatives. The major distinguishing mark between the perfect and the imperfect is the use of the preformatives in the imperfect state.2 Introducing the Imperfect State The imperfect state of the verb in the Hebrew language is used to express the unfinished action of the verb.t%i to kill you began yli+.t%i to kill I began to l+oq. you must remember that the action of these verbs could be in the present or past or future.q. throw 3.q:t%i to kill you began hnfl.yi to kill they began hnfl. The imperfect state in its formation is preceded by the fragments of the personal pronouns and these are called preformatives.t%i to kill we began l+oq.yi to kill she began l+oq. the past forms of the verbs would be used. the imperfect state uses the preformatives predominantly and also afformatives in some cases. Though in the translations of these verbs in this course material.+oq.ni to kill 54 . the imperfect state of the verb is formed using the fragments of the personal pronouns.3 The Verb in the Imperfect State As you have been taught earlier on. f Person Third Third Second Second First Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Common Singular Hebrew English he began l+oq. or form. let your translation show the incomplete action. This would be expressed using the same word: l+aq.q. Please note that no matter the mood.t%i to kill you began l+oq. 3.

But please note that the vowel of the preformative is hirek (which is derived from the original pathah) except that under the consonant ).ya.4 Notes on the Imperfect Verb The ground form for most imperfect is l+uq.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The imperfect state of the verb in the Hebrew language is used to express the unfinished action of the verb. the unfinished action must be carried out in its translation. 5. the shewa under the qoph is a syllable divider.0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have studied the imperfect form of the Hebrew verb. In whatever form it comes. Consequently. · The imperfect state in its formation is preceded by the fragments of the personal pronouns and these are called preformatives. · The main function of the imperfect state is to show what is known as the incipient incomplete action (this lays emphasis on the beginning of the action) or the frequentative incomplete action (this lays emphasis on the repetition of the action). it changes to seghol which that consonant prefers. · The major distinguishing mark between the perfect and the imperfect is the use of the preformatives in the imperfect state. The next vowel for the imperfect is the defective holem. The preformative q. 55 .yi is a closed syllable. 4. Please note that the stem vowel would volatize before the vowel afformative.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Examine the table above and note where the preformatives and the afformatives are used as this same paradigm that would be useful for any other strong Hebrew verb. You have learnt that the imperfect form of the Hebrew verb is used mainly to express unfinished action or the repetitive action. This is the long tone for o that is heightened from the original kibbuts. 3. The imperfect is also distinguishable from the perfect form of the verb in its use of the preformative and sometimes the afformative in its various forms.

Kahle P. 7. we will begin to speak. Revised Edition.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. and Kittel. Edward W.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 6.. Eibfeldt. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). we began to sell a tent and a house. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. O. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. (1980). Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. R. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. she proceeded to lie down. A. New York: Harper and Row. Cecil B. (1977). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. they began to judge by the word of the mouth. Yates. 56 . (1989). you visited the son and the daughter repeatedly.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Write the full imperfect form of the following verbs: l#Oamf l+aqf rma#f btak%f Translate the following to Hebrew: I began to write. Murphey. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. Kyle M. (1954). Grand Rapids: Academie Books.

0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit.0 2.2 The Imperative in Hebrew Verb 3. INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLES IN HEBREW VERB 4.4 The Participle in Hebrew Verb Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax MODULE 2 Unit 1: Unit 2: Unit 3: Unit 4: Unit 5: Unit 6: Unit 7: Unit 8: The Imperative. 57 .0 5.1 Vocabulary Study 3. You have also been taught that the major distinguishing mark between the perfect and the imperfect state of the verb is that the perfect never use the preformative while the imperfect use the preformative mainly and also the afformative alongside in some cases. Infinitive and Participles in Hebrew Verb The Stems of the Verb The Perfect of other Verb Stems The Imperfect of other Verb Stems The Imperatives. Infinitives and Participles of other Verb Stems The Irregular Verbs The Waw Consecutive The Numerals UNIT 1: CONTENTS 1. the infinitive and the participle. In this unit however. you have learnt about the imperfect form of the Hebrew verb.0 THE IMPERATIVE. we would be discussing the imperative.0 3.0 6.0 7.3 The Infinitive in Hebrew Verb 3. You have been taught that the imperfect is used mainly to express unfinished action with emphasis on the incipient and the repetitive actions.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.

2 The Imperative in Hebrew Verb The imperative in the Hebrew language is used mainly for affirmative commands.0 3.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English he wrote he sold he lay down Hebrew dqap%f rma#fO +pa#Of English he visited Hebrew btakf% rkamf bka#Of he kept he judged Hebrew #Obalf K7lamf English he put on he reigned 3. Identify the two forms of the infinitive in the Hebrew verb. However because two simple shewas cannot stand together. Discuss the functions of the infinitive. The jussive would be studied later. the imperative is never used with a negative. two consonants pointed with shewa followed one another. Prohibitions are expressed either by )lo (not) with the imperfect and l)a (not) with the jussive. This occurs because after the removal of the preformatives.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · · · · · Discuss the formation of the imperative in the Hebrew language. You will discover in the above table that there are some words that the first consonants are pointed with the hirek. In its form. In the Hebrew language. the imperative is identical with the second person imperfect verb except that it drops the preformative. This occurs only at the second feminine singular and the second masculine plural. Discuss the function of the participle. you kill yli+.+oq.qi Plural Hebrew English you kill w%l+. Person Second Second Gender Masculine Feminine Singular Hebrew English you kill l+oq.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 2. the first shewa is pressed into a hirek.qi you kill hnfl. 58 . Distinguish between the absolute and the construct infinitive. 3.

t%i K7wOlmf keeping. It characteristically throws the idea of the verb forward without defining time. dead) 59 .li which would be transferred to kill . The Absolute Infinitive The absolute infinitive is written as lwO+qf and it does not permit the use of any prefix or suffix. you begin to rule You need to be careful however that you do not confuse the absolute infinitive with the Hebrew participle. the verb has two forms: the active and the passive participle. It usually accompanies a finite verb for added emphasis or to denote the continuance of the action.4 The Participle in Hebrew Verb The Hebrew participle is presented as continuous and unbroken action. This form is usually identical with the second masculine singular imperative. Let us examine the following phrases: yt%ir. For example.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3.3 The Infinitive in Hebrew Verb There are two forms of the infinitive in the Hebrew language. unlike the absolute infinitive is used frequently with prepositions prefixed as in l+oq. I have kept ruling. Please note this is the Hebrew infinitive that is comparable to the English infinitive. In the simple stem.m#O rwOm#Of a K7lom. action or subject. It also paints an action without regard to agent. namely: the absolute infinitive which is very rare and the construct infinitive which is more common. 3. examine the following forms: The active form: l+'wOq or (l+'q) o The passive form: lw%+qf one who kills (killer) killed (one killed. time or circumstance. This form. The Construct Infinitive The usual form of the construct infinitive is written in the following form: l+oq..

ruling you were w%l#O.t%i .l#aOmf . Nt%el#aOm. The Imperative Person Second Second Gender Masculine Feminine Singular Hebrew English rule you l#Oom.mf Mt%el. w%nl.mi rule you hnfl.t%i . using l#aOmf as the main verb: The Perfect Person Third Third Second Second First Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Common Singular Hebrew English he ruled l#aOmf she ruled hlf#O.t%i ruling you were l#Oom. .m. let us run a summary of the forms of the verb that we have treated so far.yi ruling she was l#Oom.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Before we go into the next section of the verbs. rule you yli#Omi Plural Hebrew English rule you w%l#O.ni ruling Please note that l#Oom.t%i ruling I was l#Oom. rule I ruled yt%il#aOmf . ruling we were l#Oom.)e ruling Plural Hebrew English they were w%l#O.#Oom.t%i ruling you were hnfl#Oom. 60 .yi may be translated as he began to rule . Plural Hebrew English they ruled w%l#O.yi ruling they were hnfl#Oom.t%i ruling you were yli#O.m.mf you did t%fl#aOmf .m.#aOmf you ruled you ruled we ruled The Imperfect Person Third Third Second Second First Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Common Singular Hebrew English he was l#Oom. rule you did t%.#aOm.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax The Infinitive Absolute Infinitive: Construct Infinitive: The Participles Active Participle: Passive Participle: l#O'wOm or l#O'm lw%#Omf one who rules (a ruler) ruled (under subjection) lwO#Omf l#Oom.)e l#Oom.mi w%bt. 5.pos. The participle also represents a continuous or unbroken action. · There are two forms of the infinitive: the absolute and the construct infinitives.zi 61 . namely: the imperatives. w%n#O.ri w%rm. btok%. It also has two forms: the active and the passive. it is never used with the negatives. You have learnt that the Hebrew imperative is used only for afformative commands. You have also been taught that the construct infinitve is the one similar to the English infinitive. It also has two forms: the active and the passive. the infinitives and the participles.MwOy%ha t)' w%rk. · The participle represents a continuous or unbroken action.0 CONCLUSION In this unit.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The Hebrew imperative is used only for afformative commands. ruling to rule 4.daqf yli#O. you have studied three forms of the Hebrew verb.k%f .0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Translate the following to English: ypid. 6. The imperative is never used with the negatives. You have also learnt that there are two forms of the infinitive: the absolute and the construct infinitives. bwOtk%f dw%mlf hnfr. · The construct infinitve is the one similar to the English infinitive.#iO rmo#O.

and Kittel. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. they wrote in the way. Murphey. Revised Edition. (1977).0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. keeping you did regularly keep the covenant. they began to stumble. (1980). he gave the burnt offering to the priest. Cecil B. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. you were repeatedly great. 7. (1989). we started pursuing the horse toward the mountain. 62 . Kahle P. A. the spirit blessed the prophet. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. (1954). remember you. Eibfeldt. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. R. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. New York: Harper and Row. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. Kyle M.. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Yates. Edward W.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Translate the following to Hebrew: We began to learnt to keep the head and the heart. O. I used to visit.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 2: CONTENTS 1. Before now.3 Characteristics of the Hebrew Stems Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1. all that you have seen about the Hebrew verb is just only one stem.2 Introducing the Hebrew Verb Stem 3. the infinitive and the participles of the verb. you would examine all the stems and the characteristics of these stems.0 6.1 Vocabulary Study 3.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 THE STEMS OF THE VERB 4. you have been exposed to the three major elements of the Hebrew verb. you would be going to examine the stems of the Hebrew verb.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · List all the stems of the Hebrew verb · List the characteristics of each of the verbs · Identify the stem of the verb through their characteristics · Differentiate between a weak and a strong verb 3. 2.0 3.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study Hebrew rpasf English he numbered Hebrew English he stumbled l#Oak%f Hebrew dkalf English he captured 63 .0 3. In this unit.0 7.0 2.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit. You have seen the difference between the absolute and the construct infinitive and the fact that the imperative in the Hebrew language is not used for negative command. namely: the imperative.0 5. In this unit.

Apart from this stem there are six other stems of the Hebrew verb. seek dmalf braqf he learned draw near Pdarf sbak%f he pursued wash 3.hi The Causative Active (Hiph il) ly+iq. As an example of these three degrees.2 Introducing the Hebrew Verb Stem The form of the Hebrew verb you have studied so far is the Simple Qal stem of the verb. In the simple. using l+aqf as our paradigm: The Simple Active (Qal) l+aqf The Simple Passive (Niph al) l+aq. it is the lexical form of the Hebrew verb. let us use the word love . Each of these stems represents a different aspect of the primary meaning of the verb. Having come this far. Apart from this. The intensive form also has the reflexive form. we can now name the seven stems of the Hebrew verb. vowel changes and the doubling of some letters. it would be translated to love passionately and in the causative. namely: the simple. the intensive and the causative. in the intensive. You started with the qal stem because this is the basic stem.hi The Causative Passive (Hoph al) l+aq.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax #Odaqf #Orad%f he was holy tread. it would be translated to cause to love . 64 . It is also important for you note that each of these also have the active and the passive forms. it would be translated to love .3 QAL Characteristics of the Hebrew Stems Qal is the simple verb stem of the Hebrew language. Qal is identified by the absence of any adjoining letter.ni The Intensive Active (Pi el) l+%'qi The Intensive Passive (Pu al) l+%aqu The Intensive Reflexive (Hithpa el) l+'%qat. All other stems are derived from the qal stem and are formed by means of prefixes. The meaning of the Hebrew verb is presented in three degrees.hf he killed he was killed he killed brutally he was killed brutally he killed himself he caused to kill he was caused to kill 3.

4. Pi el Pi el (l('p) is always active but it is the intensive active. Hoph al Hoph al (l(ap.h) is the causative passive form of the verb. It is characterized by %u the presence of the shurek under the first consonant and the doubling of the middle consonant through the use of dagesh forte. the niph al may be reflexive.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Niph al Niph al (l(ap. It is f characterized by the prefixing of the h which is pointed with the kamets. It is characterized %i by the use of the hirek under the first consonant and the doubling of the middle consonant as in the example above. Pu al Pu al (l(ap) is the intensive passive form of the verb. Hiph il Hiph il (ly(ip. It is characterized i by the prefixing of the h which is pointed with the hirek or the pathah. The middle consonant is doubled by the use of the dagesh forte. You have also been taught how to distinguish the seven stems from 65 .0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have been exposed to all the various stems of the Hebrew verb.h) is the causative active form of the verb. It is characterized by the letter nun that is prefixed to the word.h) is the reflexive stem of the Hebrew verb. It is i characterized by the use of the prefixing of t and the doubling of the middle consonant.ni) is the passive form of the Qal stem. This nun is usually supported by a syllable divider or it is assimlitated to the following consonant. It may be iterative or emphatic. Hithpa el Hithpa el (l('p%at. Please note that in some words.

hithpa el. · Hithpa el is the reflexive stem of the Hebrew verb. 6. R. Eibfeldt. It is characterized by the letter nun that is prefixed to the word. It is characterized by the use of the hirek under the first consonant and the doubling of the middle consonant as in the example above. (1977). Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Write all the seven stems of the Hebrew verb listing their functions and characteristics. niph al. · Hiph il is the causative active form of the verb. It is characterized by the use of the prefixing of t and the doubling of the middle consonant. Qal is identified by the absence of any adjoining letter. It is characterized by the prefixing of the h which is pointed with the kamets. pu al.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · Qal is the simple verb stem of the Hebrew language. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. 5. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. · Hoph al is the causative passive form of the verb. O. pi el. Edward W. hiph il and the hoph al. Kahle P.. It is characterized by the presence of the shurek under the first consonant and the doubling of the middle consonant through the use of dagesh forte. 7. A. · Niph al is the passive form of the verb. (1980). These stems are as follows: qal. · Pu al is the intensive passive form of the verb.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax another and the proper way to translate these stems.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READING Alt. and Kittel. It is characterized by the prefixing of the h which is pointed with the hirek or the pathah. 66 . · Pi el is the intensive active form of the verb.

Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. 67 . Yates. Kyle M. New York: Harper and Row. (1954). Revised Edition. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Murphey. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. (1989). Cecil B.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Hebrew and English Bible (1997).

0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.7 The Perfect of the Hoph al Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.3 The Perfect of the Pi el 3.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study 68 .0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · Write all the stem of any verb · Identify any stem of the verb · Translate accurately the perfect form of these stems 3. You have been taught the characteristics of all the seven stems and how they are written as well as translated.5 The Perfect of the Hithpa el 3.0 3. making seven stems in all.0 5.2 The Perfect of the Niph al 3. the only difference would be the three consonants of the verbs.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit you have been exposed to the other stems of the Hebrew verb. 2.6 The Perfect of the Hiph il 3.0 THE PERFECT OF OTHER VERB STEMS 4.1 Vocabulary Study 3. we are going to be concerned with the perfect from of the other stems because you have studied the perfect form of the qal stem. You are required to study in details the how these stems are written because as far as the strong verbs are concerned.0 3. In this unit however.0 7.0 6.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 3: CONTENTS 1.0 2.4 The Perfect of the Pu al 3.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Hebrew Pra#fO rbaqf hhf#Of English burn bury bow down Hebrew rpak%f K7l#Of a +xa#Of English cover cast. throw slaughter Hebrew rba#Of dda#Of #O#Oaqf English break in pieces ruin collect 3.qi brutally you did t%fl.+aq.+aq.ni e w%nl.l.+a%qi kill brutally you did t%.ni killed Plural Hebrew English they were w%l+.3 The Perfect of the Pi el Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Singular Hebrew English he killed l+'%qi brutally she killed hlf+%.+%aqi Nt%el.qi brutally Mt%el.ni killed I was yt%il.+%aqi Person Third Third Second you killed brutally you killed brutally Second Feminine 69 .ni you were killed you were killed we were killed 3.+aq. the niph al is the simple passive stem of the Hebrew verb.ni killed you were t%fl.2 The Perfect of the Niph al As you have learnt earlier.ni killed Third Second Second First Feminine Masculine Feminine Common Mt%el.ni Nt%l.+aq. The following are the forms of the perfect form of the niph al: Person Third Gender Masculine Singular Hebrew English he was l+aq.l.q.+aq.ni killed you were t%.+aq.ni killed/he killed himself she was hlf+.q.+a%qi kill brutally Plural Hebrew English they killed w%l+%.

+%aqu Nt%el.l.4 The Perfect of the Pu al Gender Masculine Singular Hebrew English he was l+%aqu killed brutally she was hlf+%.+%aqu killed brutally Plural Hebrew English they were w%l+%.hi she killed herself did t%fl.+%aqi brutally we killed brutally 3.qat.hi you kill yourself did t%.hi themselves Mt%el.+%aqat.hi you killed yourselves Nt%el.+%aqi I killed w%nl.+%aqat.5 The Perfect of the Hithpa el Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Singular Hebrew English he killed l+%'qat.+%aqu killed brutally you were t%. there are certain rules that are to be observed and never to be forgotten: 70 .l.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax First Common yt%il.qat.+%aqat.+%aqu w%nl.+%aqu Second Feminine First Common you were killed brutally you were killed brutally we were killed brutally 3.hi himself hlf+%.hi w%nl.+%aqu killed brutally I was yt%il.+%aqat.qu killed brutally Person Third Third Feminine Second Masculine Mt%el.+%aqat.hi I myself Plural Hebrew English they killed w%l+%.hi you kill yourself killed yti%l.+%aqathi you killed yourselves we killed ourselves Person Third Third Second Second Feminine First Common For this stem.qu killed brutally you were t%fl.

For example.hi Second Feminine First Common 3. In cases where the prefix t.+aqhi .hf they were l+aq.hi to kill she caused hlfy+iq.+aq.+aq. the t of the prefix would be changed to + and the two would be transposed.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax a. c.7 The Perfect of the Hoph al Gender Masculine Singular Plural Hebrew English Hebrew English he was w%l+.hi cause to kill I caused to yt%il. #o and #O.+aq.hf caused to kill Person Third Third Feminine 71 . that is. the hithpa el of rha+f would be written as rh'+%ahi (he purified himself).h i precedes the following consonants: d%. 3.hf caused to caused to kill kill she was hlf+.+aq.l.q. s.hi (he sanctified himself).hi to kill you did t%fl.hi precedes the consonants known as the sibilants. the hithpa el of rma#f would be written as rm%'t%a#Ohi (he kept himself).6 The Perfect of the Hiph il Gender Masculine Feminine Masculine Singular Hebrew English he caused ly+iq.+aq. For example. the hithpa el of qd'cf would be written as qd%'+ac.hi Nt%el. t% and +. the t of the prefix would be assimilated.h i precedes c.q. For example.hi Plural English they caused to kill you caused to kill you caused to kill we caused to kill Person Third Third Second Mt%el. In cases where the prefix t. b.hi w%nl.hi kill Hebrew w%ly+iq. the t of the prefix would change place with the sibilant. In cases where the prefix t. cause to kill you did t%.

hi precedes the consonants known as the sibilants.b%aq. Pd%aru.+aq. 5. O.+aq. the t of the prefix would change place with the sibilant.+aq. Eibfeldt.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: a. w%nr. the t of the prefix would be assimilated.m%al.f Nt%er. d. In cases where the prefix t.l. s. hlfd%. Kahle P.%i t%fr. A.m#.0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have been given the perfect form of all the other Hebrew stems beginning from the nipha al (the simple passive) to the hoph al (the causative passive). the t of the prefix would be changed to + and the two would be transposed. Germany: World Bible Societies 72 . 6. You have also been given the characteristics of each of these stem as they bring out the various forms in gender and person. c.hf t%. R.+aq.+aq. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.hf caused to kill I was w%nl.k%az.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Translate the following to English: Mt%ed.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Second Masculine t%fl.#Oamf i 7. and Kittel. t%fr. In cases where the prefix t. In cases where the prefix t.g. The following are the exceptional cases in the hithpa el stem: b.hf caused to kill you were Nt%el.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt.hf caused to kill you were caused to kill you were caused to kill we were caused to kill 4.hi u %i %a i l#'Ok%.O hnft.hf yt%il. that is.hi precedes c.u w%nr. (1977).n..b%ad.+aq. yt%il.hf Second Feminine First Common you were Mt%el. #o and #O.hi precedes the following consonants: d%. t% and +.p%as.

Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Cecil B. Kyle M. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. (1989). New York: Harper and Row. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. Murphey. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Edward W. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). (1980).CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Goodrick. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. Yates. 73 . (1954).

Remember that you have examined the imperfect of the qal stem earlier on.5 The Imperfect of the Hithpa el 3.0 3. 2.0 5.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 4: CONTENTS 1.4 The Imperfect of the Pu al 3. you would be going to study the imperfect form of all the other stems. gender to gender.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.7 The Imperfect of the Hoph al Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.0 THE IMPERFECT OF OTHER VERB STEMS 4.1 Vocabulary Study 3.0 7.0 2.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit you have been exposed to the perfect form of all the stems of the Hebrew verb. In this unit.6 The Imperfect of the Hiph il 3.0 6.2 The Imperfect of the Niph al 3.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · Write the imperfect form of any verb in any stem · Identify any imperfect verb · Translate accurately the imperfect form of these stems 74 . The word l+aqf was used as the guinea pig for the entire paradigm so that you can see the nuances from stem to stem. number to number and person to person.3 The Imperfect of the Pi el 3.

q%fyi being killed they were hnfl. they began l+%'qat%. you would discover that the vowel pointing are fairly regular. % Person Third Third Feminine 75 . 3. they began l+%'qay.+'qat%.qay.0 3.+aq%ft%i being killed you were w%l+.3 The Imperfect of the Pi el Gender Masculine Singular Plural Hebrew English Hebrew English he began w%l+%.q%ft%i being killed you were hnfl. younger Hebrew MwOrmf hk%fl.ma d)nO wall 3.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English high place Queen (f) leather bag Hebrew M)un.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3.+aq%ft%i being killed we were l+'q%fni being killed Person Third Third Feminine Second Masculine Second Feminine First Common If you observe the above table very well. except for the first person common singular which began with aleph that prefers a seghol as its vowel. to kill to kill brutally brutally she began hnfl. wait for small.2 The Imperfect of the Niph al Gender Masculine Singular Hebrew English he was l+'q%fyi being killed she was l+'q%ft%i being killed you were l+'q%ft%i being killed you were yli+. dgene (+anf English oracle before plant (vb) Hebrew hwfqf N+oqf ryqi English collect.q%ft%i being killed I was l+'q%f)e being killed Plural Hebrew English they were w%l+.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Second Masculine l+%'qat%.+%'qat%. being killed brutally you were w%l+%.quy. begin to kill brutally you did hnfl.qut%. being killed brutally Person Third Third Feminine Second Masculine Second Feminine First Common 76 . being killed brutally I was l+%aqu)J being killed brutally Plural Hebrew English they were w%l+%. begin to kill brutally I began to l+'%qani kill brutally to kill brutally you began to kill brutally you began to kill brutally we began to kill brutally 3. % First Common l+%'qa)J to kill brutally you did w%l+%.4 The Imperfect of the Pu al Gender Masculine Singular Hebrew English he was l+%aquy. Second Feminine yli+'qat%. being killed brutally you were hnfl. being killed brutally they were hnfl. being killed brutally you were yli+%.+%aqut%. being killed brutally we were l+%aqun. being killed brutally you were l+%aqut%. being killed brutally she was l+%aqut%.qat%.+%aqut%.qut%.

to cause to kill you did ly+iq.ya to cause to kill she began ly+iqt%a .t%a you began to cause to kill we began to cause to Person Third Third Feminine Second Masculine Second Feminine First Common ly+iq.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3.+'q.t%a to cause to kill you began w%ly+iq.t%a to cause to kill hnfl.+'qat.t%i they began % to kill themselves you began w%l+%qat.+'q.na 77 .)a cause to Plural Hebrew English they began w%ly+iq.t%i begin to kill yourself you did yli+.qat.qatyI to kill themselves hnfl.t%i % you began to kill yourselves we began to kill ourselves Person Third Third Feminine Second Masculine Second Feminine First Common l+%'qat.yi to kill himself she began l+%'qat.t%i . to kill yourselves hnfl.)e kill myself Plural Hebrew English they began w%l+%.t%i to kill herself you did l+%'qat.6 The Imperfect of the Hiph il Gender Masculine Singular Hebrew English he began ly+iq.t%a begin to cause to kill you did yliy+iq.t%a begin to cause to kill I began to ly+iq.5 The Imperfect of the Hithpa el Gender Masculine Singular Hebrew English he began l+%'qat.ya to cause to kill they began hnfl.+'qat.ni 3.t%i % begin to kill yourself I begin to l+%'qat.

nf being caused to kill Person Third Third Feminine Second Masculine Second Feminine First Common 4.q.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax kill kill 3.t%f being caused to kill you were w%l+.q. 5.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: 78 . You need to memorize these paradigms and it would help you to get the imperfect stem of every other strong verb.t%f being caused to kill we were l+aq. If you have observed the table very well.yf being caused to kill she was l+aq.t%f being caused to kill I was l+aq. In this case.t%f being caused to kill you were yli+. you have been taken through the imperfect of the remaining stems of the Hebrew verb.+aq.0 CONCLUSION In this unit.7 The Imperfect of the Hoph al Gender Masculine Singular Hebrew English he was l+aq.+aq. you would discover that there are some words that are the same for different persons and gender.q. it is the context that would help you to determine what the right interpretation or translation would be.yf being caused to kill they were hnfl.t%f being caused to kill you were hnfl.)f being caused to kill Plural Hebrew English they were w%l+.t%f being caused to kill you were l+aq.

ybir.na .Nt'nfyi . Yates.l#O'k%f)e .rb%'d%at. (1977). (1980).)e .. the context would help you to determine the right translation. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. New York: Harper and Row.sy: .yf .byriq. 6. A. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.w%rp%.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. . Grand Rapids: Academie Books.w%#Od%. In such cases. Eibfeldt.tr'k%fni . Edward W.q. Kyle M.rb'#%Of)e . · There are times when words in different persons and genders would be identical. · These paradigms are identical with other strong or regular Hebrew verbs.qay. Murphey. . Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. R. Cecil B.rb'%dat%.0 TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENTS Translate the following to English: .ryk%iz:na . 79 .)a . and Kittel.lyd%ig. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. (1989). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. Revised Edition. Hebrew and English Bible (1997).t%a 7. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy.p. O.w%kyli#O.t%i . Kahle P. (1954).w%dq.rb'#%Ofyi .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax · The imperfect of the Hebrew verb is characterized by the use of prefixes and sometimes suffixes.

0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3. number to number and person to person.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · Write the imperatives of any verb in any stem · Identify the infinitives of any verb in any stem · Identify the participles of any verb in any stem · Translate accurately these forms of any verb in any stem 80 .3 The Infinitives of the other Stems 3. The word l+aqf was used as the guinea pig for the entire paradigm so that you can see the nuances from stem to stem.0 2. the infinitives and the participles of the qal stem earlier on. INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES OF OTHER VERB STEMS 4. Remember that you have examined the imperatives.2 The Imperatives of the other Stems 3.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 5: CONTENTS 1. In this unit.0 THE IMPERATIVES. the infinitives and the participles of all the other stems.0 5. you would be going to study the imperatives.1 Vocabulary Study 3.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit you have been exposed to the imperfect form of all the stems of the Hebrew verb. gender to gender.0 3. 2.0 6.4 The Participles of the other Stems Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.0 7.

q%fhi (kill (kill yourself) yourselves) Second Feminine The Imperative of the Pi el Person Second Second Gender Masculine Feminine Singular Plural Hebrew English Hebrew English you kill w%l+.%qa % brutally brutally 81 .+aq%fhi be killed yli+.%qa you kill l+'%qa brutally brutally you kill hnfl.+'qa you kill yli+. strike collect 3.q%fhi be killed l+'q%fhi (kill (kill yourself) yourselves) be killed hnfl. catch Hebrew English deal dgab%f treacherousl y separate ldab%f (Hiphil) shut. the pu al and the hoph al have no imperatives. rest thrust. close rgasf was strong cease. that is.0 3. Remember also that the imperative is only available in the second person (both in the masculine and feminine as well as the singular and the plural). Remember that the imperative in the Hebrew language is used mainly for affirmative commands.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3.2 The Imperatives of the other Stems The stem of the imperative is identical with the stem of the imperfect.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study Hebrew K7masf rbag%f tba#Of English support Hebrew #opat%f (pat%f #O#Oaqf English seize. The Imperative of the Niph al Person Second Gender Masculine Singular Plural Hebrew English Hebrew English be killed w%l+. Please note that the passive stems.

hi causing to kill ly+iq.+'q. there are two forms of the infinitve called the absolute and the construct infinitive.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax The Imperative of the Hithpa el Person Second Second Gender Masculine Feminine Singular Hebrew English kill l+'%qat.hf kill 82 . 3.%qat.hi a yourselves hnfl.hi to kill to kill cause one hnfl. Note also the change of y i in the hiph il imperfect to ' in the hiph il imperative second person masculine singular. Remember also that in using the infinitives prepositions and suffixes may be added.hi cause one l+'q.3 The Infinitives of the other Stems As you have learnt earlier on.ni) l+o%qa (l+%'qa) l+o%qu English being killed Construct l+'q%fhi English to be killed to kill brutally to be killed brutally to kill one s self to cause to kill to be caused to kill Hithpa el l+o%qat.hf killing brutally l+'%qa being killed l+%aqu brutally killing one s self l+'%qat.ha l+'q.hi yourself Plural Hebrew English kill w%l+.hi Hiph il Hoph al l+'q.hi cause one yliy+iq.%qt.hi kill % yourselves The Imperative of the Hiph il Person Second Second Gender Masculine Feminine Singular Plural Hebrew English Hebrew English cause one w%ly+iq. Stems Niph al Pi el Pu al Absolute l+oq%fhi (l+oq.+'qat.hi to kill to kill Note that except for the Pi el all the imperatives form have the h throughout.hi yourself kill yli+.ha being caused to l+aq.

4 The Participles of the other Stems Each of the Hebrew stem as you have learnt earlier has a participle form. · The characteristic vowel of the infinitive absolute is the o or wO except in the causative stems that uses the ' while the infinitive construct retains the vowel of the imperfect. You may come across either form as they are both correct.mf Meaning killed (one killed) or killing one s self killing brutally (one killing brutally) being killed brutallt (one killed brutally) killing one s self (one who kills himself) causing to kill (one who causes to kill) caused to kill (one caused to kill) 4.ma l+fq. You have been taught that the passive stems (pu al and hoph al) have no 83 . except that the final vowel in a long form. Stem Niph al Pi el Pu al Hithpa el Hiph il Hoph al Note: · The final vowel of each form of the participle must be a long vowel. · There are two forms of the infinitive absolute for the niph al and the pi el. all you need to do is to write the imperfect form and remove the preformatives along with its characteristic vowels. Participle l+fq. · The niph al participle is identical with the niph al third person masculine singular. we will concentrate here on the remaining stems.0 CONCLUSION In this unit. 3.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Note: · To form the infinitive of any strong verb. l+%qum.mi ly+iq. l+%'qat. · The Hithpa el infinitive absolute and the pu al infinitive construct are not found in the Hebrew Old Testament. · The characteristics of the intensive and the causative participles is the m which replaces the y of the imperfect along with the long final vowel. Because you have studied the participle of the qal stem before. the infinitives and the participles of the remaining stems of the verb forms. you have learnt the forms of the imperatives.ni l+%'qam.

A.li #Od'qat.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax imperatives. · There are two forms of the infinitive for each of the stems namely the absolute and the construct. 6. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. lydi%b. Cecil B. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. · The final vowel of the participle is always long and the m is characteristic of the intensive and the causative participles as it replaces the y of the imperfect form.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Translate the following words to English: tb%#.b%a trok. % % 7.ni #Od%fqum. The final vowel of the participle is always long and the m is characteristic of the intensive and the causative participles as it replaces the y of the imperfect form. Edward W.ma rg%fs. and Kittel.hil. (1980). rb%'d%a byriq. (1977). Kahle P.. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. R.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The passive stems (pu al and hoph al) have no imperatives. Yates. Revised Edition.ma dqfp. 84 . The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. Kyle M. New York: Harper and Row. O. (1954). You have also seen the two forms of the infinitive for each of the stems and the participles. Murphey. 5.mf rm'#%Ohi o K7m'sa tr'k%fhi y#Oiq%.Oli dw%mlf rb%'dal. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. (1989). Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Eibfeldt.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt.

3 The Weak Verbs Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.0 THE IRREGULAR VERBS 4.0 2. the infinitive and the participle forms of the remaining stems of the Hebrew verb.0 5.2 The Statives 3. all the verbs that you have learnt are the so called strong and regular verbs. Up to this point. number to number and person to person.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 7. gender to gender.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · Explain the irregularity in the irregular verbs · Define the statives · Identify the weak verbs · List all the classes of the weak verbs · Enumerate the characteristics of each class of weak verbs · Identify any of the irregular verb in the Hebrew text 85 . 2.0 3. The word l+aqf was used as the guinea pig for the entire paradigm so that you can see the nuances from stem to stem.0 6.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 6: CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit you have been exposed to the imperative.1 Vocabulary Study 3. we are going to begin the examination of the verbs known as the irregular verbs which is made up of statives and weak verbs. In this unit.

These statives.2 The Statives Welcome to the beginning of your study of the irregular verbs in the Hebrew language.0 3. For example. We are starting with the study of the statives.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3. They are characterized by the fact that they usually express a state of being or condition. Despite the difference of these verbs however. This is because our study of the weak irregular verbs would only contain the conditions that cause variations in the vowel pointing. 86 .3 The Weak Verbs By now you must be used to the vowel pointing of the regular and strong verbs and the principles that are behind these vowel pointing. the Hebrew word dmalf in the qal would mean learn but in the pi el would mean teach . and thus they do not take the direct object. If you are not yet sure of your mastery of these vowel pointing.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study Hebrew Cbaqf P+a#Of lpanf English collect overflow fall Hebrew +lamf Mka#Of db'k%f English escape Hebrew English steal bnagf mourn dpasf r+amf rain rise early (Hiph il) was heavy 3. The following are the more common statives you will come across: Hebrew db'k%f Nq'zf N+oqf qdacf Ml'#Of English was heavy was old was small was righteous was whole Hebrew ldag%f lkoyf qzaxf bka#Of braqf English was great was able was strong he lay down was near Hebrew lka#of lko#Of )r'yf #Odaqf qxarf English was wise was bereaved was afraid was holy was far off 3. they still follow same rules and patterns as followed by the strong verbs. I would advise that you go back and undertake a full revision of all the verbs to this point. in the qal are intransitive and in the pi el are transitive. How do we explain the statives? The statives can be likened to the English verbs that are known as the intransitive verbs.

Thus. The third and the last set of these are the verbs that have identical letters for their second and third consonants.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax The first of these are the gutturals and the letter r. as an example. the second letter ( stands for the second and the last letter l stands for the third consonant. Pe Waw From now. You have learnt that the statives are similar to the intransitive verbs in the English language and the usually express a state of being rather than an action. the weak verbs can be classified into eleven separate categories: 1. These verbs would still retain their consonantal form but the changes would affect the vocalization. There are conditions that would make these consonants disappear entirely or change them to vowels. these eleven categories would now be studied on their own thus allowing you to see their peculiarities. Pe Nun 5. Ayin Yodh 10. A convenient system for classifying these weak verbs have been developed through the use of the old Jewish paradigm word: l(ap. a Pe Nun verb is a verb that has a nun as its first consonant. Lamedh Aleph 6. Ayin Waw 9.0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have studied the two forms of the irregular verbs called the statives and the weak verbs. 87 . y and w. Using this paradigm word. The consonants of %f this word is very instructive as the first letter p stands for the first consonant. Pe Guttural 2. Lamedh Guttural 4. The second set of letters that also affect vocalization are n. The weak verbs on the other hand are the verbs that do not follow the regular vowel pointing because of the presence of a guttural in the word. Double Ayin 8. These would also be studied later. 4. Lamedh He 7. Pe Yodh 11. You need to go back and refer to our study of the gutturals and their characteristics that affect the vowels that accompany them. Ayin Guttural 3.

Edward W. R. (1980). A. (1989). · Statives express state of being rather than an action. · Weak verbs are verbs that do not follow the normal vocalization rules because of the presence of a guttural in the word. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek.. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick. O. Grand Rapids: Academie Books.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT List the eleven categories of the weak verb with an example each and explain the reasons for the changes in its vocalization.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · Statives are similar to the intransitive verbs in the English language. · There are eleven categories of the weak verb. Yates. 7. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. New York: Harper and Row. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Cecil B. 6. Murphey. (1977). Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. Eibfeldt. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Revised Edition. 88 . The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Kyle M. Kahle P. and Kittel.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 5. (1954).

3 The Perfect with Waw Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1. we are going to study the use of the waw into details. it may be written as a pronominal suffix to the verb.0 5. 2.1 Vocabulary Study 3. enter Hebrew hyfhf (dayf )cfyf English be know go out. If you would recall.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 7: CONTENTS 1.0 2.1 MAIN CONTENT Vocabulary Study English eat say come in. exit Hebrew )#Ofnf dma(f h#of(f English lift up stand do.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 3. we have studied the use of the waw as a conjunction earlier but this time we would look into the use of the waw as the waw consecutive. In this unit. You have learnt that when the direct object of the verb happens to be a pronoun. make Hebrew lka)f rma)f )wOb% 89 .0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit we have examined the use of pronominal suffixes with both the substantives and the verbs.0 6.0 7.0 THE WAW CONSECUTIVE 4.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · Differentiate between the waw conjunction and the waw consecutive · Explain the form of verb that the waw consecutive would follow 3.2 The Imperfect with Waw 3.0 3.

This usage is called the waw conjunctive. furthermore. The waw conjunctive is used to join two words together whether nouns or verbs. but.2 The Imperfect with Waw As you have studied earlier. The waw consecutive is usually prefixed to the imperfect form of the verb. The King James Version rendered it as let there be light and there was light but the correct interpretation would be let there be light and there began to be light which implies that even the light we have now is still the same light we have until now.3 The Perfect with Waw There are cases however where after a simple imperfect. rwO) yhiy: would be translated let there be light and rwO) yhiy:wa would be translated and then there began to be light . For example. It is usually prefixed to the noun or verb no matter its form. This understanding would change the meaning of many Bible passages. An action in consecution would not be viewed as the completion of an action. Let us take the verse used as an example above. It is important for you to note that unlike the older translations of the Bible that expresses the imperfect as perfect (see the King James Version as an example) with the waw consecutive. In this case. It is usually written as w: except when it becomes w% before b. it would be translated as and. m and p. 3. the verb or verbs that would follow are going to be in the perfect state with the waw consecutive. waw can be used as a simple conjunction. As a consequence. When contrary to the regular shewa pointing. and then. or for . In its usage. and as a consequence.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3. the verbs connected with w would form in the mind of the author one series in which all the verbs with the waw consecutive are judged from the point of view of the first verb. the imperfect verb would form series of actions which are judged from the point of view of the first verb and beginning from that point are verbs expressing incomplete action in consecution. it joins the imperfect to its precedent and also shows that the imperfect is a definite consecution of its precedent. The simple conjunction is usually translated and. and as a result . the waw is pointed with a pathah and a dagesh in the following consonant. A good example is the sentence below: 90 . it would now be called a waw consecutive.

Edward W. 4. Eibfeldt.0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have examined the use of the waw consecutive wherein the waw is used along with the imperfect verb to convey the idea of a series of actions that are not competed as the imperfect state of the verb always convey the incomplete action. 7.. As you have been taught. 5.K1lek%. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. (1980). the understanding of the waw consecutive would change our understanding of some traditional understanding or translation of the Bible verse.)a h#%O)i M#Of ytiyw%Ici hn%'hi M#Of t%fb#Oayfw: NwOdycil.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Identify the waw consecutives in the following sentences and translate: r#Oe)j htfpar. (1977). Kahle P. the second verb is the perfect with the waw and the third verb is also in the imperfect. R. and Kittel. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. In this sentence. 91 .kal. yhiy:wa . A. Grand Rapids: Academie Books.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The waw pointed with a pathah and a dagesh forte in the following consonant is called a waw consecutive · The waw consecutive is usually prefixed to the imperfect form of the verb · It thus expresses an incomplete action in consecution 6.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax The man will keep (rmo#O. O. hnfmfl. . Hebrew and English Bible (1997).yI) the law and he will rest (tba#Ofw:) on the Sabbath and he will not sell (rko%m.cf K7l' Mw%q . the first verb is in the imperfect.rmo)l' wylf)' hwhy-rbd.yi )lo) anything. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel.

Cecil B. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. 92 . Kyle M. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. (1989). Revised Edition. Yates. (1954).CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Murphey. New York: Harper and Row.

we are going to examine the numerals that are commonly used in the Old Testament. 2. Apart from this.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit we have examined the use of the waw into details.0 3.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · Identify cardinal numbers · Identify ordinal numbers · Write the numbers in the construct and the absolute forms 3. unlike the Greek and the English language. This is to enable you translate many passages on the Old Testament after you have come to an end of this course and as you prepare for the next one.1 MAIN CONTENT The Numerals In the Hebrew language.2 The Cardinal Numbers 3. 93 .0 5. there are both masculine and feminine forms for the cardinal numbers from one to ten.0 7.0 THE NUMERALS 4.0 3.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 8: CONTENTS 1. In this unit.0 2.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.1 The Numerals 3.3 The Ordinals Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1.0 6. Apart from the use of the waw as a conjunction that has been studied earlier you have also studied the use of the waw as the waw consecutive. we also have the absolute and the construct forms of these numbers as you would see in the sub-section below.

and in the feminine it is written as MyIt%#O. the unit along with the ten. It usually stands before its substantive and a agrees with it in number. For example. Please note that when these words are used. fifty. The unit would be written in the possessive and the noun is usually placed in the plural. is an adjective dxf). As you have seen in this example.2 The Cardinal Numbers Below are the list of cardinal numbers in both the masculine and the feminine as well as in the construct and the absolute states. This could also be written as Mynib%f t#Oem'xj or h#%Ofmixj Mynib. the numeral precedes the noun if the noun is singular and when the numeral comes after the noun. fifteen is written as ten and five. 3. the number form would be feminine and vice versa. the following words Mynib%f r#of(f h#O%fmixj would be translated fifteen sons . My#Oinf)j yn'#. The numbers thirty. it usually stands after its e noun and then agrees with it. In other words. This would be written explicitly below later and ensure that you study them carefully. seventy. For example. In its usage. In the masculine it is written as MyIna#O.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax The number one. f The numbers eleven to nineteen are formed by the use of two separate words.) would be translated two women . sixty. where there is a masculine noun. then the noun is plural. eighty and ninety are formed from the corresponding units with plural terminations. especially in number. a% The numbers three to ten are nouns and they disagree in gender. They may stand before the noun in construct or either before or after it in the absolute state. The numeral two is a noun. For example. Mynibf h#%Ofmxj i would be translated five sons .O) would be translated two men and My#Oinf yt%#O. forty.O (this could also be written as My#Oinf)j MyIna#. Masculine Noun Numbers Absolute Construct 1 dxf)e dxa)a Feminine Noun Absolute Construct txa)a txa)a 94 .. (this could also be written as My#Oinf MyIt#O. Twenty is written as the plural of ten. that is. dxf)e #Oy)i would be translated one man and txa)a h#O%f@)i would be translated one woman . For example.

)a t(ab%ar.#Oi r#of(f hnfm#O. o My(i#O. hnem#O.a r#of(f h#fOl#.(e hr'#o.)a My#Oimixj My#Oi#Oi My(ib#Oi .(e hr'#o.#Oi t(ab. #Ol#O. From this point you would just be given a few numbers which would guide you on how to write the other numbers.t%i 95 . #Ol#O.)a #Om'xj #O#O' (ba#O.(e Myri#o.(e hr'#o. r#oe(e txa)a or hr'#o. (b%ar.Ot%i hrf#of(j tre#oe(j r#of(f dxa)a or r#of(f yt%'#O.(e hr'#o. o (#aOt%.(e hr'#o.(e hr'#o. hnem#O. The first set of numbers would be given with masculine nouns while the second set would be given with feminine nouns. o hnam#O. o r#of(f h(f#.O My(ib%fr. Numbers with Masculine Nouns Figures 20 21 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Numbers in Hebrew Myri#o.(e hr'#o.)a r#of(f h#%Ofmixj r#of(f h#%Of#Oi r#of(f h(fb. o (#aOt'% r#oe(e hr'#o.(e yt%'#O. %a #Ol#fO (b%ar. Mynim#O.)a #Om'xj #O#O' (ba#O.)a #Om'xf #O#O' (ba#Oe hnem#O. h(fb%fr. o h(f#.)a h#%Ofmixj t#Oem'xj h#%fO#iO t#Oe#O' h(fb.(a Myt%'#O.(a r#of(f Myn'#O. (b%ar.Ot%i MyIt#O.(ew: dxf)e My#Oil#. yn'#O.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 MyIna#O. or r#of(f yn'#O. t#Oel#O. o (#Oat%.O r#of(f h(fb%fr. or hr'#o.(e yt%'#O.Ot%i h(a#.(e yt%'#O. h#Ofl#O.(e hr'#o.#Oi hnfm#O.

The adjectives are formed by the addition of the termination y i. the forms of the cardinals are used for the ordinals too. o twO)m' (#Oat%.)a Mypilf)j t#Oem'xj Mypilf)j t#Oe#O' Mypilf)j t(ab#Oi .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 100 200 300 400 500 txa)a h)fm' twO)m' yt%'#O. The first ten ordinals are written thus: 96 . 3. o Mypilf)j t(a#O. Mypilf)j t#Oel#O. Mypilf)j tnam#O. The ordinals from numbers one to ten are however written as adjectives formed from the corresponding cardinal numbers. dxf)e Ple)e Mypilf)j yn'#O.t%i Mypilf)j tre#Oe(j or hbfbfr. twO)m' hnem#O. Mypilf)j t(ab%ar. twO)m' (b%ar.)a twO)m' #Om'xj Numbers with Feminine Nouns Figures 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Numbers in Hebrew twO)m' #O#O' twO)m' (ba#O. the y is also inserted between the second and the third consonant. twO)m' #Ol#O.3 The Ordinals The ordinals are only separate in form from the cardinals in only numbers one to ten because from number eleven. Where possible.

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.. You have learnt that there are two forms of numerals: the cardinals and the ordinals.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · There are two forms of numerals: the cardinals and the ordinals. y(iybir. · There are the absolute and construct form of numbers 1-10. A. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. 55. 82. (1977). Eibfeldt. 5.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. 99 7. 10. · There are both the masculine and feminine forms for the cardinals from number 1 to 10.0 Hebrew Form NwO#O)ri yni#O' y#Oiyli#O. · The ordinals are separate from the cardinals only in numbers 1-10 but are similar from number 11 upwards. Kahle P. 215. R.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Write the following numbers in Hebrew: 35. 97 . You have also learnt that there are both the masculine and feminine forms for the cardinals from number 1 to 10 as well as the absolute and construct form of these numbers. 105. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. You have also learnt that the ordinals are separate from the cardinals only in numbers 1-10 but are similar from number 11 upwards.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Ordinal First Second Third Fourth Fifth 4. O. 47. 4. Edward W. and Kittel. y(iy#Oit%. yniymi#O. 6. yriy#oi(j CONCLUSION In this unit you have learnt how the numerals are written in the Hebrew language. y#Oiymixj Ordinal Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Hebrew Form y#Oi#Oi y(iybi#O. (1980). 61. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick.

Kyle M. New York: Harper and Row. Yates. Cecil B. (1989). 98 . (1954). Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and The Bible Society in Israel. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Revised Edition. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Murphey.

In this unit.1 The State of the Verb 3.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.3 The Mood of the Verb Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 4.0 1.0 INTRODUCTION If you have followed this course from the beginning.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax MODULE 3 Unit 1: Hebrew Verbs and the Principles of Syntax Unit 2: The Verb in the Indicative Mood Unit 3: The Verb in the Subjunctive and Voluntative Mood Unit 4: The Imperative and the Infinitive Unit 5: The Participles Unit 6: Practical Examples of Syntatic Relations Unit 1: Hebrew Verbs and the Principles of Syntax CONTENTS 1.2 The Time of the Verb 3.0 6.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · Define the perfect state of the verb 99 .0 7. the context still work in conjunction with these three principles.0 3. you will begin the study of the three fundamental principles that are important and necessary for the proper understanding of the Hebrew verb. Please note that despite the importance of the context. you would have noticed that unlike the Biblical Greek where the verb as well as the noun is inflected. the verb is the only portion of the Hebrew language that is inflected.0 2. 2.0 5. This thus shows that the study of the Hebrew verb is of prime importance in understanding the various nuances of these verbs.

CTH316

Hebrew Syntax

· · · · 3.0 3.1

Describe the imperfect state of the verb Describe the concept of time in the Semitic mind Identify the various moods of the Hebrew verb Define each mood of the verb MAIN CONTENT The State of the Verb

The state of the verb is used to describe the action of the verb. There are however only two concepts of action: complete or incomplete. The state of action wherein the writer wishes to express an action that has been completed in his mind, whether that action is in the present, past or future time, it would be presented in the perfect state. Thus, it is important in the translation of the Hebrew verb to interpret the condition of the action and not the time of the action. The other state is the imperfect state. This is used to describe the action that is incomplete, continuing and incoming. It dosent matter whether it is an ongoing action or repeated or connected in sequence in the past or in the future time. The state of the verb is easily locatable by the form of the verb. You can go back to the module two and read again the perfect and the imperfect form of the verb so that you would be able to differentiate between the two states of the verb. However, the perfect form is objective while the imperfect is subjective. Please note that by virtue of the form, the imperative verb is derived from the imperfect. The rationale is that since the imperative expresses a wish or command, which is an action that is yet to be done, it has to be regarded as an incomplete action, thus treated as the imperfect. Infinitives, on the other hand are not related to any of the state of the verb. This is because though they develop as verbal forms, their true nature is nominal or adverbial. They are thus treated as nouns or adverbs. 3.2 The Time of the Verb

Unlike the contemporary distinction of time in the verbs, the discernment of the time of action in the Semitic mind is not of any vital importance. In interpreting or translating, try to avoid placing any undue attention on the time of the action. As have been explained earlier, try to look more for the state of the action and also check whether the action is a single action that
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dose not have direct relation to any other action or whether it is viewed as an antecedent to another action. 3.3 The Mood of the Verb

Since actions were viewed as uncomplicated, dependent or volitional, the mood of the verb is of tremendous importance to the Old Testament. Four classes of mood are available in the Hebrew thought, and these are: the indicative mood, the subjunctive mood, the imperative mood and the voluntative mood. The Indicative Mood The indicative mood has no distinctive form to indicate its presence. This is because as far as the Semitics are concerned; the perfect state of the verb is the indicative mood, since no contingency or volition can alter an action that is already completed. The Subjunctive Mood This is the mood of contingency. This contingency may be either in form of dependency or condition. These contingencies or conditions may be classed as follows: possibilities, desirabilities or responsibilities. In the form, there would be a particle to indicate the presence of the condition but it is also possible that the condition may be disclosed only through the context. Please, do not expect an external condition for each subjunctive mood. The Imperative Mood This is the mood of command or strong desire. The positive commands are expressed by the imperative mood. Note, however, that the negative commands, that is, prohoibitions, are expressed by the imperfect form along with a particle of negation in an imperative context. Please, note that any imperfect form in an imperative context may be in the imperative mood. The Voluntative Mood This is the mood that is used to express the volition of the speaker. The cohortative and the jussive belong to this mood. These two are used to express desire or urgency. Please take note that the cohortative is the voluntative mood in the first person and the jussive is the voluntative mood in the second or third person.
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While the cohortative is indicated by the addition of h F to the imperfect form followed most of the time by the voluntative particle )nF the jussive is indicated by an internal vowel change or the specific negative or just by the context alone. Please note that it is not only in the voluntative mood that the internal vowel change can occur.

4.0

CONCLUSION

In this unit you have been told that syntactically, three elements of the Hebrew verb are very important, and these are the state, the time and the mood of the verb. You have also learnt that there are two states: the perfect and the imperfect. You have also learnt that unlike most modern languages that see the time of the verb in terms of present, past and the future, in the Hebrew language, what is important is the relationship of the action in the verb to another action, that is, whether it is contemporaneous or antecedent or subsequent. You have also learnt that there are four types of mood in the Hebrew verb, namely: indicative, subjunctive, imperative and voluntative.

5.0

SUMMARY

The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The three elements of the Hebrew verb that are very important are the state, the time and the mood of the verb. · There are two states of the verb: the perfect and the imperfect. · Unlike most modern languages, the Semitic Hebrew did not see the time of the verb in terms of present, past and the future. · What is important in the verb is the relationship of the action in the verb to another action, that is, whether it is contemporaneous or antecedent or subsequent. · There are four types of mood in the Hebrew verb, namely: indicative, subjunctive, imperative and voluntative. · The perfect state of the verb is always in the indicative mood · The subjunctive mood is the mood of dependency or condition · The imperative mood is the mood of command or strong desire · The voluntative mood expresses the volition of the speaker.

6.0

TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Discuss each of the mood and their functions.

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7.0

REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Alt, A., Eibfeldt, O. Kahle P. and Kittel, R. (1977). Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Germany: World Bible Societies Goodrick, Edward W. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel. Murphey, Cecil B. (1989). The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Yates, Kyle M. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Revised Edition. New York: Harper and Row.

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UNIT 2:
Content 1.0 2.0 3.0

THE INDICATIVE MOOD

4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.1 The Indicative Perfect 3.2 The Indicative Imperfect Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

In the previous unit you have studied about the three elements of the verb that are necessary for close examination for any meaningful syntactical analysis. These are: the state of the verb, the time of the verb and the mood of the verb. In this unit, you will begin to examine the interplay of these three elements in the verb. In this unit, we are going to look at the verb in the indicative mood. Remember that we have said earlier that the indicative mood most of the time is the mood of the perfect state, but you will be learning more here.

2.0

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit you should be able to: · Differentiate between the indicative perfect and the indicative imperfect. · Identify the different uses of the indicative perfect · Identify the various uses of the indicative imperfect

3.0
3.1

MAIN CONTENT
The Indicative Perfect

As we have indicated earlier, the perfect state of the Hebrew verb is the state that is used to designate an action or a state of being as being completed. The completion of the action or the state however can be either in reality or in the thought of the speaker. Please note that this does not

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By virtue of the context.@ which would be translated In beginning God created.li ytiyw@ci wOt)ow: yt@fx. certain conditions must exist to place in within the range of the perfect of narration (and these would be discussed later).. The following are examples of the perfect of narration: Myhilo)v )rFb@ ty#Oi)r'b.)-t)e hs@ni Myhilo)vhfw: which would be translated And God proved a Abraham .. The following are examples of the perfect of relation: 105 . the context would denote the time of the action. The word hs@ni here is the perfect of narration denoting the past time. the action must have been completed or finished. MhfrFb.yI )w@hw: which would be translated And him I have appointed to be prince . Please note that the perfect state is used in the future time.. The f word rma)f here is the perfect of narration denoting the past time.. The following are the various uses of the perfect indicative in the Greek verb: Narative Perfect (Perfect of Narration) This is the use of the perfect to indicate an action or state of being that has been completed with no reference to any other event.t@a K7lom. It is usually a completed action completed at a time that is previous to another action and the two actions would result in a completed state. rma)f h#@O)ih-l)e which would be translated To the woman he said. twOyh. No matter the time of the action. since the person being spoken about is the reigning prince. Relative Perfect (Perfect of Relation) The perfect of relation is used to denote a simple action that is completed in relation to another action. then the time has to be in the present.. Please remember that in most cases in the Hebrew thought. The word )rFb@ here is the perfect of narration denoting the past time. It is used to designate an action that has either been completed or in the process of completion. The word ytiyw@ci here is the perfect of narration denoting the present time. However there are instances where the completed action would be viewed in relation to another action that is still in the past.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax mean that the action must have necessarily occurred but it must have been pictured as being completed. thus it can be in the present or in the past time.

Action in Relation to a Present Time This use of the perfect of relation is very close to. they were still away from the Lord. a previous time. the Israelites turned away from the Lord and as at the point of the prophet s statement. 106 . In this usage. A good example here is: hwFhy: )cfyF which would be translated Yahweh will have sent thee away . An example of this usage is: hwFhy:-t)e w@bz:(f which would be translated They forsook Yahweh . that is. MwOy@h-lk@f Mxele lka)f )lo yk@i which would be translated For he had not a eaten bread . Action in Relation to a Future Time This usage is also very close to the future perfect in English. The verb lka)f here is also viewed in relation to another action in the past. The concept here is that at a point in time. the verb here w@bz:(. with the Greek perfect. The following are examples of the class of perfect of relation: rcfyF r#Oe)J Mdf)fh-t)e M#Of M#oey@FwA which would be translated And he put f there the man whom he had formed .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Action in Relation to a Previous Action This type of perfect of relation is also called the pluperfect by some grammarians. the action would be conceived of as finished action prior to a point in the past. if not identical. the action is pictured as completed at some specific moments in the past but the effects of that action continues into the present time. In this class. describes an action that took f place in the past but it is still having effect into the present. the present time of the speaker. In this usage. The present time as used here would be the previous present or the simultaneous past. Therefore. The verb rcfyF here is pictured in relation to the previous action of the forming of the Garden of Eden which has been completed before the forming of man. that is. the finished action is viewed in relation to another action still in the future.

decrees and threats where the certainty of the fulfilment can make it be viewed as an already completed action. Examples of this usage are: K7lay'wa Nnf(f hlfkf@ which would be translated the cloud dissolves and goes . which would be translated To thy seed I will f give this land . These conditions may be time. 107 . wOhy#iOm. the speaker is certain of the outcome or that he has fully determined to make certain actions occur.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Perfect of Experience The usage of the perfect of experience designates a statement that is considered to be true because things of similar kinds have happened previously. the speaker is certain that such proposition of a general character will hold generally. There are various usages of the perfect of dependency and they are as follows: Perfect of Certainty This usage describes an action in the future time that is viewed as completed based upon the authority of the speaker. Based on this. a condition or the fact that the action is based on the accomplishment of another action. hwFhy: (ay#iOwOh yk@i which would be translated For I know that the LORD will save his anointed . Please note that the statements of God and about God are usually placed in the perfect of certainty as in the following examples: CrE)fh-t)e yt@itanF K1(Jr:zal. It is also known as the characteristics perfect. In this usage the verb hlfk@f is used to tell what the cloud would normally do. The verb (ay#iOwOh here is placed in the perfect of certainty because the prophet is sure of what God will do. The verb yt@itanF here is placed in the perfect of certainty because God is sure of what he has said. In other words. This is usually used for promises. w@hn'qo rwO# (dayf which would be translated An ox knows his master . the action is viewed as completed though there are some conditions present. The verb here (dayf is used to describe the attitude of the ox generally. Perfect of Dependency or Perfect of Contigency In the usage of the perfect of dependency.

Please note that as a result of the degree of certainy of the prophet. hwFhy: yl'w @l which would be translated Except the LORD of hosts had left us a very small remnant. obligation or necessity that are often deemed unavoidable. The following are examples: w@nlf-dl@ayu dleye-yk@i would be translated For a child shall be born .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Perfect of Prophecy This is the use of the perfect in the future time which is viewed as complete based solely on the authority of God. bqo(jy@ami bkfwOk@ K7rAdF@ would be translated A star shall proceed from Jacob . an imperative or even an interjection. the action is viewed as complete based on the occurrence of a preceeding action. The apodosis would then use the perfect to express the inescapable nature of the responsibility. Perfect of Concurrency By this usage. the protasis states a condition which would create a responsibility. the perfect portrays vividly and boldly a confidence that the speaker or the prophet has in the fulfilment of the prediction. Perfect of Condition There are cases where some conditional sentences would carry the perfect verb. A good example of this is the statement of prophet Isaiah in 1:9: w@nymid@F hrFmo(jla w@nyyIhf Mdos. Even though 108 .k@i +(fm. there are translations that reder the verb as For unto us a child is born . Remember in conditional sentences. obligation or necessity. In the process of narration. In these perfect forms. Thus they can be easily identified. In this case. an imperfect.k@i dyrI #of w@nlf rytiwOh twO)bfc. Please note that the perfect of prophecy is found in the highest type of prophetic diction and is often thrown into the midst of imperfects to indicate absolute confidence. the apodosis made use of the perfect verb w@nyyIh to express the inescapable nature of the punishment. the speaker states the narrative action and without drawing the strict attention from the starting action. the simple waw is attached as a prefix. In this statement. we would have become as Sodom . Please note that the perfect of concurrency may follow any form of verb be it another perfect. Note that the prophet has spoken with a high degree of certainty and that is why the translation has used the word shall as an auxiliary verb. points out what also is true.

you would first discover that the two perfect of concurrency in the sentence are prefixed with a simple waw (qbadfw: and w@yhfw:). thereby taking its completed state.new: w@g@#. let a man forsake his father and his mother and (that having been done) he cleaves to his wife and (that being done) they are one flesh . w@yhfw: wOt@#. before cleaving can be completed. The verb fixes the starting point as the speaker passes successively forward in thought viewing each as completed in its turn. the true position is that in a statement of successive events or acts in the future.new:) and they do (w@#o(fw:) and shall be guilty (w@m#O')fw:) 109 . If you examine the above sentence very well.OyI) and it be hid (Mla(. For example. Apart from this. Also.yI tda(-lk@f M)iw: J . Another good example is in Isaiah 40:4-5.OyI l)'rF#o. Please note that the concurrent perfect is always in explanation or description of the originating action. The following are examples: Kxf)e r#ofbfl.mi-lk@fmi The above sentence would be translated as follows: If Israel shall err (w@g@#. the following action is viewed as complete. Anytime the prerequisite action has taken place. the description of the concurrent act would naturally fall into place. before becoming one flesh.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax the originating action is incomplete. on the basis of the indicativeness of the action. qbadfw: wOm@)-t)ew: wybi)-t)e #Oy)i-bzf(jya Nk@'-l(a i f which would be translated Therefore. some grammarians have viewed the waw preceeding the perfect as waw conversive or waw consecutive . the man must have left his father and mother. However. A good example is Leviticus 4:13 which reads: txa)a w@#o(fw: lhfq@fha yn'y('m' rbfd@f Mla(. their being completion is based on the completion of earlier actions.O)ib@.w@m#O')fw: hnfy#e(ft'-)Ol r#O)J hwfhy: twOc. You can look at this passage in the English versions and also in the Hebrew if you have a copy of the Biblia Hebraica. the cleaving must have taken place. In the bid to properly understand and interpret the language and thought pattern of the Hebrew system. waw with the perfect is used after the main verb in the imperfect or imperative.

present or future.hiw:) the earth. To show continuance of action in Hebrew. A good example is Genesis 2:6 which states: A mist used to go up (hle(Jya) and water (hqf#O. The participle ()c'yO) is used here to show the continuous action of the flowing of the river. It can also be used with the imperfect to express what is general or customary in the present or the past. The following are example: Every man should come ()yboyF) to me and I would do him justice (wyt@iq.hiw:) 2 Samuel 15:4. It is an action that may have its beginning in the mind of the author. the participle is used as in Genesis 2:10: A river proceeding ()c'yO) out of the garden. This could also be used in two ways: The Simple Incipient The simple incipient imperfect is an imperfect which pictures only the beginning of the action.2 The Indicative Imperfect Any verb presented in the verb pictures an unfinished or incompleted action whether in the past. such incipient imperfect 110 . This is why in translation. It however does not imply mere continuance of action.OyI) is in the imperfect and the following verbs all started with the waw. It has to be noted that it is used mostly in two ways: the incipient (just beginning) and the frequentative or iterative (repeated). The continuation of the action after the beginning may be visualized. you will discover that the main verb (w@g@#.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax If you study the above sentence very well. Now to the usages of the indicative imperfect: Incipient Imperfect This is an action that begins at a time subsequent to another action or state.d@ac. the action is usually presented in movement rather than in a condition of rest . This usage could also be used in a conditional or subjunctive sense to express command or volition and following telic particles. but the beginning of that action is also in view. Consequently. 3.

or will begin to . Let us examine the following examples: h#eOm-ry#OiyF z)f which would be translated Then Moses began to sing (Exodus 15:1).)) but not now.ma w@bc. These imperfects may be either past. A good example for the present time is found in Psalm 2:2 which would be translated kings of the earth begin to set themselves against the Lord.g@h-Nmi hwFhy:-K7)al. In the present time. the translation would make use of the phrase. The emphasis here is on the seting together of the kings. The following are examples: Mykib@oh@-l)e lg@fl. Cre)e-yk'l. As with the simple incipient.)e )ybi)fwF MyIrac.)e hle(j)a rme)Oy@wA 111 . It is an action in the past. The emphasis here is on the process of leading the children of Israel out of Egypt. The emphasis is on the starting of the singing by Moses. These types of verb may also be in the past.m@imi Mket. present or in the future. These they of verb are translated with the use of phrases like proceeded to . it could also be in the past.yat. The action here is also in the present. For an example of the use of the incipient imperfect in the future. The verb pictures the commencement of action in the present time. e j The two verbs here picture the commencement of an action in the future. present or the future. Judges 2:1 offers a good example: Mket. The Progressive Incipient The progressive incipient imperfect pictures an action that has started but with emphasis on the progression of the action.yI which would be translated Kings of the earth begin to set themselves . proceeded to . or begin to. a good one is found in Numbers 24:17 which would be translated I begin to see him (w@n@)er. but the emphasis of this usage is on the progression of the action. Consequently. I begin to behold him (w@n@rew@#O)) but not near .ma l(ay@AwA which would be translated I a a proceeded to bring you up out of Egypt (Judges 2:1).CTH316 Hebrew Syntax would begin with began to. present or future. This is also an action in the past. The progressive incipient pictures an action that has started.

A good example could be found in Psalm 15:4 which would be translated those who fear the LORD he honours . which though has occurred repeatedly. the verb said is in the simple frequentatives ansd would be properly translated the LORD said repeatedly . we have a good example in 1 Samuel 24:21 which would be translated I know that thou will surely proceed to be king . a In the present. I proceeded to bring you up (hle(j)) out of Egypt . The characteristic frequentative here used implies that the LORD will honour those who fear him at all times.t) pictures the state of the man cuurently enthroned as king. The drawing of the water does not become a habit in any way. The repeatition of the statement does not mean that it has become a habit. The Characteristic Frequentative The characteristic frequentative are actions that are accustomed to occur often in certain limits and truths universally admitted and facts that may occur at any time. customs or universal truths. A good example of this usage is Isaiah 1:11 which would be translated For what to me is the multitude of your sacrifices . has no reference to habit. Another example is Genesis 24:19 which would be translated I shall draw water for thy camel . The following are the sub-usages of the frequentative imperfects: The Simple Frequentative The simple frequentative is an action. The verb (K7lom. another example is in Exodus 9:5 which will be translated Tomorrow the LORD will proceed to do (h#oe(jyA) this thing in the earth . The Frequentative Imperfect The frequentative imperfect is used to describe reiterated actions. custom or progress. habits. @i For the future time. In this passage. 112 .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax This sentence would be translated And he said. The verb translated draw is put in the simple frequentative thus would be better translated draw water repeatedly .

The waw consecutive is always prefixed to an @ imperfect and portrays the action which is consecutive in time. it would begin with a simple perfect and is followed by one or two verbs in the imperfect prefixed by waw consecutive. It is also called the historical or narrative construction.. To do this. the construction can also be used as a perfect of experience. Below are examples of the prophetic perfect that is continued by imperfects with narrative force. A good example here is Exodus 1:12 which would be translated And just as they continued to afflict them so they continued to multply . it is usually the progressive incipient imperfect and thus would be translated with the phrase and then proceeded to be . Let us the usage of this construction in Genesis 3:13 which would be translated the serpent deceived me and so I proceeded to eat . as you have been taught in Hebrew Grammar is use of consonant waw pointed with a pathah with a dagesh forte in the waw (wA). The Consecutive Imperfect The consecutive imperfect is the use of the imperfect to complete the consecution of an action. the picture is that the eating of the apple is the consequence or the result of the deceit of the serpent. The waw consecutive... purpose or result to the preceeding action. In usage as a narrative sentence. In this construction. 113 .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax The Progressive Frequentative The progressive frequentative is the use of the imperfect in which the author views the action as being either in the process of being repeated or of progressing in the frequent actions. a prophetic perfect. They are usually used in narration or prediction to carry forward the same idea as the originating verb indicates. the perfect and the imperfect) and supplemented in the Hebrew by a secondary form by adding adding waw consecutive as a prefix to the imperfect form of the verb.and shall proceed to call . A good example is Genesis 39:18 which would be translated as A son shall be given to us. the two primary forms (that is.. Please note that when the imperfect carries a waw consecutive.shall procced to be. Another example could be found in Numbers 22:21 whihc would be translated And then Balaam procceded to arise (Mqfy@Fwa) and proceeded to saddle (#Obxjy@AwA) and proceeded to go (K7ley@AwA) and then the anger of God proceeded to be kindled (rxay@IwA) . Apart from this.

· There are the incipient imperfect. · In the indicative perfect.mi wyt@is. the perefect of relation. Other forms of perfect includes the perfect of contingency. the frequentative imperfect and the consecutive imperfect.r. the perfect of prophecy. the frequentative imperfect and the consecutive imperfect.qa )l@'ma l)'r#o. in the indicative perfect. the perfect of condition and the perfect of concurrency. 5.K7leme yli wynfbfb@. the perfect of condition and the perfect of concurrency.0 CONCLUSION The following are the major things you have learnt in this unit: · The indicative mood can be used in the perfect and the imperfect verbs.yI-l(a K7lom@. present or future. The indicative imperfect pictures an unfinished action whether in the past.0 SUMMARY In this unit.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 4. · Other forms of perfect includes the perfect of contingency. the perfect of certainty. present or future). present or future.)e f a 114 . the perfect of experience (which designates a statement considered to be true because of similarity to previous actions). · The indicative imperfect pictures an unfinished action whether in the past. the perfect of certainty. we have the perfect of narration. the perefect of relation (this is used to denote a simple action that is completed in relation to another action which may be in the past. There are the incipient imperfect (which dsescribes an action that begins at a subsequent time to another action).)am. we have the perfect of narration (this is used to indicate an action that has been completed or in the process of being completed without reference to any other action).l@ah-tyb@' y#OayI-l)e K1xjlf#O. the perfect of prophecy.mi ht@f)a ytam-d(a l)'w@m#:O-l)e hwhy rme)Oy@wa (1) f K7l'w: Nme#eO K1n. yni)jwA lw@)o#O f . you have studied the indicative mood and its usages in the perfect and the imperfect verbs. 6. the perfect of experience.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Examine the sentence below and bring out the various verbs indicative mood and analyze their usage: -l)e lb@')at. ytiy)ir-yk@i ymix.

Germany: World Bible Societies. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Goodrick. O.. Murphey.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. Cecil B. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. A. (1977). Grand Rapids: Academie Books. R. Kyle M. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel. Eibfeldt. Yates. Revised Edition. 115 . The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. Edward W. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). (1989). (1954). Kahle P.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 7. New York: Harper and Row. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. and Kittel. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.

5 The Jussive Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 4.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 1. Under this mood.0 7. 2. The voluntative mood as you have learnt earlier.0 3.0 2.3 The Voluntative Mood 3.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit.4 The Cohortative 3. you would be studying the subjunctive and the voluntative mood.0 5.0 6. The subjunctive mood is next to the indicative mood judging by the degrees of closeness to reality. you should be able to: · Define the subjunctive mood · Explain the various possibilities of the subjunctive mood · Differentiate between the subjunctive imperfect and the subjunctive perfect.1 The Subjunctive Imperfect 3. mood is the mood that is used to express the volition of the speaker.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 3: THE SUBJUNCTIVE AND VOLUNTATIVE MOOD Content 1. In this unit. a lot of materials had to be taken at a time and resulted in the large materials. Expectedly. you have explored all the various ways in which the indicative mood can be used. · Describe the form of verb used in the voluntative mood · Explain the two major sub-forms of the voluntative mood · Identify the persons in which the voluntative can appear 116 .2 The Subjunctive Perfect 3.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit you have studied about the indicative mood in the Hebrew language.

I would not go in with you . that is. Psalm 24:3 is another good example. which usually occurs only in the conditional sentences. desirability or responsibility. You have also learnt that the dependency and or condition can be further sub-divided into possibilities. Desirability In the translation of the subjunctive of desirability. It would be translated Who may ascend into the hill of the LORD . The verbs used here are give 117 . A very good example of this could be found in 1 Kings 13:8 which would be translated If you would give me half thy house. that the perfect form of the verb may be used. the variations in the translations would be due to the nature of the contingency that is expressed in the context. may and might also occur. desirabilities and responsibilities. It has also been said that the contingency may be in form of dependency or condition. Please note however. the verb w@nybi@l. The following are good examples of the use of the subjunctive to express possibilities: Isaiah 1:18 would be translated though your sins be as scarlet they may be white as snow .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3. The conditional ideas of the subjunctive mood are naturally expressed by the imperfects. The verb used here is hle(JyA and it is used to list the possibilities of people who can go up and see the LORD. It is also however possible that the other forms can. It is only in rare conditions.0 3. the subjunctive mood is the mood of contingency.yA is in the subjunctive and expressing the possibility of turning the red sin into white. As it is. It has to be noted that the entire subjunctive mood are usually placed in the future time. Possibility Possibilities are usually expressed by the auxiliary could . In this statement. whether it is a possibility. Please note that the above verb is an imperfect state of the verb. that the use of these auxiliaries is subjected to variation.1 MAIN CONTENT The Subjunctive Imperfect As you have learnt earlier. the auxiliary verb would is usually used.

3 The Voluntative Mood As had been said earlier. The verb h#oe(jyA expresses the idea of necessity. Since. the auxiliary verb should is usually used. it would be used to express the intention. will or command of the author when some other person is the subject of the action. will or desire of the author when he is the subject of the action. the thought pattern of the Hebrew perfect state is not used in the subjunctive. The jussive would be in the second and third persons.4 The Cohortative The cohortative expresses the will of the speaker in reference to his own actions. it would be used to express the desire. Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh? The verb here is go to (K7l')') and the use of the auxiliary verb should is an indication that it is a subjunctive of responsibility. it expresses his desire or determination 118 . When the speaker is free. A good example can be found in Exodus 3:11 which can be translated. the idea of responsibility has different shades such as obligation and necessity other auxiliary verbs such as ought and must can also be used. 3.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax (Nt@et) and go in ()bo)). The use of would in the context of the two verbs @i f is an indication of its expression of desirability. but you must note that both languages are Semitic in form. the voluntative mood is the mood that is used to express the volition of the speaker. being a Semitic language. some expressions which would have been in the subjunctive in the English language would be phrased differently in the Hebrew language. An example expressing the shade of necessity is 1 Chronicles 12:33 which would be translated: To know what Israel ought to do (h#oe(jyA). This is also a feature of the Arabic language. 3. It is an incipient incomplete state that is used to express a varying mood. It is actually a modified form of the imperfect state that is used to give expression to desire on the part of the speaker. 3. When the cohortative is used in the first person.2 The Subjunctive Perfect As you have been taught already. In fact. Responsibility In the translation of the subjunctive of responsibility.

Examples include Genesis 1:12 which would be translated Let there began to be light . A good example of this could be found in Genesis 46:30 which would be translated Now let me die . The verb used here is hqft. note that the form may be made more emphatic by the addition of the particle )nf. Finally. 119 .)o used here expresses the determination of the speaker to eat flesh. the cohortative can be used as a conditional or final sentence as in Psalm 2:8 which would be translated Ask of me and I will give . The imperefect used here is Mq'yF. unlike the cohortative is used in the second and the third persons and could be used in any of the following ways: It could be used to express a command or injunction or prohibition in form of a wish. The form of the imperative used here is yhiy:. especially when yielding to constraint. Please. It could also be used as an exhortation. The verb used here is htfw@m)f.nan:.5 The Jussive The jussive. The verb hlfk. especially if it appears in the plural form. f e It could also be used to express a simple consent. It could be used to express a simple wish as in 1 Samuel 1:23 which would be translated Let the LORD begin to establish his word . 3. It could also be used to express a self-excitement as in Psalm 2:3 which would be translated Let us break assunder . The cohortative could also be used to express a request or entreaty as in Genesis 50:5 which would be translated Let me go up. The cohortative may be used in the following ways: To express strong determination as in Deuteronomy 12:20 which would be translated I will eat flesh . A good example could be found in Numbers 14:4 which would be translated Let us return to Egypt . The verb hbfw@#Onf as used here pictures the speaker as exhorting others to follow in an action he intends to undertake.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax and when the speaker is dependent on others. it expresses a wish or request. I pray . The verb used here is hnft@)ew:. The verb used here is )n@-hle(e).

In the cohortative. the first person is used to express the intention. 4. Please note that when you are in the voluntative mood. desirability and responsibility. but with some other people as the subject of the action. The three possibilities that could be expressed are: possibility. In the jussive. The subjunctive mood is used to express conditional ideas and thus. It could also be used to give advice or suggestion as in Genesis 41:33 which would be translated Let Pharaoh look out a man . the negative particle would be l)a and not )lo. The verb used here is )rey'. The voluntative mood on the other hand is used to express the volition of the speaker. petitions or prayers as in Genesis 44:33 which would be translated Let thy servant remain. I pray .0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The subjunctive mood is used to express conditional ideas and thus. The two verbs here are used to express the permission to go up (l(ayA) and that to build (NbeyIw:). · The voluntative mood on the other hand is used to express the volition of the speaker. the first person is used to express the intention. will or desire of the speaker as he is the subject of the action. · In the cohortative. the imperfect is naturally used. 5. the jussive could be used to express entreaties. The verb used here is )nf-b#ey'.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax It could also be used to express permission as in Ezra 1:3 which would be translated Let him begin to go up and build . desirability and responsibility.0 CONCLUSION In this unit you have learnt about two important moods: the subjunctive and the voluntative mood. will or desire of the speaker as he is the subject of the action. the second and the third persons are used and it will express the desire. Finally. will or command of the speaker. 120 . the imperfect is naturally used. · The three possibilities that could be expressed are: possibility.

K1yle)' rma)-r#Oe)j t)' yli t@fx#Oamfw@ o . but with some other people as the subject of the action. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Revised Edition. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. (2) 7. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. tf)rfqfw: (3) @a .ma)fw: K1deyfb@. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. O.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax · In the jussive. 6. 121 . and Kittel. Eibfeldt. Cecil B. Germany: World Bible Societies. the second and the third persons are used and it will express the desire.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Examine the verbs in the sentences below and bring out the verbs in the subjunctive and the voluntative mood and examine their usage: hwhy rme)Oy@wA ynigarfhjwA lw@) #Of (ma#Ofw: K7l')' K7y)' l)'w@m#. (1980). (1977). (1989). Murphey. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel. Goodrick. xq@at@i rqfb@f tlag:(e h#oe(jt-r#Oe)j t)' K1(jydIwO) ykinO)fw: xbaz@fb@a y#aOyIl.O rme)yO@wA .. Edward W. Yates. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Kahle P. New York: Harper and Row. (1954). A. will or command of the speaker. R. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books.yti)b@f hwhyla xab@oz:li t@fr. Kyle M..0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt.

CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 4: THE IMPERATIVE MOOD AND THE INFINITIVE Content 1. You have learnt that while the subjunctive mood is used to express conditional ideas. The two forms of command in this case. which combines both the qualities of the verb and the noun.0 3. both the negative and the positive commands would be examined and their formation explained.4 The Infinitive Construct Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 4.0 7.0 1. In this unit.0 5.3 The Infinitive Absolute 3.0 6. 122 . The imperative mood is the mood is used for expressing commands.0 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit you have studied the subjunctive as well as the voluntative moods.1 Positive Commands 3.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit you should be able to: · · · · · · · · Explain the use of the imperfect to form positive commands. Explain the role of the context in forming commands. The various ways in which the voluntative mood can be used have also been clearly expressed.0 2. 2. Explain the formation of the negative command Describe the formation of the infinitve absolute List the functions of the infinitve absolute Describe the formation of the infinitive construct List the functions of the infinitive construct Explain the differences between the infinitive absolute and the infinitive construct. the voluntative is used to express the volition of the speaker. you are going to study the imperative mood and the infinitive.2 Negative Commands 3.

The imperative form is always used with the second person and may express the following: a. Please note the following constructions: The imperative form can indicate positive commands without the use of any negative particle. You should also remember that the imperative form of the Hebrew verb is built on the form of the imperfect. the two forms can also be used interchangeably. The imperfect used here is w@ryni and it is used to exhort the listerners to take a particular action. go to Nineveh (Jonah 1:2). The force of the imperfect in an imperative context appears to be practically the same as that of the special from of the imperative. Examples of this can be found in the following passage: ryni Mkelf w@ryni which would be translated Break up your fallow ground . of the incomplete state and will usually be of the simple incipient incomplete state.yI yn'b-l)e rb@'d@a which would be translated Speak unto the @. it is easy to use it for a positive command. children of Israel (Leviticus 1:2). It is thus. A Command Examples of using the imperfect to issue positive commands could be found in the passages: l)'rF#o. This is possible because since the imperative form would not take a negative particle. The imperfect rb@'d@a is used to express the command here. The imperfects used here are K7l' and Mw@q and they are used to express commands. this form can be used to urge or persuade people to take certain actions. b.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 3. 123 .1 MAIN CONTENT Positive Commands Positive commands are usually expressed either by a special form of the imperative or the imperfect in an imperative context. hw'n:ynI-l)e K7l' Mw@q which would be translated Arise. An Exhortation As an exhortation.0 3. Though the imperative imperfect may be more polite in certain situations.

A good example can be found in Psalm 44:27: w@nlf@ htfrFz:(e hmfw@q which would be translated Arise and save us . h)'r:w@ which would be translated thou shalt see the prosperity of Jerusalem . dwell . An example of this usage could be found in Psalm 51:14: K1ykerFd@: My(i#. The first example would be taken from Genesis 3:14: K7l''t'' K1n:xog:-l(a which would be @ translated upon thy belly thou shalt go . restore unto me the joy of thy salvation with a lot of emphasis on the please. The imperfect b#' is used here to expresss permission on the part of the speaker. Permission The imperfect form can also be used in this form to express permission. This indicates that the author do not just call for the fulfilment but also desire it earnestly.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax c. The imperfect hmfw@q is used here as an entreaty to God and not just a simple command. All that have been treated above are the various uses of the imperfect to express a positive command. bwO+@b@a K1ynepfl. e. d. An Entreaty The imperfect can also be used as an entreaty.Opo hdFm@. The second example could be 124 . the addition of the cohortative to the imperative emphasizes the earnestness of the command. ycir:)a hn@'hi K7lemeybi)j rme)y@wA which would O be translated And Abimelech said. Please note that this formation can also be used for negative commands. we are going to see some examples of the use of the imperfect form in an imperative context. Strong Assurances The strong assurances that can be used here can either be in form of promises or threats. Now.la)j which would be translated Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation . The presence of the h would make the translation to literally read please. A good example can be found in Genesis 20:15: b#' K1yney('b@. Where it is good in thine eyes. Since this h is the symbol of the cohortative. Please note that there are occasions when the voluntative h would be added to an imperative. In this case it is used as a serious and passionate request. A good example here is the assurance given in Psalm 28:5: Mlf#Ofw@ry: bw@+b@.

can be expressed only by the use of the imperfect form in an imperative context with a negative particle. It can also be used along with the inflected form to give emphasis to the action that is being expressed. The following are good examples of the use of the infinitive instead of the finite verb: )bowF #op'xat. The distinction between the prohibitions expressed by the imperfect and that expressed by the jussive should be made clear.2 Negative Commands Negative commands. prohibitions. 3. It can also stand alone and it this case. albeit. The infinitive may be used instead of the finite verb to express the essential idea of the verb. )lo (shall not) would be used.. it can be used with the force of an exclamation or it could be used standing alone to express an adverb. The following examples from the book Exodus are good examples: xcfr:t@i )lo which would betranslated you shall not kill (Exodus 20:13) bnig:t@i )lo which would betranslated you shall not steal (Exodus 20:15). Please note the following uses of the infinitive absolute: 1. The infinitves used here are distinguishing (#op'xat. in the second person.hi +pf#OfwOxy:-l)e l)'r#o. Please note that the infinitive do not take the article.)lam-lk@f tfy#io(fw: dbo(jta MymiyF t#e#' which . vivdly and emphatically.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax found in Exodus 20:9: K1t@ek. 3. the ordinary imperfect would take )lo (he shall not) while the jussive would take )lo (let him not).yI K7leme rme)Oy@wA which would be F translated and the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat.h) and coming ()bow) and they are to i express the idea of the finite verb here. In the prohibition expressed by the imperfect. would be translated six days you shall labour .. N)Oc +xo#fOw: rqfb@f grohf NyIyF twOt#Ofw: r#ofbf@ lko)f These two phrases would be translated killing of catle and slaughtering of sheep.3 The Infinitive Absolute The infinitive absolute can be defined as the use of the verbal noun to express the bare idea of the verbal action. distinguishing and coming . eating of meat and drinking of wine (Isaiah 125 .. In the third person. the jussive would however take l)a (do not). (1 Kings 22:30). that is.

w@nyl'(f K7lom. the imperfect is used to add emphasis to the finite verb and that is why in the translation indeed is used to reinforce the emphasis. the infinitive construct may be used alone. it adds an expression of intensity. Examine the following examples carefully: dwIdF yn@ime@mi l)a#O. 3. If it appears as a verb. 3. When used alone. 2. hwFhywA lwOdgfw: K7wOlhf dywId@F K7ley@'wA which would be translated David became greater and greater (1 Chronicles 11:9). you would discover the two words standing together (l)a#O. it can be used in all the cases of a noun or along with a preposition. the infinitive absolute is used to describe constant progress. it 126 . In this usage. The following is an example of this usage: wOm@(i twO)bfc. is also an abstract verbal noun that is used like the gerund.nio l)o#O. the infinitive absolute stands after the accompanying verb. Please note that when the infinitive is placed before the finite verb. If it appears as a noun. Thus.4 The Infinitive Construct The infinitive construct. will you indeed rule over us? (Genesis 37:8). The infinitives used here are killing (groh). The following are the various uses of the infinitive construct: In the first instance.ni t@fr:ma)fw: which would be transalted David earnestly besought me (1 Samuel 20:6). eating (lko)f) and drinking (twOt#Of). This is an example of the use of the infinitive along with the finite verb to express intensity. The infinitive may be used with the finite verb to add emphasis to the verb or to describe the action of the accompanying verb. In this case. it may be nominal or verbal. The infinitive absolute can also be used to express constant progress or the complete existence of the action. slaughtering f (+xo#fO).CTH316 Hebrew Syntax 22:13). If you look at the example very well.nio l)o#O. In this case. it can take suffixes and prepositions and at the same time has the government of its verb.)Oy@wA which would be translated And they said unto him.ni).t@i K7lomfhj wyxf)e wOl w@rm.

o The infinitive construct could also be used to express the periphrastic future. the infinitve construct may be used with the preposition l. In 1 Kings 3:7. it could be used for any of the following: It could be used to express design or purpose. there is a phrase )ObwF t)c' (da)' )lo which would be translated I know not to go out or come in .liw: twOxjt#O. Let us examine the following examples: wOd@g:nek@. In this case.Om-t)e t@fr:m#Ofw: e i a which would be translated thou shall keep the charge of the LORD your God so as to walk in his ways. man s being alone is not good (Genesis 2:18). MdF)fhf twOyhv bwO+-)lo Myhilo)v hwFhy: rme)yo@wA @ which would be translated And the LORD God said.lare used here to express the result of keeping the charge of Yahweh.. The infinitive constructs tkeleli and rmo#O.li wykfrfd. A good example of this could be found in Genesis 15:12: 127 .liw: twOxjt#O. A good example of this usage could be found in 1 Samuel 1:3: hb@ez. which would be translated In the day of the LORD God s making of the earth (Genesis 2:4). The infinitive construct here is xal#O. rze(' wOl-h@#oe(v)e wOd@bal.b@i tkeleli K1yhelo)v hwFhy: trem#. xal#O. In such usages.li lwOdg@fha NwOmhfhe ytiy)irF C(amayxi)j rme)Oy@wA which would also be o translated And Ahimaaz said. In this case.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax can take a subject. It could also be used to express the time of an action as in 2 Samuel 18:29. when Joab sent .li and it is used to tie an event to the time of another action. Let us examine this phrase: Cre)e Myhilo)v hwFhy: twO#(j MwOyb@.hil are being used to express purpose. the infinitive construct )ObwF t)c' is used in the accusative as the object of the verb. the infinitive construct twO#(j is placed in the genitive. hmfymiyF Mymiy@Fmi wOry(im' )w@hha #Oy)ihf hlf(fw: @a which would be translated now this man would go up from his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice . In the second instance. the infinitive constructs hb@ez. the infinitive construct twOyhv is used as the subject of a nominal sentence. @a It could also be used to express the result of an action as in 1 Kings 2:3: rmo#O. In this case. an object or both. In this case. to keep his statutes .hil.

ryk@iz. the negative 128 . 5. the particle yti@l. The infinitive construct is the use of the infinitive as a gerund or as a gerundive. the negative particle is formed with either the l. 4. or )lo. While positive commands are formed either by a special form of the imperative.0 CONCLUSION In this unit. With the periphrastic or the gerundive. · While positive commands are formed either by a special form of the imperative. It is formed from a verb and it actually means must or ought or is to be . which are prohibitions. · There are two forms of command: the positive and the negative commands.bil.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The imperative mood is the mood used to express commands. the infinitve construct can also be used as a gerundive. An example of this could be found in Genesis 3:11: lkf)j yt@il. The infinitive absolute is the use of the verbal noun to express the bare idea of the verbal action. you have studied the imperative mood and the infinitive.hal. or the imperfect in an imperative context.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax )wOblf #Om#@Oeha yhiy:wA which would be translated it began to be that the sun e was about to set . are formed by the use of the imperfect in an imperative context with a negative particle.b@i has to be used prefixed with l.. There are two forms of command: the positive and the negative commands. or the imperfect in an imperative context. The imperative mood is the mood used to express commands. the negative commands. Finally. A good example could be found in Amos 6:10: hwFhy: M#O'b@.. is used here as the negative participle for the gerundive. In this gerundive. A good example is in 2 Kings 4:13: K7lf twO#o(jla hme t)Oz@ha which would be translated What is it to be done for you? Please note that to form the negative with the infinitive. which would be translated I commanded you not to eat . which would be translated the name of Yahweh must not be mentioned . It is usually used with the inflected form to emphasize the action or be used alone with the force of an exclamation or as adverb. the negative particle l. A gerundive is a Latin adjective ending in -ndus .

Germany: World Bible Societies. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel. · The infinitive absolute is usually used with the inflected form to emphasize the action or be used alone with the force of an exclamation or as adverb. Edward W. Murphey. Cecil B. · The infinitive absolute is the use of the verbal noun to express the bare idea of the verbal action. Yates.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax commands. What are the various ways in which the imperative may be used? 2. · The infinitive construct is the use of the infinitive as a gerund or as a gerundive. Kahle P.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. 6. R. (1954). (1980).. Goodrick. are formed by the use of the imperfect in an imperative context with a negative particle. (1977). Revised Edition. Differentiate between the functions of the infinitive absolute and the infinitive construct. 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Kyle M. which are prohibitions. Eibfeldt. (1989). and Kittel. O. Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. 129 . The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. New York: Harper and Row. A. Grand Rapids: Academie Books.

This is because the 130 . At this point.1 The Participle 3. we have studied about the infinitives. The particle is usually used when the speaker or writer wishes to lay stress on the continuation of an action that has been described. In this unit.0 INTRODUCTION You are welcomed to the second to the last unit of this course on Hebrew Syntax. you should be able to: · · · · · 3.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit. theoretically.3 The Participle as a Noun Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 4.0 2. both as an absolute and as a construct. as in the next unit.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 5: THE PARTICIPLES Content 1.0 6.0 5. albeit.0 7.2 The Participle as a Verb 3.1 Define a participle Exaplain the qualities of a participle Disucss the functions of a participle as a verb Discuss the functions of a participle as a noun Differentiate between a participle and an imperfect MAIN CONTENT The Participle The participle is a form of verb that is used to form complex tenses. we are going to study about the participles and their syntactical functions. would come to an end. they could also be used as adjectives.0 3.0 1. all to be learnt about Hebrew syntax. In the previous unit. what we will do mostly is going to be practical.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.0 3. Because of their nature. 2.

In other words.2 The Participle as a Verb As you have learnt earlier. The participle lp'nO can mean falling as in Numbers 24:4. but neither would be used exclusively. which would be translated Seraphim @a were standing above Him.b@i dxf)el.( would represented the continual standing of the seraphim above the throne of God while the imperfect hsekay: denotes the repeated act of covering of the face. one quality may be emphasized over the other. the action is prolonged (that is. we are going to examine the functions of a participle when the verbal quality is the prominent one. In this sub-unit. Let us examine the robustness of this idea from the scriptures. The use of the participle is actually expected to take us back to the event and help us to see the figures moving in the background.(o Mypir#o. each having six wings: with two he repeatedly covered his face . A good example can be found in Isaiah 6:2 where the two forms are used withing the same passage: #O#O' MyIpanfk@. In the use of the participle. it is important to differentiate between the imperfect and the participles. The use of the particple here is meant to picture the increasing momentum of the storm that has come upon the sea. Secondly. you need to note however that. participles partake together of the qualities of a verb and as well as of a noun. the action is multiplied (that is. carries a sense of repeatedness) while in the participle. 3. it can mean fallen as in Judges 4:22 and can also mean will be falling as in Jeremiah 37:14. the participle may be used in the sense of pulling aside a screen to allow the readers to see what is going on at the present moment. Firstly. This is the usage that was used in Genesis 4:10: yli)' Myqi(jco K1yxi)f ym'd:@ lwOq which would be translated the voice of your brother s blood is crying out 131 . F wynFpf hsekay: MyIt#O. MyIpanfk@. elongated). by virtue of their character. its idea of time has to be discerned from the context of the passage. #O#O' wOl l(am@ami MydIm. As a noun. the participle in its verbal use may be used to describe actions or to emphasize the duration of a given action in the past.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax descriptive power of the participle is great. the participle does not have any idea of time and as a verb. In this example. In the imperfect. the participle MydIm. At this point. A good example would be found in Jonah 1:11: r('sow: K7l'wOh My@Fha yki@ which would be translated for the sea was going and stormy . the imperfect is continual and the participle is continuous. This is why the New American Standard Bible has translated the phrase as follows: for the sea was becoming increasingly stormy .

When this happens. In the sub-unit. it is used to describe actions or emphasize the duration of a given action in the past. and it is thus rendered as a relative clause.0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The participle is a form of verb that is used to form complex tenses. we will look at the participle when the noun quality is emphasized. It can also be used in apposition with a noun thus becoming an adjective and can also be used emphatically to make it to be rendered as a relative clause. fire. the Hebrew hzexo would literally be translated one seeing . who had appeared unto him. The participle here Myqi(jco is used to picture the past deed of Cain as coming up in the present to make God to act. A good example of this would be found in Exodus 24:17: tlekv)o #O)'k@. Thirdly. we have looked at the functions of the particple when the verbal quality receives prominence.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax to me . hence would be the noun seer . which would be translated like a devouring fire . A good example would be found in Genesis 12:7: wylf)' h)er:n@iha hwFhyla which would be translated to Yahweh. devouring is used as an adjective to qualify the other noun. It is used mostly when the speaker wants to lay stress on the continuation of an action that has just been described. the participle takes on a new emphasis. it is possible that the participle in its noun emphasis.3 The Participle as a Noun In the sub-unit above. 4. it can be used either as a subject or the object of a sentence. For example. Thye can also be used as adjectives. Secondly. the participle may be used either as the subject or the object of the sentence. Firstly. It also has the capability to act as a noun as well as a verb. As a noun. The participle. The participle that had been rendered who had appeared would literally be translated the one appearing . As a verb. 3. the participle can be used in apposition with a noun and thus become an adjective. 5. 132 . to carry an article. in this case.0 CONCLUSION You have learnt the participle is a form of verb that is used to form complex tenses.

Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. 7. · Participles have the capability to act as a noun as well as a verb. · It can also be used in apposition with a noun thus becoming an adjective and can also be used emphatically to make it to be rendered as a relative clause. O. · As a verb. Cecil B. 133 . The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. it can be used either as a subject or the object of a sentence. Revised Edition. Discuss the use of the participle as a verb and also as a noun. (1989).0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. Germany: World Bible Societies. A. Murphey. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). R. Eibfeldt. Goodrick.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax · Participles can also be used as adjectives. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. · As a noun. Yates. Edward W. Kyle M.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Grand Rapids: Academie Books. (1980). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. New York: Harper and Row. 6. · Participles are used mostly when the speaker wants to lay stress on the continuation of an action that has just been described. and Kittel. (1977). Kahle P. (1954). it is used to describe actions or emphasize the duration of a given action in the past.. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel.

1 Practice Passage 1 3. let us move on to the practice passages. lay on your hands on some passages for practice.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit.0 3.2 Practice Passage 2 Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignments References/Further Readings 1. you should be able to: · Explain the syntactical relations as picked up in the passages · Undertake syntactical analysis on your own · Derive exegetical interpretation from the passages 3.Cre)fhf t)'w: MyIm#O@fha t)' Myhilo)v )rfbf@ ty#iO)r'b@i (1) a tpexeram.0 5.1 MAIN CONTENT Practice Passage 1 Cre)fhfw: (2) . Myhilo)v xaw@rw: MwOht. 2. Let me however let you know that mastering syntactical analsis has to do more with your resilience and constant practice.0 7. yn'p-l(a K7#eOxw: w@hbowF w@hto htfy:hf @.0 PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF SYNTACTIC RELATIONS 4. Now.MyIm@fha yn'p-l(a .0 3.0 6. This would give you an insight into how to undertake syntactical analysis of the passages of the Hebrew Bible on your own.0 2. you fail to at least once in week. If after this course. in a matter of months.rwO)-yhiy:wA rwO) yhiy: Myhilo)v rme)Oy@wA (3) . you would have forgotten all that you have been taught.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax UNIT 6: Content 1. .0 INTRODUCTION You are welcomed to the last unit of this course on Hebrew Syntax where attempts would be made to put into practice all the theoretical bits that have been studied across these pages.0 Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.@ 134 .

The second word that calls for attention is MyIm#O@fha. This word is also a combination of the definite a article and the noun and thus would translate the heavens . Hence.. K7#eOxha Nyb'w@ Myhilo)v rme)y@wA (6) . and so cannot be particularized as the most English translation implies.y@IwA (5) .y@AwA bwO+-yk@i rwO)hf-t)e Myhilo)v )r.ma yhiywI MyIm@fha K7wOtb@.MyImflf MyImf Nyb@' lyd@Ib. which means to 135 . the subject would overrule the third person pronoun. It also includes the fact that the existence of God in Hebrew theology is taken for granted. it is clear that there is no definite article here and unlike what most English Bible translation reads. the cosmos did not just come to be by accident. waters is also written in the permanent plural. When this happens in the Hebrew language.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax (4) rwO)hf Nyb@' Myhilo)v ld@'b. it would actually mean in beginning . The third verse has the word rme)yO@wA. hence the word would be translated and he began to say . they were called into being by God. In the second verse.dxf)e MwOy rqeb-yhiy:wA bre(-yhiy:wA hlfy:lf o e . third person masculine singular jussive. The next important word is yhiy: which is the qal imperfect. (ayqirf yhiy: In the first verse. There is also the word MyIm@fha which is a combination of the definite article and the noun waters . Myhilo)v rme)Oy@wA would be translated And God began to say . Verse two would be translated . It is important to note here also that like heavens. This is also theologically important because in the Hebrew worldview. which is the combination of the waw consecutive and the qal imperfect third person masculine singular from the root word rma)f meaning he said. The first verse would then read: In beginning God created the heavens and the earth. because the subject has been supplied. made up of preposition beth and feminine noun ty#iO)r' which means beginning . the first word needs close examination. It is important to note here that unlike the English language the Hebrew word for heavens is a plural word. Thus. The root word for the verb is hyFhf .. This is theologically important because it stresses the fact that no one knows when the beginning actually took place. there are seven heavens. Myhilo)v xaw@rw: would be translated the spirit of God .y@AwA )rfqf K7#eOxlaw: MwOy rwO)lf Myhilo)v )rfq. two nouns are standing side by side (though not joined together by a makkeph). In translating this however. the two nouns are said to be in construct relations and would be translated as in the possessive case. Thus. It is a compound word. It is also important to note that as far as the Hebrew worldview is concerned.

ynil'hjnay: twOxnum. Self-Assessment Exercise 1 Follow the examples above and try your hands on verses 4 to 6.)e )lo y(iro hwhy dwIdfl. hence it has been translated to mean a psalm of David thus carrying the idea that the psalm has been written by David.ynimuxjnay: hm@fh' K1t@en. The next word is very important and this is the word hwhy.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax be hence. The first two words in the first verse are very important in this passage because.O N(amal. The light that God created then is still the same light that we have to date. ym'-l(a ynic'yb@ir.nA (3) . and there began to be light . The presence of the waw consecutive would then change the meaning to the perfect form as indicated in the translation: And God said let there begin to be light. This traditional position has been buttressed as a result of the construct relationship that is expected to arise by the coming together of two nouns. they actually form the title of the psalm under consideration though they are written as part of the psalm.mab@.2 Practice Exercise 2 )#eOd@e twO)n:b@i (2) . The last two words in the first verse give the typial example of the use of the negative 136 . rwOmz:mi (1) ynix'n:yA bb'wO#Oy: y#iOp. The word following it is the qal active participle of the verb h(fr.wOm#. It has to be noted that though the word rwOmz:mi is a feminine noun meaning song or psalm the second word dwIdfl. In this second use of yhiy:wA.(. qdec-yl'g@. The word came up again in the third verse. 3. it is much more probably Yahweh. is a combination of the preposition lamedh (which can be translated as to . e . but this time prefixed to the waw consecutive.(#. for or at ) and the noun David and the words can be translated a psalm to David or a psalm of David . there comes a theological point. The name is usually considered too sacred for pronpunciation and thus usually written without vowel pointings. It is important to note that it is the addition of f the suffix y i that caused the dropping of the final h.Omiw@ K1+. this title has always been used to signify the idea of possession.b#Oi ydim@f(i ht@f)a-yk@i (rf )rfy)i-)lo a . When used along with the noun. the word would be translated let there begin to be .ca )yg'b@. This name however should not be pronounced Jehovah. Traditionally. This is the personal name of God that was revealed to Moses.rsfx. it would be translated Yahweh is my shepherd .yA twemfl. K7l')'-yk@i Mg@a (4) .

0 CONCLUSION In this unit. When all these words are put together. we have taken two familiar passages namely. the first verse would be translated A psalm of David. Also important. Self-Assessment Exercise 2 Following the example above. 5. Genesis 1:1-6 and Pslam 23:1-4 for hands on exercise in syntactical and exegetical analysis. undertake an analysis of the remaining verses. Eibfeldt. 4. · The word YHWH is the personal name of God that was revealed to Moses and was considered too sacred to be pronounced. For example.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. O. is the way the literal ranslations are compared with the existing English translations. they are said to be in construct relations and thus would be translated in the genitive case..0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Alt. (1977). A. hence it is usually written without vowels. Take another passage of the Hebrew Bible and try to do an analysis of the first two verses. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. · When two nouns are standing together. As you would have noticed above. 137 .0 SUMMARY The following are the major points you have learnt in this unit: · The article the is not part of the first phrase of Genesis 1:1. Germany: World Bible Societies. we have discovered that the article inserted into the first phrase in English versions of the Bible is not in the Hebrew Bible and thus point out its theological significance. no want .CTH316 Hebrew Syntax particle. Yahweh is my shepherd. the meanings and subsequently theological significances and brought to the fore as the words are analyzed based on their usage in the passage. 6. · Some Hebrew words are permanently written in the plural such as heavens and waters to reflect Hebraic thought on these words. and Kittel. R. Kahle P. 7.

Grand Rapids: Academie Books. Kyle M. Hebrew and English Bible (1997). (1989). Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson Books. Edward W.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Goodrick. Yates. (1954). The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew. Jerusalem: Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings and the Bible Society in Israel. 138 . Cecil B. New York: Harper and Row. The Dictionary of Biblical Literacy. (1980). Murphey. Revised Edition.

choose. eldest nothingness. My#Oi)b@. curse (f) fire (f) woman. wretched Abinadab vb. grave vb. mankind we vb. shine ark. female Beth in.na)j (Hi) Psa)f rsa)f NwOr)f zre)e xra)o rra)f #O)' h#@Of)i b b@. deal treacherously vb. consume (hi) kindle length 139 . r)'b@. chest cedar way. u dgab@f dgeb@e ldab@f rwOb@ #OwOb@ zzab@f rxab@f x+ab@f N+eb@e Nyb@i tyIb@a hkfb@f rwOkb@. be willing needy. gather assemble vb. be light. (Hi) explain (f) widow ox. be ashamed vb. llabf@ hnfb@f l(ab@a r(ab@f English man.)a Nwd)f Mdf)f hmfdf)j ynfdo)f bha)f lhe)o rwO) z)f twOx)f rxa)a y)a by')o K7y)' #Oy)i l)' l)e lyli)e hnfmfl)a . tent vb. spoil vb. bind. thousand (f) mother if. confuse vb. among (f) well odious grapes garment wife.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax Hebrew ) b)f dba)f hbf)f NwOyb. on. mourn (f) stone Abram GLOSSARY Hebrew #OwOn)v w@nx. build master. whether (f) truth. vb. master man. imprison (Ni) lord. weep first-born. ylib@. hut. plunder. love tent. trust (f) womb vb. mingle. habitation light vb. path vb. perceive. Ple)' M)' M)i tme)e K7re)o English Aleph father vb. not vb. prove vb. husband God unto worthless (pl) idols pit. ba al vb. perish destory vb. behind where? enemy how? how! man.)e bdfnfybi)j lba)f Nbe)e Mrfb. mankind (f) ground. firmness house. earth Lord vb. commander. select then sister after. (Hi) separate.

deliver vb. Abel glory. steal Daleth bear vb. overturn (ni) be chnaged vb. drive out w rain w: 140 . swelling vb. walk Waw and vb. roll also Nh' K7pahf (f) likeness. deal with. (pi) anoint He vapour. exultation uncover one s self vb. cleave. cleave. trample hkfd@f tled@e hmfd@f (f) gate. stranger K7lahf vb. kneel down. thistles vb. splendour temple multitude. spilt herd. (hi) drive away #Obad@. do grahf (good or evil) (f) vine hrfhf sojourner. (pi) crush.d@a #Orad@f )#fOd@f )#eOd@e N#Oad@f h lbehe dwOh lkfyh' vb. sprout grass vb.b@a xrab@f K7rab@f K7reb@e hkfrfb@. shoot. vb.@ t(ad@a rd@ar. kill vb. r#ofb@f tb@a htfb@f K7wOtb@. cattle morning vb. rule. speak (pi) plague. ask iron bnag@f d@ bd@o qbad@f rbad@f rbed@e vb. judge (ni) contend at law vb. tread. be proud mighty one. image (f) knowledge thorny plant. man (f) bank great. elder valley joy. be high. g NwO)g@f l)ag@f h@bag@f rbege@ hdfg@f lwOdg@f )yg@' lyg@i hlfg@f llag@f Mg@a lmag@f Npeg@e rg@' #Orag@f M#ego@e vb. flee. redeem.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax t(ab@f (qab@f rqab@f rqeb@o #Oqab@f lzer. reveal (ni) NwOmhf vb. door vb. bless gd@f (f) knee Nyd@i (f) blessing flesh (f) daughter. go. conceive vb. grand-daughter (f) desolation in the midst of Gimmel pride. be like (pi) compare tw@md. tumult behold! vb. cling vb. turn. (pi) seek. seek vb. seize suddenly vb. breath. pestilence honey fish vb. uncover. girl.

pure vb. think. abroad rwOh+f vb. sun favour. commit fornication hlfxf vb. wall. cry out hm@fx' old man. see. be strong. sacrifice sacrifice gold (hi) teach. new b#aOxf new moon. elder Nx' arm. rampart fat. kindness vb. fresh )m'+f (subs) life dew before. tremble (hi) terrify Teth clean. (pi) renew hp@fr. sin Mre+e (f) sin bwO+ (adj) living. plow. (ni) be enlightened. be in pain. lack vb. be clean (pi) purify vb. burn (f) reproach. cord Cx' vb. be sick (f) heat. pollute. prune (pi) sing llaxf MwOlxj ylix/ qlaxf vb. blexe Zayin vb. be unclean (pi) defile 141 . be good vb. keep a feast hbfrfxf vb. divide. shame vb. delight in vb. miss.xe fresh. cease hrfxf vb. gaze rha+f vb. engrave (hi) be silent vb. impute Horeb vb.xf lx' vb. strength dsexe vb. warn strength. be angry. handle (f) dry land vb. draxf bring forth (f) wall + outside. be a stranger (ni) be estranged vb. hide (ni) hide ttaxf one s self line. be dismayed (hi) terrify arrow. marrow vb. grace mercy. plunder vb.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax z xbazf xbaze bhfzf rhazf rw@z rkazf rkfzf rmazf hnfzf q(azf Nq'zf (aroz. remember male vb. (hi) seize l+a vb. month br'xo vb. writhe. (razf (raze x )bfxf lbexe ggaxf ldaxf #Odaxf #Odfxf #Odexo lw@x hmfwOx Cw@x hzfxf qzaxf )+fxf t)+@fxa yxa lyixa Mkfxf hmfk. not yet vb. skillful (f) wisdom bulwark. sow (hi) produce #Oraxf seed seed rsaxf Heth Cpaxf vb. power wise. pierce (hi) begin dream sickness vb.

pass the night vb. wash. be united lamb subdue vessel thus. Jerusalem dbal. upright dkalf remnant Nk'lf Kaph dmalf as. suck trak@f vb. seat silver. Nile one beloved vb. put on vb. as soon as Mxele Yodh river. for. at alone vb. repeat l#aOk@f vb. learn. by day (f) dove vb. fight. be dislocated l vb. do battle night vb. lament bw@rk@. bring forth. (pi) cover (pu) be atoned for cherub vineyard vb. capture therefore vb. be honoured xqalf honour. money bribe. (pi) teach why? vb. according to hmflf vb. add. (hi) decide. take tongue heart bread 142 . cut off vb. here star (f) cup dog harp. stumble vb. like.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax y rwO)y: dydiyf (dayf hdfw@hy: (a#OuwOhy: MmfwOy hnfwOy dxayf b+ayf NyIya xkayf dlayf llayf Nymiyf qnayf Psayf rsayf bqeye (qayf Cqayf MyIl#Ofw@ry: a xar'yf qreye #Orayf l)'rf#o. (ni) be rpak@f born. lyre (f) wing throne. be good (hi) do well )s@'k@i wine Psek@e vb. inherit Mxalf Israel hlfy:la straight. possess. wail. be clothed. glory NwO#Olf vb. (hi) beget vb. like. understand Judah Joshua daily. write (f) shoulder Lamedh to. chastise. (f) right hand Mrek@e vb. know. be heavy. moon #Obalf greenness. ransom vb. db'k@f dwObk@f sbak@f wOmk@f #obek@e #Obak@f dk@a hk@o bkfwOk@ swOk@ blek@e rwOn@k@i Pnfk@f vb. lodge.yi r#Ofyf rteye k@ k@. trample bl' as. prove rpek@o vb. foliage Nw@l vb. admonish btak@f wine-press Pt'k@f vb. awake l.

abode Moses vb. exceedingly (f) hundred anything luminary vb.Omi n M)un. messenger work. place. tell before. banish.mi hweq. support vb. give. serve servant. anoint anointed one proverb weight Nun oracle. rwO)mf N)amf s)amf ld@fg. lead river vb. mourn book Ayin dark. inherit. rest vb.ma hkf)lfm. reject. lean. sell angel. expel vb. servant vb. die death psalm east. present collection.mi Ng'mf ddamf hd@fmi tw@m twemf rwOmz:mi xrfz:mi rxfmf r+fmf Nymi rkamf K7)fl. pass over 143 . measure (f) measure vb. fall soul vb. lament. labourer vb. vow vow vb. NwOlmf xlame hk@fl. carry chief. business lodging-place salt (f) queen (f) offering. in the presence of vb. kiss vb. sunrise tomorrow rain species. copper libation vb.mi MwOqmf h#Oem x#aOmf xay#iOmf l#Ofmf lqf#. prince vb. kind vb. cloud vb. utterance south country dganf dgene xdanf rdanf rdene lhanf rhfnf xw@n lxanf #Oxfnf t#Oexn. (pi) refuse vb. surround circuit. take serpent (f) bronze. lift.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax m d)om. (pi) guide. around horse mare rock. refuse tower shield vb.ma hxfn. crag (f) fine flour vb. remove lad. bgene Mem very. h)fm' hmfw@)m. (hi) declare. turn. gathering dwelling. establish Samekh vb. K7sene (sanf r(ana lpanf #Opene )#ofnf )y#oinf q#Oanf Ntanf s bbasf bybisf sw@s hsfw@s (lase tleso K7masf dpasf rpes' ( b(f dba(f dbe(e rba(f vb.

gather vb. vex Qoph vb. world bird. awake strength vb. tpa@ xtap@e xtap@f htfp@f (#Oap@e tp@a htfp@f xtap@e c N)Oc )bfcf qd'cf qdece witness (f) testimony Eden vb. wait for height small. growth vb. abandon. east collect. be right (pi. hwfcf rwc qxacf NwOdyci xlacf Mlece twemfl. keep watch cruse adversary (f) adversity Zarephath vb. (pi) receive. Tsade NyIqa (f) flock ryqi host xmaqe vb. take vb. be open. be thirsty sprout. hi) justify hnfqf righteousness #O#aOqf (f) righteousness vb. go up dust tree Pe (f) side. be simple hwfqf rebellion. younger vb. acquire collect 144 . be little. bury before. laugh Zidon prosper image deep darkness vb. hoe vb. (pi) command rock vb. fly vb. fowl vb. small (f) incense Cain wall meal vb. be N+oqf simple (pi) deceive. bear witness. show hostility toward. corner here fruit bit. entice door tre+oq.cf rracf q lbaqf Cbaqf rbaqf Mdeqe vb. morsel door vb. morsel N+oqf vb. testify (f) burnt-offering age. eternity. cry out vb.ca )m'cf xmace q(acf hpfcf txap@aca rca hrfcf tpar. open hqfdfc. be open. transgression hmfwOq bit. collect. forsake vb.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax d(' tw@d(' Nde(' rda(f dw@( hlfwO( MlfwO( PwO( Pw@( rw@( z(o bza(f hlf(f rpf(f C(' p h)fp@' hp@o yrip@.

heal. be prudent. rise lw@)#O vb. bathe tb@#Oa f vb. contend )w:#Of strife bw@#O vb. minister vb. wicked Cra#Of Sin Cre#Oe vb. run lwO)#@O breadth l)a#fO vb. burn choicest vine Shin Saul (f) Sheol. be distant. drink 145 . swarm creeping things (coll) vb.#oi vb. rule. lie down vb. bull vb. tremble. aged vb. (hi) remove dda#Of vb. chief vb. break.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax r h)frf NwO#O)ri ty#Oi)r' y(iybir. devastate emptiness. smell #O vb. put. have dominion r#oa vb. joy. wash. laugh vb. refreshed qr'#o vb. pursue Pra#of vb. rest vb. sated tra#Of field. turn back. Cbarf zgarf lgere hdfrf Pdarf xwarf xayri Mw@r Cw@r bxaro Pxarf Cxarf qxarf byri byri bkarf bkere smarf #omarf b(frf h(ero ((arf )pfrf hcfrf xcarf (#Ofrf #o (ba#of hde#of qxa#of vb. slay. place vb. tramble hxf#Of vb. (hi) inhale. see by#oi first. underworld vb. put. festivity vb. forget peace offering falsehood. goat prince. ask rod. be evil bka#Of vb. hover. creep +xa#Of famine P+a#Of shepherd ty#Oi vb. tread. Sabbath vb. overwhelm vb. (pi) serve. deception vb. staff rest. murder rqe#Oe evil. be glad (f) rejoicing. strive. return trumpet ox. be enlarged. be Mle#Oe gracious to vb. be exalted. be agitated )n'#of (f) foot ry(i#of vb. slaughter vb. iniquity vb. lie down hxfm. delight in. head. ride rpfwO#O chariot rwO#O vb. wise vb. be gray. plain htf#Of Resh vb. cure xka#Of vb. bow down vb. ruin. be satisfied. flow. former My#oi (f) beginning lka#of fourth xma#of vb. rejoice. tribe. hate hairy. brood +be#Oe vb.

figure waste. formlessness (f) deep. finish. txat@a dymit@f Mmat@f Taw form. beneath. splendour (f) prayer vb. abyss under. continuity vb. thrust. seize.t@i hl@fpit. complete Taw sea monster (f) glory.CTH316 Hebrew Syntax t r)at@o w@ht@o MwOht@. catch vb. strike (f) heave-offering 146 . instead of t Nyn@it@a hrf)fp.@ #opat@f (pat@f hmfw@rt@.

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