Commun|t|es of pract|ce

a br|ef |ntroduct|on
ítleooe weoqet
Iooeţ 2006

1he Lerm ƍcommunlLy of pracLlceƍ ls of relaLlvely recenL colnageţ even Lhough Lhe
phenomenon lL refers Lo ls ageŴoldŦ 1he concepL has Lurned ouL Lo provlde a useful
perspecLlve on knowlng and learnlngŦ A growlng number of people and organlzaLlons ln
varlous secLors are now focuslng on communlLles of pracLlce as a key Lo lmprovlng Lhelr
1hls brlef and general lnLroducLlon examlnes whaL communlLles of pracLlce are and why
researchers and pracLlLloners ln so many dlfferenL conLexLs flnd Lhem useful as an
approach Lo knowlng and learnlngŦ
Jat are commun|t|es of pract|ce?
CommunlLles of pracLlce are formed by people who engage ln a process of collecLlve learnlng ln a
shared domaln of human endeavorť a Lrlbe learnlng Lo survlveţ a band of arLlsLs seeklng new forms of
expresslonţ a group of englneers worklng on slmllar problemsţ a cllque of puplls deflnlng Lhelr
ldenLlLy ln Lhe schoolţ a neLwork of surgeons explorlng novel Lechnlquesţ a gaLherlng of flrsLŴLlme
managers helplng each oLher copeŦ ln a nuLshellť
CommunlLles of pracLlce are groups of people who share a concern or a passlon
for someLhlng Lhey do and learn how Lo do lL beLLer as Lhey lnLeracL regularlyŦ
noLe LhaL Lhls deflnlLlon allows forţ buL does noL assumeţ lnLenLlonallLyť learnlng can be Lhe reason
Lhe communlLy comes LogeLher or an lncldenLal ouLcome of memberƌs lnLeracLlonsŦ noL everyLhlng
called a communlLy ls a communlLy of pracLlceŦ A nelghborhood for lnsLanceţ ls ofLen called a
communlLyţ buL ls usually noL a communlLy of pracLlceŦ 1hree characLerlsLlcs are cruclalť
1Ŧ 1he domoinť A communlLy of pracLlce ls noL merely a club of frlends or a neLwork of
connecLlons beLween peopleŦ lL has an ldenLlLy deflned by a shared domaln of lnLeresLŦ
Membershlp Lherefore lmplles a commlLmenL Lo Lhe domalnţ and Lherefore a shared
compeLence LhaL dlsLlngulshes members from oLher peopleŦ (?ou could belong Lo Lhe same
neLwork as someone and never know lLŦ) 1he domaln ls noL necessarlly someLhlng
recognlzed as ƍexperLlseƍ ouLslde Lhe communlLyŦ A youLh gang may have developed all sorLs
of ways of deallng wlLh Lhelr domalnť survlvlng on Lhe sLreeL and malnLalnlng some klnd of
ldenLlLy Lhey can llve wlLhŦ 1hey value Lhelr collecLlve compeLence and learn from each
oLherţ even Lhough few people ouLslde Lhe group may value or even recognlze Lhelr
Ŧ 1he communityť ln pursulng Lhelr lnLeresL ln Lhelr domalnţ members engage ln [olnL acLlvlLles
and dlscusslonsţ help each oLherţ and share lnformaLlonŦ 1hey bulld relaLlonshlps LhaL enable
Lhem Lo learn from each oLherŦ A webslLe ln lLself ls noL a communlLy of pracLlceŦ Pavlng Lhe
same [ob or Lhe same LlLle does noL make for a communlLy of pracLlce unless members
lnLeracL and learn LogeLherŦ 1he clalms processors ln a large lnsurance company or sLudenLs
ln Amerlcan hlgh schools may have much ln commonţ yeL unless Lhey lnLeracL and learn
LogeLherţ Lhey do noL form a communlLy of pracLlceŦ 8uL members of a communlLy of
pracLlce do noL necessarlly work LogeLher on a dally baslsŦ 1he lmpresslonlsLsţ for lnsLanceţ
used Lo meeL ln cafes and sLudlos Lo dlscuss Lhe sLyle of palnLlng Lhey were lnvenLlng
LogeLherŦ 1hese lnLeracLlons were essenLlal Lo maklng Lhem a communlLy of pracLlce even
Lhough Lhey ofLen palnLed aloneŦ
3Ŧ 1he procticeť A communlLy of pracLlce ls noL merely a communlLy of lnLeresLŴŴpeople who
llke cerLaln klnds of movlesţ for lnsLanceŦ Members of a communlLy of pracLlce are
pracLlLlonersŦ 1hey develop a shared reperLolre of resourcesť experlencesţ sLorlesţ Loolsţ
ways of addresslng recurrlng problemsŸln shorL a shared pracLlceŦ 1hls Lakes Llme and
susLalned lnLeracLlonŦ A good conversaLlon wlLh a sLranger on an alrplane may glve you all
sorLs of lnLeresLlng lnslghLsţ buL lL does noL ln lLself make for a communlLy of pracLlceŦ 1he
developmenL of a shared pracLlce may be more or less selfŴconsclousŦ 1he ƍwlndshleld
wlpersƍ englneers aL an auLo manufacLurer make a concerLed efforL Lo collecL and documenL
Lhe Lrlcks and lessons Lhey have learned lnLo a knowledge baseŦ 8y conLrasLţ nurses who
meeL regularly for lunch ln a hosplLal cafeLerla may noL reallze LhaL Lhelr lunch dlscusslons
are one of Lhelr maln sources of knowledge abouL how Lo care for paLlenLsŦ SLlllţ ln Lhe
course of all Lhese conversaLlonsţ Lhey have developed a seL of sLorles and cases LhaL have
become a shared reperLolre for Lhelr pracLlceŦ
lL ls Lhe comblnaLlon of Lhese Lhree elemenLs LhaL consLlLuLes a communlLy of pracLlceŦ And lL ls by
developlng Lhese Lhree elemenLs ln parallel LhaL one culLlvaLes such a communlLyŦ
Jat do commun|t|es of pract|ce |ook ||ke?
CommunlLles develop Lhelr pracLlce Lhrough a varleLy of acLlvlLlesŦ 1he followlng Lable provldes a few
Lyplcal examplesť
9toblem solvloq ƍCan we work on Lhls deslgn and bralnsLorm some ldeasŤ
l'm sLuckŦƍ
kepoests fot lofotmotloo ƍWhere can l flnd Lhe code Lo connecL Lo Lhe server?ƍ
5eekloq expetleoce ƍPas anyone dealL wlLh a cusLomer ln Lhls slLuaLlon?ƍ
keosloq ossets ƍl have a proposal for a local area neLwork l wroLe for a
cllenL lasL yearŦ l can send lL Lo you and you can easlly
Lweak lL for Lhls new cllenLŦƍ
ootJlootloo ooJ syoetqy ƍCan we comblne our purchases of solvenL Lo achleve bulk
ulscossloq Jevelopmeots ƍWhaL do you Lhlnk of Lhe new CAu sysLem? uoes lL really
uocomeototloo ptojects ƍWe have faced Lhls problem flve Llmes nowŦ LeL us wrlLe lL
down once and for allŦƍ
vlslts ƍCan we come and see your afLerŴschool program? We
need Lo esLabllsh one ln our clLyŦƍ
Mopploq koowleJqe ooJ
lJeotlfyloq qops
ƍWho knows whaLţ and whaL are we mlsslng? WhaL oLher
groups should we connecL wlLh?ƍ
CommunlLles of pracLlce are noL called LhaL ln all organlzaLlonsŦ 1hey are known under varlous
namesţ such as learnlng neLworksţ LhemaLlc groupsţ or Lech clubsŦ
Whlle Lhey all have Lhe Lhree elemenLs of a domalnţ a communlLyţ and a pracLlceţ Lhey come ln a
varleLy of formsŦ Some are qulLe smallŤ some are very largeţ ofLen wlLh a core group and many
perlpheral membersŦ Some are local and some cover Lhe globeŦ Some meeL malnly faceŴLoŴfaceţ
some mosLly onllneŦ Some are wlLhln an organlzaLlon and some lnclude members from varlous
organlzaLlonsŦ Some are formally recognlzedţ ofLen supporLed wlLh a budgeLŤ and some are
compleLely lnformal and even lnvlslbleŦ
CommunlLles of pracLlce have been around for as long as human belngs have learned LogeLherŦ AL
homeţ aL workţ aL schoolţ ln our hobblesţ we all belong Lo communlLles of pracLlceţ a number of Lhem
usuallyŦ ln some we are core membersŦ ln many we are merely perlpheralŦ And we Lravel Lhrough
numerous communlLles over Lhe course of our llvesŦ
ln facLţ communlLles of pracLlce are everywhereŦ 1hey are a famlllar experlenceţ so famlllar perhaps
LhaL lL ofLen escapes our aLLenLlonŦ ?eL when lL ls glven a name and broughL lnLo focusţ lL becomes a
perspecLlve LhaL can help us undersLand our world beLLerŦ ln parLlcularţ lL allows us Lo see pasL more
obvlous formal sLrucLures such as organlzaLlonsţ classroomsţ or naLlonsţ and percelve Lhe sLrucLures
deflned by engagemenL ln pracLlce and Lhe lnformal learnlng LhaL comes wlLh lLŦ
Jere does te concept come from?
Soclal sclenLlsLs have used verslons of Lhe concepL of communlLy of pracLlce for a varleLy of analyLlcal
purposesţ buL Lhe orlgln and prlmary use of Lhe concepL has been ln learnlng LheoryŦ AnLhropologlsL
!ean Lave and l colned Lhe Lerm whlle sLudylng apprenLlceshlp as a learnlng modelŦ Þeople usually
Lhlnk of apprenLlceshlp as a relaLlonshlp beLween a sLudenL and a masLerţ buL sLudles of
apprenLlceshlp reveal a more complex seL of soclal relaLlonshlps Lhrough whlch learnlng Lakes place
mosLly wlLh [ourneymen and more advanced apprenLlcesŦ 1he Lerm communlLy of pracLlce was
colned Lo refer Lo Lhe communlLy LhaL acLs as a llvlng currlculum for Lhe apprenLlceŦ Cnce Lhe
concepL was arLlculaLedţ we sLarLed Lo see Lhese communlLles everywhereţ even when no formal
apprenLlceshlp sysLem exlsLedŦ And of courseţ learnlng ln a communlLy of pracLlce ls noL llmlLed Lo
novlcesŦ 1he pracLlce of a communlLy ls dynamlc and lnvolves learnlng on Lhe parL of everyoneŦ
Jere |s te concept be|ng app||ed?
1he concepL of communlLy of pracLlce has found a number of pracLlcal appllcaLlons ln buslnessţ
organlzaLlonal deslgnţ governmenLţ educaLlonţ professlonal assoclaLlonsţ developmenL pro[ecLsţ and
clvlc llfeŦ
rqonitotionsŦ 1he concepL has been adopLed mosL readlly by people ln buslness because of Lhe
recognlLlon LhaL knowledge ls a crlLlcal asseL LhaL needs Lo be managed sLraLeglcallyŦ lnlLlal efforLs aL
managlng knowledge had focused on lnformaLlon sysLems wlLh dlsappolnLlng resulLsŦ CommunlLles
of pracLlce provlded a new approachţ whlch focused on people and on Lhe soclal sLrucLures LhaL
enable Lhem Lo learn wlLh and from each oLherŦ 1odayţ Lhere ls hardly any organlzaLlon of a
reasonable slze LhaL does noL have some form communlLlesŴofŴpracLlce lnlLlaLlveŦ A number of
characLerlsLlcs explaln Lhls rush of lnLeresL ln communlLles of pracLlce as a vehlcle for developlng
sLraLeglc capablllLles ln organlzaLlonsť
O CommunlLles of pracLlce enable pracLlLloners Lo Lake collecLlve responslblllLy for managlng
Lhe knowledge Lhey needţ recognlzlng LhaLţ glven Lhe proper sLrucLureţ Lhey are ln Lhe besL
poslLlon Lo do LhlsŦ
O CommunlLles among pracLlLloners creaLe a dlrecL llnk beLween learnlng and performanceţ
because Lhe same people parLlclpaLe ln communlLles of pracLlce and ln Leams and buslness
O ÞracLlLloners can address Lhe LaclL and dynamlc aspecLs of knowledge creaLlon and sharlngţ
as well as Lhe more expllclL aspecLsŦ
O CommunlLles are noL llmlLed by formal sLrucLuresť Lhey creaLe connecLlons among people
across organlzaLlonal and geographlc boundarlesŦ
lrom Lhls perspecLlveţ Lhe knowledge of an organlzaLlon llves ln a consLellaLlon of communlLles of
pracLlce each Laklng care of a speclflc aspecL of Lhe compeLence LhaL Lhe organlzaLlon needsŦ
Poweverţ Lhe very characLerlsLlcs LhaL make communlLles of pracLlce a good flL for sLewardlng
knowledgeŸauLonomyţ pracLlLlonerŴorlenLaLlonţ lnformallLyţ crosslng boundarlesŸare also
characLerlsLlcs LhaL make Lhem a challenge for LradlLlonal hlerarchlcal organlzaLlonsŦ Pow Lhls
challenge ls golng Lo affecL Lhese organlzaLlons remalns Lo be seenŦ
overnmentŦ Llke buslnessesţ governmenL organlzaLlons face knowledge challenges of lncreaslng
complexlLy and scaleŦ 1hey have adopLed communlLles of pracLlce for much Lhe same reasonsţ
Lhough Lhe formallLy of Lhe bureaucracy can come ln Lhe way of open knowledge sharlngŦ 8eyond
lnLernal communlLlesţ Lhere are Lyplcal governmenL problems such as educaLlonţ healLhţ and securlLy
LhaL requlre coordlnaLlon and knowledge sharlng across levels of governmenLŦ 1here alsoţ
communlLles of pracLlce hold Lhe promlse of enabllng connecLlons among people across formal
sLrucLuresŦ And Lhere alsoţ Lhere are subsLanLlal organlzaLlonal lssues Lo overcomeŦ
ducotionŦ Schools and dlsLrlcLs are organlzaLlons ln Lhelr own rlghLţ and Lhey Loo face lncreaslng
knowledge challengesŦ 1he flrsL appllcaLlons of communlLles of pracLlce have been ln Leacher Lralnlng
and ln provldlng lsolaLed admlnlsLraLors wlLh access Lo colleaguesŦ 1here ls a wave of lnLeresL ln
Lhese peerŴLoŴpeer professlonalŴdevelopmenL acLlvlLlesŦ 8uL ln Lhe educaLlon secLorţ learnlng ls noL
only a means Lo an endť lL ls Lhe end producLŦ 1he perspecLlve of communlLles of pracLlce ls Lherefore
also relevanL aL Lhls levelŦ ln buslnessţ focuslng on communlLles of pracLlce adds a layer of complexlLy
Lo Lhe organlzaLlonţ buL lL does noL fundamenLally change whaL Lhe buslness ls abouLŦ ln schoolsţ
changlng Lhe learnlng Lheory ls a much deeper LransformaLlonŦ 1hls wlll lnevlLably Lake longerŦ 1he
perspecLlve of communlLles of pracLlce affecLs educaLlonal pracLlces along Lhree dlmenslonsť
O otetoollyť Pow Lo organlze educaLlonal experlences LhaL ground school learnlng ln pracLlce
Lhrough parLlclpaLlon ln communlLles around sub[ecL maLLers?
O íxtetoollyť Pow Lo connecL Lhe experlence of sLudenLs Lo acLual pracLlce Lhrough perlpheral
forms of parLlclpaLlon ln broader communlLles beyond Lhe walls of Lhe school?
O vet tbe llfetlme of stoJeotsť Pow Lo serve Lhe llfelong learnlng needs of sLudenLs by
organlzlng communlLles of pracLlce focused on Loplcs of conLlnulng lnLeresL Lo sLudenLs
beyond Lhe lnlLlal schoollng perlod?
lrom Lhls perspecLlveţ Lhe school ls noL Lhe prlvlleged locus of learnlngŦ lL ls noL a selfŴconLalnedţ
closed world ln whlch sLudenLs acqulre knowledge Lo be applled ouLsldeţ buL a parL of a broader
learnlng sysLemŦ 1he class ls noL Lhe prlmary learnlng evenLŦ lL ls llfe lLself LhaL ls Lhe maln learnlng
evenLŦ Schoolsţ classroomsţ and Lralnlng sesslons sLlll have a role Lo play ln Lhls vlslonţ buL Lhey have
Lo be ln Lhe servlce of Lhe learnlng LhaL happens ln Lhe worldŦ
ssociotionsŦ A growlng number of assoclaLlonsţ professlonal and oLherwlseţ are seeklng ways Lo
focus on learnlng Lhrough reflecLlon on pracLlceŦ 1helr members are resLless and Lhelr alleglance ls
fraglleŦ 1hey need Lo offer hlghŴvalue learnlng acLlvlLlesŦ 1he peerŴLoŴpeer learnlng acLlvlLles Lyplcal of
communlLles of pracLlce offer a complemenLary alLernaLlve Lo more LradlLlonal course offerlngs and
5ocio/ sectorŦ ln Lhe clvlc domalnţ Lhere ls an emergenL lnLeresL ln bulldlng communlLles among
pracLlLlonersŦ ln Lhe nonŴproflL worldţ for lnsLanceţ foundaLlons are recognlzlng LhaL phllanLhropy
needs focus on learnlng sysLems ln order Lo fully leverage funded pro[ecLsŦ 8uL pracLlLloners are
seeklng peerŴLoŴpeer connecLlons and learnlng opporLunlLles wlLh or wlLhouL Lhe supporL of
lnsLlLuLlonsŦ 1hls lncludes reglonal economlc developmenLţ wlLh lnLraŴreglonal communlLles on
varlous domalnsţ as well as lnLerŴreglonal learnlng wlLh communlLles gaLherlng pracLlLloners from
varlous reglonsŦ
lnternotiono/ deve/opmentŦ 1here ls lncreaslng recognlLlon LhaL Lhe challenge of developlng naLlons
ls as much a knowledge as a flnanclal challengeŦ A number of people belleve LhaL a communlLlesŴofŴ
pracLlce approach can provlde a new paradlgm for developmenL workŦ lL emphaslzes knowledge
bulldlng among pracLlLlonersŦ Some developmenL agencles now see Lhelr role as conveners of such
communlLlesţ raLher Lhan as provlders of knowledgeŦ
1he webŦ new Lechnologles such as Lhe lnLerneL have exLended Lhe reach of our lnLeracLlons beyond
Lhe geographlcal llmlLaLlons of LradlLlonal communlLlesţ buL Lhe lncrease ln flow of lnformaLlon does
noL obvlaLe Lhe need for communlLyŦ ln facLţ lL expands Lhe posslblllLles for communlLy and calls for
new klnds of communlLles based on shared pracLlceŦ
1he concepL of communlLy of pracLlce ls lnfluenclng Lheory and pracLlce ln many domalnsŦ lrom
humble beglnnlngs ln apprenLlceshlp sLudlesţ Lhe concepL was grabbed by buslnesses lnLeresLed ln
knowledge managemenL and has progresslvely found lLs way lnLo oLher secLorsŦ lL has now become
Lhe foundaLlon of a perspecLlve on knowlng and learnlng LhaL lnforms efforLs Lo creaLe learnlng
sysLems ln varlous secLors and aL varlous levels of scaleţ from local communlLlesţ Lo slngle
organlzaLlonsţ parLnershlpsţ clLlesţ reglonsţ and Lhe enLlre worldŦ
urter read|ng
lor Lhe appllcaLlon of a communlLyŴbased approach Lo knowledge ln organlzaLlonsť
O oltlvotloq commooltles of ptoctlceť o qolJe to moooqloq koowleJqeŦ 8y LLlenne Wengerţ
8lchard McuermoLLţ and Wllllam Snyderţ Parvard 8uslness School Þressţ 2002Ŧ
O CommunlLles of pracLlceť Lhe organlzaLlonal fronLlerŦ 8y LLlenne Wenger and Wllllam SnyderŦ
otvotJ 8osloess kevlewŦ !anuaryŴlebruary 2000ţ ppŦ 139Ŵ143Ŧ
O nowledge managemenL ls a donuLť shaplng your knowledge sLraLegy wlLh communlLles of
pracLlceŦ 8y LLlenne WengerŦ vey 8osloess Iootoolţ !anuary 2004Ŧ
lor Lechnology lssuesť
O 5oppottloq commooltles of ptoctlceť o sotvey of commooltyŴotleoteJ tecbooloqlesŦ 8y LLlenne
WengerŦ SelfŴpubllshed reporL avallable aL wwwŦewengerŦcom/Lechţ 2001Ŧ
lor lnŴdepLh coverage of Lhe learnlng Lheoryť
O ommooltles of ptoctlceť leotoloqţ meooloqţ ooJ lJeotltyŦ 8y LLlenne Wengerţ Cambrldge
unlverslLy Þressţ 1998Ŧ
lor a vlslon of where Lhe learnlng Lheory ls golngť
O eotoloq fot o smoll plooetť o teseotcb oqeoJoŦ 8y LLlenne Wengerţ avallable aL

¯¯° ¾€½fnn  f  €° n°  °° J °–  °    @  ¯ n¯¯°€½fnn ¾€ f  n °n°f–   °–  ½ °¯ °° € ¾¾f–  @ n°n ½f¾° ½ f¾ € ½ ¾½ n °°°–f°  f°°– –°–°¯ €½ ½ f° –f°f°¾° f¾¾ n¾f °€n¾°–°n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f¾f ¯½°–  ½ €¯f°n  @¾  €f° – ° f° n° f¯° ¾fn¯¯° ¾€½fnn f f°   ¾ fn ¾f° ½fn° ¾°¾¯f° €€  °n° ¾€°  ¯¾ €f¾f° f½½fn°°–f°  f°°–  Jff n¯¯° ¾€½fnn " .

¯¯° ¾€½fnn f €¯  ½ ½  °–f– °f½n ¾¾€n n  f°°–°f ¾f  ¯f°€¯f° ° f f  f°°–¾ f f° €f¾¾¾ °–° €¯¾€ ½ ¾¾° f–½€ °–° ¾°–°¾¯f½  ¯¾ fn €½½¾ €°°–   °° ¾n f° €¾– °¾ ½°–°  n° ¾ f–f °–€€¾ ¯  ¯f°f– ¾ ½°– fn n½ °f°¾   .

¯ ¾½  € ¯½ ¾fn¯¯¯ °  ¯f° f°   € f¾f  n¯½  °n f ¾°–¾ ¾¯ ¯ ¾€¯ ½ ½ %n  °– ¾f¯  ° f¾¾¯ ° f° °  ° %@  ¯f°¾°° n ¾¾f¾¯ °–  n–° f¾ ½ ¾ ¾  n¯¯° –f°–¯ff   ½ f¾¾ €f¾€ f°–  ¯f° ¾°–° ¾ f° ¯f°f°°–¾¯ ° €  ° nf°  @ f  n n n¯½  °n f°  f°€¯ fn     °–€ ½ ½ ¾  –½¯ff   ° n–°   ½ ¾  .¯¯° ¾€½fnn f –½¾€½ ½ ¾f fn°n °f½f¾¾° €¾¯ °–  f°  f°   f¾ ° fn –f  - f¾ €°°f¾€    ¾°f¾¾¯ ° °°f  f°°–nf°   f¾°  n¯¯°n¯ ¾–  f°°n °fn¯ €¯ ¯  ¾° fn°¾ -  °– nf fn¯¯°¾fn¯¯°€½fnn ° –  €°¾f°n ¾€ °nf f n¯¯°  ¾¾f°fn¯¯°€½fnn @ nffn ¾n¾f nnf    @  ¯f° n¯¯°€½fnn ¾°¯  fn €€ ° ¾f° € n°° n°¾  °½ ½ f¾f° ° €°  f¾f  ¯f°€°  ¾  .

¯ ¾€fn¯¯°€½fnn f  ½fn° ¾ @   ½f¾f  ½  € ¾n ¾  ½  °n ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾  f¾€f  ¾¾°– n°–½  ¯¾ °¾f¾f ½fnn @¾f ¾¯ f°  ¾¾f° ° fn° – n° ¾f°f¾f°– °f°f½f° ¯f– f ¾¾€°  ¾°–°¾–¾    ¾°°¾ €¯f €fn¯¯°€½fnn @   ½¯ °€f¾f ½fnn ¯f ¯  ¾¾¾ € n°¾n¾ @  ° ¾   ½ ¾  °–° ¾ff°f¯f°€fn ¯f fn°n   €€n nf°  n¯ °  n¾f°  ¾¾°¾ f  f° °f° –  f¾  n°f¾ °¾ ¾ ¯  –f€°n°f¾½fnf€  f¯f° f f °n ¾n¾¾°¾ f ° € ¯f°¾n ¾€° – f nf €½f °¾  °  n¾ €f ¾ n° ¾f°¾  f   ½ f¾ €¾ ¾f° nf¾ ¾ff  n¯ f¾f  ½  € ½fnn  ¾ n¯ °f°€ ¾    ¯ °¾fn°¾ ¾fn¯¯°€½fnn ° ¾   ½°– ¾    ¯ °¾°½ff f° nf ¾¾nfn¯¯°  Jf n¯¯° ¾€½fnn  " .  @ n¯¯° °½¾°– °  ¾°  ¯f° ¯ ¯ ¾ °–f– °©°fn ¾ f°  ¾n¾¾°¾  ½ fn  f° ¾f °€¯f° @    f°¾½¾f °f    ¯ f°€¯ fn   ¾ °¾ €¾°fn¯¯°€½fnn f°–  ¾f¯ ©  ¾f¯    ¾°¯f €fn¯¯°€½fnn ° ¾¾¯ ¯ ¾ ° fnf°  f°–   @ nf¯¾½n ¾¾¾°ff– °¾f°n n¯½f°¾ °¾ °¯ nf°–¾n¾¯ff ¯n°n¯¯°  ° ¾¾ ° fnf°  f° –     °€¯fn¯¯°€½fnn  ¯ ¯ ¾€fn¯¯°€ ½fnn  °° n ¾¾f–  °f f f¾¾ @ ¯½ ¾¾°¾¾ €°¾f°n  ¾ ¯ °nf€ ¾f° ¾ ¾ ¾n¾¾ ¾ €½f°°–   ° °°– –   @ ¾ ° fn°¾   ¾¾ °f¯f°– ¯fn¯¯°€½fnn   ° – € °½f° f°    @ ½fnn n¯¯°€½fnn ¾°¯  fn¯¯°€°  ¾ ½ ½   n f°° ¾€¯ ¾ €°¾f°n .

¯¯° ¾  ½ ½fnn –ff €fn ¾ @ €°–f  ½ ¾f€  ½nf f¯½ ¾  9  ¯¾°– .

f° °¾ ¾–°f°  f°¾¯¾¯  f¾  #¯¾n    ¾¾€°€¯f° J  nf°€°  n n°° n ¾  "   °– ½  °n  f¾f°°  ffn¾¯ °¾¾f°"   ¾°–f¾¾ ¾ f f½½¾f€fnff f°  €f n °f¾ f nf°¾ ° f° nf° f¾  f€¾° n °  .


 °f°f° ¾° – .

f° n¯ ° ½nf¾ ¾€¾ °fn    ¾n°¾"  ¾n¾¾°–  ½¯ °¾ Jf °€ ° .

¾¾ ¯" ¾ f  ½"  n¯ °f°½© n¾ J f €fn ¾½  ¯€ ¯ ¾°  ¾  °°n f° €f  I¾¾ .

f° n¯ f° ¾ f€  ¾n½–f¯"J  °  ¾f ¾° °n  .f½½°–° – f°   °€°––f½¾ J°¾f f° ff  ¯¾¾°–"Jf  –½¾¾  n°° n"  .

¯¯° ¾€½fnn f °nf f°f–f°f°¾ @ f °°° f¾ °f¯ ¾ ¾nf¾ f°°–° ¾  ¯fn–½¾  nn ¾  J  ff     ¯ °¾€f ¯f° fn¯¯° f° f½fnn  n¯ °f f €€¯¾ ¯ f  ¾¯f ¾¯ f  f– € °fn –½f° ¯f° ½ ½ f¯ ¯ ¾ ¯ f nff° ¾¯ n  – ¯ ¯ ¯f°€fn  €fn  ¾¯ ¯¾°° ¯ f °f°–f°f°f° ¾¯ °n ¯ ¯ ¾€¯f¾ –f°f°¾ ¯ f €¯f n–° € °¾½½ f  –  f° ¾¯ f  n¯½  °€¯ff°   °°¾   .

¯¯° ¾€½fnn f  °f° €f¾°–f¾¯f° °–¾f  f° –    ¯ f f¾n °  ¾  f °–n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f°¯ € ¯ ¾f °¾¯  f n ¯ ¯ ¾ °¯f° f ¯  ½ ½ f °  f – °¯ ¾n¯¯° ¾  n¾ € ¾  °€fn n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f     @ f f€f¯f ½  °n ¾€f¯f½ f½¾ f€ ° ¾nf½ ¾f °°   °¾– °f°f¯ f°  –°€n¾  n¯ ¾f ½ ¾½ n fnf° ½¾° ¾f°     °½fnf f¾¾¾ ½f¾¯   ¾€¯f¾n ¾¾nf¾–f°f°¾ nf¾¾¯¾ °f°¾ f° ½ n   ¾n ¾ €°   °–f– ¯ °°½fnn f°  °€¯f f°°–fn¯ ¾  J    ¾ n°n ½n¯ €¯" nf¾n °¾¾f ¾  ¾°¾€ n°n ½€n¯¯°€½fnn €ff €f°fnf ½½¾ ¾   –°f° ½¯f¾ € n°n ½f¾ °° f°°–  °½–¾  f°f f° n°   ¯ ¾ °–f½½ °n ¾½f¾f f°°–¯  9 ½ ¾f °€f½½ °n ¾½f¾f f°¾½  °f¾ °f° f¯f¾   ¾  ¾€ f½½ °n ¾½  ff¯ n¯½ ¾ €¾nf f°¾½¾–n f°°–f ¾½fn  ¯¾©° ¯ °f° ¯ f f°n f½½ °n ¾ @  ¯n¯¯°€½fnn f¾ .

n°  €  n¯¯°ffn¾f¾f°–nn¯€ f½½ °n °n   n°n ½f¾fnf  ¾f ¾  ¾ n¯¯° ¾      ° °°€¯f f½½ °n ¾½¾¾ ¯ ¾ ° €n¾  f°°–°fn¯¯°€½fnn ¾°¯  °n ¾ @ ½fnn €fn¯¯°¾ °f¯nf° ° ¾ f°°–° ½f€  °  J  ¾ n°n ½ °–f½½ " @ n°n ½€n¯¯°€½fnn f¾€° f°¯ €½fnnff½½nf°¾° ¾° ¾¾  –f°f°f ¾–° – °¯ °  nf° ½€ ¾¾°ff¾¾nf°¾   ½¯ °½© n¾ f°  nn€  –f°f°¾ @ n°n ½f¾ °f ½ ¯¾ f  ½ ½ ° ¾° ¾¾ nf¾ €   n–°°f° – ¾fnnff¾¾ f° ¾ ¯f°f– ¾f –nf °f €€¾f ¯f°f–°–° – f €n¾ °°€¯f°¾¾ ¯¾ ¾f½½°°– ¾¾ .

¯¯° ¾ €½fnn ½ f° f½½fn n€n¾ °½ ½ f° ° ¾nf¾n ¾f °f   ¯ f°f° €¯ fn  @ f   ¾f f°–f°f°€f  f¾°f  ¾ f  ¾°f ¾¯ €¯n¯¯° ¾ € ½fnn °f °¯ € nffn ¾n¾ ½f°¾¾€°  ¾°n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f¾f n €  ½°– ¾f –nnf½f  ¾°–f°f°¾  O .

¯¯° ¾€½fnn  °f  ½fn° ¾f n n  ¾½°¾ €¯f°f–°–  ° –  °  n–°°–f – ° ½½ ¾n  f °  ¾ ½¾° ¾  .

¯¯° ¾f¯°–½fn° ¾n f f  n°  ° f°°–f° ½ €¯f°n  nf¾  ¾f¯ ½ ½ ½fn½f °n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f° ° f¯¾f°  ¾° ¾¾ °¾  9fn° ¾nf°f  ¾¾ fnf°  °f¯nf¾½ n¾€° – n f°f° ¾f°–  f¾ f¾ ¯  ½nf¾½ n¾  .

¯¯° ¾f °¯  €¯f¾n ¾  n f n°° n°¾f¯°–½ ½  fn¾¾–f°f°ff° – –f½n ° f ¾  O O O ¯¾½ ¾½ n  ° – €f°–f°f° ¾°fn°¾ f°€n¯¯° ¾€ ½fnn  fnf°–nf €f¾½ n€nf¾½ n€ n¯½  °n f –f°f°° ¾       nffn ¾n¾f¯f n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f– €€¾ f °– ° – f°¯ ½fn°   °f° °€¯f n¾¾°– ° f ¾ f f¾ nffn ¾n¾f¯f  ¯fnf °– €f °f fnnf–f°f°¾ ¾ nf °– ¾–°–f€€ n ¾ –f°f°¾ ¯f°¾ ¾ °   °¯ °   ¾° ¾¾ ¾ – °¯ °–f°f°¾€fn ° – nf °– ¾€°n f¾°– n¯½ f° ¾nf @ f f ½ n¯¯° ¾€½fnn €¯n ¾f¯  f¾°¾  – €¯f€   fnfnnf°n¯ ° f€½ °° – ¾f°–  °  ° °fn¯¯° ¾   f ½nf– °¯ °½  ¯¾¾nf¾ nf°  f f° ¾ n f  n °f°f° ° – ¾f°–fn¾¾  ¾€– °¯ ° @  f¾  n¯¯° ¾€½fnn   ½¯¾ € °f °–n°° n°¾f¯°–½ ½ fn¾¾€¯f ¾n ¾ °   f¾   f ¾ ¾f°f–f°f°f¾¾ ¾ n¯  .

 nf° n¾f°  ¾n¾f –f°f°¾° °– f°  €fn °n f¾°– ° – nf °– ¾ @ €¾f½½nf°¾€n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f  °° fn f°°– f° °½ °–¾f f ¯°¾f¾fnn ¾¾n f– ¾ @  ¾ff €°  ¾°  ¾ ½   ½ ½€ ¾¾°f  ½¯ °fn ¾  °  nf°¾ n  f°°–¾° °f¯ f°¾f° ° ¾  ° ½ n @ ½ ¾½ n €n¯¯° ¾€½fnn ¾  €  f¾  f°f¾   ° ¾° ¾¾ €n¾°–°n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f ¾ff €n¯½   –f°f°    ¾°€° f¯ °fnf°– f  ¾° ¾¾¾f  °¾n¾  nf°–°–  f°°– ¾f¯n ½ f°¾€¯f° @¾° f f °–  @  ½ ¾½ n €n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f€€ n¾ nf°f½fnn ¾f°–  ¯ °¾°¾  O ° °f –f°  nf°f ½  °n ¾f–° ¾n f°°–°½fnn  –½fn½f°°n¯¯° ¾f° ¾ © n¯f ¾"  °f n°° n  ½  °n €¾ °¾fnf½fnn –½ ½ f €¯¾€½fn½f°° f n¯¯° ¾ °  f¾€ ¾n"   € ¯ €¾ °¾ ¾   € °– f°°–° ¾€¾ °¾  –f°°–n¯¯° ¾€½fnn €n¾ °½n¾€n°°°–°  ¾¾ °¾ °  °f¾n°–½  " O O ¯¾½ ¾½ n  ¾n¾° ½ – n¾€ f°°– ¾°f¾ € n°f°  n¾  °n¾ °¾fn ° –  f½½ ¾  f½f€f f   f°°–¾¾ ¯ @ nf¾¾¾° ½¯f f°°–  ° ¾€ ¾ €f¾ ¯f° f°°–  ° n¾ nf¾¾¯¾ f° f°°–¾ ¾¾°¾¾f f ½f°¾¾°   f   ° ¾ n €  f°°–ff½½ °¾°   ¾¾nf°¾ –°–°¯ €f¾¾nf°¾ ½€ ¾¾°ff°  ¾ f ¾ °–f¾ €n¾° f°°–– € n°°½fnn @ ¯ ¯ ¾f  ¾ ¾¾f°  f –f°n ¾ €f– @ ° €€ – f  f°°–fn ¾ @ ½   ½  f°°–fn ¾½nf€ n¯¯° ¾€½fnn €€ fn¯½ ¯ °ff °f ¯ f °fn¾ €€ °–¾f°  ½ nf°¾  nf¾ n ° nn ¯f°   ¾f° ¯ – °°  ¾°  °–n¯¯° ¾f¯°– ½fn° ¾ ° °° ½€ €°¾f°n €° f°¾f  n–°°–f½f°½ ° ¾€n¾° f°°–¾¾ ¯¾° €  f– €° ½© n¾  ½fn° ¾f  ¾ °–½   ½ n°° n°¾f°  f°°–½½° ¾ ¾½½€ °¾°¾ @¾°n ¾ –°f n°¯n  ½¯ ° °f  –°fn¯¯° ¾° f¾ ¯f°¾ f¾ f¾°   –°f f°°–n¯¯° ¾–f °–½fn° ¾€¯ f¾ –°¾  ° °f°f  ½¯ ° @  ¾°n f¾°– n–°°f nf °– €  ½°–°f°¾ ¾f¾¯nf° – f¾f€°f°nfnf °– °¯ €½ ½    ffn¯¯° ¾ € ½fnn f½½fnnf°½ f° ½ff –¯€  ½¯ °  ¯½f¾ ¾° –   °–f¯°–½fn° ¾ ¯   ½¯ °f– °n ¾°¾   f¾n° ° ¾€¾n n¯¯° ¾ f f°f¾½ ¾€° –  @  -  n°– ¾¾nf¾ ° ° f   °   fn€° fn°¾ °   – –f½nf¯f°¾€f °fn¯¯° ¾   °n f¾ °€€°€¯f°  ¾ .

° f  ° €n¯¯° °€fn  ½f° ¾ ½¾¾  ¾€n¯¯°f° nf¾€ ° ° ¾€n¯¯° ¾ f¾ °¾f ½fnn  @ n°n ½€n¯¯°€½fnn ¾°€ °n°– f° ½fnn °¯f° ¯f°¾ ¯ ¯   –°°°–¾°f½½ °n ¾½¾  ¾  n°n ½f¾–f   ¾° ¾¾ ¾°  ¾ ° ° – ¯f°f– ¯ °f° f¾½– ¾¾ €° ¾f° ¾ n¾ f¾° n¯   €° f°€f½ ¾½ n °°°–f°  f°°–f°€¯¾ €€¾n f  f°°– ¾¾ ¯¾°f¾¾ n¾f° ff¾  ¾€¾nf €¯nfn¯¯° ¾ ¾°–  –f°f°¾ ½f° ¾½¾ n ¾  –°¾ f°   °     f °–  f½½nf°€fn¯¯° f¾ f½½fn° – °–f°f°¾  O .

f°–n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f– ¯f°f–°–° –   °° J °–   nf .n ¯ f° Jf¯°  ff  ¾° ¾¾n9 ¾¾   .

¯¯° ¾€½fnn  –f°f°f€°    °° J °– f° Jf¯°   ff  ¾° ¾¾   f°f  f ½½    ° – ¯f°f– ¯ °¾f ° ¾f½°–° – ¾f –n¯¯° ¾€ ½fnn   °° J °–    ¾° ¾¾°f f°f  O O  n°–¾¾ ¾  O ½½°–n¯¯° ¾€½fnn f¾ €n¯¯°  °  n°– ¾   °°  J °–   € ½ ¾  ½fff  f  °–  n¯$ n   ° ½n f– €  f°°–   O .

¯¯° ¾€½fnn  f°°– ¯ f°°– f°  °   °° J °–  .

f¯  –  D° ¾9 ¾¾   f¾°€    f°°– ¾–°–  O  f°°–€f¾¯f½f°  f ¾ fnf– ° f   °° J °–  fff  f   °–  n¯$ ¾ fn   .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.