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Theoretical background Our project is complete GUI based, menu driven project so we have to only click to perform any kind of functions because GUI based, menu driven system is more user friendly as compared to CUI based system. Our system can support VB and many of other picture formats. This project is able to maintain the databases of the clients, sub-brokers, transactions, logins of each client etc. We can easily add new clients, new sub-brokers, brokers and transaction details of the clients. This project is operated by many kinds of users As far as user characteristic are concerned that any user is able to operate the project hence very much skills are not required, thus the user characteristics decide the training plan also.

Types of Funds
These funds are of various types and setup for various purposes and objectives. Some are closed ended with contributions from members collected during a definite time frame of a few days to a few months. Thus, the issue of Can Growth was kept open for only a few days, while the LIC Mutual Fund (viz., Dhanaraksha) was kept open for a few months. The life of the Fund, which is closeended, may also be for a specific period of 5 to 7 years after which the income and profits in the form of capital appreciation etc. Are all distributed back to the members after deduction of expenses of the Funds by its Trustees. Some of the Mutual Funds are open -ended like the UTI scheme of 1964 under which units are purchased and sold throughout the year and a member can enter the scheme anytime or walk out of it also any time. Further, the Fund can be classified into three types by objectives, namely, those incomes alone, for growth alone and for both. The income Funds aim at the maximization of income without pursuing the growth objectives while the growth Funds specialize in securing capital appreciation, irrespective of income. But income and growth Funds aim at both and in a judicious mix. These Funds can also be classified into various types based on the pattern of their investments. Some Funds may invest in debentures alone or fixed interest securities like the Government Bonds and Treasury Bills. Others may invest in variable dividend securities like equities and semi-government Bonds called GILT FUNDS. In advanced countries these are Fund specializing in this manner in fact some Funds are set up only for investment in real estate. In the countries like the USA and the UK, where the mutual Fund business has grown vastly, there are thousands of such Funds, some of them being quoted and traded on the stock exchanges as well. In these countries, mutual funds are well regulated but permitted to be setup in the private sector. Besides, the Funds business has just been initiated by breaking the monopoly of the UTI for the first time but even so, the permission to set up mutual Funds in INDIA was granted only to public sector agencies until 1992. The policy has been liberalized since, to permit private sector also to set up Mutual Fund. There are at present 32 private Mutual sector Funds operating in addition to 12 public sector Mutual Funds.

Sources of Funds
For every business enterprise, there are two sources of business Fund. These are:
1. 2.

Owner's Fund. Borrowed Fund. Owner's Fund


Owners Fund refers to the Funds contributed by owners as well as the accumulated profit of company. This Fund remains with the company and it has no liability to return this Fund.


For Example, equity shares, retained earnings. Main Features of Owners Fund are: Source of permanent Capital. The owners Fund remains permanently invested in the business. It is not refundable like loan or borrowed Fund. A large part of owner Fund is used for acquiring fixed assets. This type of finance is available for all purposes throughout the life of business. Provision of Risk Capital. The owners Fund is also known as the risk capital of the business, as the result on this capital depends upon the rate of earning of the company. In case company is incurring loss then it is not compulsory to pay any return on owners Fund. If loss continues owners may be unable the recover even their original investment. The return on owners varies with the profit earning of the company, which is why it is called risky capital. No Security Required. No security required. Sources of Owner's Fund. The owner fund comprises of share unity has to be offered against ownership capital retained earnings. MERITES OF OWNER'S FUND The advantages of ownership capital are: Permanent Capital. The owner's Fund remains with the business permanently. It is not refundable capital. Improve credit. Worthiness. The amount of owner's fund in the capital improves the credit-worthiness of the company. No Security Required. Company has to offer no security for raising capital from owner's Fund. High amount of Funds can be generated. Unlimited amount of capital can be raised by issue of owner's Fund security. Right to Control. The final decision in the business organization is taken by the owner's DEMERITS OF OWNER'S FUND There are certain limitations of ownership capital. These are: Diffusion of Control. This may reduce the control and powers of the real owners who have promoted the company. Under-Utilization of Capital. Ownership Funds cannot be reduced easily as this are a permanent source of capital. 2. BORROWED FUND Borrowed Fund refers to the borrowing if the firm. It includes all Funds available by way of loans or credit. Features of Borrowed Fund Capital are: Fixed Time. The Borrowed Fund is raised by business firm for specified periods. These Funds may be raised for short term, medium term or long term. Security. Generally firm can borrowed Funds against the security of assets. Bank and financial institutions offer loans on different terms against the security of assets. Regular Payment of Interest. It is legal compulsion of business firm to pay a regular amount of interest on borrowed fund. The principal amount also has to be paid within a fixed time period. Control. The borrowed Fund security holders have the right to sue the firm in case there is default in payment of Interest or repayment of loan amount.


Merits of Borrowed Fund Inference Infer. Borrowed Fund security holders do not get any right to control. Interest as an Expense. The interest paid on borrowed fund is treated as an expense and is deducted from the total income of the firm while calculating the income tax. So the tax liability is reduced. Flexibility. The amount of borrowed Fund can be increased by raising more and can be decreased by paying them back. Fixed Rate of Interest. A fixed rate of interest is paid on borrowed Fund. Demerits of borrowed Funds Adequate security. Borrowed Funds are usually available up to 80% of the value of assets. Fixed liability. Payment of interest and repayment of principal amount of borrowed fund is a fixed liability of company.

Methods of Raising Fund

Companies can raise fund from the following methods: Retained earnings Trade credit Factoring Public deposit Commercial paper Shares: Equity shares and Preference shares Debentures Commercial banks

Retained Profits/Earnings Retained profits are also known as plaguing back of profit, retained earnings, self-fund or internal fund, reserves or surplus. Retained earnings refer to undistributed profits after payment or divided and taxes. It provides and the basis of expansion and growth of companies. It is considered the most important source of fund; since it is internally generated, this method of fund is known as FUND Self. Features of Retained earnings: Cushion of Security. The retained earnings are considered as a Cushion of Security because they provide support in times of adversity. Funds for new and innovative Projects. The retained earnings are a common source of funds for financing risky and innovative Projects. It is used for research work. Medium and long term Finance, Retained profit Is considered as an ownership Fund. Trade Credit Trade Credit refers to arrangements were by a manufactures is granted credit from the supplier of raw materials, inputs, spare parts etc. The suppliers allow their customers to pay their outstanding balance, within a credit period. Generally the duration of trade credit is three to six months and thus it is a short term financing facility. The availability of trade credit depends upon: Nature of the firm Size of the firm Status or credit worthiness of the firm.


Factoring Factoring is a financial serviSystem Requirement Specificationce under which factor renders the following services: Discounting of Bills of Exchange: When goods are sold on credit then a supplier generally draws bills of exchange upon customers who are required to accept the same. The term of bills of exchange is generally three months. Instead of holding or keeping the bill with himself the supplier gets it enchased before maturity date is called Discounting of Bills. Providing information regarding the Creditworthiness of Prospective clients: Factors collect detailed Information regarding the financial history of different companies, which can be used by the financier who may lend money to these companies. Leasing Financing: Leasing is a contract between lesser and lessee, whereby the lesser permits the lessee to use the asset acquired by the lesser in return of a payment called rent. Lesser: Lesser is called the owner of the assets and lessee hires the assets by paying rent. With leasing contract the lessee can use the assets without investing a high amount of fund for buying it. Public Deposits Public Deposits refers to unsecured deposits invited from the public. A company wishing to invite public deposits places advertisement in newspapers. Any member of public can fill up the prescribed from and deposit money with the company. Public deposits are simple to rise. A company simply has to place and advertisements in the newspaper. Any member of the public can deposit money with company by filling a prescribed form. The company issues a deposit receipt in return and on the reverse of the receipt the term and condition of the deposits are printed. Commercial papers Commercial papers are a source of short-term funds. The commerce paper was introduced in India for the first time in 1990. It is an unsecured promissory note issued by public or privet sector companies with a fixed maturity period, which varies from 3 to 12 months. Since these are unsecured that is why companies having a good reputation generally issue these, it is a continuous source of Funds as its maturity can be changed according to the requirement of the company. Cost of issuing commercial paper is low. It is lower than the cost involved in taking loan. Commercial papers are freely negotiable instruments; Companies can also invest their axis money in discounting the commercial papers and earn a good amount of return. Commercial papers are an impersonal method of financing. Shares A share is the smallest unit in which owner's capital of the company is divided. A share is the interest of the shareholder in the company measured by a sum of money for the purpose of liabilities and interest. Shares are two types: Equity shares. Preferences shares Equity shares Equity share is the common security issued under permanent or owner's fund. The equity shares are those shares, which do not carry any special or preferential rights in the payment of annual dividend or repayment of capital, at the time of winding up also capital of equity shareholders is returned only after every claim has been settle. Act permitting companies to issue two categories of Equity Shares:


Equity shares with equal rights. Equity shares with differential rights as to dividend. Preferences shares The face value of preference share is generally high. The preferences attract cautious and conservative investors. The risk involved in preference shares is relatively less. Preferences shares are those shares, which get preference over equity shares in respect; preference shares are of two types: The payment of dividend. The repayment of investment amount during winding up. Debentures Debentures are common securities issued under borrowed fund capital Debentures are instruments for raising long-term debt capital. Debentures are called creditors ship securities because debentures-holders are called creditors of a company. "A debentures can be defined as a document or a certificate issued by a company under its seal as acknowledgement of its debt. Holder of debenture certificate is called debenture holder." Commercial Bank Commercial banks occupy a very important position as they provide funds for different purposes and different periods. Firms of all size can approach commercial banks. Generally commercial banks provide short and mediums term loans but nowadays they have started giving long-term loans again security.



The main aim to design the project is to manage funds of the clients of the organization. Using this system any person can manage his fund transaction, can view his broker and sub-broker details and can view each and every detail of their funds in a very convenient manner. This project is able to maintain the databases of the clients, sub-brokers, transactions, logins of each client etc. We can easily add new clients, new sub-brokers, brokers and transaction details of the clients. E-Fund Management is been developed to provide solution to companies that are doing business of providing funds to their clients. We have provided five forms as Client form, Sub Broker form, Transaction form, MIS Entries form, and Report form. The most interesting part of the software is that you can create report at any time and especially you can create report of the profit or growth of company between specific intervals.



The first step in an initial investigation is to define the problem that led to the user request. The problem must be stated clearly, understood & agreed upon by the user and the analyst. It must state the objective the user is trying to achieve the result the user want to see. Emphasis should be on the logical requirement of the problem rather than the physical requirements. Given user identification of need the analyst proceeds to verify the problem by separating symptoms from causes. Related to the problem identification is the verification of customer requirement- the quick and accurate of project information. The project named "E-Fund Management System" is the project, which enables the organization to maintain the database of each and every client and their transactions, reports and to view all these reports. While making this project we felt that the project is planed only for certain specifics tasks and is also restricted to online working. Secondly, since the system requires data handling, a suitable database should be used with tables for storing various types of data. There is a question of referential integrity involved, so the SQL should be provided for that also. Since this system has heavy interaction with user, it should have a powerful end user interface; preferably graphical user interface should be used. It should be able to handle function. It is supposed to handle & should be correct. It implies correction as criticism. The performance of the system should be fast and reliable. The result should be consistent that is no two simultaneous operation of the same produce different results depending on their order of application. There should be no data redundancy. Any one should not manipulate the client records except authorized members that are security should be enforced. SQL as a back- end must be used since large volume of interrelated data is involved. Hence, the error may also occur by conflicting between differences of various operating systems. If you will make this project under Windows XP and Office 2003 & will run and test it on an older operating system such as Windows 98 having MS-Office 97 or 2000, then at the time of running this project, a runtime error will generate.


The database tables should be normalized in order to avoid redundancy. Since if, only computer is used for transaction, so no concurrency problem will arrive. Since there are some tables that work as back- end, so a password facility must be provided, hence this project is constructed under windows based application, & a window is a graphical user interface, so a graphical user interface must be provided, so that users may find interaction with the system with easy task. User cannot do any more correction in this project without having any knowledge about coding in visual User cannot understand the coding of this project without in-depth knowledge of coding in visual I have faced a lot of problem during making this project. For example: - compilation error, coding errors, wrong events and wrong connection make calling errors. These errors are human generated so this fact doesn't have any doubt that if the above error will occur at the running of this project the output will not be up to user satisfaction. Besides the problem of reliability, validity, accuracy, economy and timeliness capacity are common. A capacity problem occurs when a component of a system is not large enough. PERT CHART It means program evaluation review technique chart. It is used to represent graphically the project task activities and their relationship. Different features on the PERT chart can highlight the different types of tasks. The special feature of the PERT is that connecting an activity with its predecessor and successor activities shows the ordering of activities. But the relative size of node, which represents an activity by arcs, does not imply the activity duration. Features of PERT: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. PERT usually shows the sequence decencies between activities of software project. PERT never shows the time overlap of activities but it can be done in parallel. The slake time between two processes is represented in PRTS by showing data within the activity network. It forces the manager to do planning properly. It shows the interrelationship among the tasks in the project and in particular, clearly identifies the critical path of the project. It exposes all possible parallelism in the activities and thus helps in allocating resources. It enables manager to monitor and control the project.

Project scheduling and management requires that time, casts and resources be controlled resources & any person, group of people, piece of equipment of material used in accomplishing an activity & PERT is a critical path scheduling technology used for controlling resources. A critical path refers to a sequence of activities whose order and duration directly method PERT is one of the most widely used and best known. PERT control time and cost during the project and also facilitates finding the right balance between completing the project on time and completing it within the budget. PERT recognizes that projects are complex, that some task must be completed before the others can be started, and the appropriate way to manage a project is to define and control each task. PERT is designed to facilitate getting a project back on schedule.


Docu menta tion

START Analys is


Desig n

Deplo yment Testin g Integr ation

Codin g

GANTT CHART A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool in 1917 by Henry L. Gantt, An American Engineer and social scientist. Frequently used in project management, Gantt chart provides a graphical illustration of a schedule that helps to plan, coordinate, & track specific task in the project. Gantt charts may be simple versions created on graph paper or more complex automated versions created using project management applications. Such as Microsoft project or Excel permanently. It is not refundable capital.

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21 Nov Start

25 Nov

3 Dec.

9 Dec.

11 Dec.

14 Dec.









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WATERFALL MODEL It is the simplest, oldest and most widely used process model. In this model, each phase of the life cycle is completed before the start of a new phase. It is actually the first engineering approach of the software development. The waterfall model provides a systematic and sequential approach to software development; it can accommodate new requirements only in the maintenance phase. There is no way of judging the problem of the software in-between different.

Update and







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This project is very small scale project thus required nominal H/W like Memory Monitor Keyboard Hard Disk Floppy Disk Mouse Processor Printers 16 MB RAM PCI/VGA 108 keys 30 MB 1.44 MB Two Buttons 100 MHz Laser/Inkjet Printer

This project is simple to run in windows environment with its product specification i.e., Operating System Windows XP or above Frontend Required Visual C#2008 Backend Required SQL 2005 Concurrency Issues Concurrency issue are considered when the project is multi-user so these issues details about the limitations of multi-user system but our project is a single user so these issues have no consideration at all. Performance required Efficiency

Efficiency tells the accuracy and preciseness of the project. The calculation efficiency depends on the software that is used to develop the project limit but we have to make as efficiency need project which fulfil the organization need efficiently. Response time

The duration between two events when system accepts the data and provides the out response time which mainly depends on the processors speed in the machine and the complete transition path, which travel the data over project, limited number of modules and thus response time is only fraction as second.

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OS Software The software is generated using Windows XP as operating system Visual studio. Net 2008, SQL server 2005 FRONT END:- VISUAL C#.NET 2008 .NET is a "software platform". It is a language-neutral environment for developing rich .Net experiences and building applications that can easily and securely operate within it. When developed, those applications will target .Net and will execute wherever .Net is implemented instead of targeting a particular hardware OS combination. The components that make up the .Net platform are collectively called the .Net framework. The .Net framework is a managed, type-safe environment for developing and executing applications. The .Net framework manages all aspects of program execution, like allocation of memory for the storage of data and instructions, granting and denying permissions to the application, managing execution of the application and reallocation of memory for j resources that are not needed Operating System Windows XP*2 Is considered as a standard operating system to develop this project but it can also be developed at all derivatives of windows operating system. Windows XP-2 includes following new features.
A web-aware user interface that allows web like views of local resources and a single tool for

browsing local. Network and internet resources. Integrated internet software including Microsoft internet Explorer, outlook Express, NetMeeting, personal Web Server, Front Pad, and NetShow. Improved networking support with a faster TCP/IP protocol stack, improved dialup networking. And support for virtual private networking. Support for FAT-32 drives and a FAT-32 conversion utility. Support for Universal Versatile Disc (DVD) and for multiple monitors on a single computer.

Browser These are specially required when the web pages are included within the project and the project is internet or internet based project some popular web browser are Internet Explorer, Netscape navigator etc. but here no such requirement of this browser. Server Servers are all required when the project servers are puts IIS, Apache etc. but here such requirement is not necessary. Feasibility Study When once relevant team members recognize a need then the proposed system is evaluated with reference to certain parameters related to our organization. With reference to each given below parameter, the fact is determined that "Whether the system is feasible or not" and after only this evaluation system will proceed. Parameters are given below:

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Economical Feasibility Whatever the project worth for an organisation but this feasibility decides the cost/benefit analysis of the system because until and unless the project is not economical so it is not feasible to us. As we are designing our college project with very less resources so its cost is Rs. 5.00 only. Technical Feasibility This feasibility determines the utilization of existing available hardware and software resources with the organization as we are automating the system and we are not having any concerned of the software or hardware installed. Concerning software part people will take a short training and will be sufficient to handle the project. Time Feasibility System is so good but it cannot be developed in the desired schedule so it has no use. Our project is time feasible because we were able to develop this project within the given time course. Resource Feasibility This feasibility decides the utilization of remaining all existing resources of an organization. Our project is very simple and it requires very less resources apart from desired, so we have no need to spend additional resources cost. Behavioural Feasibility Behavioural feasibility is the most important feasibility, which decides the under acceptance of the project within the organization. Our project is user friendly as it takes very less time for training and is easy to operate or handle the project.

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Policies Goals Objectives Organization Structure

The Organization

Authority Relationship Job functions Information Relationships Interpersonal Relationships


User staff

Information Gathering

Work Flow Methods and Procedures Work Schedules

The Work Itself

Categories of Information Information Gathering: The analyst must decide on the information gathering tool and how it must be used. Although there are no standard rules for specifying their use, an important rule is that information must be required accurately, methodically, under the right conditions, and with minimum interruption to user personnel. For example, if the analyst needs only information available in existing manual is not up to date.

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Review literature, Procedure, and Forms

On-site Observation

Information Gathering Tools Interview

Data Organization

The work itself

Information Gathering Methods

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Application Security Unauthorized users can not access any kind of information within project for this we are providing the user-id and password and a master password option which can be accessed by only authorized users. Maintainability The project is user friendly and provides certain helping tips for manage and maintain the system easily. Due to this small error can be removed by the user himself, Reliability The system does not have any problem within it and it performs process complexly and effectively. Portability Current systems standard operating system is windows 98/XP-2 but it is portable to any version or derivates of windows as well as it can be used with stand alone PC per with network system. Extensibility Additional of certain new modules as per the requirements of user do not afford the remaining project and easily it will be added to fulfil the need of user. Reusability The project has certain generalized modules and these modules can be utilized to extension and enhance the project so reusability of these module make the enhancement very easy.

Register yourself

If new user then

Enter your username & password

Yes Add client, sub-broker, transaction, MIS entry detail


View client,subbroker,transaction, MISreport detail


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E-R Diagrams A diagram explains physical and logical arrangement of the database table and relationship, that diagram is known as ER diagram. Due to less space, we had first shown entity and their attributes of our project and then relationship between these entities. Entity relationship model for data uses three features to describe data are: Entities: - which specify distinct-real-world items in an application.

Relationships: - which connect entities and represent meaningful dependencies between them.

Attribute: - which specify properties of entities and relationships.

Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) This first step is to draw a "Data-Flow-Diagram". The DFD was first developed by Larry Constantine as a way of expressing system requirements in a graphical form. A DFD is also known as a "BUBBLE CHART". It has the purpose of clarifying system requirements & identifying major transactions. A DFD consists of a series of bubble joined by lines. The bubbles represent data transactions & the lines represent data flow in the system. A DFD typically shows the minimum contents of data about project, means the diagrammatic representation of project. Questionnaires can be used to provide information for a first-cut. The DFD methodology is quite effective, especially when the required design in unclear & the user & the analyst need a national language for communication. Source or destination of data: - Source or destination shows the square.

Data Flow:- An arrow shows the data flow, data in motion. It is pipeline through which data flows in a specific direction from origin to designator in the form of document letter, telephone or other medium. Data flows in a packet of data's.

Process: - A process or bubble shows process of data flowing in the form of incoming data to outgoing data.


Data store:- An open or close rectangular shows data-store. Data in rest or temporary restoring of data. Here data are stored; it may be representing computer or non-computer devices. Each components of DFD is labelled as a descriptive name.





Title Client code L name

Name State Title E mail State Country DOB

F name




Pin code DOB a\c no. Country E code Post Name of bank Gender Address of bank Joining date Experienc e Branch code a\c no. Salary


state Transaction no.

Clint code L name

title F name

Client no.

Client name For year

Ph. No.

Fund name




DOB Account No. Gender

Pin code country Name of bank Address of bank

Fund scheme

Amt in rupees

Sub-broker Name

Investment date


Transaction no. Transaction no. Client name Sub broker name Fund name Client name Add Transact ion Fund Administrati on charge Actual amt Investme nt date Amt in rupees Fund scheme Fund mgmt CONTAINS MIS Entry date month Fund name Sub broker Paid amt Allocation charge

Basic amount

For year

Fund rate













Client Code Title Title L Name F Name State F Name State Country L Name DOB



Sub Broker

State Address Pin Code E Code Gender Country Joining Date Post



Branch Code DO

Main tain

Transaction No

Basic Amt

Fund Name Sub Broker Name

Transaction No.

Sub Broker Name

Date Paid Amt Month

Client Name

Fund Name Client Name Add Transaction CONTAINS MIS Entry

Allocation Charge

For Year

Fund Scheme

Administration Charge

Fund Scheme Actual Amt

Investment Date

Amt in Rupees

Fund Rate Fund Mgt















Login to your account. If new user then register.


Add client, sub-broker, transaction & MIS as per requirement

View your client, subbroker, transaction & MIS details.




USER (1) Command to add new client



(2) Command to add new client (4) Show Form (5) Command to save client detail (6) Command to save client detail (3) Open form to fill client detail.

(7) Client details saved & main page is shown

(9) Command to add new transaction, MIS

(8) Main form displayed

(10) Command to add new (11) Transaction & MIS added (12) Command to view client, sub-broker transaction & MIS details as per requirement

(13) Command to view client, sub-broker transaction & MIS details (14) Details shown to user

(16) Details shown to user

(15) Details shown to user




















Create serial No

Enter client, sub-broker transaction information

Insert Information


Submit Information

Prompt information is submitted






EXIT Add View

Add MIS entry Add Client

View Client

View Transaction

Add Transaction Add Subbroker

View Subbroker View MIS entry

1. 2.

First for login, enter user id and password. If user id and password is correct then, following forms will appear, (I) Add (II) View

In Add the following forms will appear. a) Add client, which contains the details about client. b) Add sub-broker, which contains the details about sub-broker. c) Add Transaction, which contains the details about Transaction. d) Add MIS entry, which contains the details about MIS entry, In view the following forms will appear: a) View client, which contains the details about client. b) View sub-broker, which contains the details about sub-broker. c) View Transaction, which contains the details about Transaction. d) View MIS entry, which contains the details about MIS entry. 3. And if user id and password is incorrect then, exit.


System design is a solution that tells us to approach to the creation of the new system. It provides the understanding and procedural details necessary for implementing the feasibility study. Coding: Coding is the process of translating of the procedure design specification into a suitable programming language. It envelops the development of the computer program each of which forms a component of system, which is integrated to achieve all our function Testing: Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the coding. It also uncovers errors in software. Implementing: Implementation means the process of converting a new or revised system design into an operational one and post implementation review measures, the system perform against predefined requirements. Support: Waterfall diagram supports us to show the clear description of our project in a very systematic manner so that one can understand the project in one glance.


Design has been described as a multi step process in which representations of data structures, program structures, interface characteristics and procedural details are synthesized from information requirements. Design is an activity concerned with making major decisions often of a structural nature. It shares with programming a concern for abstracting information representation and processing sequences, but the level of detail is quite different at the extremes. Design builds coherent, wellplanned. Representations of programs that concentrate on the interrelationships of parts at the higher level and logical operations at the lower level


Software interface: The term software interface defines the additional software, which is required to run the project smoothly. In our project we aren't required additional software interface the project is smoothly developed frame work 3.5. Hardware interface: If the project has some additional hardware requirement to run smoothly than these are considered as hardware interface like modem, network card etc. required for all network and internet bases projects but there is no requirement of these types of hardware interface to our project. Communication interface: When the project is networking based project than the project required communication interface like TCP/IP, IPX / SPX etc are required to implement the project but our project had no need of such communication interface as the project is PC based project. Design constrains: Standard Compliance: Each and every organization has some specific business rules within over organization the project is always concentrate on all those business rules .The rules are the standard compliance for the project, but the developed project is a demo concept only.













































After completing and integrating the software module, software must be tested to uncover as many errors as possible before deliver to our customer. Testing is a process of executing with the intent of finding an error. To uncover all possible errors of our project we are going to perform following four testing's:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Black Box Testing White Box Testing Alpha Testing Beta Testing

BLACKBOX TESTING This testing allowed to tests that are conducted at the software interface. Although they are designs to uncover errors, black box testing are used to demonstrate that software functions are operational, that input is properly accepted and out is correctly produced, and that the integrity of external information is maintained. A black box test examines some fundamental aspects of the system with little regard for the internal logical structure of the software. Without complete knowledge of internal workings it is difficult to design test cases. Black box testing is also called Behavioural testing, focuses on the functional requirements of the software. That is black box testing enables us to derive sets of input conditions that will fully exercise all functional requirements of the program. Black box testing is not an alternative to White box testing. Rather, it is complimentary approach that is likely to uncover a different class of errors than white box methods. (a) Black box testing attempts to find errors. (b) Incorrect or missing functions. (c) Interface errors. (d) Errors in data structure or external database access. (e) Behaviour or performance of errors. (f) Initialization and termination errors. WHITEBOX TESTING Although Visual C# itself is capable to judge the control structure errors quite accurately but still to ensure that the correct logical flow of coding, white box testing is required. White box testing of software is predicted on close examination procedural detail. Logical paths through the software are tested by providing test cases that exercise specific sets of condition and/or loops. The status of the program may be examined at various points to determine if the expected or asserted status corresponds to the actual status. But in practice it is revealed that taking logical paths is almost impossible even for s small program and hence several white box testing is done on small number of paths where flow of data is important from result point of view.


White box testing is also called, as glass box testing is a case design method that used the control structures of the procedural design test case. Using white box some tests were derived that: Guarantee that all independent paths within a module have been exercised at least once. Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides. Execute all selected loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds. Exercise internal data structures to ensure their validity.

ALPHA TESTING It is the routine testing at developers end in which all the possible bugs are removed, all possible modules are presented according to user, all desired calculations are correctly performed. BETA TESTING This is the real testing of project, which is performed at the user's site, Here user himself test the project on his own interest parameters and the extent at which the customers is satisfied will be decided otherwise some modifications are suggested by the user and then apply this modification to the project to make that project up to date.

Debugging is a consequence of successful testing. That is when a test care uncovers an error, debugging is the process that results in the removal of errors. There are mainly two types of debugging. Backtracking: Backtracking is a fairly common debugging approach that can be used successfully in small programs. Beginning at the site where a symptom has been uncovered, the source code is traced backward until the site of the cause is found. Brute Forcing: This is the most common category of debugging which involves loading the source code with write statements and tracking line by line execution to isolate possible errors.


There are many future scopes on this project. 1. We will create an online website for this. 2. The client can easily maintain the records and transaction. 3. Easily calculate the interest rate of the clients borrowing fund. 4. Gives a simplified report over each and every transaction. 5. In this we can add as much facility we can give to you.

In this project we used C# .NET and SQL but in future we also improve the technologic so well give you many facilities.


Practical Training is a very important part of the curriculum as it strengthens the concepts and enhances knowledge about the practical implementation of all the theory concepts, we have learnt so far in different subjects. This training helped us learn a lot. In this training we did the project on railway reservation system. This project is used to keep a track on reserving the seat to the passenger. It helps managing the system very efficiently and conveniently. Finally, this gives us a lot of mental satisfaction that the project we have worked upon is a real time project, which will be installed at the customer site after some more session of regress testing. Although the project work has been done in a complete and detailed manner but due to the constraint of time, we could not include some more features we wanted to. We left these features as a part of the future development. As soon as well get time well try to add them to my project.


REFERENCES for detailed study of fund management and funding in an organization. Mastering Visual Basic.Net (by Evangelos petrotsos) for connectivity coding. (Fund china organization) to study how to provide the interface between the system being developed and the organization