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LECTURER Group members
HENG Seiha Khun naykieng Huot dany Chea Chanthearith Iv Chakriya SAY Vortana
Then. enduring. it was divided Palestine territory into two: 56. It lies between the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.000 inhabitants based on the British census showed. the Zionist emigration dramatically increased. they lost their self-determination over their ancestor’s lands due to Zionist’s intrusion. during the British colonization. however. 1 . which ruled Palestine since 1920 ended.53% to the Arab state. Introduction Israeli and Palestinian (Arab-Israeli) conflict is one of the most chronic.Institute of Foreign Languages DIS Peace Study HENG Seiha Israel and Palestine Conflict I. The United Nations took responsibility hanged over by Britain for solving the Zionist-Arab problem to the UN after British colonization. and after they came and bought Palestinian land under the name of Jewish people and never sold back to Palestinian people. In the late 1800s. the return of the land forefathers after centuries of persecution around the world marked the starting of this conflict what it is said “One land with two people”. Their presence in Palestinian’s ancestor land was to create Jewish community homeland. Arab community started to be aware of true intention of Zionists and realized that Zionist immigration and land buying sooner or later will put Arab Palestinian community into danger and alarmed. UN partition of Palestine. there was a movement of an east western European group called Zionists. many more Zionists immigration into Palestine because of mass killing Jewish activities from Hitler’s Nazi regime in Germany. expulsion. which was preoccupied by Arab Palestinians. violent and ongoing conflicts. As a result. and it deeply takes roots over historical claims to the land between Palestinians and Jewish people of Israel. they claim Israeli territory nowadays is their ancient time ancestors’ land. More significantly. 2011). the movement immigration of Zionists into Palestine was nothing noticeable. created a UN partition plan which was received dramatically unaccepted by Palestine side. Jewish land ownership had increased from approximately 1% to over 6% of the land (Al Nakba. in the 1930s. And. the current land is a province of Ottoman Empire. particularly. British colonization and military occupation. For the Palestinians. 2009). Furthermore..47% of Palestine to the Jewish state and 43. but later on. Historically. this plan was never implemented until now (BBC. At first. For Israeli. In the plan. in 1922 the Jewish population had risen to about 11% of Palestine's 750.
Lebanon. On March 10. In short. the following parts of this paper will focus on trend dynamic analysis within timeframe since 2008 up to 2011. The day after the state of Israel was declared five Arab armies from Jordan. and propose some feasible solutions and mechanisms to help minimizing cost of conflicts or even if possible to end this ongoing conflicts. this paper try to examine the existing mechanisms and evaluate effectiveness of those mechanisms as well as try to figure out. 2 . 1948. Armistices established Israel's borders on the frontier of most of the earlier British Mandate Palestine (BBC. 2006). women and children out of their residents. and issues. Palestinian refugees are the largest remaining refugee population in the world (Al Nakba. 2009). According to the journal article written by Ilan Pappe on “The 1948 Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine”. Over the 60 years since Israel’s founding on May 14. which includes actors. and the Israeli army crushed pockets of resistance.000 Palestinian men. 1948. Establishment of Israel State.Institute of Foreign Languages DIS Peace Study HENG Seiha The recognition of Israel as an independent state on 15 May 1948 in Tel Aviv after WWII fueled anger and hatred from Palestinian population and Arab community while there were still thousands of Palestinian refugees fled and evicted from their land and never allowed to return. this profound injustice has continued. Egypt. And this is considered as alternative root causes of Israeli and Palestinian conflict. the root causes of this conflict. stated that 11 superior Israeli leaders with their armed officers conducted final ethnic cleansing plan what is called Plan D by expelling over 750. demolishing their homes and planting mines around their lands to prevent them return back (Ilan Pappe. interests. More significantly. Syria and Iraq immediately invaded Israel but were repulsed. 2011).
the dispute always happens between these two states. and the cease-fire cannot stop this attack from using rockets regularly into Israel by Palestinian with the offensive responding with the air and missile attacks by Israel. First. this part will examine the nature and dynamics of the conflict from both actors’ perspectives. Gaza is the small trip of land between Egypt and Israel. Fatah movement. there was a blockade of the Gaza Strip because the Israel feel no security within Gaza. and under this agreement the Palestinian authority. both sides never respect and put down their weapons. as most of the West and Israel view Hamas as a militant or the terrorist organization. Conflict Analysis The tension between Israel and Palestine conflict emerged occasionally.Institute of Foreign Languages DIS Peace Study HENG Seiha II. in 2006 Israel started the invasion of the Gaza Strip. when Hamas was elected by Palestinians in a democratic vote. we will know about the origin and the root causes of the Gaza conflict. However. Even there was an effective peace treaty between Egypt and Israel to cede the control of Gaza area to Israel. and get the authority to control Gaza after the civil war with Fatah. Here. has authority to control Gaza strip. And. and will focus and based on the issues and events that happened between from 2008 to 2011. Hence. which led to the peace agreement known as the Oslo Accords treaty in 1994. which is the hot issue between Israel and Palestine. and this conflict happen since the past until nowadays. and Egypt also feel that it will be the militants spill over into Egypt. In the mid-2007. Even though they have signed peace agreement with each other. in the late 1980s there was the uprising of Palestinian against Israel. and it will always exist based on the hostility and aggressively of the government from both parties. we will examine the Gaza conflict from 2008 to 2009 and then we will examine the issue from 2010 to 2011 due to these two periods has different nature. 3 . and it has been known as the Arab-Israeli conflict since the 1940s. not a political party.
it needed to defend itself and also wanted to teach Hamas with the harsh lesson. with some newer. and the other 5000 were injured including 1800 children and 8000 women. which push the international community. and tens thousands of people were homeless. the west that support Israel’s overall objective to put pressure on Israel to prevent or reduce the civilian toll and humanitarian crisis. Hamas using more Qassem rocket attacks. started the firing the rockets into Israel after the cease fire. Thus. 22 day military offensive in the Gaza Strip in order to stop the rocket attack on southern Israel and to disrupt terrorist infrastructure and weapons smuggling by using a major air attack on Hamas political and military targets in Gaza. and most of them cannot access to the water. when the dispute was ended on January 17. Hamas. but this offensive leave many civilian casualties. who has the authority to control over the militant in Palestine does not recognize Israel’s right to exist and seeks to reclaim any land in Palestine. it resulted in 13000 civilians. particularly. and for the Israel. This invasion or offensive result much damage in Gaza. so it will be untruthful for Palestinian as it used to experience in 2005 in which Israel withdrew from Gaza just wanted to ease the blockade while the Palestinians reducing rocket fire into Israel. it was not written down. Therefore. 2009 after there were the separate ceasefires announced from both Hamas and Israel. Also.Institute of Foreign Languages DIS Peace Study HENG Seiha Even though a ceasefire was negotiated in the mid-2008. and for the force respond to this attack. 13 Israelis were killed including 3 civilians. Israel begin an attacking. 4000 children died in Palestine. 2008. on December 27. longer-range rockets reaching the Israeli cities of Ashkelon and Ashdod. 4 .
the Palestinians aim to establish a state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as it capital while those areas are captured by Israel government since 1967 war. Furthermore. The first source of conflict is related to human nature and violence. And. Because of the hostility of the Palestine’s government. which supported by the most western state. United Nations to impose the peace mechanism or used collective force to maintain the peace but the dispute would not carried-out. United State and Some other countries in Arab states is the most important actor because we can Israel usually concurred by neighboring countries since from the past because they want to wipe-out Israel from the world map and when there is a problem happen we would see the involvement of United State as the main mediator or help to impose the peace mechanism. and cut off the fuel energy to put pressure to the Palestinians people. Israel’s culture is difference from those Islamic states. so it will threat the world security as well as its safety. For 5 . because of the aggressive offensive of the Israel. it shows the nature of the human that going to war because of fear. Israel government would not accept the Palestine’s independence and according to the pass experience there is only negative peace happen between them because both government focuses only the absence of direct violence. Even it received the involvement from international community like League of Nations. conflict of resources. not a political party. In doing so. By participate in this issue United State see a lot of benefit and it also shapes the US foreign policy. and survival. so they always view each other as threats.Institute of Foreign Languages DIS Peace Study HENG Seiha In this case. there are two main sources of conflict. Egypt. using the direct violence to put pressure to the Israeli people by firing the rockets into Israel because he does not recognize Israel’s right to exist and seeks to reclaim any land in Palestine. and territory dispute. Israel and Egypt decided to block the Gaza Strip because they feel of insecurity as most of the western view that Hamas is a militant or the terrorist organization. Similarly. Being a Christian state among the Islamic state. the same in order to survive and avoid from the sanction. Palestine has to do so. potentially reduce the disarmament in the future aim struggle and prevention the outbreaks of warfare. Hamas. War between Palestine and Israel lasting for hundred years and there is no positive peace existing yet between those two countries since the conflicts still continues happen under the form of terrorist attack. As in 2010. and its neighbor. blockaded the Gaza Strip. who has the authority to control over the militant in Palestine. Second source of conflict is identity formation. The resolutions done through negotiation or mediation rather than seek to root course of the conflict or restructuring the physical force. In this issue.
arguing that only direct peace negotiations with Israel. we will propose alternative routes to a solution of the problem. so then US change to not support Palestine to become a member of UNGA to favor Israel. it change when there is a strong reaction from the Israel government to US. The Obama administration has pledged to veto any Palestinian statehood bid. not a UN vote. this is not the end of the conflict. 6 . and the existing mechanisms that have been suggested and done so far. national security and maximize their national benefit. would allow the Palestinians to achieve the benefits of statehood. After examine the conflict within these two main periods. A peace negotiation for the contemporary peace resolution before all of the parties could reach the agreement for long term peace otherwise the situation would goes even more serious because all of the parties try to strengthen their military capability. Israeli people also influential in shaping the US’s decision because they are the most important actor in providing the financial support to US. we have analyzed the sources of conflict.Institute of Foreign Languages DIS Peace Study HENG Seiha example. It is however wants to avoid using its veto at the Security Council while many other states support Palestinian become a member of UNGA. when we have a state accepted as a member of the United Nations. However. US support Palestine by declare US support the process of independence in Palestine on order to gain the popularity or good image in the international stage and also got good relation with Arab states because they are the main oil supply to US. Obama insists at the UN General Assembly that only negotiations can lead to a Palestinian state. at the first stage of Palestine demand for independence. In the next section. that is the interest of US inter into this issue while the other actors. there main gold is to protect their sovereignty. However. And 21 September 2011.
bbc.1525/jps.S. The 1948 Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. History. 1. The Israel-Palestine Conflict One Hundred Years of War.org/history/origin. Cambridge University Press. 7 . Causes of Israel Palestine Conflict. 209 pp. Retrived from: http://www. UN partition of Palestine.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_ip_timeline/html/1948. Establishment of Israel State. Accessed date on 1 Dec 2011. 2007. Netanyahu’s speech to the UN.org/pss/10. Retrived from: http://news. Accessed date on 19 Nov 2011. Gelvin. 24 September 2011. Retrived from: http://www. Retrived from: http://www.html Anneinpt. 2007.com/destinations-articles/causes-of-israel- palestine-conflict-431016.html Ilan Pappe.Institute of Foreign Languages DIS Peace Study HENG Seiha Reference Al Nakba. Retrived from: http://www. The Israel Lobby and U.bbc.articlesbase. Articlesbase.ifamericansknew. Walt. Autumn 2006. New York.html BBC.2006.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_ip_timeline/html/1947. History of Origin.jstor. Mearsheimer and Stephen M.stm BBC. Cambridge University Press. New York. No.1. Vol. Retrived from: http://news.ifamericansknew. Gelvin. Accessed date on 19 Nov 2011.6 James L. Retrived from: http://www. John J.stm If America Knew. Accessed date on 19 Nov 2011.co. March 2006.org/history/ref-nakba. Foreign Policy. Accessed date on 1 Dec 2011.36. Accessed date on 1 Dec 2011. James L. 36. Accessed date on 1 Dec 2011.ifamericaknew. The Israel-Palestine Conflict One Hundred Years of War.co.org/history/ If America Knew. 2009. 209 pp. The Catastrophe: How Palestine Became Israel.
net/2010/09/as-talks-resume-two-thirds-of-israelis-support-settlement-building.Institute of Foreign Languages DIS Peace Study HENG Seiha - John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. 2010.com/article/2010/05/09/us-palestiniansisraelidUSTRE6471AL20100509 - Seham. March 2006. West Bank. As talks resume. two-thirds of Israelis support settlement building.html 8 . September 2.reuters. Retrived from: http://mondoweiss. Foreign Policy. Sun May 9. Walt.S. 2010 Retrived from: http://www. The Israel Lobby and U. - RAMALLAH.
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