Group Members : Sardar Farooq Amir Sameer Abdul Rehman

2004163 2004904

one of which Brazil has achieved with the Sugarcane Ethanol Program. The capacity of production is discussed later on. This problem requires adequate solutions.Abstract: The number of automobiles in the world has been growing fast and today requires one quarter of the global petroleum consumption. This project presents the feasibility of this program in Pakistan and includes the design and specifications of a gasohol producing plant and the processes and sequences that are employed to build that specific design. 2 . The quality point of view and the intended price of the product are also considered.

petroleum is found in relatively few regions of the world. the great majority of them with Otto cycle engines running on gasoline. Automobiles are today an integral part of our way of living. Conditions in Brazil are very favourable for the production of ethanol. The Brazilian program: Brazil was in that category in the 1970s and was for that reason critically affected by the oil crisis of 1973. sugar was experiencing a long period of low prices in the international market.577 barrels of crude oil equivalent per day. The 3 . the number of automobiles in the world will grow. Exports and imports of this commodity are a most important item in international trade and many countries are critically dependent on petroleum imports. so the decision to divert some of the sugarcane to ethanol production was very reasonable. As developing countries grow and develop. To face that situation the Brazilian Government embarked an ambitious program of producing large quantities of ethanol from sugarcane (PROALCOHOL) as a substitute for gasoline. The number of such vehicles per capita is approaching 1 in industrialized countries but is much smaller in today’s developing countries and thus likely to grow significantly. At that time. considering also that the technology needed has been available for decades. During the 1970s oil crisis. The increase of petroleum prices therefore exerted considerable strain on the Brazilian economy at that time. the cost of oil imports in hard currency represented approximately a full half of all exports (roughly US$ 4 billion at historical value. unfortunately. equivalent to US$ 12 billion in 2005). In Pakistan there are only 20 automobiles per 1000 people compared to 700 per 1000 people in the United States. Sugarcane has been an important crop since the 18th century and Brazil was the world’s third largest sugar producer (five million tones of raw sugar equivalent) in 1975.Introduction: One of the most striking characteristics of the 20th century was the emergence of the automobile for personal transportation. This is the case for various developing countries. There are today in the world 700 million of these vehicles in circulation. They shaped the whole transportation system of mankind and represent a very significant fraction of the GDP of many countries. The gasoline necessary to feed these automobiles is roughly 65.

Essential for that was the availability of an infrastructure for ethanol pumps in most of the service stations around the country. planting and application rates for herbicides and fertilizers. avoiding the use of any fossil fuel in the industrial project. which is a function of soil quality. these manufacturers have developed a flexible fuel technology. and is also strongly influenced by agricultural management. 4 . Productivity gains and cost reductions were also achieved as a result of the introduction of operation research techniques in agricultural management and the use of satellite images for species identification in cultivated areas. all gasoline vehicles run with blends ranging between 20% and 26% of ethanol. Multinational automobile industries based in Brazil have introduced all the necessary engine and vehicle modifications for ethanol use.PROALCOHOL was launched by the Government by compulsorily using 10% anhydrous ethanol as an additive to gasoline not requiring changes in the motors. Similar decision-making tools have been applied in relation to harvesting. this cost reduction was highly influenced by the use of sugarcane bagasse (a byproduct of sugarcane crushing) for energy production. weather conditions and agricultural practices. More recently. economies of scale and competition led to a reduction in production costs. They were due mainly to a significant increase in agricultural yield. After 20 years. Gasohol vehicles running with up to 10% ethanol (in volume basis) require almost no changes. With minor adaptations developed by the car manufacturers. Also. but more modifications are required for a larger share of ethanol in the fuel blend. A remarkable characteristic of the program is that all the automobile manufacturers agreed to produce automobiles with converted motors.

but insoluble in the gasoline. because of the very low water tolerance of the resulting gasohol mixture. substantially anhydrous alcohol is required for admixture with the gasoline. Blending Alcohol and Gasoline: Mixing alcohol with gasoline produces gasohol. which is particularly important in unleaded fuel. the water being soluble in the methanol or ethanol.2 to 0. 5 . showing that Pakistan is the fifth largest producer of sugarcane. with the alcohol present in an amount sufficient to be soluble in the gasoline. This water tolerance often is in the range of approximately 0. The table lists the main producers of sugarcane in the world. Typically. and reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from the engine. whether the gasoline is composed of highly aromatic or aliphatic components or a combination thereof. because many of these countries already have sugarcane plantations and could gradually start to produce alcohol fuel both for domestic supply and.Replication of the program: The experience with ethanol in Brazil could be replicated in other developing countries such as Pakistan. It would be most desirable to provide for the direct preparation of a gasohol from a fermentation broth and without the use of large amounts of thermal energy. gasohol comprises a mixture of anhydrous alcohol and gasoline. Gasohol has been suggested widely as a substitute for gasoline and for combustion in internal-combustion engines. Advantages of fuel blends are that alcohol tends to increase the octane rating. later on.5 weight percent of water. Higher amounts of water typically provide for unstable gasohol mixtures and lead to complete or partial separation of the water from the gasoline. for export. In the production of gasohol. as required in distillation.

19 per liter according to OGDC. with a daily capacity of 165. The reduction in cost per liter of fuel will result in lesser import of oil consequently improving the GDP of the country.19 half to the European Union. Local consumption of ethanol accounted for just 2. Gasohol on the other hand averages at about 45 Rs. Capacity: Pakistan is a net exporter of ethanol.000 metric tons.000 liters.The push to develop a domestic fuel ethanol industry in Pakistan is relatively new and a direct consequence of the Pakistani ethanol industry’s loss of tax-free status in the EU in 2005.000 tons going to export markets. it has thus far adopted a careful and incremental approach. due to opposition from the oil industry. which exports 95% of its output. with a daily capacity of 160.000 liters of gasohol per day and will affect a population of 1. is run by Al-Abbas Sugar Mills.000 metric tons. Al-Abbas Sugar Mills Limited in District Mirpurkhas. Sindh The plant will start production with a capacity of 175. The largest ethanol plant. 6 .000 spread over an area of 3000 sq.18 In 2004/2005. 15-20 per liter and gasoline is Rs. While the government appears receptive to the idea. Ethanol ranges at about Rs.600. the country had an ethanol capacity of 400. km. Cost Analysis: In Pakistan the petrol prices are soaring at around 54 rupees per liter. The next largest ethanol plant. per liter. is run by Shakarganj Mills Limited.000 liters. which exports 90% of its total production. There are currently 21 ethanol plants in Pakistan. With a sudden surplus of ethanol. of which 14 were operational at the end of 2005. the sugar industry has been furiously lobbying the government to adopt a mandatory ethanol blend in gasoline to boost ethanol consumption. with 80.

ready for distribution. The impurities are left behind in the still. 7 . The ethanol trickles down the condensing tube into a barrel. Crushed sugar cane in placed in fermentation tanks. This is then passed on to the ‘distillation stills’ where it is refined to a pure form.Procedures involving Gasohol Production: The first stage in ethanol production is to grow a crop such as sugar cane. Bacteria in the tanks acts on the sugar cane and in time produce a ‘crude’ form of ethanol. The impure/crude ethanol is heated in a ‘still’ until it vaporises and rises into the neck where it cools and condenses back to pure liquid ethanol. The sugar cane of cut down and undergoes fermentation and distillation.

a gasoline composition and a small amount of up to about 30%. Removing at least some of the water of saturation from the gasohol composition.or ethanol-water solution. Removing a gasohol composition containing water of saturation. which composition contains from up to about 15% by volume of combined alcohol. 3. 8 . of a solvent for the methanol or ethanol and miscible in the gasoline. 2. 4. and 5. the broth containing up to about 12% by volume of the methanol or ethanol. Removing from the extraction process an essentially alcohol-free water. based on the alcohol content of the water-alcohol solution. Recovering a substantially anhydrous gasohol. Mixing in a liquid-liquid extraction process a fermentation broth containing a methanol.A process for the direct preparation of gasohol from a low-content alcohol-containing solution from a fermentation broth: 1.

9 .

but new machines also have a higher productivity than people. in order to remove the leaves. air pollution goes critical and respiratory problems soar. To ensure long-term viability for Brazil’s ethanol fuel industry. In Brazil. the smoke greatly impacts the sugarcane-growing parts of the country. which is relatively little. turning the sky gray and air hazardess throughout the harvesting season. The smoke produced each season produces the same amount of carbon polution as the sugarcane would have produced if it was left in the feild to rot. Many nations have produced alcohol fuel with limited destruction to the environment. However. Advancements in fertilizers and natural pesticides have all but eliminated the need to burn fields. a recent law has been created in order to ban the burning of sugarcane fields. growers must be focused on sustainability rather than short-term productivity.Environmental effects: However. kill any snakes and fertilize the fields with ash. and machines will replace human labor as the means of harvesting cane. due to pressure from the public and health authorities. however chemical pollution from runoff may turn out to be just as harmful to the enviornment as the smoke. the air pollution which was removed from big cities was merely transferred to the rural areas (and multiplied). Sugarcane fields were traditionally burned just before harvest. As winds carry the smoke into nearby towns. the ethanol program was not perfect and brought a host of environmental and social problems of its own. This practice has been decreasing of late. Thus. 10 . This not only solves the problem of pollution from burning fields.

thus causing food shortages. the quantity of water absorbed increases. Methyl alcohol is the most likely to separate. One concern is that sugarcane cultivation will displace other crops. and assassinations. Separation is caused by the polar nature of the alcohol molecules and their tendency to absorb water. Some question the viabiliy of biofuels like ethanol as total replacements for gasoline/crude oil. this shift also created a large population of destitute migrant workers who can only find temporary employment as cane cutters (at about US$3 to 5 per day) for one or two months every year. Disadvantages: The primary disadvantage of mixing methyl and ethyl alcohol with gasoline is that under certain conditions these alcohols may separate from the gasoline. armed confrontations. butyl alcohol the least likely. vandalism. This huge social problem has contributed to political unrest and violence in rural areas. The cultivation of sugarcane for energy production is only likely to increase as fossil fuels become increasingly scarce and more expensive. which are now plagued by recurrent farm invasions. An engine adjusted to burn gasoline efficiently will produce less power from alcohol should it separate from the gasoline. The tendency for separation increases as the temperature decreases. and the quality of the gasoline decreases. 11 .Social implications: Since sugarcane only requires hand labor at harvest time. also a polar substance.

Pakistan is also seeking other means to reduce its dependence on imported oil by promoting the use of natural gas vehicles. In May 2006.Conclusion: The verdict is still out on whether Pakistan’s transport industry will embrace ethanol. 12 . the Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan announced that the country had become one of the only three countries(the other two being Brazil and Argentina) to possess more than one million natural gas vehicles. it shows that Pakistan is capable of the strong commitment needed for an alternative energy program.

References: United States Patent 4251231. Office of Energy. Economic Research Service.usda. http://www.9 USDA 2002 The energy balance of corn ethanol: an update.pdf 13 .html International Energy Agency 2003 Energy Statistics Of Non-OECD Countries.freepatentsonline. Available at http://www. US Department of energy/aer-814.

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