Lappeenrannan teknillinen yliopisto

Lappeenranta University of Technology









Pia Salminen





FRACTIONAL SLOT PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS
MOTORS FOR LOW SPEED APPLICATIONS







Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Science
(Technology) to be presented with due
permission for public examination and
criticism in the auditorium 1382 at
Lappeenranta University of Technology,
Lappeenranta, Finland on the 20
th
of
December, 2004, at noon.



Acta Universitatis
Lappeenrantaensis
198













































ISBN 951-764-982-7
ISBN 951-764-983-5 (PDF)
ISSN 1456-4491

Lappeenrannan teknillinen yliopisto
Digipaino 2004
ABSTRACT

Pia Salminen

FRACTIONAL SLOT PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS FOR
LOW SPEED APPLICATIONS

Lappeenranta 2004

150 p.
Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaensis 198
Diss. Lappeenranta University of Technology
ISBN 951-764-982-7, ISBN 951-764-983-5 (PDF), ISSN 1456-4491


This study compares different rotor structures of permanent magnet motors with fractional slot
windings. The surface mounted magnet and the embedded magnet rotor structures are studied.
This thesis analyses the characteristics of a concentrated two-layer winding, each coil of which
is wound around one tooth and which has a number of slots per pole and per phase less than one
(q < 1). Compared to the integer slot winding, the fractional winding (q < 1) has shorter end
windings and this, thereby, makes space as well as manufacturing cost saving possible.
Several possible ways of winding a fractional slot machine with slots per pole and per phase
less than one are examined. The winding factor and the winding harmonic components are
calculated. The benefits attainable from a machine with concentrated windings are considered.
Rotor structures with surface magnets, radially embedded magnets and embedded magnets in
V-position are discussed. The finite element method is used to solve the main values of the
motors. The waveform of the induced electro motive force, the no-load and rated load torque
ripple as well as the dynamic behavior of the current driven and voltage driven motor are
solved. The results obtained from different finite element analyses are given. A simple analytic
method to calculate fractional slot machines is introduced and the values are compared to the
values obtained with the finite element analysis.
Several different fractional slot machines are first designed by using the simple analytical
method and then computed by using the finite element method. All the motors are of the same
225-frame size, and have an approximately same amount of magnet material, a same rated
torque demand and a 400 - 420 rpm speed. An analysis of the computation results gives new
information on the character of fractional slot machines.
A fractional slot prototype machine with number 0.4 for the slots per pole and per phase, 45 kW
output power and 420 rpm speed is constructed to verify the calculations. The measurement
and the finite element method results are found to be equal.

Key words: Permanent magnet synchronous motor, PMSM, machine design
UDC 621.313.323 : 621.313.8 : 621.3.042.3

























































ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research work was carried out at the Laboratory of Electrical Engineering, Department of
Electrical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology.

I wish to express my deepest gratitude to Professor Juha Pyrhönen, head of the Department of
Electrical Engineering and the supervisor of this thesis, for his guidance and support.

The work is a research project of the Carelian Drives Motor Centre, CDMC. The project was
partly financed by ABB Oy. Special acknowledgements are due to M.Sc. Juhani Mantere, head
of the Electrical Machines Department of ABB Oy, for his guidance during this work and for
the co-operation facilities. I wish to express my gratitude to D.Sc. Markku Niemelä, head of the
CDMC, Lappeenranta.

I wish to express my special thanks to M.Sc. Asko Parviainen, D.Sc. Markku Niemelä and
Professor Juha Pyrhönen for their support during the research work. They are the core of a large
group of dear colleagues, which whom I had valuable and guiding discussions on the subject of
this thesis. I am also grateful to Mr. Harri Loisa for the manufacturing of the windings of the
prototype machine.
I wish to express my gratitude to the pre-examinators of this thesis, D.Sc. Jarmo Perho, HUT,
and Professor Chandur Sadarangani, KTH, for their valuable comments and proposed
corrections. Their co-operation is highly appreciated.
My warm thanks are due to FM Julia Vauterin for the language review of this thesis.
I also wish to express my gratitude to my colleagues, friends and especially to my son Esa for
their help and understanding during my work.
Financial support by the South-Karelian Department of Finnish Cultural Foundation, Jenny and
Antti Wihuri Foundation, Foundation of Technology and Association of Electrical Engineers in
Finland, Ulla Tuominen Foundation, Walter Ahlström Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

Lappeenranta, December 2004

Pia Salminen







ABBREVIATIONS AND VARIABLES

Symbols
a Number of branches of winding
B Flux density
B
r
Remanence flux density
b Width
b
b
Width of end winding
b
m
Width of magnet
cosϕ Power factor
D Diameter
D
δ
Air gap diameter
d Lamination sheet thickness
E
PM
Induced back electro magnetic force (EMF)
F
m
Magnetomotive force
f

Frequency
f
s
Frequency of stator field
f
sw
Switching frequency
g Factor, Index number
H, h Magnetic field strength, height
h
b
Height of the end winding, radial
h
m
Height of permanent magnet
I, i

Current
I
n
Rated current
k Index
k
C
Carter’s coefficient
k
e
Coefficient of excess loss
k
f
Filling factor
k
Fe, t
Factor for defining iron losses in teeth
k
Fe, y
Factor for defining iron losses in yoke
k
h
Coefficient of hysteresis loss
k
rb
Factor for

defining bearing losses
k
1
Factor for defining inductance
k
2
Factor for defining inductance
k
3
Factor for defining iron losses
k
4
Factor for defining iron losses

k
5
Factor for defining eddy current losses
L, l Physical length of the stator core, Inductance, Length
L
d
Direct axis inductance
L
q
Quadrature axis inductance

L
i
Effective length of the core
L
md
Magnetizing inductance of the direct axis
L
mq
Magnetizing inductance of the quadrature axis
L
n
Slot leakage inductance
L

Stator leakage inductance
L
z
Tooth tip leakage inductance
L
χ
Leakage inductance, skewing
l
b
Length of the end winding
l
m
Length of the permanent magnets, axial
m Number of phases, mass
m
Cu
Mass of copper
m
Fe, y
Mass of iron, yoke
m
Fe, t
Mass of iron, teeth
N Natural number
N
n1
Effective turns of a coil
N
ph
Amount of winding turns in series of stator phase
n Denumerator of q (slots per poles and per phase), Speed
n
c
Physical displacement in the number of slots
n
mx
Number of magnets (tangential direction)
n
mz
Number of magnets (axial direction)
P Power
P
Br
Bearing losses
P
Cu
Copper losses
P
Eddy
Eddy current losses of the magnets
P
Fe
Iron losses
P
h
Total losses
P
in
Input power
P
n
Rated power
P
Pu
Pulsation losses
P
Str
Stray losses
p Pole pair number
p
10
Factor for defining iron loss

Q
s
Number of stator slots
q Slots per pole and per phase
R
ph
Phase resistance
s Slip
T Torque
t Time, Variable, defines the winding arrangement
∆T
p-p
Peak-to-peak torque ripple % of average torque
U

Voltage
x Width
x
1
Slot width
x
4
Slot opening width
y

Coil pitch, height
y
1
Slot height
y
4
Slot opening height
z Numerator of q (slots per poles and per phase)

Greek letters
α Electric angle, Magnet width (Magnet arc width / pole pitch, shown in Fig. 3.12)
β Width of tooth, angle
δ Air-gap length, radial
δ
a
Load angle
δ
eff
Equivalent air-gap length
γ
k
Phase shift

η Efficiency
Λ
so
Permeance of upper layer
Λ
su
Permeance of lower layer
Λ
g
Mutual permeance
Λ
go
Mutual permeance of upper layer
Λ
gu
Mutual permeance of lower layer
λ Permeance factor
λ
e
Reactance factor for the end windings
λ
w
Reactance factor for the end windings
λ’
n
Permeance factor, describes all λ factors
λ
z
Leakage inductance factor

PM δ,
Φ Air gap flux created by permanent magnets

ρ
m
Resistivity of the magnet
σ
δ
Leakage factor
σ

Conductivity
µ Permeability
µ
Fe
Permeability of iron
µ
r
Relative permeability
µ
0
Permeability of air (vacuum)
ν Harmonic
ν
slot
Slot harmonic
τ
p
Pole pitch
τ
s
Slot pitch
τ
sk
Skewing pitch
ω Electrical angular frequency
ω
s
Angular frequency of stator field
ξ
ν
Winding factor, ν
th
harmonic
ξ
1
Winding factor, fundamental harmonic
ξ
d
Distribution factor
ξ
p
Pitch factor
ξ
sk
Skewing factor
Ψ Flux linkage
Ψ
a
Armature flux linkage
Ψ
PM
Flux linkage due to permanent magnet
Ψ
s
Stator flux linkage
Ψ
δ
Air-gap flux linkage

Acronyms
2D Two-dimensional
A Analytical calculation
AC Alternating current
CD Compact disk
DC Direct current
DTC Direct torque control
DVD-ROM Digital videodisk – read only memory
EMF Electro motive force
ER Motor with radially embedded magnets

EV Motor with embedded magnets in V-position
FEA Finite element analysis
HDD Hard disc drive
LCM Least common multiplier
mmf Magnetomotive force
Nd-Fe-B Neodymium Iron Boron -alloy
PM Permanent magnet
PMSM Permanent magnet synchronous motor
S Motor with surface mounted magnets
SM Synchronous motor
RMS Root mean square

Subscript
b End winding
d Direct
q Quadrature
r Rotor
s Stator
σ Leakage
1 Fundamental wave
ν Harmonic
n Rated
o Upper
u Lower
max Maximum
y Yoke
t Teeth

Superscripts
e Electric angle

Others
Upper case letters, in italic Root mean square value
Lower case letters, in italic Instantaneous value
p.u. Per unit value
_ Space vectors are underlined

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABBREVIATIONS AND VARIABLES
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................13
1.1. Brushless motor types ...................................................................................................20
1.2. Location of the permanent magnets ..............................................................................22
1.3. Applications ..................................................................................................................24
1.4. End winding and stator resistance.................................................................................25
1.5. Scientific contribution of this work...............................................................................29
2. CALCULATION OF A FRACTIONAL SLOT PM-MOTOR................................................30
2.1. Two-layer fractional slot winding.................................................................................31
2.1.1. 1
st
-Grade fractional slot winding.....................................................................32
2.1.2. 2
nd
-Grade fractional slot winding ....................................................................33
2.2. Winding arrangements ..................................................................................................34
2.3. Winding factor ..............................................................................................................36
2.3.1. Winding factor according to the voltage vector graph ....................................45
2.4. Flux density and back EMF ..........................................................................................46
2.5. Inductances ...................................................................................................................49
2.5.1. Leakage inductance method 1 .........................................................................50
2.5.2. Leakage inductance method 2 .........................................................................56
2.6. Torque calculation.........................................................................................................58
2.7. Loss calculation.............................................................................................................58
2.8. Finite element analysis..................................................................................................60
3. COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS .............................................................................................62
3.1. Torque as a function of the load angle ..........................................................................65
3.2. Number of slots and poles.............................................................................................69
3.3. Induced no-load back EMF...........................................................................................73
3.4. Cogging torque..............................................................................................................75
3.4.1. Semi-closed slot vs. open slot .........................................................................82
3.4.2. Conclusion.......................................................................................................86
3.5. Torque ripple of the current driven model ....................................................................87

3.5.1. Some examples................................................................................................89
3.5.2. The magnet width and the slot opening width.................................................92
3.5.3. Conclusion.......................................................................................................95
3.6. Surface magnet motor versus embedded magnet motor................................................97
3.6.1. 12-slot-10-pole motor......................................................................................97
3.6.2. 24-slot-22-pole motor and 24-slot-20-pole motor ...........................................101
3.6.3. Conclusion.......................................................................................................104
3.6.4. Slot opening.....................................................................................................106
3.6.5. Embedded V-magnet motors...........................................................................111
3.6.6. Conclusion.......................................................................................................112
3.7. The fractional slot winding compared to the integer slot winding................................113
3.8. Losses............................................................................................................................115
3.9. The analytical computations compared to the FE computations...................................117
3.10. Designing guidelines.....................................................................................................119
4. 12-SLOT 10-POLE PROTOTYPE MOTOR...........................................................................121
4.1. Design of the prototype V-magnet motor .....................................................................121
4.2. No-load test ...................................................................................................................124
4.3. Generator test ................................................................................................................126
4.3.1. Temperature rise test .......................................................................................127
4.3.2. Vibration measurement ...................................................................................129
4.4. Cogging torque measurement .......................................................................................129
4.5. Measured values compared to the computed values .....................................................130
4.6. Comments and suggestions...........................................................................................131
5. CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................133
REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................136
APPENDIX A Winding arrangements.......................................................................................140
APPENDIX B Periodical behaviour of harmonics ....................................................................141
APPENDIX C Winding factors .................................................................................................143
APPENDIX D Calculation example of inductances ..................................................................145
APPENDIX E B/H-curves for Neorem 495a.............................................................................147
APPENDIX F Torque ripples results from FEA .......................................................................148
APPENDIX G Prototype motor data..........................................................................................150
13
1. INTRODUCTION
The appellation ‘synchronous motor’ is derived from the fact that the rotor and the rotating field
of the stator rotate at the same speed. The rotor tends to align itself with the rotating field
produced by the stator. The stator has often a three-phase winding. The rotor magnetization is
caused by the permanent magnets in the rotor or by external magnetization such as e.g. a DC-
supply feeding the field winding. These motor types are called permanent magnet synchronous
motors (PMSMs) and separately excited synchronous motors (SM), correspondingly.
Depending on the rotor construction the motors are often called either salient-pole or non-
salient-pole motors. The performance of the synchronous motor is very much dependent on the
different inductances of the motor. Different equivalent air-gaps in the direct and quadrature-
axis cause different inductances in the directions of the d- and q-axis. The direct-axis
synchronous inductance L
d
consists of the magnetizing inductance L
md
and the leakage
inductance L

. Correspondingly, the quadrature-axis synchronous inductance L
q
is the sum of
the quadrature-axis magnetizing inductance L
mq
and the leakage inductance L

. The values of
these two synchronous inductances mainly determine the character of a synchronous motor.
The flux created by the stator currents – depending on the construction of the permanent magnet
motor – is typically only 0.1… 0.6 of the amount of the flux created by the permanent magnets.
Thus, the armature flux (or armature reaction) is typically small. This is the reason why, for the
permanent magnet synchronous motor, the torque can be adjusted flexibly by changing the
stator current. Also for this reason, the permanent magnet motor has an obvious advantage over
the induction motor. The small armature reaction involves also the following difficulty; the field
weakening is often difficult in PMSMs. Moderate field weakening properties are achieved in
motors with embedded magnets and with a large number of poles. In these cases, the
synchronous inductance easily reaches a p.u. value of about 0.7. This means that the rated
current in the negative d-axis direction gives a 0.3 p.u. flux value.
The history of permanent magnet motors has been dependent on the development of the magnet
materials. Permanent magnets have been first used in DC motors and later in synchronous AC
motors. After the rare earth magnets were developed for production in the 1970’s, it was
possible to manufacture also large PM synchronous motors. The industrial interest to
manufacture permanent magnet motors arose in the 1980’s as the new magnet material
14
Neodymium-Iron-Boron, Nd-Fe-B was developed. As the magnet materials have been further
developed and their market prices decreased, the use of permanent magnet machines has been
growing. The first machine applications of the PM motor were small-sized, cylindrical rotor
synchronous motors. In the 1990’s, the permanent magnet remanence flux density B
r
= 1.2 T
was considered to be a high value. In practice, also magnets with low B
r
values have been used
to save costs. Nowadays, the best Nd-Fe-B grades can reach B
r
of 1.5 T. This, again, will
certainly give new design aspects. Considering the properties of steel, the demagnetization
curve of the present-day permanent-magnet materials and the maximum energy product as well
as the best utilisation of the permanent-magnet material, it may be stated that the motor designer
might be satisfied, when it is available for various use a permanent magnet material which has a
remanence flux density of nearly 2 T. This value should guarantee an air-gap density of about
1 T, full use of the steel mass and good use of the permanent magnet material in case of a
surface magnet motor. The permanent magnet materials have nowadays almost all desired
properties and create a strong flux. Of course, the motor designer will ask for still a larger
remanence and temperature independency as well as for even better demagnetization properties,
but the present-day materials are, nevertheless, quite well suited for permanent magnet motor
applications.
This thesis introduces a performance comparison of different permanent magnet motor
structures equipped with fractional slot windings in which the number of slots per pole and per
phase is lower than unity, q < 1. For a motor with q (the number of slots per pole and per phase)
less than unity, the flux density distribution in the air-gap over one pole pitch can consist of just
one tooth and one slot, as for example the 24-slot-22 pole motor, Fig. 1.1.
The main flux can flow through one tooth from the rotor to the stator and return via two other
teeth. The resulting air-gap flux density distribution is not sinusoidal, as it is illustrated in
Fig. 1.1 b). As a consequence, for the cogging torque or the dynamic torque ripple, problems
may be expected to appear. In a well-designed fractional slot motor the voltages and the
currents may be purely sinusoidal.
15
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 1 2 3
Air gap radius
F
l
u
x

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

n
o
r
m
a
l

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

(
T
)
2π 4π 6π
32.6°

Air-gap periphery

Fig. 1.1 a) Flux lines of a fractional slot motor with 24 slots and 22 poles, q = 0.364. One electrical cycle
of 2π is equal to 2τ
p

p
is the pole pitch). b) The corresponding normal (radial) component of the air-gap
flux density along the air-gap periphery.
The magnetomotive force (mmf) waves of three different 22-pole motors are illustrated in Fig.
1.2. On the top, a q = 2 motor with 132 slots is illustrated, in the middle a q = 1 motor with 66
slots and at the bottom a fractional slot q = 24/(3⋅22) = 4/11 motor with 24 slots.
q = 1
q = 2
q = 0.364

Fig. 1.2. The magnetomotive force waves of 22-pole motors with q = 2, q = 1 and q = 4/11 at an instance
when the stator phase currents i
1
= 1 and i
2
= i
3
= −½.
16
The figure reveals clearly the pulse-vice nature of the mmf of the fractional slot winding and
that the harmonic content of the mmf is large. There exist also low order sub-harmonics in the
mmf, which is not the case for the integer slot windings.
The only feasible motor type that, in practice, may run equipped with a fractional slot winding
is the synchronous motor the rotor conductivity of which should be as low as possible. Even the
permanent magnet material should be as poorly conducting as possible. The rotor magnetic flux
carrying parts must also be made of laminated steel in order to avoid excessive rotor iron losses
due to the fluctuating flux in the rotor. The machine type produces anyway losses in the rotor
and is, therefore, inherently best suited for low speed applications. The popularity of low speed
applications is increasing as the use of direct drive systems in industry and domestic
applications as well as in wind power production, commerce and leisure is growing.
In low speed applications it is often a good selection to set a high pole number. It has the
advantage that the iron weight per rated torque is low due to the rather low flux per pole. A high
pole number with conventional winding (q ≥ 1) structures involves also a high slot number,
which increases the costs and, in the worst case, leads to a low filling factor since the amount of
insulation material compared to the slot area is high. The fractional slot winding (q < 1)
solution, instead, does not require many slots although the pole number is high, as a result of
which both the iron and the copper mass can be reduced. Compared to the conventional
windings (q ≥ 1) with the same slot number it can be shown that the length of the end winding
is less than one third in concentrated fractional wound motors. This offers a remarkable
potential to reduce the machine copper losses. If the copper weight can be reduced, also the
material costs, correspondingly, will decrease, because the raw material cost of copper is about
6 times the cost of iron. Some fractional slot motors offer relatively low fundamental winding
factors and create harmonics and sub-harmonics causing extra heating, additional losses and
vibration. It has been studied the use of these machine types merely in applications with small
power and, in some cases, with 1 or 2 phase systems, so their use at high power ratings has thus
far been not very common. Because the problem of selecting the geometry and winding
arrangements of the fractional slot motor remains still partly unsolved, it is important to further
study in detail the fractional slot motors. Therefore, the importance of manufacturing a
prototype machine of considerable power should be stressed.
17
It was the author’s objective to design a low speed motor for the specific application, in which a
high torque and 45 kW output power could be achieved from a restricted motor volume. In
order to be able to fulfil these conditions the multi-pole machine with fractional slot windings
should be studied carefully. One of the designs studied was verified with the prototype machine.
The given performance comparison is based on several 2D-finite element computations made
on the 45 kW, 400 rpm, 420 rpm and 600 rpm machines. The torque, torque ripple and back
EMF waveforms are analysed. The machine design relies on an efficient forced air-cooling
which brings an over 5 A/mm
2
stator current density at rated load. A two-layer concentrated
winding type, in which each stator tooth forms practically an independent pole, was selected for
manufacturing. The most significant advantage of this winding type is that it minimizes the
length of the end windings. Almost all copper is contributing to the torque production of the
machine. The fundamental winding factors for some concentrated windings (where two
different coils are placed in the same slot) for different rotor pole (2p) and stator slot (Q
s
)
combinations are given. It may be noticed that only a few combinations of Q
s
and 2p produce a
high fundamental winding factor. Analytical calculations and the finite element analysis (FEA)
were carried out for several types of the fractional slot motor.
Hendershot and Miller (1994) studied the variations of possible pole and slot numbers for
brushless motors in terms of how the cogging may be resisted. It was noticed that the minimum
cogging torque was not dependent on whether the machine is of the fractional-slot or integer-
slot type. If q is an integer every leading or lagging edge of poles lines up simultaneously with
the stator slots – causing cogging, but in fractional slot combinations fewer pole-edges line up
with the slots. A fractional slot winding minimizes the need for skewing of either the poles or
the lamination core to reduce the cogging. This actually precludes one of the best-known
brushless motors, the 12-slot-4-pole motor, as well as all the derivates from the 3 slots per pole
series. Hendershot and Miller also paid attention to the winding pitch character. Since the coils
can be wound only over an integer number of slots, dividing the number of slots by the number
of poles and rounding off to the next lower or higher whole number determine the winding
pitch. Obviously, the end turns are most short when the pitch is one or two slot-pitches. Any
number above two requires a considerable overlapping of the end turns. This may make some
slot/pole combinations more difficult, but one-slot- and two-slot-pitch windings can be
fabricated economically while using needle winders. The actual pole arc can make this situation
either worse or better. It is obvious that the end turns are most short when the pitch is one or
two-slots and that is why some two-layer constructions may be useful.
18
Spooner and Williamson (1996) have studied multi-pole machines, since direct-coupled
generators were needed in wind turbines. In an application like that, the machine must fit within
the confined space of a nacelle; also a high efficiency and a power factor over a wide range of
operating power are demanded. The authors compared different structures taking into
consideration the easiness of construction as well as the manufacturing costs. They first built
prototype machines of a smaller size with 16 poles and 26 poles (rotor diameters 100 mm and
150 mm) and then designed a 400 kW machine with 166 poles (rotor diameter 2100 mm). The
efficiency of this machine was reported to be 90.8 (at rated power).
Lampola and Perho (1996) made a study of PM generators in wind turbine applications using
fractional slot windings. They used a 500 kW, 40 rpm generator with frequency converter. The
efficiency of the generator at rated load was 95.4%. Lampola’s (2000) study focuses on the
electromagnetic design of the generator and the optimisation of the radial flux permanent
magnet synchronous generators with surface mounted magnets. He analysed machines with
different powers: 500 kW, 10 kW and 5.5 kW. The rated speeds of the machines were quite low
varying from 40 rpm to 175 rpm. The finite element method was used in computations and
genetic algorithms were used to optimise the costs, the pull-out torque and the efficiency
separately. According to the optimisations, the conventional machine has a higher efficiency
and smaller costs of active materials compared to the unconventional ones. The unconventional
fractional slot generator has a simple construction, it is easy to manufacture and it has a small
pole pitch, a small diameter, a smaller demagnetization risk and a low torque ripple. Therefore,
it is competitive for some PM generators. According to Lampola (2000), the choice between
these two types of machines depends on the mechanical, electrical, economic and
manufacturing requirements.
Cros and Viarouge (1999, 2002) studied different fractional slot PM motors with concentrated
windings. The details of the motors designed are not given in their papers. Therefore, a
comparison between the fractional slotted designs introduced by the authors is difficult. From
the given torque curves, it can be estimated, that with q = 0.5 the torque ripple is about 15%
peak-to-peak and with q = 1 about 20% (30 slots 10 poles). It was noticed that machines with q
equal to 0.5 have a relatively low performance with sinusoidal currents. Such machines are
recommended for low power applications since the winding factor of these machines is only
0.866 and the torque ripple is high. According to Cros and Viarouge, machines with q between
1/2 and 1/3 generally produce a high performance. The machine with 10 poles and 12 slots is of
19
particular interest, because it can support a one-layer concentrated winding and the torque ripple
of the machine is low. Moreover, these structures also give a no-load cogging of low amplitude
although the frequency is relatively high.
Cros et al. (2004) also studied brushless DC motors with concentrated windings and segmented
stator. According to his studies, by using concentrated windings it is possible to save 17%
copper material, 24% iron material and to reduce the total copper losses up to 17% compared to
the integer slot wound machine.
Kasinathan (2003) made a study of fractional slot machines, which have a slotted stator inside
and in the outer side a rotor constructed of permanent magnets. The thesis primarily analyses
the practical limits for the force density in low-speed permanent magnet machines. These limits
are imposed by the magnetic saturation and heat transfer. The author studied the force densities
of fractional slot motors with q equal to 0.375, 0.5 and 0.75 as well as an integer slot motor with
q equal to 1. An experimental in-wheel motor for a wheelchair application was built and tested
and it was shown that the design specifications were met. The motor has 42 slots and 28 poles
(q = 0.5) with one slot pitch skew. At a 150 rev/min rated speed the output power was
approximately 600 W and the torque 42 Nm. The results were promising and showed a
remarkable increase in performance compared to the existing conventional geared drive used in
wheelchair applications. Unfortunately, the author was not granted permission to include the
details of field-testing of the experimental motors or prototypes in his thesis.
Magnussen and Sadarangani (2003a) and Magnussen et al. (2003b, 2004) introduced a study of
machines, where a slotted armature is the rotating part and the permanent magnets are
assembled in a non-rotating outer part of the machine. A fractional 15-slot-14-pole prototype
motor was designed for a hybrid vehicle application. The rated torque of the motor was 85 Nm
and the estimated torque peak-to-peak ripple 3.5% of the rated torque. Magnussen et al. (2003a)
compared conventional integer slot windings with fractional slot windings. Three winding
structures were studied. The first structure is a theoretical reference machine, where the
fundamental winding factor is unity and which has a distributed winding with q = 1 (integer slot
winding). The second and the third machine are equipped with concentrated one-layer and two-
layer windings. The winding factor of the reference winding is ξ
1
= 1, but the fractional slot
wound motors have a fundamental winding factor ξ
1
= 0.866. As the winding factor of the
20
fractional slot winding is lower than that of the integer slot winding, also the torque developed
is lower, unless there will be more winding turns or a higher current density in the fractional
slot wound machine. The machine with a winding factor ξ
1
= 0.866 has a 15.5% higher current
density and 33.3% higher copper losses compared to the reference machine for the same torque,
assuming that the machines have equal slot filling factors and a comparable magnetic design
and also that the end windings are disregarded. As the machines were compared concerning
their slot filling factors, other parameters were calculated for each motor. In the fractional slot
machine the length of the end winding is smaller and the filling factors can be higher than those
of integer slot windings. Therefore, the relative winding losses (DC losses) of both fractional
machines were smaller than in the integer slot machine. It was also stated that these copper
losses diminish as the pole pair number is increased.
1.1. Brushless motor types
A brushless motor is a motor without brushes, mechanical commutator or slip rings, which are
required in a conventional DC motor or synchronous AC motor for connection to the rotor
windings. According to Hendershot and Miller (1994), there are several motors, which satisfy
this definition, as e.g. the
• AC induction motor,
• Stepping motor,
• Brushless DC motor and
• Brushless AC motor.
The most common of these is the AC induction motor, in which the current in the rotor
windings is produced by electromagnetic induction. The AC induction motor employs a rotating
magnetic field that rotates at a synchronous speed set by the supply frequency. The larger the
number of slots per pole and per phase q is, the more the properties of the induction motor will
improve. The larger the q value is, the lower super-harmonic magnetomotive force content,
created by the winding, will be and the torque production will be smooth. However, the rotor
rotates at a slightly slower speed because the process of electromagnetic induction requires
relative motion – slip – between the rotor conductors and the rotating field. Because the rotor
21
speed is no longer exactly proportional to the supply frequency the motor is called an
asynchronous machine. The induced rotor current increases the copper losses, which, again,
heat the rotor and decrease the efficiency proportionally to the slip s. The variation of the rotor
resistance with the temperature causes the effective torque to vary, which actually makes the
motor control difficult, as it is e.g. in high-precision motion control applications at least in the
absence of a position encoder. Hendershot and Miller (1994) state, that the brushless permanent
magnet motor overcomes the above-described restricting characteristics of the AC induction
motor.
The stepping motor is also a commonly used brushless motor type. In most structures, the rotor
has permanent magnets and laminated soft iron poles, while all windings are in the stator. The
torque is developed by the tendency of the rotor and stator teeth to pull the poles into alignment
according to the sequential energization of the phases. One of the advantages of the stepping
motor control is that an accurate position control may be achieved without a shaft position
feedback. Stepping motors are designed with small step angles, a fine tooth geometry and small
air-gap to achieve stable operation and enough torque. The disadvantages of the stepping motor
are its cost and acoustic noise levels.
The operation of the brushless DC motor is based on the rotating permanent magnet passing a
set of conductors. Thereby, it may be comparable with the inverted DC commutator motor, in
which the magnets rotate while the conductors remain stationary. In both of the motor types, the
current in the conductors must reverse polarity every time a magnet pole passes by, to ensure a
unidirectional torque. The commutator and the brushes are used to perform reverse polarity in
the case of the DC commutator motor. The polarity reversal of the brushless DC motor is
performed by power transistors, which must be switched on and off in synchronism with the
rotor position. The performance equations and speed as well as the torque characteristics are
almost identical for both motor types. When the phase currents in the brushless DC motor are
switching polarity as the magnet poles pass by, the motor is said to operate with square wave
excitation and the back EMF is usually arranged to be trapezoidal. In another operation mode,
the phase currents are sinusoidal and the back EMF should be, in the ideal case, sinusoidal. The
motor and its controller appear physically similar as in previous case, but there is an important
difference. The motor with sine waves operates with a rotating field, which is similar to the
rotating magnetic field in the induction motor or the AC synchronous motor. This brushless
motor type is a pure synchronous AC motor that has its fixed excitation from the permanent
22
magnets. This motor is more like a wound rotor synchronous machine than a DC commutator
motor, and is, thereby, often called brushless AC motor. Different names may be used in the
literature on the subject or by the manufactures in different countries for the motors described
above. Two cross-sections used in different motor types are shown in Fig. 1.3.
N
N
S S
N
S
frame
permanent
magnet
11-slot wound
armature
stator frame
3 phase 12-slot
stator winding
4-pole permanent
magnet rotor
a) b)

Fig. 1.3. a) Motor cross-section of a DC commutator motor and exterior rotor brushless DC motor. b)
Cross section for an interior rotor brushless DC motor and brushless AC motor. (Hendershot and Miller,
1994).
The motor cross-section used for a DC commutator motor is shown in Fig. 1.3 a), but it can also
be used for an exterior rotor brushless DC motor. Fig. 1.3 b) shows a cross section of an interior
rotor brushless DC motor and the same cross section can also be used for a brushless AC motor.
The study in his thesis is mainly focused on a brushless AC motor, which is a synchronous
motor equipped with an interior rotor with permanent magnets.
1.2. Location of the permanent magnets
Nowadays, the most commonly used construction for the PM motors is the rotor construction
type which has the permanent magnets located on the rotor surface. Herein, this motor type will
be called surface magnet motor for simplicity reasons. In a surface magnet motor the magnets
are usually magnetized radially. Due to the use of low permeability (µ
r
= 1 … 1.2) Nd-Fe-B
rare-earth magnets the synchronous inductances in the d- and q-axis may be considered to be
equal which can be helpful while designing the surface magnet motor. The construction of the
23
motor is quite cheap and simple, because the magnets can be attached to the rotor surface. The
embedded magnet motor has permanent magnets embedded in the deep slots. There are several
possible ways to build a surface or an embedded magnet motor as shown in Fig. 1.4.
N
S
d
q
S
N
S N N S
S
d
q
N
N
S
d
q
S
N
S N N S
N
S
d
q
S
N
S N S
S
S
N N
N
S
N
S
N
N
S
S
d
q
N
S
N
S
S
d
q
N
N S
N
S
S
N
d
q
N
S
N S
a) b) c)

d) e) f) g)

Fig. 1.4. Location of the permanent magnets: a) Surface mounted magnets, b) inset rotor with surface
magnets, c) surface magnets with pole shoes, d) embedded tangential magnets, e) embedded radial
magnets, f) embedded inclined V-magnets with 1/cosine shaped air-gap and g) permanent magnet assisted
synchronous reluctance motor with axially laminated construction. (Heikkilä, 2002)
In the case of an embedded magnet motor, the stator synchronous inductance in the q-axis is
greater than the synchronous inductance in the d-axis. If the motor has a ferromagnetic shaft a
large portion of the permanent magnet produced flux goes through the shaft. In this study the
embedded-magnet motor is equipped with a non-ferromagnetic shaft in order to increase the
linkage flux crossing the air-gap. Another method to increase the linkage flux crossing the air-
gap is to fit a non-ferromagnetic sleeve between the ferromagnetic shaft and the rotor core
(Gieras and Wing, 1997).
Compared to the embedded magnets, one important advantage of the surface mounted magnets
is the smaller amount of magnet material needed in the design (in integer-slot machines). If the
same power is wanted from the same machine size, the surface mounted magnet machine needs
less magnet material than the corresponding machine with embedded magnets. This is due to
following two facts: in the embedded-magnets-case there is always a considerable amount of
24
leakage flux in the end regions of the permanent magnets and the armature reaction is also
worse than in the surface magnet case. Zhu et al. (2002) reported that the embedded magnet
structure facilitates extended flux-weakening operation when compared to a surface magnet
motor with the same stator design (both machines are equipped with an integer slot winding).
He also stated that the iron losses of the embedded magnet machine were higher than that of the
machine with surface magnet rotor. However, there are several other advantages that make the
use of embedded magnets favourable. Because of the high air-gap flux density, the machine
may produce more torque per rotor volume compared to the rotor, which has surface mounted
magnets. This, however, requires usually a larger amount of PM-material. The risk of
permanent magnet material demagnetization remains smaller. The magnets can be rectangular
and there are less fixing and bonding problems with the magnets: The magnets are easy to
mount into the holes of the rotor and the risk of damaging the magnets is small. (Heikkilä,
2002). Because of the high air-gap flux density an embedded magnet low speed machine may
produce a higher efficiency than the surface magnet machine.
1.3. Applications
When many poles are used it is possible to increase the air-gap diameter since less space is
needed for the stator yoke. The capacity of producing the motor torque grows up rapidly with
the increased air-gap diameter. Additionally, the copper losses of the stator diminish by
decreasing the end winding length and the winding resistance. Therefore, the torque per volume
ratio of these motors can be especially high. This may be described with the rotor surface
average tangential stress, which in these cases easily reaches values between 30 – 50 kN/m
2
.
What kind of the winding structure should be, this depends a lot on the application conditions
for the motor to be used in: how much space is available, which is the speed desired and how
many poles will be used. With an integer slot winding it is possible to adjust the winding turn
amount only by chording the coils. Usually, integer slot windings are used with q = 2 … 6. The
selection of q is done according to the mechanic limitations – the numbers of poles and slots
suitable for the motor size. More possibilities to select q can be found if fractional slot windings
are used. In cases where there is already a slotted rotor or stator of suitable size available, it may
be easier to adjust the pole number by using fractional slot windings than produce new steel
laminations. According to several scientific publications fractional slot wound machines are
often used in vehicles, such as for example the hybrid electric vehicle application by
Magnussen et al. (2003b), the fractional slot wound PM-machine for train application by Koch
25
and Binder (2002). Koch and Binder (2002) discovered the fractional slot wound motor to be a
suitable motor for their application requirements: it has a direct gearless drive, low speed, high
torque and low mass per torque. There are some applications with only one or two phases.
According to Cho et al. (1999), a brushless DC motor with permanent magnets has been used as
a spindle motor in diskette driving systems such as CD/DVD-ROM, HDD etc. and as a direct
drive motor in e.g. washing machines. Direct drive permanent magnet generators used in wind
turbines, as e.g. the surface magnet machine by Lampola (2000) and embedded magnet machine
by Spooner and Williamson (1996) are examples of applications where fractional slot windings
are used. Today, fractional slot machines have been used also in converter fed high torque, low
speed machines for elevators, machining and ski lift drives with torque ratings up to 200 kNm,
Reichert (2004).
1.4. End winding and stator resistance
Some possible machine structure sizes are illustrated in Fig 1.5. The machine with the air-gap
diameter D
δ
equal to the length of the core L, is illustrated in a) with a conventional winding
and b) with a concentrated fractional slot winding. The end winding of the conventional lap
winding a) is as long as the length of the core L. With fractional slot windings, shown in Fig.
1.5 b), the end winding length is about 1/5 of the length of the machine. In longer machines the
relative end winding length may be much smaller than in short machines and, therefore, the end
winding length may be a less important parameter in such cases. Fig. 1.5 c) shows a long
machine, which has a higher pole number than the machine in Fig. 1.5 b).
+ A
- A
- A
+ A
+ A
- A - A
+ A
L

a) b) c)
Fig. 1.5. The machine structures a) conventional winding, where p = 2, q = 1, b) concentrated fractional
slot winding, where p = 4, q = 0.5 (short machine) and c) a winding, where q = 1 and the pole number is
high (long machine where the relative end winding length is short despite of the traditional winding).
26
According to Bianchi et al. (2003), when the number of poles is high the concentrated winding
is convenient only when the stator length is smaller than the air-gap diameter. Bianchi et al.
(2003) calculated the D
δ
/L values for a fractional slot machine to estimate in which
circumstances the use of concentrated windings may be beneficial. He compared a full-pitch
winding to a concentrated fractional slot winding taking into consideration the capacity of
torque production and the amount of copper losses. Research has been done also on special
machine types that are equipped with concentrated windings and have an irregular distribution
of the slots with two widths, e.g. by Cros and Viarouge (2002), and Koch and Binder (2002).
Cros and Viarouge (2002) discovered that this motor type has a higher performance than the
motor type with regular distribution of the slots. The copper volume and copper losses in the
end windings are reduced. The end winding arrangements and the copper losses of a fractional
slot machine were studied and the results were compared to an integer slot machine. First, the
45 kW fractional wound (q = 0.4) prototype motor with 12 slots and 10 poles was compared to
a motor with q = 1. A fractional slot motor with q = 0.4 can have at least three different winding
constructions:
a) one-layer winding
b) two-layer winding, where the slots are divided horizontally
c) two-layer winding, where the slots are divided vertically.
The end windings of one phase of a 10-pole-machine with different winding constructions are
shown in Fig. 1.6. It is easy to see that the length of the end windings of motor a) are about
three times as long as in motor b) or c).
+A
- A
- A
+A
+A
-A
a) b) c)
+A
-A

Fig. 1.6. End windings of one phase of a 10-pole-machine: a) a traditional one-layer winding with Q
s
= 30
and q = 1, b) a one-layer fractional winding Q
s
= 12 and q = 0.4 and c) a two-layer fractional slot winding
with Q
s
= 12 and q = 0.4, where the slot is divided vertically.
27
The end windings of a traditionally wound machine need more space (which, again, requires
more copper volume and mass), because different phase coils cross each other. In the
concentrated fractional slot wound machine the space needed for the conductors to travel from
one slot to the next one is as small as possible, as the example illustrates in Fig. 1.6 b) where the
coil is wound around one tooth. However, the two-layer winding type produces the smallest end
windings as it is shown in Fig. 1.6 c). The average length of the end winding, l
b
of a cylindrical
machine can be calculated, according to Gieras and Wing (1997, p. 409), with
| | m 02 . 0
2
) 217 . 1 083 . 0 (
1 δ
b
+
+
+ =
p
y pD
p l . (1.1)
Variable D
δ
is the air-gap diameter, p is pole pair number and y
1
is the height of the stator slot.
It may be possible to measure the lengths of one particular motor. This is one method but also
the proper way to do in the case of a concentrated winding, because some equations do not
function well if q is less than one. If a coil is wound around one tooth the average end winding
length is simply the length between two slots (measured from middle) and the width of the slot
as illustrated in Fig. 1.7.
x
1
2.5 - 5 mm
b
b
y
1
D
δ
h
b
1
2
l
b
= 2h
b
+ b
b
1
2
x
1

Fig. 1.7. Definition of the length of the end winding l
b
. Variable x
1
is the width of the stator slot, y
1
is the
height of the stator slot, D
δ
is the air-gap diameter, h
b
is the height and b
b
the width of end winding.
The equation below can be used for the concentrated winding
| | m 01 . 0 ... 005 . 0
) ( π
1
s
1 δ
b
+ +
+
= x
Q
y D
l . (1.2)
28
where x
1
is the width of the stator slot and y
1
is the height of the stator slot. As the conductors
come out from the slot they cannot twist directly to the next slot but there should be a small, e.g.
5 mm, gap between the core end and the innermost winding turns. The end winding
constructions of the four different 10-pole-machines are compared in Table 1.1. The four
different 10-pole-machines are:
a) concentrated two-layer winding with vertically divided slots (12 slots, 10 poles),
b) concentrated two-layer winding with horizontally divided slots (12 slots, 10 poles),
c) one-layer winding (12 slots, 10 poles, q = 0.4),
d) one-layer winding (30 slots, 10 poles, q = 1).
Table 1.1. 10-pole-machines 45 kW, machine core length 270 mm, stator outer diameter 364
mm, air-gap diameter 249 mm (N
ph
= 132)

q (slots per pole and per phase)
a
0.4
b
0.4
c
0.4
d
1
End winding length (mm)
(with a 5 mm minimum distance from the core)
118 130 130 330
End winding copper Mass (kg) 8.5 12.3 12.3 34.7
Copper mass in slots (kg) 28.5 28.5 28.5 28.5
Copper in the whole motor (kg) 37 41 41 63
End winding copper mass / Copper mass in slots 0.30 0.43 0.43 1.22
End winding mass per total copper mass (%) 23 30 30 55

The least amount of copper was needed for the end windings of the motor a) with a
concentrated wound fractional slot winding. The mass of copper in the end windings was only
8.5 kg in comparison to the non-fractional winding d) in which the mass was over 30 kg. The
end windings of the concentrated wound fractional slot machine are 20…30% of the total
copper weight of the machine in comparison to the end windings weight of the traditional
machine (q = integer) which are typically over 50%. The copper losses were calculated at a 90
A current with Wye connection. It was noticed that the copper losses of the stator diminish with
the decreasing of the end winding and the copper resistance. The copper losses of a 10-pole-
machine with q = 1 would be two times as high as those of the q = 0.4 machine (If the current
density of the machines is about the same, then the copper losses are directly comparable to the
copper weight).
29
1.5. Scientific contribution of this work
The popularity of industrial permanent magnet motors is growing. They have been increasingly
used especially in low speed direct drive applications, where the fractional slot winding
structure proved to be an attractive solution. There is, however, not available much knowledge
on the fractional winding arrangements concerning PM motors, if q < 1. Traditionally, in the
literature on fractional slot machines the issue has usually been treated in the form where q is
larger than unity. E.g. q = 1.5 and q = 2.5 are popular traditional fractional slot winding
arrangements. In those modern applications where multi-pole machines are needed, the
fractional slot winding arrangement with q < 1 is an attractive alternative for traditional
solutions – some of these applications have been studied in recent papers. The literature on the
subject poorly offers criteria for the selection of motor design variables. Here, a study is made
on fractional slot wound permanent magnet motors, because this type of motor can be used in
various applications. The main objective of this work is to compare different pole and slot
combinations applied to a machine, which has a fixed air-gap diameter and a 45 kW output
power. The performance analysis is done for machines having concentrated winding, where coil
is around tooth and q is equal or less than 0.5.
The scientific contribution of this work can be summarized to be the following:
• A comprehensive study of the winding design of concentrated wound fractional slot
machines. Winding arrangements and winding factors are given for concentrated wound
fractional slot machines.
• A performance comparison of concentrated wound fractional slot machines in a same
machine size. Different slot-pole (Q
s
- 2p) combinations for concentrated wound
fractional (q ≤ 0.5) slot machines are analysed to find out, which slot-pole combinations
have a high pull-out torque. The cogging torque and torque ripple are also analysed.
• A comparison of different rotor structure performances.
• A 45 kW prototype motor was manufactured to verify the computations.

30
2. CALCULATION OF A FRACTIONAL SLOT PM-MOTOR
In this chapter, different methods to calculate fractional slot wound machines are studied. The
winding is called fractional slot winding if q is not an integer number. In this study, both the
one-layer and two-layer windings are discussed. In a two-layer winding a slot can be divided
into two different parts in which the coils may belong to different phases. It is also possible to
wind the fractional slot wound motor in such a way that the slots include only coils of one phase
or the slots are divided to embed two coil sides belonging to two different phases. The
fundamental winding factor ξ
1
of a fractional slot wound machine is often lower than the
winding factors of an integer slot wound machine. The value 0.95 is considered to be a high
value for a winding factor of the fractional slot machine. Vogt (1996) introduced methods to
design fractional slot windings. He divided these windings in to two groups: the 1
st
-grade and
2
nd
-grade winding. Some definitions are needed to describe whether the winding is a 1
st
-grade
or a 2
nd
-grade winding. These definitions may be defined through closer examination of the
term q (slots per pole and per phase), as it is shown below.
n
z
pm
Q
q = =
2
s
, (2.1)
where m is the number of phases, z is the numerator of q and n is the denominator of q reduced
to the lowest terms. The winding definitions introduced by Vogt (1996) concerning the
fractional slot windings are given in Table 2.1. The 1
st
-grade winding is always built up based
on one straight method (see Table 2.1), but for the 2
nd
-grade windings there are different
definitions depending on whether the winding is a one-layer or a two-layer winding. If the
denominator n is an odd number the winding is a 1
st
-grade winding and if n is even then it is a
2
nd
-grade winding.
A variable t is needed to calculate other values as e.g. Q* and p*. Q* is the number of slots in a
symmetrical base winding. p* is the number of poles in a symmetrical base-winding. t* is the
number of base windings in a stator winding. Base windings have the same induced voltage,
phase shift angle and they may be paralleled, if required.

31
Table 2.1. Winding definitions (Vogt, 1996)
1
st
-Grade 2
nd
-Grade 2
nd
-Grade
Denominator, n Odd Even Even
t p/n 2p/n 2p/n
Layer One or two One Two
Q* Q
s
/t 2⋅Q
s
/t Q
s
/t
p* n n n/2
t* 1 2 1

As the winding definitions are known, a voltage vector graph for the machine may be drawn.
The winding factor can be solved using this graph. This is described in Chapter 3.2.1. The
winding definitions for some of the analysed machines are given in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2. Numerical examples of winding definitions
1
st
-Grade 2
nd
-Grade 2
nd
-Grade
Q
s
12 162 21
p 5 24 11
n
z
pm
Q
q = =
2
s

5
2
3 5 2
12
=
⋅ ⋅

8
9
3 24 2
162
=
⋅ ⋅

22
7
3 11 2
21
=
⋅ ⋅

Denominator, n Odd Even Even
t 5/5 = 1 2⋅24/8 = 6 2⋅11/22=1
Layer One or two One Two
Q* 12 54 21
p* 5 8 11
t* 1 2 1

2.1. Two-layer fractional slot winding
Two-layer windings are divided in two groups: The 1
st
-grade and the 2
nd
-grade windings. In this
chapter, to the procedure of designing a two-layer winding will be discussed. The winding
arrangements of a 12-slot-10-pole and 21-slot-22-pole machine are described. In Appendix A
more winding arrangements are given, such as q = 1/2, 1/4, 2/5 and 2/7.
32
2.1.1. 1
st
-Grade fractional slot winding
Fig. 2.1 shows step-by-step how to select a suitable two-layer winding for a fractional slot
wound motor. At first, a voltage vector graph is drawn with Q* phasors.
1
3
5
-A
-A
-C
+B
-B
2
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
+A
-B
+A
+B
-C
+C
+C
α
n
= 150
e
a)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
-A
-A
+A
+C
-C
-C
+C
-B
-B
+B
+B
+A
b)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
-A
-A
+A
+C
-C
-C
+C
-B
-B
+B
+B
+A
+C
-A
-C
-B
+B
+A
+A
-A
-C
+C
+B
-B
c)

Fig. 2.1. a) A voltage vector graph of a 12-slot-10-pole fractional slot two-layer winding of the 1
st
-grade.
b) The coil sides of the lower layer are placed first. c) Also the coil sides of the upper layer in the slots.
As an example, a voltage vector graph consisting of 12 phasors is drawn for a 12-slot-10-pole
machine. The phasors are numbered from 1…to Q* so that the phasor number 2 is placed to
360⋅p/Q* electric degrees, now 150 electric degrees, from the phasor 1 and so on. The coil sides
are ordered into positive and negative values –A, +B, -C, +A, -B and +C. Depending on the slot
number, there can be a different number of ± coils next to each other. With 12 slots there are 4
slots per phase: 2 positive ones and 2 negative ones. The voltage vector graph in Fig. 2.1 a)
shows, how the different coil sides of different phases are placed in the slots. The vectors
33
belonging to the same phase must be adjacent (see vectors –A –A +B +B –C –C). Based on the
slot numbering illustrated in Fig. 2.1 a), the phase coils are placed into the lower winding layer,
which is located on the bottom of the slot, as is shown in Fig. 2.1 b). After having placed all 12
coils, the illustration of the lower winding layer is ready. The upper winding layer is
constructed from the lower winding layer by rotating the lower winding layer and by changing
the sign of each coil. (Because it is a tooth wound coil, the other coil side must be in the
adjacent slot). For example, from slot number 1 the -A coil side is connected to the +A coil side
located in the upper layer of slot 2. The required rotation angle is equal to a slot angle. Now, the
12-slot-10-pole winding is ready and is shown in Fig 2.1 c).
2.1.2. 2
nd
-Grade fractional slot winding
For a two-layer winding of the 2
nd
-grade, there can occur a situation in which the width of the
zone is not a constant. A one-layer may include a different number of positive and negative
phase coils, e.g. for a 21-slot stator there may be 7 slots per phase in a lower layer and 7 in an
upper layer. It can be selected so that you have 4 positive and 3 negative phase coils for a layer.
Otherwise, the winding is built as it was explained before for the 1
st
-grade winding. Next, the
winding arrangement is build for a 2
nd
-grade winding, in this example, of a 21-slot-22-pole
motor, in which the q = 7/22 = 0.318 (n = 22).
First, a voltage vector graph is drawn with Q* = 21 phasors as it is shown in Fig 2.2. The
phasors are numbered from 1…to Q* so that the phasor 2 is placed to 360p/Q
s
electric degrees,
now 188.6 electric degrees, from the phasor 1 and so on. The coils are ordered into positive and
negative values –c, a, -b, c, -a and b. Now, there are 7 coil sides in the one-layer forming the
bars of one phase, therefore, there will be an unequal number of positive and negative coil sides
in both layers (4 and 3, 3 and 4). The coil arrangements are shown in Fig. 2.2. The fundamental
winding factor can be solved to be 0.953 and the distribution factor to be 0.956.
It must, however, be remembered that this winding is not, despite of its high winding factor, to
be recommended for proper use. The winding produces a large unbalanced magnetic pull since
all the coil sides of one phase are located on one side of the stator. This will be discussed briefly
in the next chapter.
34
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12
13
15
17
19
21
14
16
18
20
-A
-A
-A
-A
+A
+A
+A
+C
+C
+C
-B
-B
-B
-B
-C
-C
-C
-C
+B
+B
+B
12
2
13
3
14
4
15
5
16
6 17
7
8
9
10
11
18
19
20
21
1
-A
-A
-A
+A
+A
+A
-A
+A
+A
+A
+A
-A
-A
-A
+C
+C
+C
+C
+C
-C
-C
-C
-C
+C
-C
-C
-C
+C
-B
-B
-B
-B
+B
+B
+B
+B
+B
+B
-B
-B
-B
+B
ξ
d1
= 0.956

Fig. 2.2. Placing the coils for a 21-slot-22-pole fractional slot two-layer winding of the 2
nd
-grade. The
drawing on the right hand side illustrates how to solve the distribution factor, ξ
d1
.
2.2. Winding arrangements
Fig. 2.3 shows the winding arrangements of 21-slot-20-pole (q = 7/20) and 24-slot-20-pole
(q = 8/20 = 2/5) machines. Let us compare the winding arrangements. In the 21-slot-20-pole
machine all the coils of phase A are next to each other. The 7 coils of each phase are
concentrated to one area of the machine causing asymmetrical distribution of the coils. The
coils of a 24-slot-20-pole machine are symmetrically divided around the machine. An
asymmetrical placement of coils must be disadvantageous, because in a load situation there may
occur unwanted forces.
35
12
2
13
3
14
4
15
5
16
6 17
7
8
9
10
11
18
19
20
21
1
+B
+B
+B
-B
-B
-B
-A
+A
+A
+A
+A
-A
-A
-A
-C
+C
-C
+C
+A
+C
-C
+C
-C
+B
+C
+A
+A
-A
-A -B
-B
-B
-B
+B
+B
+B
-C
-C
+C
+C
-C
-A
12
2
13
3
14
4
15
5
16
6
17
7
8
9
10
11
18
19
20
21
1
22
23
24
+C
+B
-B
-A
+A
+B
-B
-C
+C
-A
+A
-B
+B
+C
-C
+A
+A
-A -A
+B
+B
-B
-B
+C
+C
+A
+A
-A
-A
-A -A
+A
+A
-C
-C
-C
-C
-B
-B
+B
+B
-B
-B
+B
+B
+C
+C
+C
+C
-C
-C

a) b)
Fig. 2.3. The winding arrangements of a) 21-slot-20-pole (q = 7/20) and b) 24-slot-20-pole (q = 8/20).
Both machines have two-layer windings.
At one instant of time, as the machine is loaded, the situation occurs, where in phase A the peak
current is +i, and in phase B and C the peak current is only –1/2i. In a situation like that the
unwanted effect called unbalanced magnetic pull may occur. Fig. 2.4 illustrates the radial
magnetic stress along the air-gap diameter (from finite element analysis, FEA) for a 21-slot-20-
pole machine. It is obvious that the radial forces on the air-gap periphery do not cancel each
other and an unwanted magnetic pull bending in the rotor and the stator is affected.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 90 180 270 360
Mechanical angle (deg)
R
a
d
i
a
l

m
a
g
n
e
t
i
c

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
N
m
/
m


)
2

Fig. 2.4. The radial magnetic stress along the air-gap diameter (obtained from the FEA) for a 21-slot-20-
pole machine.
36
Experimental results of the unbalanced magnetic pull effect in a fractional slot machine are
described by Magnussen et al. (2004). He designed and tested a 15-slot-14-pole machine and
noticed that the asymmetrical placement of the coils causes unwanted forces. According to
Magnussen, the number of poles should not be selected to be almost equal to the number of
slots in the case of a concentrated three phase winding with an odd number of slots e.g. 9-slots-
8-pole, 15-slot-14-pole and 21-slots-20-pole. Jang and Yoon (1996) discovered that also the
9-slot-8-pole and 9-slot-10-pole brushless dc-motor generates the same unwanted forces. Also
Libert and Soulard (2004) studied radial forces and magnetic noise of concentrated wound
machines having 60, 62 and 64 poles. Asano et al. (2002) presented some results of vibrations
measurements of concentrated wound machines and he introduced methods to decrease the
radial stress. Because of the unbalanced pull effect, the motor designer should carefully
consider whether to select an odd number of slots when fractional slot two-layer windings are
used.
2.3. Winding factor
In this chapter it is solved winding factors for the fractional slot windings, especially for
concentrated (two-layer) windings, where q < 1. The winding factors of an electrical machine
are proportional to the generated electromagnetic torques. So, the fundamental winding factor
of the machine must be high and its sub- and super-harmonic winding factors as low as
possible. A machine with a low fundamental winding factor needs to compensate its low torque
with a high current or with more winding turns, which both are inversely proportional to the
winding factor. The winding factor can be defined through a voltage vector graph or it can be
solved from the analytical equations. (When the winding factors of a particular machine are to
be solved by using the equations, it should be remembered that this must be done accurately,
because there are different equations to be applied for the different winding types.)
Analytically, the winding factor can be solved from (Koch and Binder, 2002)
sk d p
ξ ξ ξ ξ
ν
⋅ ⋅ = , (2.2)
where ξ
p
is the pitch factor, ξ
d
is the distribution factor and ξ
sk
is the skewing factor. The pitch
factor ξ
p
is defined for concentrated two-layer winding as (Koch and Binder, 2002)
37
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s p
s
p
π
sin
2
π
sin
Q
ν
τ
τ ν
ξ . (2.3)
The skewing factor can be solved from the equation (Vogt, 1996, p. 401)
( )
( )
p sk
p sk
sk
2 / π
2 / π sin
τ τ ν
τ τ ν
ξ = , (2.4)
where τ
sk
is the skewing pitch. Skewing is used to minimize the cogging torque. As to the
concentrated fractional slot machine, there are cases, where the amplitudes of the cogging
torque are low, as it will be shown later. This is due to the fact that in a fractional slot machine
the different stator slot pitch multiples do not coincide with the rotor pole pitch (as if 3τ
s
in a
q = 1 machine equals τ
p
). The effect of skewing the fractional slot machine is studied e.g. by
Zhu and Howe (2000). A new universal method was introduced to solve the harmonic content
of an AC machine and may be successfully applied to fractional slot machines, (Huang et al.,
2004). However, in this thesis the matter is researched by using a conventional method. At first,
it is estimated which harmonics arise from these fractional slot windings. According to Jokinen
(1973), the harmonics are for the 2
nd
-grade (if n is even, p* = n/2)
( ) 2 2
1
+ ± = mg
n p
ν
. g = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, … (2.5)
The harmonics created by fractional two-layer windings of the1
st
-grade two-layer winding (if n
is odd, p* = n) are
( ) 1 2
1
+ ± = mg
n p
ν
. g = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, … (2.6)
The ± sign in Eq. (2.5) and (2.6) is chosen to be + or – to make the equations yield the positive
sign for the fundamental (ν = +1). Equation (2.6) is valid also for non-fractional one-layer
windings when the ± sign is removed. For q ∈ N (n = 1) the order numbers are ν = 1, -5, 7, …
The fractional slot winding q ∉ N generates also sub-harmonics (ν < 1) and integer order
38
harmonics including both even and odd numbers. Table 2.2 lists the harmonic waves developed
by a two-layer winding (Tüxen, 1941).
Table 2.2. The harmonic waves developed by a two-layer winding (Tüxen, 1941)
n ν/p Harmonics
1 6g+1
1, -5, 7, -11, 13, -17, 19, -23, 25, -29, 31, …
2 3g+1
1, -2, 4, -5, 7, -8, 10, -11, 13, -14, 16, -17, …
4 -
4
1
(6g+2) -
4
2
,
4
4
,-
4
8
,
4
10
,-
4
14
,
4
16
,-
4
20
,
4
22
,-
4
26
, …
5
-
5
1
(6g+1) -
5
1
,
5
5
,-
5
7
,
5
11
,-
5
13
,
5
17
,-
5
19
,
5
23
,-
5
25
, …
7
7
1
(6g+1)
7
1
,-
7
5
,
7
7
,-
7
11
,
7
13
,-
7
17
,
7
19
,-
7
23
,
7
25
, …
8
8
1
(6g+2)
8
2
,-
8
4
,
8
8
,-
8
10
,
8
14
,-
8
16
,
8
20
,-
8
22
,
8
26
, …
10
-
10
1
(6g+2) -
10
2
,
10
4
,-
10
8
,
10
10
,-
10
14
,
10
16
,-
10
20
,
10
22
,-
10
26
, …
11 -
11
1
(6g+1) -
11
1
,
11
5
,-
11
7
,
11
11
,-
11
13
,
11
17
,-
11
19
,
11
23
,-
11
25
, …
13
13
1
(6g+1)
13
1
,-
13
5
,
13
7
,-
13
11
,
13
13
,-
13
17
,
13
19
,-
13
23
,
13
25
, …
14
14
1
(6g+2)
14
2
,-
14
4
,
14
8
,-
14
10
,
14
14
,-
14
16
,
14
20
,-
14
22
,
14
26
, …
16
-
16
1
(6g+2) -
16
2
,
16
4
,-
16
8
,
16
10
,-
16
14
,
16
16
,-
16
20
,
16
22
,-
16
26
, …

The harmonics generate unwanted forces and additional losses in the machine (Vogt, 1996). In
a three-phase winding not all integer harmonics are present. From the air-gap spatial harmonic
spectrum all the harmonics which are multiplies of three are missing since their sinusoidal
waves locally cancel each other in symmetrical operation of a non-salient three-phase machine.
In the mmf waveform there appear also harmonic waves with even order numbers. These even
harmonics can cancel each other as the phase coils are constructed from the individual coils.
This happens especially in most of the two-layer windings, because the bunch coil of one pole
is shifted by an angle of π radians from the next coil.
For a symmetrical integer slot winding (n = 1) the winding factor can be solved from the
equation (Tüxen, 1941; Jokinen, 1973, Eq. (19))
39
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
p d
qm
y
p
qm p
q
m p ν
ν
ν
ξ ξ ξ
ν
. (2.7)
In the equations y is the coil pitch, which is one for concentrated two-layer windings. For a 1
st
-
grade two-layer winding (two coils in the same slot) the winding factor can be solved as follows
(Tüxen, 1941; Jokinen, 1973)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
qm
y
p
nqm p
nq
m p ν
ν
ν
ξ
ν
. (2.8)
For a 2
nd
-grade two-layer winding the winding factor can be solved as follows (Vogt, 1996, Eq.
2.52)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
cos
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
v
η ν
ν
ν
ν
ξ
ν
p
nmq p
nq
m p
p
, (2.9)
where η
v
is an angle from voltage vector graph. Eq. (2.9) is valid only for the equal zone
widths. If the zones of the phase are unequal, the winding factor can be found with the voltage
vector graph. The pitch factors (calculated with Eq. (2.3)) for some concentrated windings of
different pole and slot combinations are given in Table 2.3 and the fundamental winding factors
for some two-layer windings are given in Table 2.4. According to Koch and Binder (2002), the
pitch factor can be used as a fundamental winding factor for a concentrated one-layer winding,
if the teeth widths are equal (thereby the distribution factorξ
d
= 1) and if the machine is not
skewed (ξ
sk
= 1). The highest value for a certain pole number is bolded in the Table 2.4. When
equipped with an 18-pole rotor only the 27-slot-18-pole machine (ξ
1
= 0.866) allows
concentrated windings. There are also many other slot-pole combinations with several slots and
poles; Table 2.4 can be continued as it is done by Libert and Soulard (2004). Some windings
with unbalanced windings are marked with
*
in Table 2.3 and in Table 2.4, because there is a
40
risk of unbalanced pull effect. Combinations, where the denominator n (q = z/n) is a multiple of
the number of phases m, are not recommended and therefore not presented (marked with
**
in
Table 2.3 and in Table 2.4). Libert and Soulard (2004).
Table 2.3. Pitch factors ξ
p1
for concentrated windings (q ≤ 0.5)
Q
s

Poles
4

6

8

10

12

14

16

20

22

24

26
6
ξ
p1

q
0.866
0.5
** 0.866
0.25
0.5
0.2
**

0.5
0.143
0.866
0.125
0.866
0.1
0.5
0.091
**

0.5
0.077
9
ξ
p1

q

0.866
0.5
0.985
*

0.375
0.985
*

0.3
0.866
0.25
0.643
0.214
0.34
0.188
0.34
0.15
0.643
0.136
0.866
0.125
0.985
0.115
12
ξ
p1

q

0.866
0.5
0.996
0.4
**

0.966
0.286
0.866
0.25
0.5
0.2
0.26
0.182
**

0.26
0.154
15
ξ
p1

q

0.866
0.5
**

0.995
*

0.357
0.995
*

0.313
0.866
0.25
0.74
0.227
**

0.4
0.192
18
ξ
p1

q


0.866
0.5
0.94
0.429
0.985
0.375
0.985
0.3
0.94
0.273
0.866
0.25
0.77
0.231
21
ξ
p1

q

0.866
0.5
0.793
0.438
0.953
*

0.35
0.997
*

0.318
**

0.93
0.269
24
ξ
p1

q

0.866
0.5
0.95
0.4
0.991
0.364
**

0.991
0.308
*
not recommended because of the unbalanced magnetic pull
**
not recommended because the denominator n (q = z/n) is a multiple of the number of phases m.
Table 2.4. Fundamental winding factors ξ
1
for concentrated two-layer windings (q ≤ 0.5)
Q
s

Poles
4

6

8

10

12

14

16

20

22

24

26
6
ξ
1

q
0.866
0.5
**

0.866
0.25
0.5
0.2
**

0.5
0.143
0.866
0.125
0.866
0.1
0.5
0.091
**

0.5
0.077
9
ξ
1

q
0.866
0.5
0.945
*

0.375
0.945
*

0.3
0.866
0.25
0.617
0.214
0.328
0.188
0.328
0.15
0.617
0.136
0.866
0.125
0.945
0.115
12
ξ
1

q

0.866
0.5
0.933
0.4
**

0.933
0.286
0.866
0.25
0.5
0.2
0.25
0.182
**

0.25
0.154
15
ξ
1

q

0.866
0.5
**

0.951
*

0.357
0.951
*

0.313
0.866
0.25
0.711
0.227
**

0.39
0.192
18
ξ
1

q


0.866
0.5
0.902
0.429
0.945
0.375
0.945
0.3
0.902
0.273
0.866
0.25
0.74
0.231
21
ξ
1

q

0.866
0.5
0.89
0.438
0.953
*

0.35
0.953
*

0.318
**

0.89
0.269
24
ξ
1

q

0.866
0.5
0.933
0.4
0.949
0.364
**

0.949
0.308
*
not recommended because of the unbalanced magnetic pull
**
not recommended because denominator n (q = z/n) is a multiple of the number of phases m.
q > 0.5
q > 0.5
41
Tüxen (1941) and Jokinen (1973) discussed some special cases where the fractional slot
machine has q = k ± 1/2, k ± 1/4 or k ± 1/5. In the equations k is an integer. For q = k ± 1/2, k ± 1/4
or k ± 1/5 the winding factors can be solved as (Tüxen, 1941; Jokinen, 1973)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
mq
y
p
nmq p
nq
m p ν
ν
ν
ξ
ν
for odd ν/p (2.10)
and
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
± =
2
π
sin
2
π
cos
2
π
cos
mq
y
p
nmq p
nq
m p ν
ν
ν
ξ
ν
for even ν/p. (2.11)
When fractional ν/p are present their winding factors can be solved for k ± 1/4 by
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
π
sin
2
π
2
π
sin
2
π
2
π
sin
mq
y
p
p nmq p
nq
p m p ν
ν ν
ν ν
ξ
ν
m
. (2.12)
and for k ± 1/5 by
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
π
sin
π
2
π
sin
π
2
π
sin
mq
y
p
p nmq p
nq
p m p ν
ν ν
ν ν
ξ
ν
m
. (2.13)
Tüxen (1941) introduced winding factor equations also for two different q = k ± 2/5 windings. It
is possible to arrange these windings in two ways, depending on the phase spreads q
a
= q ± 3/5
and q
a
= q ± 2/5. The first winding type has a sequence of phase spreads q
a
q
b
q
a
q
b
q
b
for one
phase and in the second winding type q
a
q
a
q
b
q
b
q
b
. Eq. 2.12 (for ν/p = odd) is valid for the first
42
type, but with a negative sign. For n = 5 there are no even harmonics. For fractional ν/p the
winding factors can be solved by (Tüxen, 1941; Jokinen, 1973)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
±
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
π
sin
π 2
2
π
sin
π
2
π
sin
mq
y
p
p nmq p
nq
p m p ν
ν ν
ν ν
ξ
ν
. (2.14)
The second winding type q = k ± 2/5 with a sequence of phase spreads q
a
q
a
q
b
q
b
q
b
has
winding factors for odd ν/p as follows (Tüxen, 1941; Jokinen, 1973)
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸


|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2
π
sin 1
π
cos 2
2
π
sin
2
π
sin
mq
y
p nmq p
nmq p
nq
m p ν ν
ν
ν
ξ
ν
(2.15)
and for fractional ν/p as follows
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸


|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
±
|
|
.
|

\
|

− =
2
π
sin 1 π 4
π
cos 2
π 2
2
π
sin
π
2
π
sin
mq
y
p p nmq p
p nmq p
nq
p m p ν ν ν
ν ν
ν ν
ξ
ν
. (2.16)
The sign of the harmonic must be used in the equations. The ± sign depends on the selected
origin place. The start point – origin – lies in the middle of the coil group. (The start point is
used for building the Fourier series of the mmf. There may be different widths of coil groups in
two-layer windings: the start point can be selected to be in the middle of the shorter or longer
coil group.) Factor y is also an important parameter in these equations, because it takes into
account the width between two slots in the same group, and it is not a constant parameter – it
depends always on the winding arrangement selections. Also Tüxen (1941) presented winding
arrangement solutions and winding factor equations for the 3-phase two-layer fractional slot
windings as well as for the one-layer windings with integer or fractional coil arrangements. For
both the fractional slot windings and integer slot windings there occur also slot harmonics. The
slot harmonics are defined according to (Tüxen, 1941; Jokinen, 1973)
43
1 1 2
s
slot
+ = + = = g
p
Q
mqg
p
ν
ν g = ±1, ±2, ±3, ±4, … (2.17)
Slot harmonics occur in pairs. The winding factor of a slot harmonic is the same as for the
fundamental harmonic (ν = 1). The first slot harmonic pair occurs as g = ±1 and the second pair
as g = ±2. In a harmonic pair, one harmonic rotates in the same direction as the fundamental
wave does and the other one rotates in the opposite direction. The winding factors can be
organized in tables or series according to their order numbers. This means that there can be
found some periodical behaviour for the winding factors of the fractional slot windings. This
will be shown next with the help of some examples.
The harmonic waves created by the winding with q = k ± 2/5 (2
nd
-grade) were studied, because
one of the motors used for the comparisons in this thesis (the prototype motor) has q equal to
2/5, with 12 slots and 10 poles. Differently to the previous studies, now the fractional slot
numbered waves (1/5, 7/5, 11/5, …) do not achieve exactly the same amplitudes as the integer
slot waves (1, 5, 7, …). The winding factors of the waves created by the fundamental wave
(e.g. 1, 5, 7…) and the slot harmonic waves always remain the same amplitude. The amplitudes
of the harmonics between them can have different amplitudes in different wave groups. The
winding factors and wave groups of the 1
st
-grade windings are always periodical, but in some
special cases of the 2
nd
-grade windings (e.g. q = 2/5) they are not. This study concentrates on
windings in which q is less than unity. As an example, the mmf harmonics created by these
windings are studied using a comparison of the fractional slot q = 2/5 winding with integer slot
(q = 3), fractional slot q >1 (q = 3/2) and fractional slot q < 1 (q = 1/2) windings. The results for
the winding factors solved from the voltage vector graph are shown in Fig. 2.5. The result
obtained from the case q < 1 differs slightly from the result in which q ≥ 1. The harmonics of q
= 3 are all even numbers. The harmonics of (fractional slot q > 1) q = 3/2 includes all same
harmonics as q = 3 and also odd number of harmonics. There appears periodical series, but e.g.
for q = 1/2 all amplitudes of the winding factors are the same. According to Fig 2.5 there occurs
several high amplitude harmonics, as q < 1 and q is a fractional number for example q = 1/2 or
2/5. Appendix B presents the winding factors and the periodical behaviour of integer slot (q =
9) and fractional slot q > 1 (q = 9/2 and q = 9/4) windings.

44
0
0.5
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
0.0
0.5
1.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
0.0
0.5
1.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
0.0
0.5
1.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
q = 3
q =
3
2
q =
1
2
odd
harmonic order number
q =
2
5
ξ
ν
integer, odd ν/p = 1, 3, 5, 7, 11 ...
fractional ν/p = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, ...
even
ξ
ν
ξ
ν
ξ
ν
integer, even ν/p = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ...
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

Fig. 2.5. The winding factors of a fractional slot q = 2/5, integer slot (q = 3), fractional slot q > 1 (q = 3/2)
and fractional slot q < 1 (q = 1/2) windings. In case of q = 3 there exist harmonic order numbers which are
all odd integer ν/p = 1, 5, 7, 11, 13 … shown as white bars. In case of q = 3/2 there exist also harmonic
order numbers which are even integer numbers ν/p = 2, 4, 8, 10, … shown as grey bars. In case of q = 2/5
there exist also fractional harmonic order numbers ν/p = 1/5, 7/5, 11/5, … shown as black bars. In this
example, there exist more harmonics with q < 1 than with q ≥ 1.
45
2.3.1. Winding factor according to the voltage vector graph
As the harmonic order numbers are known, it is possible to define the winding factors for the
harmonic waves. The voltage vector graph for the harmonic waves can be constructed in a
similar way as for the fundamental wave. The angle α
n
is multiplied by the harmonic order
number. The vectors of the voltage vector graph are numbered and the angle between the
vectors is now να
n
. As an example, the winding factors are defined for a 12-a slot 10-pole
fractional slot concentrated winding using a voltage vector graph. When q = 2/5, the harmonic
waves created by the winding are 1/5, 5/5, 7/5, 11/5 … The voltage vector graph of the
fundamental (ν = 1) is shown in Fig. 2.6 a).
a) ν = 1 b) ν = 1/5
1
3
5
-A
-A
-C
+B
-B
2
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
+A
-B
+A
+B
-C
+C
+C
α
1
-A
-A
+B
+B
-C
-C
+A
+A -B
-B
+C
+C
1
11
9
-A
-B
-C
+A
-A
6
4
2
7
12
5
10
3
8
+B
-C
+A
+C
-B
+C
+B
α
1/5
-C
-B
+B
+A
-A
-C
+C
+B -A
-B
+A
+C

Fig. 2.6. Voltage vector graph of a 12-slot-10-pole fractional slot concentrated (two-layer) winding a) for a
fundamental wave ν = 1 and b) for a harmonic wave ν = 1/5. The winding factors are defined as
geometrical sum/arithmetic sum of the vectors.
The angle α
1
for the fundamental wave is 360
e
p/Q
s
= 150
e
. It is also shown how the geometrical
sum is used to calculate the winding factor ξ
1
to be 0.933. The next harmonic order number
ν = 1/5 (which is a sub harmonic because ν < 1) will have an angle α
1/5
= 1/5·150
e
= 30
e

between the vectors. Fig. 2.6 b) shows the arrows of ν = 1/5 harmonic. The vectors describing
phase A are drawn separately to define the winding factor for the harmonic ν = 1/5. Using the
geometrical sum as shown in Fig. 2.6 b) on the right side, the winding factor gets the value ξ
1/5

= 0.067. Appendix C gives the harmonic order numbers of different fractional slot windings and
their winding factors. It may be noticed that most of the motors have few integer harmonics and
46
numerous non-integer harmonics, which are sub-harmonics if q is less than one. The winding
factors of the harmonics are quite small, except those created by the slot harmonic, since they
have the same winding factor as the fundamental harmonic. The q = 0.5 winding consists of
purely integer numbers of harmonics: 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10… which all have a 0.866 winding
factor. The q = 0.25 winding consists of integer and non-integer numbers of harmonics: 0.5, 1,
2, 2.5, 3.5, 4, 5, 5.5, 6.5, 7, 8, … which have a winding factor of 0.866 or 0.5. Multiples of 3 are
not included in the harmonic order numbers of fractional slot windings.
2.4. Flux density and back EMF
By using the finite element analysis (FEA) it is possible to solve the electromagnetic state of the
machine. When the machine geometry is described into the FEA-software, the value of the flux
created by the permanent magnets
PM , δ
Φ can be solved. This is an important value for the
calculating of the induced back EMF, E
PM
. The value of
PM , δ
Φ depends greatly on the
equivalent air-gap length δ
eff
, which can’t be obtained directly and accurately from the
analytical equations. Therefore, in this study the FEA is used to solve
PM , δ
Φ , but it is also
calculated analytically in order to compare the results. The motor inductances are the most
critical parameters for calculating the pull-out torque achieved from the motor. The torque is
inversely proportional to the inductance. Therefore, it was the essential task to find an accurate
analytical method, which enables to correctly calculate the inductances for the fractional slot
machines. In the literature, methods for calculating the magnetizing and the leakage inductances
can be found for the integer slot machines, but there are no well-known methods described for
the fractional slot machines. Richter (1967) and Vogt (1996) presented some slightly different
methods to calculate the leakage inductance. The method introduced by Richter is not accurate
enough to be used for the permanent magnet structures treated in this study and it is assumed to
be more suitable for the integer slot machines. Both methods are described in this chapter.
As the winding arrangement is known and thereby the harmonic order numbers included in the
winding properties are known, the mmf created by the stator current can be calculated. The
mmf waveforms can be defined mathematically by using the equations given by Magnussen and
Sadarangani (2003a). The F

wave is separated into two waves rotating in opposite directions.
The waveform pattern should be drawn once over the whole symmetrical cycle of the machine
47
(therefore the minimum harmonic order is 2/p). Because the F

waveform is not the same for
each pole, a displacement – describing the phase shifts – factor n
y
is used as given by
3
1
6
x
y
− =
q
n
n , (2.18)
where n
x
is the physical displacement in the number of slots. The magnetomotive force F

for
a 3-phase machine with symmetrical phase windings is
( )
∑ ∑

= =
− +
+ =
p
n
ν
F F
p
N
F
2
c
1 c
m m p
n1
m
π
4
ν
ξ
ν
(2.19)
where n
c
is the number of coils and N
n1
is the effective turns of a coil. The forward F
m
+ and
backward F
m
- rotating waves are defined as
( ) ( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
+ − + − − =
+
y c m
2π 1
3

cos
2
1
) ( cos
ˆ
n t i F ν ν ϑ γ ν ω (2.20)
( ) ( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + − + =

y c m
2π 1
3

cos
2
1
) ( cos
ˆ
n t i F ν ν ϑ γ ν ω . (2.21)
The parameter γ is distance (along air-gap diameter) and ϑ
c
the distance between the coil sides.
The waveforms of some fractional slot machines are shown in Fig 2.7. From the Fourier
spectrums of the waveforms – in Fig. 2.8 – the amplitudes of the harmonics can be observed.
The slot harmonics often appear in pairs and the amplitudes of the harmonics diminish almost
in proportion to 1/ν. In a waveform of an integer slot winding there exist harmonics with only
odd numbers, but in a waveform of fractional slot windings also even harmonics, fractional
harmonics and sub harmonics may appear. All these harmonics can be seen in the spectrum of
the F
m
waveform. The waveform in this case is far from a sinusoidal as can be seen in Fig. 2.7.
48
-3
0
3
0

All harmonics
Fundamental
F
m

(
p
.
u
.
)
Air-gap periphery
a)

-3
0
3
0

All harmonics
Fundamental
F
m

(
p
.
u
.
)
Air-gap periphery
b)


Fig. 2.7. The magnetomotive force wave of a) the fractional slot (q = 0.5) wound 4-pole 6-slot machine
wound in one-layer and b) 4-pole 6-slot machine, but wound in two-layers. Magnussen and Sadarangani
(2003a).
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Harmonic order number
6-slot-4-pole one-layer
a)
F
m

(
p
.
u
.
)

0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Harmonic order number
6-slot-4-pole two-layer
F
m

(
p
.
u
.
)
b)

Fig. 2.8. The harmonics of the magnetomotive force of a 4-pole machine with 6 slots (q = 0.5): a) one-
layer winding and b) two-layer winding. There are more harmonic orders in the one-layer winding than in
the two-layer winding. Magnussen and Sadarangani (2003a).
49
The induced back EMF, E
PM
of the fractional slot permanent magnet motor is solved as
(Hendershot and Miller, 1994, p. 6-22)
2
ˆ
π 2
PM , δ 1 ph s
PM
Φ N f
E
ξ
= , (2.22)
where N
ph
is the amount of winding turns in series of stator phase, f
s
is the frequency of stator
field and
PM , δ
Φ is the fundamental air-gap flux due to magnet. The
PM , δ
Φ can be analytically
solved following e.g. the procedure by Heikkilä (2002). It can also be solved with the finite
element analysis, FEA. There are different methods to derive the equation of the magnetizing
inductance. It can be derived from the stator F
m
and the stator flux linkages, according to Vogt
(1996), or from the air-gap reluctance and flux linkage, according to Grauers (1996).
2.5. Inductances
The direct-axis magnetizing inductance depends on the equivalent air-gap length δ
eff
, which
depends on the mechanical air-gap length δ, the height of the magnets h
m
and the Carters
coefficient k
C
(and also the effect of the saturated iron, which is not included in Eq. 2.23).
Equivalent air-gap can be defined as
δ
eff
= (δ + h
m
)k
C
. (2.23)
The magnetizing inductance for the whole machine is solved as (Gieras and Wing, 1997, p. 157)
( )
2
ph 1 i
eff
p
0
md
π π
µ 2
N L
p
m
L ξ
δ
τ
= , (2.24)
where µ
0
is permeability of air, τ
p
is pole pitch and L
i
is the effective length of the stator core
(L
i
≈ L + 2δ : L, physical length of the stator core). The accuracy of the analytical PM motor
torque calculation depends, in a considerable way, on the estimated inductances. The
magnetizing inductance can be calculated correctly only, if the equivalent air-gap length is
precisely known. The air-gap length, δ
eff
is not easy to define, because it is not constant and
because there are many parameters which affect it, as e.g. the permanent magnets, the virtual
50
pole shoe above the magnets, the stray fluxes and the iron saturation in both the stator and rotor
iron (Heikkilä, 2002). The area for the air-gap for which L
md
is calculated is for an integer slot
machine the whole pole arc τ
p
along which the flux density distribution may be assumed to be
even sinusoidal. Since the inductance is basically a stator-based quantity the rotor pole pitch or
pole pair number in Eq. (2.24) should not have any effect on the inductance of a fractional slot
machine. The coil inductance has three distinct components due to the three distinct areas - the
air-gap, the slots and the end windings - where magnetic fields are created by the coil current.
The ferromagnetic portions do not contribute to the inductance as long as their relative
permeability is high, according to Hanselman (2003). In concentrated wound fractional slot
machines the air-gap area which the flux travels through to produce flux linkage is the area
spanned by the coils (Q
s
/mτ
s
L
i
), as illustrated in Fig. 2.9. By using these correlations the
magnetizing inductance for a three-phase machine can be solved as
( )
2
ph 1 i
eff
s
s 0
md
π
π
µ 2
N L
m
Q
m
L ξ
δ
τ
= . (2.25)
-A
-A
+A
+C
-C
-C
+C
-B
-B
+B
+B
+A
+C
-A
-C
-B
+B
+A
+A
-A
-C
+C
+B
-B
τ
s
τ
s
τ
s
τ
s
Φ
Φ
Φ
Φ

Fig. 2.9. Flux paths of a 12-slot-10-pole machine for a A-phase. The air-gap area which the flux Φ travels
through to produce torque is the area spanned by the coils ((Q
s
/m)τ
s
L
i
= 4τ
s
L
i
).
2.5.1. Leakage inductance method 1
The leakage inductance L
σ
can be calculated as the sum of its partial inductances. The leakage
inductances can be defined by the method given by Richter (1963, 1967). For the integer slot
51
windings, this method gives good results. Richter divides the leakage inductance into five
components:
• L
δ
for the air-gap leakage inductance

• L
n
for the slot leakage inductance

• L
z
for the tooth tip leakage inductance

• L
w
for the end winding leakage inductance
• L
χ
for the skew leakage inductance.

The leakage inductance is the sum of all partial inductances and is defined below
χ w z n δ σ
L L L L L L + + + + = . (2.26)
The structure of a two-layer winding is shown in Fig. 2.10 a). Fig. 2.10 b) shows a diagram to
define the leakage-factor σ
δ
, which is needed to calculate the air-gap leakage inductance L
δ
.
x
4
slot pitch, τ
s
x
1
y
1
y
12
y
11
y
3
y
4
y
5
y
2
q = 2
q = 3
q = 4
q = 5
q = 6
8 q =
0.03
0.026
0.012
0.008
0.004
0.0
σ
δ
y / τ
p
a) b)
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Fig. 2.10. a) A two-layer winding with some important dimensions. In a two-layer winding there may be
slots that have coils of two different phases. b) A diagram to define the leakage-factor σ
δ
for three phase
(q = integer) windings as a function of the coil pitch/pole pitch (Vogt, 1996, p. 267).

52
Air-gap leakage inductance
The stator mmf-harmonic content of a traditional (q = integer) machine is small compared to the
fractional slot machine (q < 1). Traditionally, an air-gap leakage-factor, σ
δ
is calculated to
define the air-gap leakage inductance. According to Richter (1963), the air-gap leakage
inductance can be defined as
δ
2
ph
i δ
0
δ
π
µ
σ
δ
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
N
L D
m
L . (2.27)
Fig. 2.10 b) shows the values of σ
δ
for a three-phase winding. The factor σ
δ
can be calculated
from the winding harmonics content according to (Richter, 1954, p. 136)

+∞ =

−∞ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ν
ν
ν
ν
νξ
ξ
σ
1
2
1
δ
. (2.28)
According to Richter Eq. (2.28) is valid only for the integer windings. In the case of a two-layer
fractional slot winding the air-gap leakage inductance cannot be calculated from the basic
equations, because it depends on the winding concerned. In the analytical computations the
harmonics and their winding factors were computed to estimate the amount of the leakage air-
gap inductance. As an example, a 12-slot-10-pole machine has the harmonic winding factors ξ
ν5

= 0.933, ξ
ν7
= 0.933, ξ
ν11
= 0.067, ξ
ν13
= 0.067 … and the factor σ
δ
becomes
02 . 0 ..
933 . 0 11
067 . 0
933 . 0 7
933 . 0
933 . 0 5
933 . 0
2 2 2
δ
= + |
.
|

\
|

+ |
.
|

\
|

+ |
.
|

\
|

= σ . (2.29)
Slot leakage inductance
The fractional slot arrangement does not differ from that of the integer slot machine with
respect to the stator slot leakage. In the case of a two-layer winding, the inductance factor is
defined by integrating the magnetic field strength. The mutual inductance of both coils should
be taken into consideration as well as the fact that the coils may belong to different phases when
53
there is a phase shift between the currents flowing in them. The self-inductance of a two-layer
winding can be defined as (Richter, 1967, p. 269)
( )
so su
2
1 n n1
Λ Λ N L + = , (2.30)
where N
n1
is the number of effective turns of the coil, and Λ
su
and Λ
so
are the permeances of the
upper and lower layers. They can be defined as
so i 0 so su i 0 su
µ and µ λ λ L Λ L Λ = = , (2.31)
where L
i
is the effective length of the core, λ
su
and λ
so
are permeance factors. The permeance
factors λ
su
and λ
so
can be defined by using Richter’s (1967, p. 269) methods as follows:
4
4
3 n
1
2 5
1
11
su
3
4
x
y
x
y y
x
y
+ +
+
+ = λ λ , (2.32)
4
4
3 n
1
2
1
12
so
3 x
y
x
y
x
y
+ + + = λ λ . (2.33)
A factor λ
n3
depends on the shape of the slot (round, square, …). For a sharp-angular slot the
factor may be defined (Richter, 1967) as
4
1
4 1
3
n3
ln
x
x
x x
y

= λ . (2.34)
Not only the self-inductance but also the mutual inductance must be taken into account. If there
are N
n1
winding turns in both parts of the coils the mutual inductance will be
( )
go gu
2
n1 n1
Λ Λ N L + = . (2.35)
Without the phase shift it can be stated that (the upper and lower coils belong to the same phase)
54
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
=
. µ
µ
go i 0 go
gu i 0 gu
λ Λ
λ Λ
L
L
(2.36)
Using the dimensions as shown in Fig. 2.10 a) the permeance factors can be defined as
4
4
3 n
1
2
1
5
g go gu
2 x
y
x
y
x
y
+ + + = = = λ λ λ λ . (2.37)
The currents in the upper and lower coils do not always belong to the same phase shift.
According to Richter (1967), it is possible to calculate a factor

=
=
n
k
n
g
1
k
cos
1
γ , (2.38)
which is multiplied with the permeance between the coils in the slot, to take into account the
difference of the phase shift of two coils in the same slot. The angle γ
k
is the phase shift of the
coils. The summation includes all coils of one phase. So, the resultant inductance for one phase,
which has 2pq coils and a parallel branches of winding is (Richter, 1967, p. 271)
( )
g so su 0 i
2
1 n
n
2 µ 2 λ λ λ g L
a
N
pq L + + |
.
|

\
|
= . (2.39)
Using a symbol λ’
n
(to describe the effects of all λ factors)
4
2
g so su '
n
λ λ λ
λ
g + +
= , (2.40)
and N
ph
to present the number of effective turns of one phase (in series)
a
pqN
N
1 n
ph
2
= , (2.41)
the slot inductance of a two-layer winding can be written as
55
ns
2
ph i 0
s
n
µ
4
λ N L
Q
m
L = . (2.42)
End winding inductance
The end winding inductance can be defined as (Richter, 1963)
s
2
ph i 0
s
w
µ
4
λ q N L
Q
m
L = , (2.43)
where λ
s
is defined as 2h
b
λ
e
+ b
b
λ
w
. Factor h
b
is the height and b
b
is the width of the end
winding. Reactance factors for the end windings λ
e
and λ
w
depend on many parameters, such as
the winding structure, end winding layer orders, rotor type etc… There are several methods
available to estimate the values for these factors, as e.g. given by Richter (1963) and Jokinen
(1973). In this study, it was used the reactance factors λ
e
= 0.518 [1/m] and λ
w
= 0.138 [1/m],
which are defined for synchronous machines by Richter (1963). The width of the end winding
of the concentrated winding arrangement is the same as the slot pitch τ
s
.
Tooth tip leakage inductance
In this case too, the traditional methods, defined for the integer slot machine, are directly
applicable. According to Richter (1963, p. 90), the leakage inductance factor can be defined by
δ
δ
λ
/ 4 5
/ 5
4
4
z
x
x
+
= . (2.44)
The tooth tip inductance of the phase coil is (Richter, 1963)
z
2
ph i 0
s
z
µ
4
λ N L
Q
m
L = . (2.45)
56
2.5.2. Leakage inductance method 2
To estimate the amount of the leakage flux Vogt (1996) introduced a method, which is very
similar to the method described above. He noticed that in the case of a fractional slot machine
the estimation of the leakage flux amount was rather complicated. If there are two coils in the
same slot, there will be some interaction of the leakage components. Vogt made a study on the
slot opening effect appearing in fractional slot winding machines. He found out that, if the value
of the slot opening width per air-gap (x
4
/δ) is equal to 3, then the factor of the tooth tip leakage
λ
z
is zero (Fig. 2.11). And if the value λ
z
is greater than 3, then λ
z
can be considered to be a
negative value.
The nature of the air-gap inductance is examined. If the value of q is large, it means that there
are several slots, which create the stepped magnetomotive force. The more slots there are (i.e.
the larger q is) the more sinusoidal the mmf will look and the smaller σ
δ
(Eq. 2.28) becomes –
as well as the air-gap inductance value. This stepped mmf is generated from different slots next
to each other. It is difficult to find in the literature any references to methods designed for the
calculating of this inductance in fractional slot applications. Vogt described many ways to
calculate the air-gap inductance, but only for integer slot windings. In the case of a concentrated
winding the situation is totally different, because there is no stepped mmf waveform at all. A
single coil is wound around one tooth and will produce half of the mmf of one main flux route.
This mmf is not strongly magnetically connected to the coils of the phases next to it. Therefore,
it is reasonable to assume that there is no air-gap inductance or it must be very low. At
saturation it might be wise to assume that some inductance will occur. (Vogt, 1996).
The higher the x
4
/δ value is the more the air-gap flux is drawn into the slot. Thereby, λ
z
can
have negative values – to correct this effect. The factors, which are later needed to calculate the
slot inductance, can be solved by Vogt as
z
4
4
k
3
1
2
1
1
n
3
λ λ + + + + =
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
(2.46)
z
4
4
k
3
1
2
1
12
o
3
λ λ + + + + =
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
(2.47)
57
1
1 5
z
4
4
k
3
1
2
1
11
u
5 . 0
3 x
y y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y +
+ + + + + = λ λ . (2.48)
Factor x
k
is (x
1
– x
4
) and λ
z
can be selected from the diagram in Fig 2.11. In two-layer windings
there may be slots where the coils are belonging either to the same phase, or to different phases.
This depends on the selected winding. The slot inductance of the upper slots (N
o
) should be
calculated using the factor λ
o
, for the calculation of the bottom slots (N
u
) the factor λ
o
should be
used and for the slots (N
n
) with both coils belonging to the same phase the factor λ
n
should be
used. The slot inductance is a combination of different slots λ
nz
= N
u
·λ
u
+ N
o
·λ
o
+ N
n
·λ
n
. In
symmetrical windings having the same amount of upper and bottom slots the slot inductance
can be calculated as follows
1
5
z
4
4
k
3
1
2
2
1
1
1 ns
4 3 x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
k
x
y
k +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + = λ λ . (2.49)
Factors k
1
and k
2
are selected from the diagram shown in Fig. 2.11. A numerical example of
calculating inductances for a 24-slot-22-pole fractional slot wound motor is given in Appendix D.
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
y /τ
p
0.6 0.8 1.0
k
1
k
2
{
k
2
k
1
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.1
-0.2
1 2 3
2 6 10 14
λ
z
x
4
/ δ
2/3

Fig. 2.11. Factors k
1
and k
2
for the calculation of the inductance, given by Vogt (1996), are shown on the
left. On the x-axis the ratio y /τ
p
is the coil pitch per pole pitch. The dotted line is for machines with
doubled zone width and the dashed line for 2 phase machines. The diagram introduced by Vogt (1996, p.
254) for the selection of the factor λ
z
is given as a function of slot opening width x
4
per air-gap δ.
58
2.6. Torque calculation
When the inductances and induced back EMF, E
PM
are known the torque can be solved. The
torque developed by a synchronous motor is solved from (Gieras and Wing, 1997, p. 154)
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
− + =
a
d q
2
a
d
PM
2
s
2 sin
1 1
2
) sin( δ δ
ω
L L
U
L
U E mp
T . (2.50)
In machines, where L
d
= L
q
the maximum torque is achieved with load angle, δ
a
= 90°. In
PMSMs the maximum torque is often reached at load angles larger than 90°. When the supply
voltage U, induced back EMF, E
PM
and inductances are known the load angle can be solved
from the power equation, if L
d
= L
q
,
) sin( ) sin(
a
s md
PM
s
a
d
PM
s
δ
ω
δ
ω
σ
L L
U E mp
L
U E mp
P
+
= = . (2.51)
2.7. Loss calculation
Resistive losses (copper losses) in windings may be defined by
2
n ph Cu
I mR P = . (2.52)
Iron losses in the stator and rotor are calculated as follows (Vogt, 1996)
2 / 3
2
t 10 t Fe, t Fe,
2 / 3
2
y 10 y Fe, y Fe, Fe
50
ˆ
50
ˆ
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
f
b p k m
f
b p k m P , (2.53)
where f is frequency, k
Fe, y
= 1.5, k
Fe, t
= 1.2 and p
10
= 2.7 (at 1 T 50 Hz, subscript y means yoke
and t means teeth). The bearing losses are defined as
( ) |
.
|

\
|
+ =
60
6 . 0
s
p r rb Br
n
L D k P τ . (2.54)
59
In the case of a surface cooled motor a factor k
rb
of 8 … 10 Ws
2
/mm
4
can be used for the
calculation of the bearing losses.
The stray losses according to Gieras and Wing (1997) can be calculated as
P P ⋅ = 0075 . 0
Str
. (2.55)
The stray losses may also be calculated by using other methods. The stray losses are combined
of the pulsation losses P
Pu
and the eddy current losses P
Eddy
of the magnets. According to
Richter (1963), the pulsation losses for a machine of this frame size of 225 are about 10 W.
According to Nipp (1999), the eddy current losses for a surface magnet motor can be computed
as
m
3 2
δ
2
sw mz mx
2
Eddy
ˆ
π 2
ρ
k
b f n pn P = , (2.56)
where f
sw
is the switching frequency and ρ
m
is the resistivity of the magnet. Value n
mz
is the
number of the magnets in z-axis direction (axial direction) of the machine. Value n
mx
is the
number of the magnets in x-axis direction along one pole arc.
δ
ˆ
b is the fundamental (peak)
component of the air-gap flux density wave. Factor k
3
is solved from equation
.
m m
4
m m
3
m
2
m
2
m
3
m m
4
m
m
m m
m m 4
m m
m
3
68 52 54 13 2
3
2
ln ) 2 ( 2
2916
¦
)
¦
`
¹
+
+ − − −

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
− =
b l
b l b l b l b l
b
b l
b l
b l
h
k
(2.57)
Eq. (2.57) includes parameters, which are related to the magnet geometry: l
m
is the length of
magnet; b
m
is the width of magnet and h
m
the height of the magnet. A simplified factor k
3
may
be used
12
m
3
m m
3
l b h
k ≈ . (2.58)
60
The eddy current losses may be calculated separately for the direct and quadrature-axis. The
eddy current losses are
2
mx m
3 2
δ
2
sw mz
2
d Eddy,
2
cos
ˆ
π 4

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n
n
k
b f pn P
α
ρ
(2.59)
2
mx m
3 2
δ
2
sw mz
2
q Eddy,
2
sin
ˆ
π 4

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n
n
k
b f pn P
α
ρ
(2.60)
q Eddy, d Eddy, Eddy
P P P + = . (2.61)
In Eq. (2.59) and (2.60) α is electrical angle and n is the number of magnets along one pole
pitch. There are also other additional losses e.g. windage losses and ventilation losses, which
may be taken into consideration in some cases. All loss components P
h
can be summed up to
finally solve the efficiency (P
Pu
≈ 10 W).
Br Str Cu Fe h
P P P P P
P
P P
P
+ + + +
=
+
= η (2.62)
2.8. Finite element analysis
The finite element analysis program used in the computations is Cedrat’s Flux2D version 7.6. It
computes for plane sections (problems in the plane or problems with rotational symmetry) the
magnetic, electric or thermal states of devices. These states allow computation of several
quantities: field, potential, flux, energy, force etc. The quantities obtained would be difficult to
define by other methods (analytical computations, prototypes, tests, measurements). In the case
of a fractional slot machine the flux in the air-gap is difficult to estimate by any analytical
method, but may be easily solved with finite element analysis, FEA. The accuracy of the FEA
depends on the geometry, the quality of the FE-mesh and also on the time-step values. Time
stepping computations can be done with circuit couplings. In these computations ideal
sinusoidal current supplies and ideal voltage supplies have been used. In real measurements the
supplies usually have some harmonic components too, especially when a frequency converter is
used. When using a direct torque controlled -drive the current is close to sinusoidal.
61
The iron losses of the stator and the rotor as well as eddy current losses of the magnets can be
computed with FEA. The equations used for the computation of the iron losses are explained
here. For more information about the other computation mechanisms of Cedrat’s Flux2D it is
referred to respective manuals. The iron losses can be calculated in a magnetic region during the
analysis. The losses, computed with Flux2D, include the hysteresis losses, the classical losses
(Joule losses) and the excess losses. In harmonic state (magneto dynamic applications) the iron
losses are defined as
67 . 8 )
ˆ
( )
ˆ
(
6
π
ˆ
5 . 1
e
2
2
2 2
h Fe
⋅ + + ⋅ = f b k f b
d
f b k P
σ
. (2.63)
In periodic state (time stepping magnetic applications over one complete period) the iron losses
are defined as
t
t
t b
k
t
t b d
k
T
k f b k t t P
T
T T
d
d
) ( d
d
) ( d
12
1
ˆ
d ) (
1
0
5 . 1
e
2
2
f f
2
h
0
Fe ∫ ∫
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ = σ , (2.64)
where b
ˆ
is the maximum flux density at the element concerned, f the frequency, σ the
conductivity, d the lamination sheet thickness, k
h
the coefficient of hysteresis loss, k
e
the
coefficient of excess loss and k
f
is the filling factor. The factors depend on the steel material
used. In the computations (and later in prototype machine) laminated steel M600-50 is used.
The parameters used in the computations for M600-50 are
the conductivity, σ = 4⋅10
6
(1/ Ω m)
the lamination sheet thickness, d = 0.5 mm
the coefficient of hysteresis loss, k
h
= 152 (Ws/T
2
/m
3
)
the coefficient of excess loss, k
e
= 2.32 (W/Ts-1)
1.5
/m
3

the filling factor, k
f
= 0.98.
The magnet material used in the computations is Neorem’s 495a. The B/H-curves of the magnet
material are shown in Appendix E.
62
3. COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS
In this chapter a performance analysis of several different fractional slot machines will be
given. The target is to find suitable constructions for a 45 kW, 400 rpm machine. These are
values that are typically applied in paper machines. Fractional slot motors have been studied
with a 2D finite element method, because the FEA (finite element analysis) proved to be an
accurate - though time consuming - method. Analyses were also carried out by using an analytic
method and the results will be compared to the results obtained with the FEA.
It is searched for concentrated wound machines that have the capacity of producing a high
torque and a good torque quality. According to the author’s knowledge, the following
statements must be valid when a 400 rpm, 45 kW, frame 225 machine is designed
1. The structure must have a large fundamental winding factor. (This, however, is not a
sufficient condition, since e.g. machines such as 21-slot-20-pole, 21-slot-22-pole or
24-slot-26-pole do not produce enough torque even though their fundamental winding
factors are equal to 0.951 or 0.949 (see chapter 2.2). These combinations also have
other unwanted properties, such as an unbalanced magnetic pull etc.)
2. The structure should produce the highest possible torque.
3. The structure should have a low cogging.
4. The structure should have a low torque ripple.
5. An unbalanced magnetic pull should be avoided. This excludes odd slot numbers.
6. The structure should use a low amount of PM material.
The computations were carried out as follows:
• The motor geometry is drawn for the FEA.
• The flux created by the magnets is computed; a static computation, no currents in the
stator.
• The number of coil turns is determined so that 180 (about 0.9E
PM
/ 3 ) volts no-load
induced phase voltage (E
PM
= 351 V) was achieved. This no-load voltage level was
found to be suitable to be used in DTC-controlled drives.
63
• The rated values are first estimated by analytical calculations with the method
described in Chapter 2.
• A time stepping computation is performed to solve the induced back EMF. In this
computation the rotor is rotating at a 400 rpm constant speed and there are no currents
in the stator. The cogging of the motor (as a function of the relative magnet width) is
also computed from this computation. The results are given in Chapters 3.3 and 3.4.
• The time stepping computations are carried out with circuit couplings.
o A circuit with sinusoidal current supply. The torque ripple peak-to-peak
values are solved out as a function of the relative magnet width.
o A set of voltage driven computations with different load angles are performed
for the motor. A purely sinusoidal voltage supply with 351 V terminal voltage
is used although, in real measurements, the voltage is supplied with a DTC
drive. From these computations the pull-out torque and the rated load angle
are solved.

Fig. 3.1 shows three of the studied concentrated wound machines. The figure illustrates the
three different structures: S =ˆ surface magnet motor, ER =ˆ radially embedded magnet motor
and EV =ˆ embedded magnet motor where the pole consists of two rectangular magnets in
V-position.

Fig. 3.1. Three different motor structures analysed in the study: a) 24-slot-22-pole, surface magnets (S), b)
12-slot-14-pole, radially embedded (ER) magnets and c) 12-slot-10-pole, embedded magnets in V-position
(EV). To model the whole electrical cycle of these machines, in fact, the whole machine geometry must be
described.
64
The investigated fractional slot machines are listed in Table 3.1, which also show the most
important FEA results: the pull-out torque (compared to rated torque), the obtained minimum
cogging torque and the minimum torque ripple peak-to-peak values (% of rated torque) for a
certain magnet width and the amount of the magnet material in the machine.
Table 3.1. Motor structures being analysed: A 45 kW, 400 rpm machine with sinusoidal voltage
supply with 351 V terminal voltage. The pull-out torques are in p.u. values. Torque ripples
(peak-to-peak values, % of rated torque) are computed with open slots.
Structure,
Stator slots/
rotor poles
S, EV, ER
q
Winding
factor
Pull-out torque
(p.u.) / relative
magnet width
Cogging
(peak-to-peak%)/
relative magnet
width
Torque ripple
(peak-to-peak%)/
relative magnet
width
PM-
material
amount
[kg]
12/8 S 0.5 0.866 1.7/0.85 4/0.78 13/0.77 10.6
12/10 S 0.4 0.933 1.7/0.81 1/0.73 2.5/0.87 10.3
12/10 ER 0.4 0.933 1.2 10.3
12/10 EV 0.4 0.933 1.1 12.5
12/14 S 0.286 0.933 1.2/0.84 0.2/0.93 1.5/0.76 10.5
12/16 S 0.25 0.933 1.0/0.7 3/0.73 3.5/0.75 10.5
18/12 S 0.5 0.866 2.1/0.7 10.3
18/14 S 0.429 0.902 1.8/0.72 1.2/0.81 10.3
21/22 S 0.318 0.951 1.1/0.85 10.3
24/16 S 0.5 0.866 2.0/0.78 3.8/0.77 10.3
24/20 S 0.4 0.933 1.8/0.83 1.7/0.89 10.3
24/20 ER 0.4 0.933 1.7 9.6
24/22 S 0.364 0.949 1.6/0.83 0.3/0.75 10.3
24/22 ER 0.364 0.949 1.5 10.3
24/26 S 0.308 0.949 1.0/0.84 0.3/0.81 10.3
24/28 S 0.286 0.933 1.3/0.81 0.8/0.75 10.3
36/24 S 0.5 0.866 1.7/0.71 3/0.73 2.0/0.78 10.3
36/30 S 0.4 0.866 1.5/0.77 1.5/0.7 10.3
36/42 S 0.286 0.933 1.0 0.05/0.72 0.6/0.9 10.4

Next, the process of computing the results will be explained. The content in this chapter will be
presented in the following order: First, the structures that produce the highest torque will be
determined. Secondly, the quality of the produced torque will be calculated. The effect of the
relative magnet width (pole arc per pole pitch, defined in Fig. 3.12) on the amplitude of the
cogging torque as well as the torque ripple values will be studied. From the results obtained the
effect of the slot opening width in the cases of a semi-closed slot opening and a totally open slot
will be analysed. Also the waveform of the induced back EMF will be calculated, because if the
curve is not sinusoidal, it may indicate a high torque ripple. In the third stage, the performance
of the surface permanent magnet motors will be compared to that of the embedded permanent
magnet motors. And the fourth stage will present an analysis of the losses.
65
3.1. Torque as a function of the load angle
A set of voltage driven computations were performed for the motor, so that the maximum
torque available could be solved. The torques obtained from the FE analysis were plotted as a
function of the load angle. The graph shows the available maximum torque and from the graph
it is also possible to determine the load angle at the rated point of the fractional slot motor. The
FEA with voltage driven model was carried out for several motors of the same frame size. In
order to obtain a fair comparison, some of the parameters reported in Table 3.2, were kept
constant. The air-gap diameter and the machine length were selected to be constant, so that the
area in which the torque is produced would be the same for the machines to be analysed. There
is one exception, which is the machine with 12 slots, since with this machine the air-gap
diameter has to be smaller to fit in the larger slots. In this case the stator inner diameter is 249
mm.
Table 3.2. Constant parameters for machines in voltage driven model computations
Constant parameter
Output power 45 kW
Speed 400 rpm
Rated torque 1074 Nm
Stator outer diameter 364 mm
Stator inner diameter 254 mm
Stator core length 270 mm
Magnet material mass 10.4 kg ±0.1 kg

The amount of the magnet material used was kept as equal as possible for each machine. The
amount of magnet material varies a little, from 10.3 up to 10.5 kg. While drawing the geometry
of the magnet a variation in the amount of magnet material may be possible. When comparing
the embedded magnet structures to the surface magnet structures magnet material amount of
9.5 kg has also been used. To be able to compare the effect of the pole numbers, a 12-slot-stator
was designed and computed using several rotors with different numbers of poles: 8, 10, 14 and
16, respectively. Also a 24-slot-stator was examined, using several rotors with different
66
numbers of poles, 16, 20, 22, 26 and 28, respectively. Furthermore a 36-slot-stator with 24, 30
and 42 poles was analysed.
In all, 16 different fractional slot surface magnet motors were computed with the FEA using a
voltage driven model and also with analytical methods. Some of the studied motors were also
computed using an embedded magnet rotor structure. Fig. 3.2 shows an example of the torque
curve plotted for a 24-slot-22-pole machine. The points are got from the voltage driven model.
The dashed line is computed from the L
d
and L
q
values obtained from FEA and the torque
equation (Eq. 2.50). The black line is the obtained analytical result, which was computed using
the inductances (Eq. 2.25 and Eq. 2.26), assumed that L
q
equals to L
d
and the torque equation
(Eq. 2.50). The inductances were computed with 4 different analytical methods. From these
methods it was selected the method the results of which were close to the FEA results. The
computation of the inductances is shown in Appendix D.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
FEA
FEA points
Analytical

Fig. 3.2. Torque as a function of the load angle (electrical degrees) of 24-slot-22-pole surface mounted
machine. The points are got from the voltage driven FEA model. The dashed line is computed with the
torque equation (Eq. 2.50) and with the inductance (L
d
and L
q
) values obtained from FEA. The black line is
the obtained analytical result, calculated with the torque equation (Eq. 2.50) using the inductances
(Eq. 2.25 and Eq. 2.26) and assuming, that L
q
equals to L
d
. Appendix D shows the calculation of the
inductances.
67
The torque curves as a function of the load angle for the 24-slot surface magnet machines with
different pole numbers are shown in Fig. 3.3 and for the 12-slot surface magnet machines
in Fig. 3.4.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
16-pole
20-pole
22-pole
26-pole
28-pole

Fig. 3.3. Torque curves as a function of load angle for 24-slot surface magnet machines. Each machine has
10.3 kg magnet material. The curves are drawn according to the computation points from the FEA.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
8-pole
10-pole
14-pole
16-pole

Fig. 3.4. Torque curves as a function of the load angle for 12-slot surface magnet machines. The highest
curves are for the 12-slot-8-pole and the 12-slot-10-pole machines and the lowest for 12-slot-16-pole machine.
68
The values of pull-out torque and torque ripples ∆T (% of the rated torque, peak-to-peak value)
obtained from the FEA are shown in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3. The pull-out torque T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) and torque ripple values ∆T
p-p
(% of the rated
torque, peak-to-peak value) for the surface mounted machines obtained from the voltage driven
model. The machine parameters were 400 rpm, the magnet material about 10.3 kg and the
voltage supply was sinusoidal with a 351 V terminal voltage.
Slots Poles
Q
s
= 12 8 10 12 14 16 20 22 24 26 28 30 42
q 0.5 0.4 0.29 0.25 0.2 0.18 0.17 0.15 0.143 0.13
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 1.66 1.66 1.17 1.0
∆T
p-p
(%) 16 2.5 7.5 13
Q
s
= 18 12 14 16 20 22 24
q 0.5 0.43 0.38 0.3 0.27 0.25
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 2.1 1.79
∆T
p-p
(%) 16 6.5
Q
s
= 24 16 20 22 26 28
q 0.5 0.4 0.36 0.31 0.286
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 2.0 1.79 1.56 1.0 1.3
∆T
p-p
(%) 8 2.5 6 >50 3
Q
s
= 36 24 26 28 30 42
q 0.5 0.46 0.429 0.4 0.286
T
max
/T
n
1.73 1.53 1.0
∆T
p-p
(%) 3.5 2 1

The highest pull-out 2.1 p.u. torque is achieved with the 18-slot-12-pole motor and the lowest
torque obtained is 1.0 p.u., as it is illustrated in Table 3.3. The high pull-out torque values are
achieved with q = 0.5 or close to that value. When q varies from 0.25 to 0.31 the pull-out torque
is less than 1.2 p.u.
The torque ripple values (with sinusoidal voltage supply) for a certain value of q are decreasing
as the pole and slot number are increasing, e.g. the torque ripple of a 12-slot-8-pole (q = 0.5)
motor is 16%, but the torque ripple of a 24-slot-16-pole (q = 0.5) motor is only 8% and 3.5%
with a 36-slot-24-pole (q = 0.5) motor.
Comparison can also be made (according to Table 3.3) of machines, which have the same
number of slots, e.g. machines with 24 slots and with 16, 20, 22, 26 or 28 poles. With a 24-slot
69
stator, which has the same frame size, air-gap diameter, output power and speed, the highest
pull-out torque 2.0 p.u. is achieved with the 24-slot-16-pole motor (q = 0.5). As the number of
poles increases, the maximum torque decreases. This may be due to the stray flux of the
magnets. Each magnet has stray flux components on both sides of the magnet. As the number of
slots is kept constant but the number of magnets is increased (while the amount of magnet
material is kept the same), the relative amount of the leakage flux increases. Each pole has some
leakage flux on the edges, so that, as the pole number increases, a larger leakage flux is
obtained.
3.2. Number of slots and poles
From the manufacturer’s standpoint it may be a benefit to have a motor with few poles and slots
so that the costs may be kept low. The fact is that, when the number of poles and slots is high,
there is more processing to do. A high pole number also needs a high supply frequency, which,
on the other hand, considerably increases the losses. Therefore, the torque production
capabilities were examined for the case when the number of slots and poles are multiplied by an
integer factor. This was made for a particular slot per pole and per phase number q for a surface
magnet motor equipped with semi-closed slots. A certain q value is examined with different
numbers of slot and poles. E.g. q = 0.4 is first observed with 12 slots and 10 poles and, then, the
number of slots and poles are doubled to 24 slots and 20 poles. The third computation is then
performed with 36 slots and 30 poles. Fig 3.5 illustrates the geometrical structures of q = 0.4
motors to be analysed.
72
o
72
o
72
o

Fig. 3.5. The geometries (in principle) of q = 0.4 motors under study. One fifth of the machine is
illustrated for a) a 12-slot-10-pole, b) 24-slot-20-pole and c) 36-slot-30-pole motor. (In finite element
model the whole machine geometry was be described.)
70
The weight of the magnet material was kept around 10.3 kg. (For the case of 24-slot machines
also 9.5 kg magnet material would have been sufficient to produce a suitable back EMF.) The
examined slots per pole and per phase numbers were equal to 0.5, 0.4 and 0.286. All motors
studied have the same frame size, air-gap diameter, air-gap length and the same amount of
magnet material. The values computed for the machines used in this comparison are presented
in Table 3.4. As q is kept constant, but both the slot and pole numbers are increased, the
frequency increases causing also an increasing of the iron losses. This can be concluded
especially from the stator iron losses values. As the slot and pole numbers increase, the relative
value of the magnetizing inductance L
md
decreases and the leakage inductance L

increases.
Table 3.4. The parameters and FEA results of 45 kW motors with q equal to 0.286, 0.4 and 0.5
with three different slot-pole combinations. Machines are with semi-closed slots and with surface
magnets. The terminal voltage is 351 V and the frame size 225.
Slots 12 12 12 24 24 24 36 36 36
Poles 14 10 8 28 20 16 42 30 24
q 0.286 0.4 0.5 0.286 0.4 0.5 0.286 0.4 0.5
Winding factor, ξ
1
0.933 0.933 0.866 0.933 0.933 0.866 0.933 0.933 0.866
Rated current (A) 91.5 88.4 88 86 82 83.5 92 90 95.2
Speed (rpm) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400
Frequency (Hz) 46.7 33.3 26.7 93.3 66.7 53.3 140 100 80
Power factor 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.975 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.90
Inductance, L
d
(p.u.) 0.91 0.66 0.64 0.86 0.57 0.49 0.85 0.72 0.64
L

/ L
d
0.56 0.52 0.48 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.85 0.8 0.8
Back EMF (V) 180 179 180 192 188 185 184 189 168
N
ph
104 104 120 104 104 112 96 96 108
R
ph
(Ω) 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.10 0.11
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 1.17 1.66 1.66 1.3 1.79 2.0 1.02 1.53 1.73
m
magn
(kg) 10.5 10.3 10.6 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.2 10.3
P
Fe, s
(W) 274 258 262 507 374 350 984 696 511
P
Fe, r
(W) 37 22 19 30 20 15 24 19 14
P
Cu
(W) 2512 2344 2881 2219 2017 2364 2387 2430 2936
P
Str
(W) 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225
P
h
(W) 3048 2849 3387 2981 2636 2954 3620 3145 3686
Efficiency (%) 93.7 94.0 93.0 93.8 94.5 93.8 92.6 93.0 92.4

71
From the results given in Table 3.4 also different pole numbers for a certain stator can be
compared. In the case of the 12-slot stator, the pole numbers are changed from 8 poles to 14
poles. As the pole number increases, the obtained pull-out torque decreases, due to the
increased inductance. With a high inductance value it is not possible to achieve a high torque.
As the pole pair number p is high, also the frequency f is higher and this gives a higher
magnetizing inductance L
md
compared to a smaller pole number, as it is shown in Table 3.4.
The values of the pull-out torque are illustrated in Fig. 3.6. It can be seen that the amount of
pull-out torque is slightly different as the number of slot and poles varies for a certain q value.
1
1.5
2
1 2 3
P
u
l
l
-
o
u
t

t
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)

q = 0.5
q = 0.4
q = 0.286
poles 8 16 24 10 20 30 14 28 42
slots 12 24 36 12 24 36 12 24 36

Fig. 3.6. The calculated pull-out torques in p.u. values got from the voltage driven model for fractional slot
machines with q equal to 0.5, 0.4 or 0.286.
The highest values are achieved with the 24-slot machines. For this machine size the 24-slot
stator would be a good alternative. (As shown in Table 3.3 also an 18-slot-12-pole structure
would be a suitable alternative, because it has a 2.1 p.u. pull-out torque) With a 24-slot stator
and by decreasing the pole number from 20 to 16, it is not possible to achieve the same back
EMF with the same number of the stator winding turns. The results from the FEA are shown in
Fig. 3.6. The pull-out torque, achieved with 8 poles, is as high as the pull-out torque achieved
with 10 poles. An 8-pole motor with 12 slots is difficult to fit into this frame size, since the
winding factor is low and the numbers of coil turns needed are high. Therefore, the cross-
sectional area of a slot becomes large if the current density in the slot is to be kept constant.
This could be a possible structure, but requires a reduced air-gap diameter, and this, on the other
hand, decreases the maximum torque.
72
The values of the cogging torque ripples obtained at no-load (no current, speed 400 rpm) and
torque ripples at rated load (rated current, speed 400 rpm) were also analysed for these
machines. The amplitude of the cogging torque decreases as the number of slots and poles
increases as shown in Fig. 3.7 a). Also, the torque ripple decreases, as the numbers of slots and
poles increase. This is described in Fig. 3.7 b), where the results from the voltage driven model
are given.
0
2
4
6
8
1 2 3
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

(
%
)

o
f

r
a
t
e
d

t
o
r
q
u
e
q = 0.5
q = 0.4
q = 0.286
poles 8 16 24 10 20 30 14 28 42
slots 12 24 36 12 24 36 12 24 36
0
5
10
15
20
1 2 3
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

(
%
)

o
f

r
a
t
e
d

t
o
r
q
u
e q = 0.5
q = 0.4
q = 0.286
poles 8 16 24 10 20 30 14 28 42
slots 12 24 36 12 24 36 12 24 36

a) b)
Fig. 3.7. a) The peak-to-peak values of the cogging torque in (%) of the rated torque and b) torque ripple
in (%) of the rated torque for fractional slot machines with q equal to 0.5, 0.4 and 0.286. The torque ripple
values are the results obtained from the voltage driven model.
It must be noted that, if the number of poles is increased, the height of the stator yoke as well as
the iron area in the rotor (below magnets) could be decreased – in this study these values were
kept constant. As an example, the 36-slot-30-pole motor was also computed with an air-gap
diameter, which was 8% larger. The stator yoke iron thickness as well as the slot depth was
decreased, which can cause a high current density and to a weak mechanical structure. After
increasing the air-gap diameter by 8%, the FEA with the voltage driven model showed that the
pull-out torque increased about 20% from 1.53 p.u. to 1.85 p.u.
Next, the machines with a same pole number but with a different number of slots in the stator
will be compared. It should be remembered that the torque ripple is dependent on the machine
geometry, which can affect the torque ripple amplitude and the cogging torque amplitude. This
is more closely examined in chapters 3.3 and 3.4. Some of the slot-pole combinations are
73
differing up to 20 percent in the torque ripples values, depending on the relative magnet width
and the relative slot opening width. Hendershot and Miller (1994) showed that every time the
number of poles is doubled the required thickness of the rotor yoke or back-iron inside the
magnets is reduced by one half, as is the thickness of the stator yoke. As the number of poles is
increased, the number of effective winding turns decreases in inverse proportion, so that the
synchronous reactance decreases in motors with high pole number.
A 14-pole motor with 12 slots generates a pull-out torque of 1.17 p.u., while a 14-pole (with the
same rotor geometry) with 18 slots generates a pull-out of 1.79 p.u, according to the results
obtained from the FEA. A 16-pole motor with 12-slots generates a pull-out torque of 1.0 p.u.,
while with 24-slots it generates a pull-out torque of 2.0 p.u. The same behaviour may be
observed with the 22-pole motor; with 21 slots the pull-out torque is smaller - 1.1 p.u. – than
with the higher slot number 24, where the pull-out torque is 1.56 p.u. The torque ripple
decreases as the number of slots is increased if the pole number is kept constant.
Conclusion: Increasing the pole number and keeping the slot number constant reduces the
developed pull-out torque in most of the analysed cases, as the magnet material and the machine
size (and air-gap diameter) were kept practically constant. Further increasing of the slot number
and keeping the pole number constant increases the developed pull-out torque. The highest
obtained pull-out torque for the examined machine size was 2.1 p.u. for a 18-slot-12-pole motor
with q equal to 0.5.
3.3. Induced no-load back EMF
The waveform of the induced back EMF can indicate the quality of the torque produced. If
either the voltage or current is non-sinusoidal, some torque ripple may be expected. It could
also be noticed that the smaller q value yields a more sinusoidal back EMF waveform. When
studying 24-slot machines, it is obvious that with 28, 26 and 22 poles the back EMF is very
sinusoidal, as it might be seen in Fig. 3.8. The worst waveform was offered by a 24-slot-16-pole
machine, with q = 0.5. There is a pattern that continues from one pole pair to the other: one
magnet is completely under a tooth and the next magnet is completely under a slot – which is
reflected in the induced waveform. Another slot-pole combination (q = 0.5) for the machine
was implemented: a 42-slot-28-pole machine. Although this machine has high pole and slot
74
numbers, the back EMF waveform is far away from a sinusoidal curve, which probably causes
that the machine has a high torque ripple. Machines with q equal to 0.5 produce a distorted back
EMF, as it can be seen from the EMF waveforms in Fig. 3.9.
-300
-150
0
150
300
0
ω
mek
B
a
c
k

E
M
F

(
V
)
24 slots 28 poles (0.286)
24 slots 26 poles (0.308)
24 slots 22 poles (0.364)
24 slots 20 poles (0.4)
24 slots 16 poles (0.5)
q = 0.5
q = 0.4

Fig. 3.8. Induced back EMFs of fractional slot machines with a 24-slot-stator. The results are given for a
surface magnet machine with semi-closed slots.
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
0
ω
mek
B
a
c
k

E
M
F

(
V
)
42 slots 28 poles (0.5)
24 slots 16 poles (0.5)
12 slots 8 poles (0.5)

Fig. 3.9. Induced back EMFs of fractional slot machines with the number of slots per pole and per phase
equal to 0.5. The results are given for a surface magnet machine with semi-closed slots.

75
According to the FEA results shown in Figs 3.8 and 3.9, some of the back EMFs of the
analysed fractional slot machines are not sinusoidal, but flattened at the top. If there is a
sinusoidal current and a sinusoidal voltage the power produced should be constant and the
torque ripple should be small. But, e.g. in the case of the machines with q equal to 0.5, torque
oscillations are expected because of the non-sinusoidal voltage waveform, as shown in Fig 3.9.
3.4. Cogging torque
Cogging is an oscillatory torque, which is caused by the tendency of the rotor to line up with the
stator in a particular direction where the permeance of the magnetic circuit from the standpoint
of the permanent magnets is maximized. Cogging occurs even when there is no current in the
stator. The manual rotation of a disconnected machine gives an indication about of the cogging
torque. When the motor is running there are also other additional oscillatory torque components
resulting from the interaction of the magnets with the space-harmonics created by the winding
layout and with the magnetomotive forces created by the current harmonics. These additional
oscillatory torque components are generally referred to as torque ripple, while the term cogging
is often used for the no-current situation.
The torque ripple can be reduced by several methods (Hendershot and Miller (1994), Li and
Slemon (1988)): by using an increased air-gap length, or a fractional slots/pole, or larger
numbers of slots/pole, or thick tooth tips to prevent saturation, by keeping the slot opening to a
minimum, by using magnetic slot wedges, by skewing the stator core or the permanent magnets,
by forming or chamfering the magnet poles, by forming or chamfering the stator tip or punch
holes in tooth tips, by varying the magnetization of the magnet poles, by using bifurcated teeth,
by using a low magnetic flux density and compensating the cogging by modulating the drive
current waveform. With a large number of slots/pole slightly skewing is usually sufficient to
eliminate most of the cogging.
When the number of slots/pole is close to 1, the slot geometry becomes more important. Then,
the width of the slot opening can be adjusted to minimize the cogging effect. It could be
expected that a fractional slot machine with many slots and poles would have a very small
cogging torque. Jahns and Soong (1996) introduced technique guidelines for the motor design
as well as for the control to minimize the torque ripple. Zhu et al. (2003) have studied the
76
cogging torque of some interior-magnet (q < 1) brushless machines. According to Cros and
Viarouge (2002), the cogging torque is dependent on the geometry when q (slots per pole and
per phase) is close to 0.3 (and Q
s
≈ 2p). The authors stated that the performance of q ≈ 0.3
motors is relatively low if a supply with sinusoidal currents is used. In the case of a rectangular
current supply and a smooth rotor with surface magnets, the no-load EMF generated in the
windings does not produce a flat portion with a sufficient width.
According to Cros and Viarouge, a machine with a number of slots per pole and per phase
between 1/2 and 1/3 generally produces a high performance and can have relatively high
fundamental winding factors. A machine with these structures can also produce a low no-load
cogging torque. The cogging frequency in these constructions is high. The number of cogging
periods per rotor revolution is dependent on the least common multiplier LCM of Q
s
and 2p.
The LCM values for some fractional slot machines are given in Table 3.5. These machines have
q = 0.5 or q < 0.5 because they are concentrated wound machines. When both the number of
slots and the number of poles are doubled, also the LCM increases. This means that the torque
ripple is lower for the machines with multiple poles and slots compared to the simpler
structures. As an example (shown bolded in table), if Q
s
is 9 and 2p is 6 the LCM number is 18,
but if the numbers are doubled - Q
s
is 18 and 2p is 12 - the LMC number becomes 36.
Table 3.5. The least common multiplier LCM (of Q
s
and 2p) values for concentrated wound
fractional slot machines
Q
s
\2p 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 22 26 28
3 6 12 6 24 30 12 42 48 60 66 78 84
6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 60 72 78 84
9 18 72 90 36 126 144 180 198 234 252
12 48 60 72 84 48 60 132 156 168
15 30 60 210 240 60 330 390 420
18 36 126 144 180 198 234 252
21 42 336 420 462 546 84
24 96 120 264 312 168

The waveform of the cogging torque as a function of electric angle of a 24-slot-20-pole motor is
shown in Fig. 3.10 at the rated speed of 400 rpm. Fig. 3.10 describes the cogging torque from
which it can be counted that there are 12 periods in the waveform during a cycle over one pole
77
pair, giving a total number of 120 periods over one mechanical cycle. This number 120 is
exactly the number of the LCM for the 24-slot-20-pole motor. For the 12-slot-8-pole machine
there are 12 waves over one pole pair, which gives 48 waves during one mechanical cycle.
-0.04
-0.02
0.00
0.02
0.04
0

C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)

12 slots 8 poles
24 slots 20 poles
Electric angle

Fig. 3.10. Cogging torques of 12-slot-8-pole and 24-slot-20-pole motor as a function of electric angle.
The smallest cogging torques are achieved for the machines with several slots and poles, as it is
shown in Fig. 3.11. Fig. 3.11 gives the peak-to-peak cogging torque values for surface magnet
machines with semi-closed slot openings and with a relative magnet width of about 0.85 p.u. If
the basic structure is multiplied the amplitude of the cogging torque will decrease, but its
frequency increases. As an example, a 12-slot-8-pole motor (q = 0.5) has a 6% cogging torque,
but a 24-slot-16-pole (also q = 0.5 machine) has 5% and a 42-slot-28-pole has only 0.1%. The
cogging torque (% of the rated torque) values obtained from the FEA and the LCM ratios for
the surface magnet motors are shown in Fig. 3.11. In this case the LCM ratio corresponds to a
scaled value 240/LCM. Such a scaling is used in order to reasonably fit the values into the same
plot. According to the results obtained from the FEA, the cogging torque is inversely
proportional to the LCM numbers. The LCM is a measure of the frequency of the cogging
torque. The LCM value for the motor is easy and fast to calculate, and is, therefore, a useful
parameter for the designer of fractional slot windings. Cogging was also computed for open slot
machines, because it is obvious that the slot opening width has effect on the cogging torque
values.
78
0
2
4
6
12-8 12-16 12-10 12-14 24-16 24-20 18-14 24-28 42-28 24-22 24-26 21-22 slots-poles
q
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

(
%
)
LCM ratio
Computed cogging torque (%)
0.5 0.25 0.5 0.4 0.286 0.4 0.429 0.286 0.5 0.364 0.308 0.318
L
C
M

r
a
t
i
o

Fig. 3.11. Cogging torque (peak-to-peak values, % of rated torque) for several structures with semi-closed
slots and surface magnet rotors according to the FE analysis. Semi-closed slot openings and a relative
magnet width of about 0.85 p.u. were used. The LCM ratios (scaled from the LCM numbers shown in
Table 3.5, LCM ratio = 240/LCM) on y-axis are proportional to the cogging results.
The effect of the relative magnet width and the slot opening width on the performance of a
fractional slot wound PM motor was studied. In the literature several investigations for
conventional wound (q = integer) machines are reported, e.g. Li and Slemon (1988), and
Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) discussed the selection of a suitable relative magnet width. The
definition of the relative magnet width (pole arc length/ pole pitch) is used to describe the
magnet width, as it is shown in Fig. 3.12 a). Fig. 3.12 b) illustrates the definition of the relative
slot opening width (x
4

s
) used in this study.
pole pitch
MAGNET
pole arc
x
4
slot pitch, τ
s
a) b)
b
m
h
m

Fig. 3.12. The definition of the relative permanent magnet width (pole arc / pole pitch) and the definition
of the relative slot opening width (x
4

s
). The pole arc is measured along the curved side of magnet.
79
For traditionally wound (q = integer) machines the suitable permanent magnet width may be
calculated as given by Ishikawa and Slemon (1993)
p
s
w
) (
τ
τ
α k k + = , (3.1)
where τ
s
is the slot pitch, τ
p
the pole pitch, k is an integer and k
w
is the constant number 0.17 or
0.14 suggested by Li and Slemon (1988). As an example, for the integer slot machine, where
q = 1, it is often wise to select the relative magnet width to be 0.67 in order to diminish the
cogging torque (as the 3
rd
harmonic is cancelled).
The theoretical behaviour of the cogging for an integer slot machine is given in Fig. 3.13. The
suitable relative magnet width is not an exact number; it is rather a suitable range. Some α
values computed with method by Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) are gathered in Table 3.6, which
gives results for k
w
equal to 0 and equal to 0.17. Even thought Ishikawa’s equation is designed
for integer slot machines, it is here examined, if it is also suitable for fractional slot machines.
The cogging torque appears even with no currents in the stator winding, and therefore the
equation may be valid also for a fractional slot winding.
k = 1
α
p
= 0.195
k = 2
α
p
= 0.362
k = 3
α
p
= 0.528
k = 4
α
p
= 0.695
k = 5
α
p
= 0.862
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
T
α

Fig. 3.13. Cogging torque as a function of the relative permanent magnet width for an integer wound
machine, q = 2 with k
w
= 0.17.





80
Table 3.6. Relative magnet widths α (by Ishikawa and Slemon, 1993) for k
w
equal to 0 and 0.17.
Q
s
- 2p 12 - 8 12 - 10 12 - 16 24 - 20 24 - 22 12 - 8 12 - 10 12 - 16 24 - 22
q 0.5 0.4 0.25 0.4 0.364 0.5 0.4 0.25 0.364
k\k
w
0 0 0 0 0 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
0 0.67 0.83 1 0.83 0.92 0.78 0.98 … …
1 0.33 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.83 0.39 0.78 0.78 0.98
2 0.5 0.33 0.5 0.75 0.59 0.56 0.88
3 0.33 0.33 0.67 0.56 0.78
… … …

For the 12-slot-8-pole machine there exists only two minimum points, being 0.33 and 0.67
(if k
w
is 0), were the cogging might achieve the minimum. Also the 12-slot-16-pole machine has
only few possible minima. In contrast, a 24-slot-22-pole machine, for example, has several
possible and also useful minimum values for the relative magnet width. It can also be seen from
Table 3.6 that machines with the same q have the same values of α, e.g. for q is 0.4, the 12-slot-
10-pole (shadowed column) and 24-slot-20-pole machine have the same values. This indicates
that the minimum torque values are achieved with the same relative magnet width, although the
slot and pole numbers were doubled. Which relative magnet width should be chosen for an
individual motor depends on the application in question. Reliable knowledge of the cogging
may be achieved by the FEA.
Ackerman et al. (1992) explained the criteria of selecting a suitable relative magnet width to
reduce cogging in the case of brushless DC motors. The magnet widths are selected using
similar methods, as introduced by Li and Slemon (1988), Ishikawa and Slemon (1993), but
Ackerman et al. (1992) also gives some guidance for the selecting of a suitable tooth width. He
developed his method especially for machines where Q
s
≈ 2p. The behaviour of the cogging
torque in the case of a brushless DC motor can be expected to be similar to brushless PM motor,
because the cogging is analysed at no-load situation, where the currents are not effecting. A
suitable relative magnet width for a vanishing cogging torque is proposed by Ackerman et al.
(1992)
81
K
p
Q
N − =
2
s
α ( 1 0 < < α ), (3.2)
where N = 1, 2, …, 2p –1 and K = 0, 1, 2, … , Q
s
– 1. A suitable width of a tooth is according to
Ackerman et al. (1992)
N
Q
p
K − =
s
2
β ( 1 0 < < β ), (3.3)
where N = 0, 1, 2, …, 2p –1 and K = 1, 2, … , Q
s
– 1. The values α and β are given in Table 3.7
for some 12-slot and 24-slot fractional slot machines. When comparing the values to those
given in Table 3.6 (Ishikawa and Slemon, 1993), it is noticed that the given magnet widths are
similar.
Table 3.7. A suitable magnet width α and a suitable tooth width β according to Ackerman’s
equations, Eqs. 3.2 and 3.3.
Q
s
- 2p Q
s
- 2p Q
s
- 2p Q
s
- 2p Q
s
- 2p Q
s
- 2p Q
s
- 2p
12 - 8 12 - 10 12 - 14 12 - 16 24 - 26 24 - 22 24 - 20
q = 0.5 q = 0.4 q = 0.286 q = 0.25 q = 0.308 q = 0.364 q = 0.4
α β α β α β α β α β α β α β
0.67 1 0.83 1 0.83 0.857 1 1 0.917 0.923 0.92 0.919 0.83 1
0.33 0.5 0.67 0.8 0.67 0.714 0.67 0.75 0.83 0.846 0.83 0.818 0.67 0.8
0.5 0.6 0.5 0.571 0.33 0.5 0.75 0.769 0.75 0.727 0.5 0.6
0.33 0.4 0.33 0.429 0.25 0.67 0.692 0.67 0.636 0.33 0.4
0.2 0.286 0.583 0.615 0.58 0.545 0.2
0.5 0.538 0.5 0.455

It was examined, whether the method introduced by Li and Slemon (1988), and Ishikawa and
Slemon (1993) or the theory suggested by Ackerman et al. (1992) are appropriate for applying
to fractional-slot PM machines. In order to achieve a high flux density in the air-gap and,
thereby, a high torque, the optimal magnet width should be selected to be as wide as possible.
The magnet width used for the magnets of a fractional wound surface PM motor is often the
width of the tooth. A wider magnet may cause leakage flux, which is the case e.g. if the slot arc
is much narrower than the pole arc.
82
Fig. 3.14 shows the cogging torque values, obtained from the FEA, for 12-slot-motors with
semi-closed slots, relative slot opening of 0.08. The minimum cogging torque value for a 12-
slot-8-pole motor is found with a 0.78 relative magnet width. The expected value in Tables 3.6
is 0.78 if k
w
is 0.17. Therefore, it can be stated that the method introduced by Ishikawa and
Slemon (1993) can be used for this motor. The 12-slot-10-pole motor instead has three minima
0.59, 0.76 and 0.92. The minima in the Tables 3.6 and 3.7 are 0.5, 0.67 and 0.83, which means
that k
w
is 0.09. Logically, for the 12-slot-14-pole motor the factor k
w
would be 0.03 and for the
12-slot-16-pole motor -0.074. The highest cogging torque level of the studied 12-slot motors
with semi-closed slot opening was found for the 12-slot-16-pole motor type and the lowest for
the 12-slot-14-pole motor type.
0
4
8
12
16
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d
12-08
12-16
12-10
12-14

Fig. 3.14. Cogging torque peak-to-peak values (% of the rated torque) for 12-slot-8-pole, 12-slot-10-pole,
12-slot-14-pole and 12-slot-16-pole machines with semi-closed stator slot openings.
3.4.1. Semi-closed slot vs. open slot
The effect of the width of the slot opening is studied for several motor types. Fig. 3.15 gives the
cogging torque values with open slots for the same 12-slot motors (with semi-closed slot
openings) given in Fig. 3.14. The cogging torques of 12-slot-8-pole and 12-slot-16-pole
machines are lower with open slots than they were with semi-closed slot opening, when relative
magnet width is 0.75.
83
0
4
8
12
16
20
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d
12-8
12-16
12-10
12-14

Fig. 3.15. Cogging torque (peak-to-peak values % of rated torque) for 12-slot-8-pole, 12-slot-10-pole,
12-slot-14-pole and 12-slot-16-pole machines with open slots.
The cogging torque values for a 12-slot-10-pole motor are given in Fig. 3.16 a) and for a 12-
slot-14-pole motor in Fig. 3.16 b). The curves indicate that there are minimum values the
existence of which depends on the slot open width. The semi-closed slot opening width is 0.08
of the slot pitch and the open slot width is 0.63 of the slot pitch. Changing the slot opening
width changes the place of the minima.
0
2
4
6
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d
Open slot
Semi-closed
a)
0
2
4
6
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d
Open slot
Semi-closed
b)

Fig. 3.16. The cogging torques (peak-to-peak ripples % of rated torque) for a semi-closed-slot and for an
open slot machine: a) 12-slot-10-pole machine (q = 0.4) and b) 12-slot-14-pole machine (q = 0.286).
84
12-slot-16-pole machine
As an example, the cogging torque of a 12-slot-16-pole machine (q = 0.25) was studied closer.
The results of the FEA for the 12-slot-16-pole motor as a function of the magnet width are
shown in Fig. 3.17. The semi-closed solutions have 0.08 and 0.25 relative slot openings widths.
The open slot width is 0.5. The cogging of the semi-closed slot machine with the 0.08 relative
slot opening width has the minimum values, as the relative magnet width is 0.6 or 0.92. With
the 0.25 relative slots opening the minimum is at 0.68. With the open slot structure the cogging
torque ripple minimum is at 0.73. The average level of the cogging torque for both the 12-slot-
16-pole machines is much higher than for the 12-slot-10-pole and 12-slot-14-pole machine
studied earlier. The methods for integer slot machines (given by e.g. Ishikawa and Slemon,
1993 and Ackerman et. al, 1992) with 12 slots and 16 poles give a minimum cogging value at
0.67 or 1. According to FE analyses presented here, in Fig 3.17, the minimum point of cogging
in the case of the 12-slot-16-pole motor varies from 0.6 to 0.73 depending on the slot opening
width. Ackerman’s method gives a value that corresponds well to this FE analysis, because with
a 0.75 tooth width the cogging minimum is estimated to be at 0.67 and in the FE computations
it was 0.68.
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d
Open slot 0.5
Semi-closed 0.25
Semi-closed 0.08

Fig. 3.17. The cogging torque peak-to-peak ripples (% of rated torque) for semi-closed-slots and for an
open-slot 12-slot-16-pole machine (q = 0.25). The semi-closed relative slot opening widths are 0.08 and
0.25 of the slot pitch. The totally open slot p.u. width is 0.5.
85
36-slot-24-pole machine
The cogging torque of q = 0.5 (36 slots and 24 poles) was studied with different slot openings
widths. The flux lines of different analysed structures are shown in Fig. 3.18. It is shown that
with the open slots (in Fig. 3.18 b)) the machine gives considerably high cogging values, e.g.
the value 20%, in some areas of the examined relative magnet width. Close to the value 0.73
there is a minimum for the cogging torque of the open slot structure, which can be seen from
the torque ripple values in Fig. 3.19. The cogging torque of the semi-closed structure was
between 2 to 11 % of the average torque (depending on the relative magnet width).

Fig. 3.18. Semi-closed-slot and open-slot structures for a 36-slot-24-pole machine (q = 0.5). The structure
a) with semi-closed slots gives a 4% cogging torque peak-to-peak of the rated torque, but the structure b)
with open slots gives a 25% cogging torque.
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d
Open slot
Semi-closed

Fig. 3.19. The cogging torque (% of the rated torque, peak-to-peak values) of a 36-slot-24-pole machine
(q = 0.5). The semi-closed relative slot opening widths are 0.09 and open slots 0.42.
a)
b)
86
36-slot-42-pole machine
The cogging torque of a fractional slot machine with high number of poles may be lower than
0.1%. The cogging torques level of q = 0.286 (36 slots and 42 poles) was low compared to other
studied machines as shown in Fig. 3.20. All cogging values regardless of the relative magnet
width are less than 1%. The cogging torque is about 0.05% at the minima.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
Relative magnet width
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d

Fig. 3.20. In the case of a 36-slot-42-pole (q = 0.285) machine with semi-closed slots, all cogging torque
values are less than 1%. The semi-closed relative slot opening widths are 0.09.
3.4.2. Conclusion
A study was carried out to investigate, if the method suggested by Li and Slemon (1988) and
Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) or the theory introduced by Ackerman et al. (1992) can be used for
fractional-slot PM machines. The cogging torques appears to behave as expected producing a
curve with minima. It depends of the slot opening width where the minima appear. For each
machine a k
w
factor can be calculated to estimate the minimum points. The cogging torque
values of the analysed fractional slot motor types that are studied can be less than 1% of the
rated torque, especially in the case of multi-pole machines. The effect of the slot opening is
therefore studied closer with machines under load, as the torque ripple is usually higher than at
no-load.
87
3.5. Torque ripple of the current driven model
The effect of the magnet width and the slot opening width on the torque ripple of the fractional-
slot PM motor is studied. The torque ripple peak-to-peak value is computed using the FEA with
a current driven model at 1000 Nm load and current density J ≥ 5 A/mm
2
. The parameters that
remain the same are the magnet mass (about 10.4 kg), the stator inner and stator outer diameter,
the slot surface area and current density. The 12-slot motors have a 249 mm stator inner
diameter. In the following section, some examples of the results obtained from the FEA will be
given. Furthermore, a comparison between the torque ripples of several machines with current
driven model is given. Some waveforms of the torque are shown in Fig 3.21. It should now be
remembered that all the results are valid for stators and rotors without any skew. The torque
ripple can be reduced to some extent when skewing is applied.
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
0.000 0.005 0.010
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
12-slot-14-pole
12-slot-10-pole
24-slot-26-pole
24-slot-22-pole
Time (s)

Fig. 3.21. Torque as a function of time for different fractional slot – surface magnet - machines. The
results are given for the surface magnet structures 12-14 (slots-poles), 12-10, 24-26 and 24-22.
The torque ripple peak-to-peak values for a set of surface magnet and embedded magnet motors
are given in Table 3.8. The relative magnet width of the surface magnet motors is fixed to 0.85
to ensure a high torque.



88
Table 3.8. The results of the current driven model for the relative magnet width of 0.85. ∆T
p-p
is
the peak-to-peak ripple in % of the average torque, at 1000 Nm load. S =ˆ surface magnet
motor, ER =ˆ radially embedded magnet motor and EV =ˆ embedded magnet motor where the
pole consists of two magnets in V-position. (Salminen et al., 2004)
Slots Poles q Magnet ∆T
p-p
(%)
12 8 0.5 S 16
12 10 0.4 S 2.8
12 10 0.4 EV 2.4
12 14 0.286 S 4
12 14 0.286 ER 1.9
24 20 0.4 S 2.5
24 22 0.364 S 4.5
24 22 0.364 ER 3.8
24 26 0.308 S 4.5
24 26 0.308 ER 3.2
24 28 0.286 S 6.1
42 28 0.5 S 19
42 28 0.5 ER 29

Considering the surface magnet machines, the lowest torque ripple values 2.5% and 2.8% were
obtained for the 24-slot-20-pole and 12-slot-10-pole machines. As to the embedded magnet
machines, the lowest torque ripple obtained was 1.9% for the 12-slot-14-pole machine. The
highest values were obtained for the machines with q equal to 0.5, e.g. 19% for a 42-slot-28-
pole machine and 16% for a 24-slot-16-pole machine. In most of the cases, the machines with
embedded magnets generate lower ripples compared to the corresponding machines with
surface magnets. The only exception among the analysed q values was a fractional slot 42-slot-
28-pole machine with q equal to 0.5. The ripple of this motor was the worst, a 29% ripple for
the embedded solution and a 19% ripple for the surface magnet solution. (Salminen et al.,
2004).
89
3.5.1. Some examples
Torque ripple of a 12-slot-16-pole machine
The effect of the magnet width of a 12-slot-16-pole machine (q = 0.25) was first studied with a
0.08 and 0.43 relative slot opening width. The torque ripple as a function of relative magnet
width is shown in Fig. 3.22 a). The harmonic components of the torque ripple with semi-closed-
slot structure and open slots are shown in Fig. 3.22 b). Two magnet widths, 0.7 and 0.75, are
examined. The results given in Fig. 3.22 show that one value is differing from the others; this is
the value of the machine with open slots and with a 0.75 magnet width, which is one minimum
ripple point for this machine. The 4
th
harmonic of this machine disappeared, but the 6
th

harmonic and the 12
th
are slightly higher than others.
0
5
10
15
20
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
semi-closed 0.08
open slot 0.43
a)
0
2
4
6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Harmonic order number
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d

t
o
r
q
u
e
semi-closed 0.7
semi-closed 0.75
open slot 0.7
open slot 0.75
b)

Fig. 3.22. Torque ripple (% of the average torque, peak-to-peak) of a 12-slot-16-pole machine as a) a
function of relative magnet width. The 0.08 semi-closed slot opening width and 0.43 open slot were
analysed. B) Harmonics (from fast Fourier transform) are presented for the 0.7 and 0.75 magnet widths.
Fig. 3.23 describes a) a 12-slot-16-pole machine with semi-closed slots and with a magnet
width of 0.79 and b) a 12-slot-16-pole machine with open slots and with a 0.75 magnet width.
The current and rotor angle are the same for both of the machines. The flux paths are periodical
and four symmetrical areas appear in this machine type. One symmetrical area consists of
4 poles and 3 slots along the periphery of the machine. Fig. 3.23 shows some interesting areas,
where the flux lines of the a) semi-closed slot and b) open slot machine differ from each other.
90
The areas are marked with the circulated letters A, B and C. For the semi-closed slot shown in
Fig. 3.23 a), there occur stray flux lines in the area A, which do not appear for the open slot
machine shown in Fig 3.23 b). The area B (in Fig. 3.23 a)) shows that the tooth tip leaves a
wider path for the flux to flow from the stator into the rotor magnet compared to the area in
Fig. 3.23 b) where the flux path is narrower since the tooth tip is narrower. On the other hand,
the flux lines in Fig 3.23 a) in the area C, illustrate the disadvantage of wide tooth tips. There is
an easy path for the flux to flow from one magnet to another, which creates a zigzag stray flux.
In Fig 3.23 b) there are less stray flux lines (in the same area C). For the machine type with
semi-closed slots, the stray flux in the vicinity of the air-gap is always larger compared to the
machine with open slots. This explains the high torque ripple values of the 12-slot-16-pole
machine type with semi-closed slot structures.
a)

b)


Fig. 3.23. Flux lines of a 12-slot-16-pole machine with a) semi-closed slots and with a 0.79 magnet width
and b) with open slots and with a 0.75 relative magnet width.
Torque ripple of 24-slot-26-pole machine
A 24-slot-26-pole machine (q = 0.364) was examined, as for this machine type Q
s
≈ 2p. For the
torque ripple, it might be a benefit that the pole and slot numbers are almost the same. The slot
A
B
C
A
B
C
91
openings were similar to those of the semi-closed type with 0.09 slot opening and 0.4 of the
totally open type. The torque ripples (% of the average torque) are given in Fig. 3.24 a) and the
harmonics of the torque in Fig. 3.24 b) with different widths of the magnet. In Fig. 3.24 it can
be seen that for semi-closed there is a minimum at 0.9 relative magnet width and for the open
slot there is a minimum at a 0.82. The average torque ripple level of the open slot motor type is
lower than the corresponding level of a semi-closed slot opening. The highest harmonic
component in both cases is the 6
th
harmonic, as it is shown in Fig. 3.24 b).
0
2
4
6
8
10
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
Semi-closed
Open slot
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0.7 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
6 harmonic
12 harmonic
Semi-closed slot
Open slot
th
th

a) b)
Fig. 3.24. a) The torque ripples (% of the average torque peak-to-peak) and b) the 6
th
and 12
th
harmonic
components of a 24-slot-26-pole machine with different relative widths of the magnet. The 0.09 semi-
closed slot opening width and 0.4 open slot were analysed.
A study of motors with q equal to 0.5
In the literature several representations are given of machines with q equal to 0.5 used in
different applications, as, for example, Koch and Binder (2002), Kasinathan (2003). It is
observed that this particular motor structure gives a good torque to volume ratio, but the torque
ripple can be high. Therefore, also the dynamic behaviour, for instance the torque ripple values,
of this motor type was examined here. The motors to be analysed are the 12-slot-8-pole, 24-
slot-16-pole, 36-slot-24-pole and 42-slot-28-pole machines. All these motors have the same
frame size, 400 rpm speed and 45 kW output power demand. For the 42-slot-28-pole machine
with q = 0.5 calculation was performed in order to define the effect of the magnet width on the
92
torque ripple. The current density was 5.2 A/mm
2
with 93 Hz supply frequency. The torque as a
function of time is given in Fig. 3.25.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0

T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
)
magnet width 0.81
magnet width 0.68
electric angle

Fig. 3.25. The torque as a function of electric angle for the 42-slot-28-pole machine with 0.81 and 0.68
relative magnet widths.
The amplitude of the torque pulsations is quite high; when the relative magnet width is 0.81 the
peak-to-peak torque ripple is 27% and with a 0.68 relative magnet width the peak-to-peak
torque ripple is 19%. The minimum torque peak-to-peak ripple with open slots (Table 3.1)
obtained for a 12-slot-8-pole machine was 13%, for a 24-slot-16-pole 3.8% and for the 36-slot-
24-pole 2% (10% with semi-closed slot openings). A 13% ripple can be considered to be high.
The torque ripples as a function of relative magnet width obtained from the current driven
model for the 24-slot-16-pole and 36-slot-24-pole machine are shown in Appendix F.
According to FEA the torque ripple minima of q = 0.5 semi-closed machines is close to relative
magnet width of 0.68 and with open slots close to relative magnet width of 0.77. These magnet
widths are similar to magnet widths 0.67 and 0.78 presented in Table 3.6.
3.5.2. The magnet width and the slot opening width
In order to define the effect of the slot opening width on the torque ripple, a series of FEA
computations were carried out in which the magnet width was varied. The semi-closed 0.09 slot
opening and an open slot structure were analysed. In some of the cases, also other relative slot
opening widths were analysed. The torque ripples (% of the average torque peak-to-peak value)
were recorded from the current driven computations at current density of 5.2 A/mm
2
. The
93
results for machines with 12-slots and semi-closed slot opening are shown in Fig. 3.26 a) and
for the open slot machines the results are shown in Fig. 3.26 b). It is shown that the 12-slot-8-
pole and 12-slot-16-pole machines produce higher torque ripples than the others with semi-
closed slot structure. On the other hand, the 12-slot-16-pole machine with open slot structure
has a local minimum at the value of 0.75, which is a magnet width that is found to be suitable to
use in some applications. The semi-closed 12-slot-10-pole structure has minima all over the
analysed relative magnet width range. For the open slot structure there are two minima at 0.73
and 0.87. For 12-slot machines, the lowest torque ripples are obtained for the 12-slot-14-pole
motor with open slots.
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
12-slot-8-pole
12-slot-16-pole
12-slot-10-pole
12-slot-14-pole
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
12-slot-8-pole
12-slot-16-pole
12-slot-10-pole
12-slot-14-pole

a) b)
Fig. 3.26. Torque ripples (% of the rated torque, peak-to-peak values) as a function of the relative magnet
width for the 12-slot stator with a) semi-closed slot and b) open slot.
The torque ripple values were analysed next for a series of 24-slot machines. The curves of the
torque ripples for the 24-slot machines are given in Fig. 3.27 a) with semi-closed slots and b)
with open slots. With semi-closed slots the 20-pole and 28-pole machine have curves with local
minima, but the curves of the 22-pole and 26-pole machines are almost straight lines crossing
all over the analysed magnet width range. Comparing Fig. 3.27 a) with b) it can be seen that the
open slot structures produce lower torque ripples than the semi-closed structures, with
exception of the 24-slot-20-pole motor. The machines with open closed slots have a low torque
ripple as the relative magnet width varies from 0.7 to 0.8. With open slots and a 0.8 relative
magnet width the 24-slot-26-pole machine achieves a torque ripple that is as low as 0.3%.
94
Low torque ripple values are also achieved with the 24-slot-22-pole machine with open slots;
at relative magnet width of 0.75 the torque ripple is 0.25%.
For the open slot structure examined with 12-slot and 24-slot stators, the minimum torque ripple
is achieved at rated load as the relative magnet width varies from 0.7 to 0.8. For the 12-slot-14-
pole, 12-slot-16-pole and 24-slot-22-pole motor, the minimum for open slots in the stator is
achieved at 0.75.
0
2
4
6
8
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
24-slot-20-pole
24-slot-22-pole
24-slot-26-pole
24-slot-28-pole
0
2
4
6
8
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
24-slot-20-pole
24-slot-22-pole
24-slot-26-pole
24-slot-28-pole

a) b)
Fig. 3.27. Torque ripples (% of the rated torque, peak-to-peak values) as a function of the relative magnet
width for the 24-slot stator a) semi-closed slot and b) open slot.
It is given an example that compares the torque ripples at a certain magnet width. Fig. 3.28
shows the torque ripple values for the studied surface magnet machines with relative magnet
widths 0.82 and 0.85. From the values in Fig. 3.28, it is possible to compare the different
combinations of the slots and poles, which have the same relative magnet width.
95
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.5 0.4 0.286 0.250 0.429 0.5 0.4 0.364 0.308 0.286 0.5 0.4 0.286
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

r
a
t
e
d

t
o
r
q
u
e
Relative magnet width 0.82
Relative magnet width 0.85
q
Q
s
-2p
12-8 12-10 12-14 12-16 18-14 24-16 24-20 24-22 24-26 24-28 36-24 36-30 36-42

Fig. 3.28. Peak-to-peak values of the torque ripple obtained from the FE computations for the surface
magnet motors with the 0.82 and 0.85 relative magnet widths and with semi-closed slots.
In Fig. 3.28 it can be seen that the highest ripples occur for q = 0.5 and q = 0.25. The different
behaviour of the 0.25 and 0.5 fractional slot machines may be due to the harmonic order
numbers and the winding factors. Appendix C shows the harmonic order numbers of different
fractional slot machines and the winding factors related to them. It is shown that most of the
motors have only few integer harmonics and many non-integer harmonics. The winding factors
are quite small, except if there is a slot harmonic, which has the same winding factor as the 1
st

order harmonic. The q = 0.5 winding includes purely integer numbers of harmonics: 1, 2, 5, 7,
8, 10… with the 0.866 winding factor. The q = 0.25 winding includes integer and non-integer
numbers of harmonics: 0.5, 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5.5, 6.5, 7, 8, … with the 0.866 winding factor.
3.5.3. Conclusion
A comparing study is done for several fractional slot machine constructions of which the
relative magnet widths and the relative slot opening widths were varied. The lowest ripple
values (% of the rated torque, peak-to-peak values) obtained for different machines are repeated
in Table 3.9.


96
Table. 3.9. The lowest torque ripple values (% of the rated torque, peak-to-peak) obtained for
different surface magnet machines at 1000 Nm load. Ripple values ≤ 1% are bolded.
Open slot Semi-closed slot
Q
s
2p q
Torque
Ripple (%)
Relative magnet
width
Torque
Ripple (%)
Relative magnet
width
Relative slot
opening, x
4

12 8 0.5 13 0.77 11 0.71 0.08
12 10 0.4 2.5 0.55, 0.72, 0.87 2.5 0.82 0.08
12 14 0.286 1.5 0.76 3.5 0.91 0.08
12 16 0.25 3.5 0.75 4 0.6, 0.67 0.08
18 14 0.429 1.2 0.81 5 0.56, 0.66 0.07
24 16 0.5 3.82 0.77 3.2 0.7 0.09
24 20 0.4 1.7 0.71, 0.89 1.72 0.66, 0.84 0.09
24 22 0.364 0.25 0.753 1.9 0.56 0.09
24 26 0.308 0.3 0.81 4.2 0.9 0.09
24 28 0.286 0.8 0.71, 0.75 1.6 0.63, 0.82 0.09
36 24 0.5 2 0.78 10 0.7 0.09
36 30 0.4 1.5 0.7 1 0.7 0.09
36 42 0.286 0.6 0.9 1 0.69 0.09

The values in Table 3.9 are obtained from the torque ripple curves shown in this chapter and in
Appendix F. For the machines with semi-closed slots there seems to be several relative magnet
widths that, when used, make it possible to achieve a minimum for the torque ripple. It may be
stated that the value 0.75 for the relative magnet width is to be recommended if the stator
includes open slots and a fractional slotted structure. With open slots and Q
s
≈ 2p (q close to
0.33) the torque ripples are small compared to other q values. In most of the analysed cases, the
machines have a torque ripple average level for open slots lower than with semi-closed slots.
This does not mean that the open slot construction were always the better alternative. When
using open slots - having the same geometry as the semi-closed slots – the induced voltage is
lower than when semi-closed slots are used, if in both of the cases the number of coil turns is
the same. For some fractional slot machines it is not possible to use the same air-gap diameter,
and, in such a case, the torque developed may be lower than what is required. According to the
results given in Table 3.9 for a particular slot number, the peak-to-peak value of the torque
ripple grows as the number of poles increases. This means that Table 3.9 can be used to
estimate the ripple of the motor and to decide whether the motor should be skewed.
97
According to the computations referred to here, as concerns the fractional slot surface mounted
permanent magnet machine, the open slot structure generates lower torque ripples than the
semi-closed slot structure. For most of the analysed fractional slot machines, the lowest torque
ripple was achieved when the width of the magnet was selected to be slightly wider than the
width of the tooth.
3.6. Surface magnet motor versus embedded magnet motor
A surface magnet motor (S) is compared with a radially embedded magnet motor (ER) and with
an embedded magnet motor (EV), which has the magnets in V-position. The surface magnet
motor is the most commonly used PM rotor type. For some applications it might be the
beneficial alternative to manufacture a motor with embedded structure, e.g. in such cases when
the magnets need to be safely embedded inside the rotor. In some applications a low torque
ripple is required and the torque ripple of a machine with the magnets inside the rotor is usually
lower than the torque ripple of a machine with surface magnets. The performance of fractional-
slot PM machines were studied with two different rotors: the rotor with surface mounted
permanent magnets and the rotor with embedded magnets. The FEA was performed at no-load
situation for a surface magnet motor and for an embedded V magnet structure in order to solve
the flux created by the magnets. For surface mounted magnet rotor it is quite simple to solve the
flux produced by the magnets also analytically, but for the rotor with embedded magnets this is
more complicated. Magneto static and dynamic computations were then carried out in order to
define the torque production capability of differently designed motors. First, a 12-slot-10-pole
machine is designed with a surface magnet rotor and with several different embedded magnet
rotors. Later, the surface and embedded rotor structures of 24-slot-22-pole, 24-slot-20-pole and
12-slot-8-pole machines will be compared.
3.6.1. 12-slot-10-pole motor
Several configurations are possible to design a rotor with embedded magnets. The rotor
structures can have a smooth rotor surface or formed surface with cosine shape. There can be
rectangular magnets or two magnets in V-position. Fig. 3.29 illustrates one surface magnet rotor
and three embedded rotors: a) a surface magnet rotor and, b) smooth rotor surface with radially
98
embedded magnets c) a smooth rotor surface with magnets in V-position and d) a cosine formed
rotor surface with magnets in V-position.

a)

b)

c)

d)
Fig. 3.29. The geometry and the flux lines, obtained with Flux2D from the current driven model at rated
load 1074 Nm, of 12-slot-10-pole motors a) a surface magnet rotor (S) and, b) smooth rotor surface with
radially embedded rectangular magnets (ER) and a non-magnetic rotor core c) a smooth rotor surface with
magnets in V-shape (EV) and d) a 1/cosine formed air-gap with magnets embedded in V-position (EV).
The flux lines of the machines at rated load are given in Fig 3.29. Some differences in the flux
paths can be seen when comparing the surface structures, Fig. 3.29 a), with the embedded
structures, Fig 3.29 b). With the surface magnet structure the stator flux flows through a tooth
and tooth tip to the air-gap and from the air-gap the flux will try to find its way to the rotor. It
can flow from the air-gap to a magnet or to air. If the tooth tip is located above the air-gap in a
position where there is only air below the tooth tip, there is no ‘easy’ path available for the flux
to flow. With embedded magnets the flux can travel through rotor iron as it travels through the
air-gap from the stator tooth tips to the rotor side. Since the flux may flow circumferentially in
the rotor pole, armature reaction may appear.
99
Different types of rotor structures were designed for the 12-slot-10-pole machine. At first, the
FEA was performed at no-load situation for a surface magnet motor and for an embedded V
magnet structure, in which the pole consists of two embedded rectangular magnets. For both the
machines 10.5 kg magnet material is needed. The 0.92 T flux density in air-gap generated by
the permanent magnets of the surface magnet machine is higher than the 0.86 T flux density
generated by the embedded magnet machine. A steady state calculation was performed with the
FEA. Constant phase currents were applied to the stator slots and the rotor was rotated step-by-
step over one pole pitch. Fig. 3.30 shows the torque curves as a function of the rotor angle for
several 12-slot-10-pole motors. The motors described in this figure are: a smooth rotor surface
with radially embedded magnets (10.5 kg), a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in V-
position (12.5 kg), a surface magnet rotor (10.7 kg), a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets
in V-position (10.8 kg) and a smooth rotor surface with magnets in V-position (10.8 kg).
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 45 90 135 180
Rotor angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
embedded rectangular magnet 10.5 kg
Surface magnet 10.7 kg
V-magnet 12.49 kg formed pole
V-magnet 10.8 kg formed pole
V-magnet 10.8 kg smooth rotor surface
V magnets
surface magnets
rectangular magnets

Fig. 3.30. Torque (p.u.) as a function of the rotor angle for several 12-slot-10-pole motors as constant
phase currents are applied in the stator slots (steady state calculation from FEA). The torques of the motors
in this figure are ranging from the highest to the lowest value: a smooth rotor surface with rectangular
magnets (10.5 kg), a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in V-position (12.5 kg), a surface magnet
rotor (10.7 kg), a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in V-position (10.8 kg) and a smooth rotor
surface with magnets in V-position (10.8 kg). Current density is 5.3 A/mm
2
.
100
Fig. 3.30 shows that with 10.5 kg to 10.8 kg magnet material, the highest torque value is
produced by the motor with rectangular embedded magnets. This construction is, however,
difficult to manufacture because it needs a non-ferromagnetic inner rotor core. The lowest value
is achieved by the motor with embedded V-magnets and with smooth rotor surface. The
maximum torque is achieved at load angle higher than 90 degrees for the rotor structure with
smooth rotor surface and embedded V-magnets; this can be explained through the reluctance
difference between the d- and q-axis. Forming the rotor pole can diminish this armature
reaction. As formed rotor pole shoe with V-magnets and 10.8 kg magnets were used, the
obtained curvature became more symmetrical. Because the 10.8 kg V-magnet motor was not
capable of producing the rated (1074 Nm) torque the amount of magnet material had to be
increased. The amount of magnet material for the V-magnet motor was increased from 10.8 kg
to 12.5 kg, as a result of which the flux density created by the magnets increased up to 0.935 T
and the maximum torque increased.
The FEA was performed with the voltage driven model for a 12-slot-10-pole motor with surface
magnet and with embedded magnet structures. The machine parameters and the results obtained
from the FEA are given in Table 3.10 and in Fig. 3.31.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
Surface
Embedded R
Embedded V

Fig. 3.31. Torque curves as a function of the load angle of 12-slot-10-pole machines obtained from the
voltage driven model. The torque curves described in the figure are those of a surface magnet motor with a
mass of 10.3 kg magnet material, of a motor with radially embedded rectangular magnets with a mass of
10 kg magnet material and of a motor with embedded V-magnets with a mass of 12.5 kg magnet material.
101
The surface magnet structure gave the highest pull-out torque compared to embedded
structures. The results show that, in the case where embedded magnets are used, the rotor iron
losses are larger than in the case where surface magnets are used. The torque ripple is the lowest
in the case of the embedded magnet motor with cosine formed rotor surface and magnets in V-
position. (The embedded V-magnet structure, introduced in Table 3.10, has a 74 degrees angle
between the magnets of one pole. Other possible angles were studied; for example, a narrower
angle of 60° would give a 1.2 p.u. pull-out torque, according to the FEA.)
Table 3.10. 12-slot-10-pole machine parameters, Power 45 kW, speed 420 rpm
Magnets Surface Embedded V Embedded rectangular
Slots-poles 12 - 10 12 - 10 12 - 10
Slot opening Semi-closed Semi-closed Semi-closed
Magnet mass (kg) 10.3 12.5 10.5
Load angle at nominal point (deg) 35 72 75
Rated torque (Nm) 1023 1023 1023
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 1.66 1.056 1.18
Nurber of turns, N
ph
104 104 80
Rated current (A) 88 97 103
Power factor, cos(ϕ) 0.92 0.83 0.83
Inductance, L
d
(p.u.) 0.72 1.06 1.28
Inductance, L
q
(p.u.) 0.67 1.05 1.1
Torque ripple (%) of rated torque 5.2 2.4 3.8
Iron losses in stator (W) 260 260 250
Iron losses in rotor (W) 22 98 51
Copper losses (W) 2230 2820 2737

3.6.2. 24-slot-22-pole motor and 24-slot-20-pole motor
The performance of a 24-slot-22-pole fractional-slot PM machine is described for the motor
structure with surface mounted permanent magnets and with radially embedded magnets. The
fundamental value (obtained from the Fourier spectrum) of the flux density normal component
in air-gap were 1.01 T and 1.17 T for the surface magnet motor and for the embedded magnet
motor, respectively. The R.M.S. values were 0.738 T and 0.92 T. With the same amount of
102
magnet material – 10.3 kg – the embedded magnet solution gives clearly higher flux density
values than the surface magnet solution at no-load. The normal component of the flux density
was solved along the whole air-gap for a loaded machine. The result for the surface magnet
motor is shown in Fig. 3.32. It can be seen that the curve of the flux density wave in the air-gap
has a different character above each of the magnets. (Salminen et al., 2003)

Fig. 3.32. The flux density normal component along the air-gap diameter, for a surface magnet motor
q = 0.364 at rated load.
The results of the FEA computations for the best surface and for the best radially embedded
magnet motor in terms of torque production capability are presented in Table 3.11.
Table 3.11. Motor parameters of 24-slot-22-pole machines (Salminen et al., 2003)
Surface magnet Radially Embedded magnet
Slots-poles 24 - 22 24 - 22
Stator radius inner (mm) 127 127
Winding factor 0.96 0.96
Rated current (A) 86.4 86.1
Main voltage (V) 351 351
Winding turns per phase 104 88
Air-gap length (mm) 1.25 1.25
Phase resistance (Ω) 0.1 0.07
Back EMF (V) 192.4 188
Air-gap flux density (T),
due to permanent magnets
1.01 1.17
Frequency (Hz) 73.33 73.33
Output power (kW) 45 45
Efficiency (%) 93 94
Power factor 0.93 0.91
Magnet mass (kg) 10.3 10.3
Slot area (mm
2
) 805 805
Load angle (deg) 42 48
Rated torque (Nm) 1074 1074
103
The curves of the torques versus load angle of these motors are shown in Fig. 3.33. At rated
1074 Nm load the tangential stresses of the analysed motors are 39 kN/m
2
. According to the
computations performed with the voltage driven model the air-gap torque at a load angle of 42°
is for the surface magnet motor 1090 Nm and for the embedded magnet motor 1000 Nm.
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
)
24-22 Embedded
24-22 Embedded FEA
24-22 Surface
24-22 Surface FEA
a)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
)
24-20 Embedded
24-20 Embedded FEA
24-20 Surface
24-20 Surface FEA
b)

Fig. 3.33. The load angles of a) a 24-slot-22-pole surface and radially embedded magnet motor are similar
at 1 p.u. rated load – close to 38 degrees – but the pull-out torque is clearly higher when surface magnets
are used: 1.56 p.u. instead of 1.45 p.u. In b) a 24-slot-20-pole surface magnet motor with a 0.09 slot
opening width is compared to a radially embedded magnet motor with totally open slots.
The torque ripple (% of the rated torque) peak-to-peak value for the surface magnet motor with
a 0.85 relative magnet width and for the radially embedded magnet motor is 5.7% and 4.5%,
respectively. In this case, the radially embedded magnet motor gives less torque than the surface
magnet motor at the same load angle. A series of computations with voltage control were
carried out for the surface magnet motor with different load angles. Based on the results, it
could be stated that the maximum torque available from this machine is 1675 Nm. The radially
embedded magnet solution with voltage control gave a little less torque so that the maximum
torque was 1545 Nm, which is 8% less than the maximum torque of the surface magnet motor.
Both the machines exceed the requirement made and the overloading capacity is fulfilled. The
number of turns and the phase resistance of the embedded magnet structure are smaller than
those of the surface magnet structure. Thereby, the copper losses of the embedded motor are
smaller.
104
Different 24-slot-machines with 20 poles were also compared. The surface mounted magnet
motor has a small slot opening of 0.09, but the radially embedded magnet motor is here equipped
with totally open slots. Fig. 3.33 b) shows that, now, the radially embedded magnet structure
gives a higher pull-out torque than the surface magnet structure. The current at the rated torque
is practically the same for both of the machines. The torque ripple (and the cogging torque
ripple) with the radially embedded rotor structure is lower than with the surface rotor structure.
3.6.3. Conclusion
The pull-out torques got from the FEA of several fractional slot machines are presented in
Table 3.12. According to the computations of 24-slot-22-pole and 24-slot-20-pole machines,
similar pull-out torques can be achieved with the surface magnet structure as well as with the
radially embedded magnet structures. These radially embedded structures have less copper
losses and lower torque ripples than the corresponding surface mounted structures. As the slot
and pole number was smaller in the case of 12-slot-10-pole motor, the developed pull-out
torque of the radially embedded magnet structure was 30% smaller than with the surface
magnet structure of the same frame size. The 12-slot-10-pole radially embedded magnet motor
with open slots needed more stator coil turns than the surface structure to induce the same
amount of back EMF.
Table 3.12. The pull-out torques obtained from the FEA of several 45 kW, 400 rpm fractional
slot machines. S =ˆ surface magnet motor and ER =ˆ radially embedded magnet motor.
Slots-poles 24-22 24-22 24-20 24-20 12-10 12-10 12-8 12-8
Rotor S ER S ER S ER S ER
Pull-out torque
( )
1.56 1.45 1.79 1.73 1.66 1.18 1.66 1.02
Slot opening Semi Semi Semi Open Semi Semi Semi Semi

The question is, why do these 12-slot radially embedded magnet motors have a low pull-out
torque. The solution may be found by comparing the motors at rated load. A surface magnet and
a radially embedded magnet 12-slot-8-pole motor at rated load are shown in, respectively, Fig.
3.34 a) and b). In the surface magnet motor the current is 83.5 A, and in the radially embedded
magnet motor it is 92.9 A. In the case of the radially embedded magnet motor, the flux is higher
and it travels longer paths in the rotor than it does in the case of the surface magnet motor,
according to Fig. 3.34.
105
1.46 T
0.7 T
1.46 T
1.46 T
0.55 T
1.3 T
1.7 T
1.59 T
1.02 T
1.6 T
1.59 T
0.4 T
1.68 T
2.0 T
a) b)

Fig. 3.34. The flux line plots and flux density magnitudes of a 12-slot-8-pole a) surface magnet motor and
b) radially embedded magnet motor at rated load. Both machines are presented at same load angle.
In the 12-slot-8-pole radially embedded magnet motor, there is also a large portion of the flux
travelling in the rotor without passing through the permanent magnet. This may be regarded as
the quadrature-axis armature reaction that deteriorates the motor performance. Since, on the
contrary, the 24-20 radially embedded machine has a high performance, there must be found the
optimal pole dimension geometry for the ER machines. A space vector diagram of the surface
magnet motor is shown in Fig. 3.35 a) and of the radially embedded magnet machine in Fig.
3.35 b), both at rated load. The armature reaction Ψ
a
is high with the radially embedded magnets
as a result of which the load angle is bigger. Therefore, the developed torque diminished in the
case of the radially embedded magnet motor.
u
s
i
s
Ψ
s
Ψ
PM
u
s
i
s
Ψ
s
Ψ
PM
δ
a
a) surface magnet motor b) radially embedded magnet motor
δ
a
Ψ
a
Ψ
a

Fig. 3.35. A space vector diagram of a 12-slot-8-pole a) surface magnet motor and b) radially embedded
magnet motor at rated load. The load angle, between the stator flux linkage vector Ψ
s
and the flux linkage
vector due to permanent magnets Ψ
PM
, is 28° in case of a) surface magnet motor and 70° in case of the
radially embedded motor. The u
s
is stator voltage vector and i
s
stator current vector.
106
For the 24-slot-22-pole and 24-slot-20-pole machines, the achieved pull-out torques were high
1.56 p.u. and 1.79 p.u. (Table 3.12), which is a result independent of the position of the
magnets. Thereby, a closer examination of the 24-slot-20-pole machine will be done. When the
motor is equipped with 20 magnets, the distance between the magnets is obviously smaller than
in the previous motor, which had only 8 magnets. Thereby, the armature reaction will not be as
large. Fig. 3.36 shows the 24-slot-20-pole embedded magnet motor at rated load situation.
There is only a high reluctance route for the quadrature armature reaction and thus this machine
will give a high torque of 1.73 p.u. (the 24-slot-20-pole surface magnet solution gives 1.79
p.u.).
a)
u
s
i
s
Ψ
s
Ψ
PM
radially embedded magnet motor
δ
a
Ψ
a

b)
Fig. 3.36. a) The flux lines of the 24-slot-20-pole radially embedded magnet motor at rated load and b) the
corresponding space vector diagram. The load angle, between the stator flux linkage vector Ψ
s
and the flux
linkage vector due to permanent magnets Ψ
PM
, is about 36°.
3.6.4. Slot opening
The effect of the slot opening width was studied more closely, because it appeared from earlier
investigations, which were performed at no-load and with the current driven model, that the slot
opening does have some effect on the torque ripple values. For this reason, it was studied if the
slot opening width has some effect on the torque production, too. For the manufacturing of the
winding, the slot opening width is an important parameter. In the case of a concentrated
winding the coil is wound around tooth. This allows automatically winding of the machine.
Needle winders can be used to wind lap windings. The coils of the phases can be separately
wound and then inserted (by hand or automatically) in the stator lamination core. This option is
107
possible when there is a totally open slot structure. It can be useful, in some cases, to
manufacture machines with totally open slots in order to keep stator structure simpler, which
then, obviously, also reduces the production costs. Special manufacturing methods are
discussed by, among others authors, Jack et al. (2000). He studied the possibility to use
powdered iron cores and pre-pressed windings. He manufactured and tested a servo motor
design, which obtained a high winding filling factor and gave a high torque.
In the case of a conventional lap winding, it normally occurs that the reluctance of the magnetic
circuit is reduced if the slot opening is narrow unless the teeth or stator yoke iron are saturated.
The tooth tips area gives a suitable space for the flux to flow. If the slot opening is wide, the
equivalent air-gap length δ
eff
and the air-gap reluctance are increased. This reduces the amount
of the flux producing the back EMF. In the case of a fractional winding, the situation is a little
more complicated. Because in some combinations there is nearly just one pole per slot, this
causes the flux paths to be dependent on the geometry of the slot. It was noticed that the current
driven computations do not - for all of the fractional slot machines – give a reliable result
because the fact is that currents are not purely sinusoidal. Thereby, a FEA with the voltage
driven model was carried out. All studied motors have a terminal voltage of 351 V. As an
example, a 12-slot-10-pole machine is studied with semi-closed slots and with open slots. To
design a 12-slot-10-pole with open slots similar to the 12-slot-10-pole semi-closed structure was
not easy and therefore several different open slot designs were done. In this chapter, the surface
magnet rotor is first investigated and later also embedded V-magnet rotor will be examined.
The geometry of the surface magnet motor with semi-closed slots is shown in Fig. 3.37. In the
example where the surface magnet 12-slot-10-pole motor is calculated, the parameters, which
are kept constant, are
• Stator outer diameter 364 mm
• Core length 270 mm
• Rotor geometry
• Speed 400 rpm
• Power 45 kW
• Frequency 35 Hz
• Magnet material mass 10.5 kg.
39 mm
25.8 m
m
18 mm
α = 0.83 relative magnet width,

Fig. 3.37. Geometry of 12-slot-10-pole motor
108
The results are shown in Table 3.13 and the geometries of the motors marked with the
corresponding letters a, b, c, d, e and f are illustrated in Fig 3.38.
Table 3.13. Results obtained from the FEA for a 45 kW, 400 rpm 12-slot-10-pole surface
magnet motor, voltage driven model.
Slot open width Semi-closed Open slot
Picture in Fig. 3.38. a b c d e f
Air-gap diameter (mm) 249 249 249 231 231 220
Slot area (mm
2
) 1900 1900 1750 1550 1900 2300
Winding turns, N
ph
104 104 104 104 104 120
Rated current (A) 88 101 104 95 104 89
Power factor 0.93 0.86 0.81 0.92 0.84 0.93
Back EMF (V) 179 <160 154 <160 <160 173
Copper losses (W) 2344 3700 4700 3100 3900 3327
Efficiency (%) 94.0 90.5 90.5 - - 92.3
Pull-out torque (p.u.) 1.66 1.91 2.0 - 1.91 1.57
Current at 90 deg (A) 194 257 265 - 257 195

The semi-closed slot geometry a) shown in Fig. 3.38 a) is modified to open slots structure b)
shown in Fig. 3.38 b). A comparison is made between the geometries a) and b). Both machines
have the same slot area, which is 1900 mm
2
, and the coil turn count in series per phase N
ph
is
104. The motor with the semi-closed slots gives the rated torque at 88 A (η is 0.94) and the
maximum torque is 1.66 p.u. The motor with totally open slot gives the rated torque at 101
amperes (η is 0.905) and the maximum torque available is 1.91 p.u. The desired 45 kW power
is achieved, but the current density with the open-slot-version is 6.5 A/mm
2
, while it was only
5.4 A/mm
2
with the semi-closed slots. The induced phase back EMF of the structure with semi-
closed slots was 179 volts, which is about 90% of the supply phase voltage. With totally open
slots only 154 volts was induced in the stator windings while the winding arrangements were
the same as before (about 75% of the supply phase voltage). To achieve a high efficiency and a
low current density, it was then studied whether the machine performance with open slots can
be improved by modifying the slot shape. Parameters that were varied to design an open slot
machine are shown in Fig. 3.38. First, the structures with the same winding and the same slot
109
area were studied in order to obtain fairly comparable data. But, it was soon discovered that
more coil turns are needed, so that the required back EMF 180 V can be achieved. Therefore,
the area of the slot was increased in order to fit in more coil turns and to keep the value of the
current density as the same as the previously i.e. 5.4 A/mm
2
. The computation results of the
motor f) with 220 mm air-gap diameter and 2300 mm
2
slot area and of the original motor a)
with 249 mm stator radius and 1900 mm
2
slot area are shown in Table 3.13.
= 220 mm D
δ
x
4
= 0.09
= 249 mm
d) e) f)
δ
x
4
= 0.63 x
4
= 0.63
a) b) c)
= 249 mm = 249 mm
= 231 mm
= 231 mm
x
4
= 0.6 x
4
= 0.63
D
δ
D
δ
D
δ
D
δ
D
δ
x
4
= 0.63

Fig. 3.38. The slot geometry of different 12-slot-10-pole-machines: a) semi-closed slot, 0.09 relative slot
opening b) open slot with 1900 mm
2
slot area, c) open slot with 1750 mm
2
slot area, d) open slot with 1550
mm
2
slot area, e) open slot with 1900 mm
2
slot area and f) open slot with 2300 mm
2
slot area.
It can be seen that the motors a) and f) can induce almost the required back EMF and have
almost the same current density. The pull-out torque of the totally open slot motor f) is about
10% less than that of the semi-closed slot motor a). This is due to the fact that the air-gap
diameter was diminished by 10% from 249 mm to 220 mm. The developed torque of the motor
f) at a 45 degrees load angle is 20% less than of the motor a). Another difference in the
machines is the efficiency - for machine a) 94.0% and for machine f) 92.3% - a difference that
may be explained as follows: In the machine with tooth tips there is wider area for the flux to
flow into the stator teeth. This also means that the flux density in the narrow part of a particular
tooth can be higher than without the tooth tips. For the studied motor a) as the machine was at
110
rated load the highest flux density magnitude in the tooth tips was 1.89 T. In the yoke area the
maximum was 1.55 T. In a motor with 12 slots and 10 poles these maximum values are
obtained just in 2 or 3 teeth and in 2 parts of the yoke, the other teeth have a value that is even
less than 0.5 T. When the machine is rotating the areas of low/high flux values move with the
speed of the machine generating iron losses if the frequency is high.
Considering the 12-slot-10-pole surface magnet machine and according to the results given in
Fig. 3.39, the open slot structure gives less torque and a higher rated current than the semi-
closed slot structure. The semi-closed structure at rated torque has a 5.4 A/mm
2
current density
and the motor with totally open slots has a 5.6 A/mm
2
current density. It is also to be considered
that the increased current means that the copper losses are bigger and the efficiency is going to
be smaller if the slot opening width is increased.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
Semi-closed
Semi-closed, FEA
Open slots
Open slots, FEA

Fig. 3.39. The torque as a function of the load angle for a 12-slot-10-pole motor with surface magnets. The
motor with semi-closed slots has a 5.4 A/mm
2
current density and the motor with open slots has a 5.6
A/mm
2
current density. The points represent the results obtained from the FEA and the lines are drawn
using the torque equation. Both machines have the same 225-frame size, the same terminal voltage of 351
V and the same amount of magnet material 10.3 kg.
111
3.6.5. Embedded V-magnet motors
A study is now made on a 12-slot-10-pole embedded machine with magnets in V-position with
semi-closed slots (dimensions of semi-closed structure are shown in Appendix G) and with
open slots. The results obtained are compared to the results of the corresponding surface magnet
motor. The overall geometries of the motors for which this comparison is made remain the
same; the only geometrical change is the width of the slot. Here, the rotor has cosine formed
pole shoes and the amount of the permanent magnet material is 12.5 kg. The rated current of
both machines is practically the same and also the amount of conductors – 104 – is the same.
The obtained torques of the motors with semi-closed slots and open slots are shown
in Fig. 3.40. The pull-out torque of the embedded V-magnet motor with open slots is about 20%
higher than the pull-out torque of the motor with semi-closed slots.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
Open slot
Open slot, FEA
Semi-closed
Semi-closed, FEA

Fig. 3.40. The torque as a function of the load angle for the embedded-V-magnet 12-slot-10-pole motor
with semi-closed slots and open slots. The points represent the results obtained from the FEA and the lines
are drawn using the torque equation. Both machines have the same 225-frame size, the same terminal
voltage of 351 V and the same amount of magnet material 12.5 kg.
112
3.6.6. Conclusion
The results of the surface magnet 12-slot-10-pole motor and the embedded magnet 12-slot-10-
pole motor computations with semi-closed slots and with totally open slots are given in Table
3.14. The surface magnet rotor gives the highest pull-out torque. However, the efficiency of the
motor with open slots is low. On the other hand, this motor type is more practical to
manufacture. The efficiency of the motor with semi-closed slots was 94% and its current
density 5.4 A/mm
2
, but when the slot opening structure was changed to be an open slot one the
efficiency dropped to 86.2% and the current density rose up to 8.3 A/mm
2
. Therefore, also other
parameters than just the slot opening width were modified. The number of coil turns was
increased from 104 to 120; the slot area was increased from 1900 mm
2
to 2300 mm
2
and the
124.5 mm stator inner radius was decreased to 110 mm. Finally, the efficiency of the surface
magnet motor with totally open slots got a value of 92.3%.
Table 3.14. 12-slot-10-pole motor with surface and embedded magnets (the same rotor for both
the embedded magnet motors). FEA results are given with semi-closed slots and with totally
open slots.
Machine, Q
s
- 2p 12 - 10 12 - 10 12 - 10 12 - 10
Magnets
Slot opening
Slot opening width (p.u.)
Surface
Semi-closed
0.09
Surface
Open slot
0.63
Embedded V
Semi-closed
0.09
Embedded V
Open slot
0.63
Magnet mass (kg) 10.3 10.3 12.5 12.5
Speed (rpm) 400 400 420 420
Load angle at nominal point (deg) 35 41 72 58
Rated torque (Nm) 1074 1074 1023 1023
Rated current (A) 88.4 89 97 92.2
N
ph
104 120 104 104
R
ph
(Ω) 0.1 0.14 0.1 0.1
Pull-out torque (Nm) 1780 1690 1080 1280
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 1.66 1.57 1.06 1.26
P
Fe
stator/rotor (W) from FEA 258/22 129/18 259/98 207/116
P
Fe
(W) from FEA 280 148 357 323
P
Fe
(W) analytical computation 305 209 328 328
P
Cu
(W) 2344 3327 2820 2550
P
Str
(W) 225 225 225 225
Efficiency (%), (P
Fe
anal., P
Cu
, P
Str
) 94.0 92.3 93.0 93.5
113
Of all the structures studied here, it is the open slot surface motor that has the smallest stator
iron losses P
Fe
but that has also the worst efficiency due to the high current which causes high
copper losses P
Cu
. The stator iron losses of the embedded magnet machines are slightly smaller
when the stator has open slots than when it has semi-closed slots.
The torque ripple of the surface mounted permanent magnet motor with semi-closed slots was
2.5% and with totally open slots it was 3% calculated with the voltage driven model. The torque
ripples of the embedded magnet rotor structures were 6%, regardless of the slot opening type.
The embedded magnet structure produces a low pull-out torque if the slot opening is small;
when the slot is totally open the pull-out torque is high. The obtained difference in the pull-out
torques is related to the difference in the inductance values. With a large inductance it is not
possible to achieve a high torque, according to the power vs. load angle equation (Eq. 2.51).
The synchronous inductance, L
d
of the surface magnet motor is 30% smaller that of the
embedded V-magnet structure. The open slot structure combined with the embedded V-magnet
rotor gives a good torque to volume ratio and also a small torque ripple. The benefit of this
motor type is unquestionably the ease with which the stator and rotor can be manufactured. The
stator coils can be manufactured separately and plugged around the teeth, thereby the winding is
simpler to construct than in a solution with tooth tips.
3.7. The fractional slot winding compared to the integer slot winding
For this study, a prototype motor was manufactured and tested at laboratory: a fractional slot
machine with q = 0.4, a shaft power of 45 kW, speed 420 rpm and frame size of 225. In an
earlier investigation another machine with the same shaft power 45 kW was manufactured to
the same frame size, an integer slot machine q = 2 (speed 600 rpm). It is compared the
parameters of these embedded V magnet machines with q = 0.4 and q = 2, which are
manufactured to different applications, because they have the same frame size. The parameters
of these machines are shown in Table 3.15. Table 3.15 proposes the values for two surface
magnet motor designs, also for the frame size 225.

114
Table 3.15. Parameters of 45 kW motors: Embedded V-magnet prototype motors, which are
manufactures at LUT and two proposed surface magnet motor designs (not prototypes).
Winding type
Prototype/Motor design
Magnets
Fractional
Prototype
Embedded V
Integer
Prototype
Embedded V
Fractional
Motor design
Surface
Integer
Motor design
Surface
Slots-poles
q
12-10
0.4
48-8
2
12-10
0.4
60-10
2
Speed (rpm) 420 600 400 420
Rated torque (Nm) 1023 715 1074 1023
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 1.1 1.9 1.66 1.44
Air-gap diameter (mm) 249 250 249 250
Core length (mm) 270 270 270 270
Copper in end windings (kg) 8 14 8 22
Copper in the machine (kg) 31 32 31 44
Efficiency (%) 91.5 93 92.2 -
Induced back EMF (V) 351 351 351 -
Current (A) 97 78 88.5 -
Power factor, cosϕ 0.832 0.973 0.91 -
Torque ripple, ∆T
p-p
(%) 3 - 3 22

The prototype motor with q = 2 has a higher pull-out torque and better efficiency than the q = 0.4
machines, because the q = 2 machine has a 600 rpm speed instead of 420 rpm. The copper
needed for the integer slot machines is higher than for the fractional slot machine. When
comparing the designed surface magnet motors with a 400 and 420 rpm speed, it can be seen
that the fractional slot machine obtained a higher pull-out torque than the integer slot machine.
In the current driven model of the integer slot machine (q = 2) the torque ripple is 22% while it
is for a fractional slot machine, e.g. for a q = 0.4 machine only 2.5%. In the voltage driven
model the integer slot machine has a 9% torque ripple while the value for the fractional slot
machine is 2.5%. The cogging torque of the integer slot machine is 3%, which is much higher
than the values of fractional slot machine, which is less than 1%. According to the FEA, it can
be expected that the torque ripple values are smaller for machines of this size and with
fractional slot windings. The pull-out torque achieved for the machine with fractional slot q
equal to 0.4 is a little higher than the corresponding integer slot q = 2 machine. Calculations
115
were also made on the amount of copper that is needed in the slots and in the end windings of
the fractional slot 45 kW machine as well as of the integer wound 45 kW machine. The copper
amount needed for the q = 2 machine and for the q = 0.4 surface magnet machine is 44 kg and
embedded magnet machine 31 kg, respectively. The copper amount that can be saved by using
fractional slot windings is about one fourth of the amount needed for the integer windings.
Bianchi et al. (2004) compared a 9-slot-8-pole fractional slot machine to a 24-slot-8-pole
integer slot machine. The torque ripple of the integer slot (q = 1) machine with surface magnets
was 24.2% and the torque ripple of the fractional slot (q = 0.375) machine only 2.8%. The
corresponding values for the machines with radially embedded magnets were 42.6% for the
integer slot machine and 3.6% for the fractional slot machine.
3.8. Losses
The loss components were calculated using the FEA and analytical methods. Table 3.16 shows
the losses of some surface magnet motors (S) and a radially embedded magnet motor (ER). The
iron losses of the stator and rotor can be obtained from the FEA, but they can also be calculated
analytically from the flux density values. The iron loss values obtained for several machines
types indicated that the iron losses of the embedded magnet motors are about 20 to 30% higher
than the iron losses of the corresponding surface magnet motor at rated load. Zhu et al. (2002),
in his study on integer slot 18-slot-6-pole machines, stated that with embedded magnet rotors
have higher iron losses than with surface magnet rotors. This is due to the high harmonic
content of the armature reaction field.
From the analysis shown in this thesis, it could also be noticed that for some motor types the
iron losses were lower - even 50% lower - with open slots than with semi-closed slot openings.
The copper losses vary from 1550 to 2880 W depending on the winding turns needed. The
radially embedded 24-slot-22-pole machine has less copper losses than all the other studied
machines, because it was capable of producing enough back EMF with only 88 winding turns.




116
Table 3.16. Losses of surface magnet motors (S) and a radially embedded magnet motor (ER).
All machines have the same magnet mass of 10.3 kg.
Magnets S S ER S S S S S
Slots-poles 24-28 24-22 24-22 24-20 24-16 12-14 12-10 12-8
q 0.286 0.364 0.364 0.4 0.5 0.286 0.4 0.5
Rated current (A) 86 86.4 86 82 83.5 91.5 88.4 88
Frequency (Hz) 93.33 73.33 73.33 66.67 53.33 46.67 33.33 26.67
N
ph
104 104 88 104 112 104 104 120
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 1.3 1.56 1.45 1.79 2.0 1.2 1.66 1.66
P
Fe, stator
(W) 507 500 650 374 350 274 258 262
P
Fe, rotor
(W) 30 23.5 75 20 15 36.5 22 19
P
Cu
(W) 2219 2239 1553 2017 2364 2512 2344 2881
P
Eddy
(W) 200 175 155 105 60 420 405 235
η, efficiency (%) * 93.8 93.8 94.7 94.5 93.8 93.7 94.0 93.0
* Efficiency is computed with a constant P
Str
= 225 W (for each machine), for simplification.
Considering the eddy current loss computation results obtained with the FEA, it must be noted
that embedded magnet motors have usually lower eddy current losses than surface magnet
motors. For the 12-slot-10-pole machine, the 12-slot-8-pole machine and the 24-slot-22-pole
machine, each with radially embedded magnet structure; the eddy current losses were 390 W, 70
W and 155 W, respectively. It was also observed that machines with open slot structures have
higher eddy current losses than those with semi-closed structures. Fig. 3.41 shows a plot of the
flux densities of a) a 24-slot-16-pole and b) a 24-slot-20-pole surface magnet machine. It can be
seen that the flux densities vary a lot in the magnet areas, especially in case of the 24-slot-20-
pole machine.
a)
0 - 0.002
0.002 - 0.003
0.003 - 0.055
0.055 - 0.55
0.55 - 0.73
0.73 - 0.91
0.91 - 1.09
1.09 - 1.28
1.28 - 1.46
1.46 - 1.64
1.64 - 1.83
1.83 - 2.0
2.0 - 2.2
2.2 - 2.37
2.37 - 2.56
2.56 - 2.74
2.74 - 2.92
Color shade
Flux density (T)

b)
Fig. 3.41. Flux density plot from FEA for a) a 24-slot-16-pole and b) 24-slot-20-pole machines.
117
Some of the studied structures have high frequencies. This causes that the flux densities vary
rapidly in the magnet, which may cause computational problems in FEA. Therefore, it is to be
recommended to carefully interpret the FEA results. Analytical methods of calculating the eddy
current losses in permanent magnets are introduced e.g. by Nipp (1999) and Atallah et al.
(2000). Fig. 3.42 shows the efficiencies of several studied surface magnet machines. All the
machines in Fig. 3.42 have the same frame size, the same main voltage and the same amount of
magnet material. The figure gives also the values of the pull-out torques to illustrate the
machines capability of producing torque. According to Fig. 3.42 the amount of obtained pull-
out torque, in most of the analysed machines, increases as q increases from 0.25 to 0.5. It can
also be noted that q ≈ 0.3 offers a low performance (low efficiency and low pull-out torque),
when comparing to machines, which have a 225 frame size, a 45 kW shaft power and a 420 rpm
speed.
0.90
0.95
1.00
0.25 0.286 0.286 0.286 0.318 0.364 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.429 0.5 0.5 0.5
Efficiency
Pull-out torque
slots 12 12 24 36 21 24 12 24 36 18 12 24 36
q
2.0
1.0
P
u
l
l
-
o
u
t

t
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

Fig. 3.42. The efficiencies and the pull-out torques of the studied fractional slot machines with surface
magnets. Machines have semi-closed slots, 225-frame size, 351 V terminal voltage and the amount of
magnet material is 10.3 kg.
3.9. The analytical computations compared to the FE computations
The analytical computations are compared to computations carried out with the FEA in order to
see if the values correspond to each other. The values are presented in Table 3.17. A comparison
is made of the 45 kW motors that are discussed in earlier chapters and which have a 1074 Nm
rated torque and a 400 rpm rated speed. In the analytical computations of the maximum torque
118
92.5% efficiency was used. It can be seen from Table 3.17 that the analytical computation
results are close to the FEA results. In the analytical computation it is important to accurately
estimate the value of the inductances in order to solve the maximum available torque.
Table 3.17. Analytical computations (A) compared to the FE analysis (FEA) for 45 kW surface
magnet motors.
A FEA A FEA A FEA A FEA
Magnet Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface
Slots 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
Poles 28 28 22 22 20 20 16 16
q 0.286 0.286 0.364 0.364 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5
Winding factor 0.933 0.933 0.949 0.949 0.933 0.933 0.866 0.866
Rated current (A) 89 84.5 85.4 86.4 82.1 80 88 83.5
Frequency (Hz) 93.33 93.33 73.33 73.33 66.67 66.67 53.33 53.33
Power factor 0.92 0.98 0.93 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.96 0.98
Synchronous
inductance, L
d
(p.u.)
0.92 0.9 0.71 0.70 0.59 0.57 0.49 0.5
Back EMF (V) 191 192 190 183 184 188 183 184
Magnet mass (kg) 9.8 9.8 10.3 10.3 9.6 9.6 10.3 10.3
T
max
/T
n
(p.u.) 1.23 1.2 1.59 1.56 1.65 1.69 1.9 2.0
P
Fe
(W) 710 742 570 524 400 394 541 365
P
Cu
(W) 2376 2323 2188 2239 1982 1920 2602 2364

Both the calculation (analytical and FEA) methods give results for the synchronous
inductances, L
d
that are about the same. The magnetizing inductance and the leakage inductance
were computed separately following the equations (method 2) given in chapter 2. The
inductances were computed with 4 different analytical methods. From these methods it was
selected the method the results of which were close to the FEA results. As an example, the
procedure to solve the inductances for a 24-slot-22-pole machine is shown in Appendix D. It
was noticed that, when the inductance was set close to the value 1 p.u., the analytical
calculation result differs from the FEA. This is also due to the fact that there is saturation in the
motor, which the FEA can take this into account but not the analytical method. The analytical
method could be improved by using reluctance circuits. (If saturation occurs, the equivalent air-
gap length is increased.)
119
3.10. Designing guidelines
All the motors in Table 3.18 are designed to frame size of 225. They all have about the same
amount of magnet material and about the same air-gap diameter. When comparing the
performances of these motors, some differences can be seen. The highest torque obtained is 2.1
p.u. and the lowest 1.0 p.u. The results in Table 3.18 show that for a certain slot number the
highest torque achieved is usually with a machine having a small pole number.
Table 3.18. The pull-out torque T
max
(p.u.) and torque ripple values ∆T
p-p
(% of the rated torque,
peak-to-peak values) for the surface mounted machines obtained from the voltage driven model.
The LCM and fundamental winding factors ξ
1
for concentrated two-layer windings are
presented.
Poles
Slots 8 10 12 14 16 20 22 24 26 28 30 42
q 0.5 0.4 - 0.29 0.25
T
max
(p.u.) 1.66 1.66 1.17 1.04
12 ∆T
p-p
(%) 15.9 2.5 7.5 12.9
LCM 48 60 84 48
ξ
1
0.866 0.933 0.933 0.866
q 0.5 0.43
T
max
(p.u.) 2.1 1.79
18 ∆T
p-p
(%) 16 6.6
LCM 36 126
ξ
1
0.866 0.902
q 0.318
T
max
(p.u.) 1.1
21 ∆T
p-p
(%) >50
* LCM 462
ξ
1
0.951
q 0.5 0.4 0.36 0.31 0.286
T
max
(p.u.) 2.0 1.79 1.56 1.0 1.3
24 ∆T
p-p
(%) 8 2.5 5.7 >50 3
LCM 96 120 264 312 168
ξ
1
0.866 0.933 0.949 0.949
q 0.5 0.4 0.286
T
max
(p.u.) 1.73 1.53 1.02
36 ∆T
p-p
(%) 3.5 1.8 1
LCM 180 144 252
ξ
1
0.866 0.933 0.933
* Not recommended because of the unbalanced magnetic pull effect.
120
Although a high fundamental winding factor is used, this does not guarantee that the machine
will have the capacity of producing a high torque. As an example, the 18-slot-12-pole machine
has a 0.866 winding factor and, yet, it can produce a torque as high as 2.1 p.u. High pull-out
torques given by machines of this size category were obtained with the 18-slot-12-pole and 24-
slot-16-pole machines for both of which q is equal to 0.5. The lowest torque ripple obtained
with the voltage driven model was 1% and the highest torque ripple was over 50% of the rated
torque (peak-to-peak values). A high LCM number indicates that the value of the torque ripple
is small, except in some special cases where Q
s
≈ 2p, because there may appear unbalanced pull
effect. With low LCM or with q equals 0.5 or 0.25 it can be expected that the torque ripple is
high.
When designing a machine with Q
s
≈ 2p, the risk of unwanted forces must be taken into
account. The motor structure with an odd number of slots is a special case, especially when the
number of slots and poles is almost equal. The winding arrangement of a 21-slots and 20-poles
machine may consist of several coils from same phase that are next to each other. It is possible
to amend the unbalanced magnetic pull in the machine. Magnussen et al. (2004) described this
unwanted effect for the case of a 9-slot-8-pole and 15-slot-14-pole machines. The pull effect is
caused by the radial forces that are much higher on one side of the machine than on the other
side.
If an embedded motor is to be designed, it is recommended not to select the smallest number for
the slots and poles in order to avoid the risk of causing a high armature reaction effect, which
would reduce the machine capacity of producing the high pull-out torque. The embedded
magnet machine with open slot structure is to be preferred. With the embedded magnet machine
a higher torque was achieved for most of the analysed structures even though, in this case, the
rotor losses were higher than in the case of the embedded structure with semi-closed slot
openings.
121
4. 12-SLOT 10-POLE PROTOTYPE MOTOR
Fractional slot permanent magnet machines can be manufactured with the short end windings in
the axial direction of the machine. The axially longer stator core can thus be mounted into the
same frame size. In low speed applications this may be advantageous because of the increased
air-gap area. Because of the short end windings the amount of active copper is increased
compared to conventional windings, thus a corresponding reduction of the copper losses may be
expected. It must be noted that the line frequency of (practical) fractional slot machines is in
some applications higher than that of conventional wound one- or two-pole pair machines.
Therefore, in high-speed applications the use of fractional slot machines may be unpractical
because of the high iron losses. Fractional slot windings have another advantage over
conventional windings, which is the possibility to use concentrated wound coils – one coil
around each tooth. Such a winding is easy to make and the manufacturing can be automated,
which reduces the manufacturing costs.
A prototype machine with 12-slot-10-pole structure was constructed in order to obtain practical
experiences concerning the manufacturing of these machine types. Furthermore, the
measurement results provide the essential information needed to verify both the analytical
calculations and the computations made with the 2D FEA. The designing process of the 12-slot-
10-pole prototype machine was discussed in Chapter 3.6.1, where a comparison was done of the
surface magnet and embedded magnet structures. The prototype motor was also discussed in
Chapter 3.7, where the prototype motor q = 0.4 was compared to the q = 2 motor of the same
frame size and with a 45 kW shaft power.
4.1. Design of the prototype V-magnet motor
According to the voltage driven model discussed in Chapter 3, a high pull-out torque and low
torque ripple can be achieved with a 24-slot-20-pole surface permanent magnet motor with q =
0.4 for the slots per poles per phase. To save manufacturing time and also costs, it was selected
a proto motor, where the torque ripple would be low and no skewing would be needed. That
was the reason to avoid q = 0.5 motor to be a proto motor although a q = 0.5 usually gives high
pull-out torque. Therefore, it was decided manufacture a fractional slot machine with q = 0.4 to
be operated as prototype machine. The decision to manufacture a 12-slot-10-pole machine type
122
of the q = 0.4 machine was partly based on the manufacturing costs. Stators with a small slot
number are a more attractive alternative for the manufacturer since a smaller amount of slots
must be punched. This facilitates a faster manufacturing process of the lamination core. There is
the same concern with the rotor lamination. Using a small slot number reduces the number of
required coils and offering further savings in manufacturing time. For these reasons, a 12-slot-
10-pole machine was selected to function as the prototype machine, even though the 24-slot-20-
pole or 24-slot-16-pole machines of the same frame size may have offered a better capacity for
producing the torque.
It was selected for the 12-slot-10-pole machine a rotor construction with embedded V-magnets.
It may be mentioned several advantages that favour the use of embedded magnets: 1) the risk of
permanent magnet material demagnetization becomes smaller. 2) The magnets can be
rectangular and there are less fixing and bonding problems with the magnets: The magnets are
easy to mount into the slots of the rotor and the danger of damaging the magnets is smaller.
FEA computations were carried out to find the best geometrical solution for an embedded V-
magnet motor.
The 12-slot-10-pole machine was designed with the object to achieve a high rated torque from a
small volume for a relative low-speed application. According to the calculation result, this goal
was reached. The surface magnet structure, shown on the left in Fig. 4.1, produces a 1.66 p.u.
pull-out torque in the voltage driven FEA computations, but the V-magnet structure, on right in
Fig. 4.1 does not seem to achieve as high a torque. This is because of the relative high
inductance, which results in low power. The torque ripple of the embedded rotor structure was
only half of the corresponding value of the surface magnet structure. The problem with the
surface magnet structure is that the permanent magnets are facing a high reluctance tooth tip
structures in the air-gap region – the tips are saturated. If there were steel lamination on the
permanent magnet surface, this would improve the utilization of the permanent magnets but,
unfortunately, the stator inductance would grow immediately and the potential benefit would be
ineffectual.
123

Fig. 4.1. A surface magnet motor (10.3 kg magnet mass) and a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets
in V-position (12.5 kg magnet mass) at load.
The parameters of the prototype machine are shown in Table 4.1. Dimensions and winding
arrangements are shown in Appendix G.
Table 4.1. 45 kW prototype parameters
Magnet V-magnet
Slots-poles 12 - 10
Winding factor 0.933
Rated current (A) 97
Output power (kW) 45
Speed (rpm) 420
Efficiency (%) 91.5
Terminal voltage (V) 351
Winding turns per phase, N
ph
104
Phase resistance (Ω) 0.114
Current density (A/mm
2
) 5.4
Air-gap (mm) 1.25
Mass of magnets (kg) 12.5
Air-gap flux density created by magnets (T) 0.935

The average length of the end winding of the prototype motor, shown in Fig. 4.2, was only 80
mm and the length in axial direction 41 mm. It was calculated that the end winding length
124
would be 120 mm, but, at the end, it became even shorter than expected. Thereby, the end
winding copper mass for the concentrated fractional slot q = 0.4 motor is 6 kg while for an
integer slot 10-poles motor with q = 1 the mass is estimated to be 25 kg. In this machine size the
copper in the end windings was about 70% less than for the corresponding conventional integer
slot (q = 1) windings.

Fig. 4.2. The end winding of the 12-slot-10-pole prototype motor with concentrated windings. The average
length of the end winding is 80 mm and the length in axial direction is 41 mm.
4.2. No-load test
A no-load test was carried out in the speed range of 50 to 600 rpm. The measurements were
performed at room temperature (rotor temperature about 20°C) and at rotor temperature about
100°C. The no-load losses at the rated (420 rpm) speed were 310 W and 374 W, as Fig. 4.3
illustrates. A no-load computation was carried out with the FEA and the iron losses at no-load
were 265 W.
41 mm
80 mm
125
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
n [rpm]

P
n
o
l
o
a
d

[
W
]
Cold machine
Hot machine

Fig. 4.3. Measured no-load power as a function of speed. The measurements were performed at room
temperature (about 20°C) and at steady state (rotor temperature about 100°C).
The no-load voltage waveform has a shape that is similar to the FE computed voltage waveform
shown in Fig. 4.4. The measured no-load voltage RMS value was 200 V while the analytically
calculated value was 203 V. In the computations the 3
rd
, 5
th
, 7
th
and 9
th
harmonic components
appear.
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (ms)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Measurement
Computation

Fig. 4.4. Measured and computed no-load voltage waveforms of the 45 kW prototype V-magnet motor.
T ≈ 20°C
T ≈ 100°C
126
4.3. Generator test
The 45 kW PM machine was loaded (resistive load) to achieve an output power 22.5 kW, which
is half of the rated power 45 kW. In this test a DC-motor was used to run the PM machine. The
temperature of the machine was measured with Pt-100 temperature sensors. The power
produced by the machine was measured with a Yokogawa PZ4000 power analyser and the
phase currents were measured with Strömberg Kore 05 current transformer (accuracy 0.5%).
A time stepping FEA computation was carried out to see, if the same values would be achieved
through computation. The motor winding was Wye connected. The speed was fixed to a rated
speed of 420 rpm. The waveforms of the phase voltage and the current at the end of the
measurement when the machine is at 22 kW load are given in Fig. 4.5.
0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
250
t [s]

U
p
h

[
V
]

0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
t [s]

I
p
h

[
A
]

Fig. 4.5. The waveforms of the phase voltages and currents at the end of the measurement at steady state
(rotor temperature about 100°C). The machine is at 22 kW load and at 420 rpm speed.
The computed 140 V voltage is less than the measured 143 V. This might be because the
magnet material used in the computations had a remanence flux density B
r
of 1.05 T. The finite
element analysis showed that the current, power and voltage values are similar to the
measurement results, as it is shown in Table 4.2. The efficiency of the generator in the
beginning of the test was 93.6% at 24.3 kW output power and at the end of the test 93.2% at
22.0 kW output power. With 2.8 Ω load resistance the input power at the shaft was 23.6 kW and
the output power was 22.0 kW, which caused 1.6 kW total losses. The copper losses at this
measurement are 0.9 kW, which means that the iron and the additional losses are about 0.7 kW.
127
Table 4.2 Generator resistive load test results compared to the FEA computations

Measured
at room temperature
about 20°
Measured
at rotor temperature
about 100°
Computed
Current, I (A) 54 52 52
Voltage, U (V) 150 143 140
Power, P (kW) 24.3 22.0 22.0
Shaft torque, T (Nm) 555 510 504
Frequency, f (Hz) 35 35 35
Speed, n (rpm) 420 420 420
Load resistance (Ω) 2.8 2.8 2.7
Efficiency, η (%) 93.6 93.2 -

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14
Time (s)
S
h
a
f
t

t
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
Ψ
PM
e
PM
u
s
Ψ
s
i
sq
X
d

Ψ
δ
q
d
i
s
i
sd
X
q


Fig. 4.6. Torque as a function of time obtained from a FEA computation of the generator test with resistive
load, output power 22.0 kW. A space vector diagram for the generator test is drawn, assuming that Ri
s
= 0.
4.3.1. Temperature rise test
The machine was driven as a generator and the load resistor was diminished until the load phase
resistance was 1.46 ohms, Wye connected. After adjusting the load phase resistance to 0.92 Ω
further temperature measurements were carried out. In this measurement the motor is a little hot
at the start situation. The results are shown in Table 4.3 and Fig. 4.7. Fig. 4.7 shows the
measured temperatures with a) a 63 A phase current (at the end of the measurement) and b)
128
with a 67 A phase current. At the end of the measurement with 0.92 Ω load resistance the
output power was 12.8 kW and the input power at the shaft was 15.1 kW, which caused 2.3 kW
total losses. The copper losses are approximately 1.5 kW, which means that the iron losses,
friction losses and additional losses are about 0.8 kW. The end windings reach an F-class
temperature of 150°C when phase current is 67 A. The machine is not able to cool down
enough without an external fan, because the rated phase current is 97 A. According to
measurements, 2.4 kW power losses can be removed from the machine without external blower
if ambient temperature is around 20°C. From the loss values it can be estimated that the
efficiency of the prototype motor at rated load is about 91.5%.
Table 4.3. Generator test results
Measured
At start
Measured
At end
Measured
At end
Current, I (A) 68 63 67
Voltage, U (V) 99 92 64
Power, P (kW) 20.3 17.2 12.8
Frequency, f (Hz) 35 35 35
Speed, n (rpm) 420 420 420
Load resistance (Ω) 1.46 1.46 0.92
Efficiency, η (%) 90.4 89.2 85


0 60 120 180 240 300
0
30
60
90
120
150
t (min)

T

(
°
C
)
End winding at D-end
at center
Slot center, 50 mm
from the D-end
Stator back, D-end
Frame center
0 60 120 180
0
30
60
90
120
150
t(min)

T

(
°
C
)
End winding at D-end
Stator back, D-end
Slot center, 50 mm
from the D-end
Frame center
at center

a) b)
Fig. 4.7. The results of the heat load test the machine being used as a generator at 420 rpm speed.
Measurement results with a) a 63 A phase current at the end of the measurement and b) with a 67 A phase
current.
129
4.3.2. Vibration measurement
During the no-load measurements it was noticed that a mechanical resonance arises in the speed
range of 320…340 rpm. A vibration measurement was carried out by an acceleration probe at
300 rpm speed to estimate the frequency of the vibration. The probe is attached to the stator
yoke. Fig. 4.8 a) shows the signal of the acceleration at 300 rpm speed and b) presents the fast
Fourier transform spectrum of the signal showing the harmonic content of the signal. The
measurement time was selected to be 0.2 seconds, which corresponds to one whole cycle at
300 rpm speed. According to the measurement, the frequency of the signal is 10 times the rated
speed. This is exactly the tooth frequency of the machine. During one mechanical rotation, there
will be 10 poles passing one teeth. Thicker tooth tips may have decreased the noise effect.
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
/
s
-
2
)
Time (s)
5 10 15 20 25 30
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
Harmonic order number
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
/
s
-
2
)

a) b)
Fig. 4.8. The acceleration probe showing a) a signal during one revolution of the rotor and b) the fast
Fourier transform spectrum of the signal.
4.4. Cogging torque measurement
The torque ripple, especially at a low torque ripple level, is difficult to measure, because the
mechanics will produce their own resonances in the measurement. Fig 4.9 shows a FEA
computed and a measured cogging torque for the prototype motor at 420 rpm speed.
130
-0.002
-0.001
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.00 0.01 0.02
Time (s)
C
o
g
g
i
n
g

t
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
FEA
Measurement

Fig 4.9 A FEA computed cogging torque and a measured cogging torque for the prototype motor at
420 rpm speed.
4.5. Measured values compared to the computed values
The torque was measured with different load angles at 45 kW power. Measurement is done at
rated stator flux linkage, at 240 rpm speed and the motor was supplied with DTC-inverter. The
measured torque as a function of the load angle curve is almost identical to the FEA result, as it
shown in Fig. 4.10. This means that also the other FE analysis might be reliable.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 45 90 135 180
Load angle (deg)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
p
.
u
.
)
Measurement
FEA points
FEA

Fig. 4.10. Measured torque as a function of the load angle compared to the FEA computed torque (points).
The dashed line represents the developed torque according to the torque equation.
131
4.6. Comments and suggestions
The main parameters of the prototype motor were selected in an early phase of the research. It
may be stated that the performance of the prototype machine does not at all meet the
recommended criteria. According to the results of the work done, instead of the prototype
machine designed for this study it could be suggested e.g. a prototype with 24 slots and 20
poles. However, the prototype motor served well to verify the calculation methods developed
during the research. Some concerns came up, as the designing process of the prototype
fractional slot wound permanent magnet machine was started. In particular, the power of the
machine, as high as 45 kW, set the designer a demanding task. Fractional slot machines have a
high air-gap flux density harmonic content, which may lead to increased torque oscillations and
extra heating of the machine, compared to the rotating field machines. In the embedded
permanent magnet structure there may be high flux density harmonics in the rotor laminations
causing high iron losses. Despite of the sinusoidal terminal quantities – voltages and currents –
another cause of concern appeared to be the supplying converter; it had to be solved what kind
of a vector control could be used. Usually, the load angle of a permanent magnet motor at start
up should be exactly known, but, in the case of a fractional slot winding, the concept of the load
angle remains, to a certain degree, obscure. A calculatory load angle may be determined only by
using the terminal quantities; no accurate load angle by the measurements of the rotor position
may be done, since the load angle is an average value of all the different poles in the machine. It
was decided to use a direct torque controlled converter drive to obtain a 35 Hz supply
frequency. This proved to be a successful selection and no problems with the sensorless direct
torque control were met. The prototype machine worked exactly like a rotating field machine,
which is, of course, very encouraging, since the future operating field for this machine type is
considered to be that of an industrial motor.
Also the mechanical construction of the prototype motor should be improved. According to the
vibration measurements performed in the laboratory some noise occurred at speeds of 320 – 340
rpm and the noise frequency was analysed to coincide with the tooth frequency of the machine.
The tooth tips and also the teeth of the stator were analysed to be mechanically too weak and,
for this reason, they may have caused some noise effect. Also the stator stack fitting to the
stator frame was too loose, which made it possible for the whole stator stack to vibrate. It was
aimed for a machine with high torque per volume. Therefore, a high amount of copper
conductors were needed in the slots and the slots had to be large since the 12-slot-10-pole
132
solution was chosen. The cooling area of the few large slots is small compared to that of a
machine with a higher number of small size slots. The heat transfer properties of the machine
were thus also far from optimal.
The slot filling factor, however, became high due to the high-quality hand made winding. This
also allowed the end windings to become shorter than it was calculated. So, as a matter of fact,
enough space is left for the same frame to enclose a considerably longer stator and also a
considerably larger output torque. In the case of the prototype, the core length is the same that
may be used for an integer slot machine.
It was shown that the FEA results are similar to the computed values and both methods may
thus be used to analyse these machines. The loss values of the machine were in close correlation
to the computed values. As a high pull-out torque is required, a 12-slot-10-pole machine with
surface magnet structure should have been a far better alternative. The embedded V-magnet
structure is not at all as suitable for a fractional slot machine as it is for an integer slot machine.
The machine type also seems to need an exactly correct geometry. In the 12-slot-10-pole
machine the dimensions of the poles seemed to be too large and far better results would have
been reached by doubling the amount of poles and slots.
133
5. CONCLUSION
The results of this study offer new information on the performance characteristics of fractional
slot machines (with q < 1) and some guiding criteria for choosing the proper and suitable slot-
pole combination to be used for the application concerned. This study offers also criteria for the
selection of motor design variables.
The main objective of this work was to compare different pole and slot combinations applied to
a machine, which has a fixed air-gap diameter, a 225 frame size and a 45 kW output power. The
performance analysis was done for machines with concentrated windings, the coil of which is
around the tooth and with q is equal or less than 0.5. Different slot-pole (Q
s
- p) combinations
for fractional slot (q ≤ 0.5) motors were analysed to find out, which slot-pole combinations
have a high pull-out torque. Also the torque quality of machines producing a high pull-out
torque was studied. Therefore, the cogging torque and torque ripple were also analysed.
The winding factors of fractional slot machines were closely examined, because the winding
factor is usually an important parameter for the designing of a motor. It was, however,
discovered that, in the case of fractional slot machines, the fundamental winding factor does not
necessarily indicate the amount of pull-out torque. It was also noticed that some winding
arrangements have unwanted properties, which may be, e.g. when the number of slots is odd
and especially when Q
s
≈ 2p, an unbalanced magnetic pull.
It was discovered that the method used to estimate the cogging of brushless DC machines, may
be appropriately applied to certain fractional slot PM motors. The cogging torques appears to
behave as expected, producing a curve with minima. It depends on the slot opening width where
the minima do appear. For each machine a factor k
w
can be calculated to estimate the minimum
points. The cogging torque values of the analysed fractional slot motor types can be less than
1% of the rated torque, in the case of multi-pole machines a cogging torque as low as 0.05%
could be estimated.
It was discovered, that when a low cogging torque is required, the least common multiplier
LCM appears to be a useful and also easily available parameter. The proper procedure to obtain
a low cogging torque and low torque ripple is suggested to be the selecting of a high value for
the LCM.
134
The effect of the slot opening was studied closer with machines under load, as the torque ripple
is under load usually higher than at no-load. A comparing study is done for 13 fractional slot
machine constructions of which the relative magnet widths and the relative slot opening widths
were varied. The lowest ripple values (% of the rated torque, peak-to-peak values) obtained for
different machines are presented as a function of the relative magnet width. Ripple values even
less than 0.5% were achieved.
For machines with semi-closed slots there seems to be several relative magnet widths that,
when used, make it possible to achieve a minimum for the torque ripple. It may be stated that
the value 0.75 for the relative magnet width is to be recommended if the stator includes open
slots and a fractional slotted structure. Machines with open slots and Q
s
≈ 2p (q close to 0.33)
produce torque ripples that are small compared to the other q values. These are, unfortunately,
also the machines, which suffer from the unbalanced magnetic pull effect. In most of the
analysed cases, the torque ripple average level remains lower when the machine has open slots
than when it has semi-closed slots.
According to the results obtained for a particular slot number, the peak-to-peak value of the
torque ripple grows as the number of poles increases. The results given can be used to estimate
the ripple of the motor.
When comparing the pull-out torque of the motors belonging to the same frame size category,
some differences are to be mentioned. The highest torque obtained is 2.1 p.u. and the lowest
1.0 p.u. The results show that for a certain slot number the highest torque is usually achieved
then when the machine has a small pole number. High pull-out torques of 2.1 p.u. and 2.0 p.u.
were obtained with the 18-slot-12-pole and 24-slot-16-pole machines for both of which q is
equal to 0.5.
Increasing the pole number and keeping the slot number constant reduces the developed pull-
out torque in most of the analysed cases, as the magnet material and the machine size (and air-
gap diameter) were kept practically constant. Further increasing of the slot number and keeping
the pole number constant increases the developed pull-out torque.
135
The performance of the surface magnet motor was compared to the embedded magnet motor.
When the slot and pole numbers are low, the surface magnet structure produces higher pull-out
torques than the corresponding embedded magnet motor of the same frame size. This is due to
the high armature reaction effect occurring in the embedded magnet machine. When the slot
and pole numbers are high, the pull-out torque may be similar for both the surface and
embedded structures.
To verify the computations a 45 kW prototype motor, being a 12-slot-10-pole embedded
magnet machine, was manufactured. It was shown that the values for the pull-out torque and
losses obtained with the FEA are similar to the computed values.











136
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ISBN 3-527-28391-9. 524 p. (In German)
Zhu, Z. Q., Howe, D., 2000. Influence of design parameters on cogging torque in permanent
magnet machines. IEEE transactions on Energy Conversion, Volume: 15, Issue: 4, 2000. p. 407
- 412.
Zhu, Z. Q., Chen, Y. S., Howe, D., 2002. Iron Loss in Permanent-Magnet Brushless AC
Machines Under Maximum Torque Per Ampere and Flux Weakening Control. IEEE
transactions on Magnetics. Vol. 38, Iss. 5, 2002, p. 3285 -3287.
Zhu, Z. Q., Ruangsinchaiwanich, S., Schofield, N., Howe, D., 2003. Reduction of Cogging
Torque in Interior-Magnet Brushless Machines. IEEE transactions on magnetics. Vol. 39, Iss. 5,
September 2003, p. 3238 – 3240.








140
APPENDIX A Winding arrangements
Winding arrangements of some fractional slot machines, two-layer windings:
12-slot-8-pole
2
1
3 4 2
12
2
=
⋅ ⋅
= = =
pm
Q
n
z
q
s

1 2 3 4 5 6
C- A- B- C- A- B- upper layer
A+ B+ C+ A+ B+ C+ lower layer

12-slot-10-pole
5
2
3 5 2
12
2
=
⋅ ⋅
= = =
pm
Q
n
z
q
s

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
A+ A- B- B+ C+ C- A- A+ B+ B- C- C+ upper layer
A+ B+ B- C- C+ A+ A- B- B+ C+ C- A- lower layer

12-slot-14-pole
7
2
3 7 2
12
2
=
⋅ ⋅
= = =
pm
Q
n
z
q
s

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
A+ A- C- C+ B+ B- A- A+ C+ C- B- B+ upper layer
B- A- A+ C+ C- B- B+ A+ A- C- C+ B+ lower layer

12-slot-16-pole
4
1
3 8 2
12
2
=
⋅ ⋅
= = =
pm
Q
n
z
q
s

1 2 3 4 5 6
B- A- C- B- A- C- upper layer
A+ C+ B+ A+ C+ B+ lower layer

18-slot-14-pole
7
3
3 7 2
18
2
=
⋅ ⋅
= = =
pm
Q
n
z
q
s

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
A+ A- B- C- C+ A+ B+ B- C- A- A+ B+ C+ C- A- B- B+ C+ upper layer
A+ B+ C+ C- A- B- B+ C+ A+ A- B- C- C+ A+ B+ B- C- A- lower layer

24-slot-22-pole
11
4
3 11 2
24
2
=
⋅ ⋅
= = =
pm
Q
n
z
q
s

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
A+ A- B- B+ B- B+ C+ C- C+ C- A- A+ A- A+ B+ B- B+ B- C- C+ C- C+ A+ A-
A+ B+ B- B+ B- C- C+ C- C+ A+ A- A+ A- B- B+ B- B+ C+ C- C+ C- A- A+ A-

24-slot-26-pole
13
4
3 13 2
24
2
=
⋅ ⋅
= = =
pm
Q
n
z
q
s

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
B- A- A+ A- A+ C+ C- C+ C- B- B+ B- B+ A+ A- A+ A- C- C+ C- C+ B+ B- B+
A+ A- A+ A- C- C+ C- C+ B+ B- B+ B- A- A+ A- A+ C+ C- C+ C- B- B+ B- B+

141
APPENDIX B Periodical behaviour of harmonics
The winding factors can be organized in tables or series according to their order numbers. There
can be found some periodical behaviour for the winding factors of the fractional slot windings.
This will be shown next with the help of some examples. An example of the periodical
behaviour is given in table B.1 for a winding with z = 9 and n = 1, 2, 4 and 5.
Table B.1. Slot harmonics for windings q = 9, 9/2, 9/4 and 9/5. (Tüxen, 1941)
n =1, q = 9 n =2, q = 9/2 n =4, q = 9/4 n =5, q = 9/5
1
st
slot harmonics
ν =2⋅3⋅9⋅-1+1=-53
ν =2⋅3⋅9⋅1+1=55
1
st
slot harmonics
ν =2⋅3⋅9/2⋅-1+1=-26
ν =2⋅3⋅9/2⋅1+1=28
1
st
slot harmonics
ν =-25/2 and 29/2
1
st
slot harmonics
ν = -49/5 and 59/5
ν =2mqg+1
2
nd
slot harmonics
ν =2⋅3⋅9/2⋅-2+1=53
ν =2⋅3⋅9/2⋅2+1=55
2
nd
slot harmonics
ν =-26 and 28
2
nd
slot harmonics
ν =-103/5 and 113/5

3
rd
slot harmonics
ν = -79/2 and 83/2
3
rd
slot harmonics
ν =-157/5 and 167/5

4
th
slot harmonics
ν = -53 and 55
4
th
slot harmonics
ν =-211/5 and 221/5

5
th
slot harmonics
ν =-53 and 55

From Table B.1 it can be noticed that the slot harmonics are periodical. The 1
st
slot harmonic
pair (-53 and 55) of an integer slot winding q = 9 will be found also from the fractional slot
winding, but now the order number is changed to the n
th
slot harmonic pair. In a fractional slot
winding, there appear also (n-1) fractional slot harmonic pairs between the slot harmonic pairs
created by the fundamental wave. Table B.2 gives the harmonic order numbers up to 79 and
their winding factors for a winding with q = 9/4. The waves, shown in the same row, have the
same winding factors. The first row gives the fundamental and the slot harmonic waves with the
same winding factor ξ = 0.958.
From all harmonic order numbers and their winding factors of windings with q = 9, 9/2, 9/4 and
9/5 a diagram was drawn, shown in Fig. B.1. According to the staples shown in Fig. B.1, there
are series of harmonic groups developed by the fractional slot windings. For a certain z, there
will be harmonic groups depending on the value of n (in this example z = 9 and n = 1, 2 and 4).
142
Table B.2. Harmonic waves and their winding factors ξ
ν
for a q = 9/4 winding (Tüxen, 1941)
ν ξ
ν

-1 -25/2 29/2 -26 28 -79/2 83/2 -53 55 0.958
(3) (21/2) (33/2) (24) (30) (75/2) (87/2) (51) (57) 0.638
-5 17/2 -37/2 22 -32 71/2 -91/2 49 -59 0.193
7 -13/2 41/2 -20 34 -67/2 95/2 -47 61 -0.140
(9) (9/2) (45/2) (18) (36) (63/2) (99/2) (45) (63) 0.222
-11 5/2 -49/2 16 -38 59/2 -103/2 43 -65 -0.093
-13 -1/2 53/2 -14 40 -55/2 107/2 -41 67 0.081
(15) (3/2) (57/2) (12) (42) (51/2) (111/2) (39) (69) 0.145
-17 7/2 -61/2 10 -44 47/2 -115/2 37 -71 0.066
-19 21/2 65/2 -8 46 -43/2 119/2 -35 73 -0.062
(21) (15/2) (69/2) (6) (48) (39/2) (123/2) (33) (75) 0.118
-23 -19/2 -73/2 4 -50 35/2 -127/2 31 -77 -0.057
-25 23/2 77/2 -2 52 -31/2 131/2 -29 79 0.056
(27/2) (27) (81/2) (54) 0.111

0.0
0.5
1.0
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73
0.0
0.5
1.0
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73
0.0
0.5
1.0
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73
odd
even
fractional
harmonic order number
ξ
ν
q = 9
q =
9
2
q =
9
4
integer, even ν = 2, 4, 6, 8, ...
integer, odd ν = 1, 3, 5, 7, 11 ...
fractional ν = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, ...
odd
ξ
ν
ξ
ν

Fig. B.1. Winding factors of windings q = 9, 9/2 and 9/4. In case of q = 9 there exist harmonic order
numbers which are all integer ν = 1, 5, 7, 11, 13 … shown as white bars. In case of q = 9/2 there exist also
harmonic order numbers which are even integer numbers ν = 2, 4, 8, 10, … shown as grey bars. In case of
q = 9/4 there exist also fractional harmonic order numbers ν = 1/2, 5/2, 7/2, … shown as black bars.
143
APPENDIX C Winding factors
Harmonics ν and their winding factors ξ
ν
for fractional slot concentrated windings
Q
s
– 2p
12 – 8
q = 1/2
Q
s
– 2p
12 – 10
q = 2/5
Q
s
– 2p
12 – 14
q = 2/7
Q
s
– 2p
12 – 16
q = 1/4
ν ξν ν ξν ν ξν ν ξν
1
2
4
5
7
8
10
11
13
14
16
17
19
20
22
23
25
26
28
29
31
32
34
35
37
38
40
41
43
44
46
47
49
50
52
53
55
56
58
59
61
62
64
65
67
68
70
71
73
74
76
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.866
0.2
1
1.4
2.2
2.6
3.4
3.8
4.6
5
5.8
6.2
7
7.4
8.2
8.6
9.4
9.8
10.6
11
11.8
12.2
13
13.4
14.2
14.6
15.4
15.8
16.6
17
17.8
18.2
19
19.4
20.2
20.6
21.4
21.8
22.6
23
23.8
24.2
25
25.4
26.2
26.6
27.4
27.8
28.6
29
29.8
30.2
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.067
0.067
0.933
0.933
0.14
0.29
0.43
0.57
0.71
0.86
1
1.14
1.29
1.43
1.57
1.71
1.86
2
2.14
2.29
2.43
2.57
2.71
2.86
3
3.14
3.29
3.43
3.57
3.71
3.86
4
4.14
4.29
4.43
4.57
4.71
4.86
5
5.14
5.29
5.43
5.57
5.71
5.86
6.00
6.14
6.29
6.43
6.57
6.71
6.86
7
7.14
7.29
0.25
0.5
0.707
0.866
0.933
0
0.933
0.866
0.707
0.5
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.707
0.866
0.933
0
0.933
0.866
0.707
0.5
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.707
0.866
0.933
0
0.933
0.866
0.707
0.5
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.707
0.866
0.933
0
0.933
0.866
0.707
0.5
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.707
0.5
1
2
2.5
3.5
4
5
5.5
6.5
7
8
8.5
9.5
10
11
11.5
12.5
13
14
14.5
15.5
16
17
17.5
18.5
19
20
20.5
21.5
22
23
23.5
24.5
25
26
26.5
27.5
28
29
29.5
30.5
31
32
32.5
33.5
34
35
35.5
36.5
37
38
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866
0.5
0.5
0.866
0.866


144
Harmonics ν and their winding factors ξ
ν
for fractional slot concentrated windings presented in
stables diagram.
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73
harmonic order number
w
i
n
d
i
n
g

f
a
c
t
o
r
12-slot-8-pole

0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2 2.6 5.0 7.4 9.8 12.2 14.6 17.0 19.4 21.8 24.2 26.6 29.0
harmonic order number
w
i
n
d
i
n
g

f
a
c
t
o
r
12-slot-10-pole

0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.14 0.71 1.29 1.86 2.43 3.00 3.57 4.14 4.71 5.29 5.86 6.43 7.00
harmonic order number
w
i
n
d
i
n
g

f
a
c
t
o
r
12-slot-14-pole

0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.5 4 8 11.5 15.5 19 23 26.5 30.5 34 38
harmonic order number
w
i
n
d
i
n
g

f
a
c
t
o
r
12-slot-16-pole

145
APPENDIX D Calculation example of inductances
Calculation example of inductances for a 24-slot-22-pole fractional slot wound motor
The slot dimensions are:
Slot width x
1
= 25 mm,
Slot opening width x
4
= 3 mm,
Slot height y
1
= 32 mm,
y
2
= 0.5 mm, y
3
= 0.5 mm, y
4
= 0.5 mm, y
5
= 0.5 mm.
(Thickness of insulation material ≈ 0.5 mm)
Air-gap length (radial) δ = 1.25 mm.
x
k
= x
1
- x
4
= 22 mm Fig. D1. Slot dimensions
Physical length of the stator core, L = 270 mm
Equivalent air-gap δ
eff
= (δ + h
m
)k
C
. Magnet height h
m
is 7.43 mm and Carter’s factor k
C
is
1.032.
The magnetizing reactance X
md
is based on Eq. (2.25) in page 50.
( )
2
ph 1 i
eff
s
s
0 md
π
µ 4 N L
m
Q
f m X
s
ξ
δ
τ
|
.
|

\
|
= . (D.1)
| |
| |
| |
| |( ) | | Ω = ⋅
⋅ ⋅

(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅ = 42 . 0
2
104 949 . 0 m 27 . 0
m 10 8.96 π
3
24
m 033 . 0
Hz 73.333
Am
Vs
7 -
π10 4 3 4
3 -

Leakage reactance:
The leakage inductance factor λ
z
 is defined using Fig. 2.11 in page 57. Because x
4
/δ is 2.4, λ
z

gets the value of 0.05. For a 24-slot 22-pole machine τ
s

p
≈ 1 and the factors k
1
= 1 and k
2
= 1
were selected (shown in Fig. 2.11). Leakage factor λ
ns
according to Eq. (2.49), in page 57, may
be defined as
1
5
z
4
4
k
3
1
2
2
1
1
1 ns
4 3 x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
k
x
y
k +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + = λ λ (D.2)
025 . 0 4
0005 . 0
05 . 0
003 . 0
0005 . 0
023 . 0
0005 . 0
026 . 0
0005 . 0
1
026 . 0 3
032 . 0
1

+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +

⋅ = = 0.691.
x
4
slot pitch, τ
s
x
1
y
1
y
12
y
11
y
3
y
4
y
5
y
2
146
Slot reactance of both layers is computed as (based on Eq. (2.42))
ns
2
ph i 0 s
s
n
µ 2
4
2 λ π N L f
Q
m
X = (D.3)
| | | | | | Ω = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

=

169 . 1 691 . 0 104 m 27 . 0
Am
Vs
10 π 4 Hz 73.333 2π
24
3 4
2
2 7

End winding reactance is computed as (based on Eq. (2.43) in page 55)
s
2
ph i 0 s
s
w
µ π 2
4
λ N L f q
Q
m
X = . (D.4)
| | | | 029 . 0 138 . 0 m 033 . 0 m 518 . 0 m 023 . 0 2 2
-1 -1
w b e b s
= ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = + = λ λ λ h b (D.5)
Factor h
b
is the height and b
b
is the width of the end winding. There are several methods
available to estimate the values for the reactance factors for the end windings λ
e
and λ
w
, as e.g.
given by Richter (1963) and Jokinen (1973). It was used the reactance factors λ
e
= 0.518 [m
-1
]
and λ
w
= 0.138 [m
-1
], which are defined for synchronous machines by Richter (1963).
| | | | | | Ω = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

=

033 . 0 029 . 0 104 m 27 . 0
Am
Vs
10 π 4 Hz 73.333 2π 3636 . 0
24
3 4
2 7
w
X (D.6)
The air-gap leakage reactance (based on Eq. (2.27) in page 52) is calculated as
δ
ph
i δ
0
δ
2
π
µ
σ
δ
ω ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
p
N
L D
m
X (D.7)
| | ( )
| |
| | | | | | Ω = ⋅ |
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

= 027 . 0 01 . 0
2
11
104
m 27 . 0 m 254 . 0
m 00125 . 0
3
Hz 73.333 2π
Am
Vs
π
-7
π10 4
,
where the leakage factor
δ
σ was computed using Eq. (2.28).
The leakage reactance is
Ω = + + = 24 . 1
w δ n s
X X X X
σ
. (D.8)
The synchronous reactance is (in d-direction)
Ω = + = 7 . 1
sσ md d
X X X . (D.9)
The synchronous inductance is (in d-direction)
| | | | H 0037 . 0 ) Hz 33 . 73 π 2 /( 7 . 1
d
= ⋅ Ω = L . (D.10)

147
APPENDIX E B/H-curves for Neorem 495a
B/H-curves for Neorem 495a magnet material


B
r
1.1 T 11.0 kG
Coercivity
B
H
0
830 kA/m 10.5 kOe
J
H
0
2400 kA/m 30.2 kOe
(BH)
max
230 kJ/m
3
29 MGOe
Nominal values at 20°C



148
APPENDIX F Torque ripples results from FEA
Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak values of fractional motors from current driven
FEA model are presented as a function of relative magnet width. Semi-closed slot openings and
open slot structures were studied.
0
10
20
30
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
Semi-closed
Open slot

0
10
20
30
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
Semi-closed
Open slot

Fig. F.1. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak
values of 24-slot-16-pole (q = 0.5) motor. Semi-closed
slot openings of 0.09 and open slot structure were
studied.
Fig. F.2. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak
values of 36-slot-24-pole (q = 0.5) motor. Semi-
closed slot openings of 0.09 and open slot structure
were studied.
0
2
4
6
8
10
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
Semi-closed 0.07
Semi-closed 0.14
Open slot

0
2
4
6
8
10
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
Semi-closed 0.3
Semi-closed 0.08
Open slot

Fig. F.3. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak
values of 18-slot-14-pole (q = 0.429) motor. Semi-
closed slot openings of 0.07 and 0.14, and open slot
structure of 0.43 were studied.
Fig. F.4. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak
values of 12-slot-10-pole (q = 0.4) motor. Semi-
closed slot openings of 0.08 and 0.3, and open slot
structure were studied.


149
Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak values of fractional motors from current driven
FEA model are presented as a function of relative magnet width. Semi-closed slot openings and
open slot structures were studied.
0
1
2
3
4
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
Semi-closed
Open slots

0
1
2
3
4
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
Semi-closed
Open slots

Fig. F.5. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-
peak values of 36-slot-30-pole (q = 0.4). Semi-
closed slot openings of 0.09 and open slot structure
were studied.
Fig. F.6. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-
peak values of 36-slot-42-pole (q = 0.286). Semi-
closed slot openings of 0.09 and open slot
structure were studied.
0
2
4
6
8
10
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Relative magnet width
T
o
r
q
u
e

r
i
p
p
l
e

%

o
f

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
Semi-closed 0.09
Semi-closed 0.3
Open slot


Fig. F.7. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-
peak values of 24-slot-28-pole (q = 0.286) motor.
Semi-closed slot openings of 0.09 and open slot
structure were studied.



150
APPENDIX G Prototype motor data


25
4
5
.
3
2
6.6
50.4
3
8
5
7
.
5

Fig. G.1. 12-slot-10-pole prototype motor dimensions [mm]
A+
A-
A-
A+
C-
C+
C+
C-
B+
B-
B-
B+
A-
A+
A+
A-
C+
C-
C-
C+
B-
B+
B+
B-

Fig. G.2. 12-slot-10-pole prototype motor wiring diagram
Stator outer diameter 364 mm
Air-gap diameter, D
δ
= 249 mm
δ = 1.2 mm
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ISBN 951-764-982-7 ISBN 951-764-983-5 (PDF) ISSN 1456-4491 Lappeenrannan teknillinen yliopisto Digipaino 2004

ABSTRACT Pia Salminen FRACTIONAL SLOT PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS FOR LOW SPEED APPLICATIONS Lappeenranta 2004 150 p. Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaensis 198 Diss. Lappeenranta University of Technology ISBN 951-764-982-7, ISBN 951-764-983-5 (PDF), ISSN 1456-4491

This study compares different rotor structures of permanent magnet motors with fractional slot windings. The surface mounted magnet and the embedded magnet rotor structures are studied. This thesis analyses the characteristics of a concentrated two-layer winding, each coil of which is wound around one tooth and which has a number of slots per pole and per phase less than one (q < 1). Compared to the integer slot winding, the fractional winding (q < 1) has shorter end windings and this, thereby, makes space as well as manufacturing cost saving possible. Several possible ways of winding a fractional slot machine with slots per pole and per phase less than one are examined. The winding factor and the winding harmonic components are calculated. The benefits attainable from a machine with concentrated windings are considered. Rotor structures with surface magnets, radially embedded magnets and embedded magnets in V-position are discussed. The finite element method is used to solve the main values of the motors. The waveform of the induced electro motive force, the no-load and rated load torque ripple as well as the dynamic behavior of the current driven and voltage driven motor are solved. The results obtained from different finite element analyses are given. A simple analytic method to calculate fractional slot machines is introduced and the values are compared to the values obtained with the finite element analysis. Several different fractional slot machines are first designed by using the simple analytical method and then computed by using the finite element method. All the motors are of the same 225-frame size, and have an approximately same amount of magnet material, a same rated torque demand and a 400 - 420 rpm speed. An analysis of the computation results gives new information on the character of fractional slot machines. A fractional slot prototype machine with number 0.4 for the slots per pole and per phase, 45 kW output power and 420 rpm speed is constructed to verify the calculations. The measurement and the finite element method results are found to be equal. Key words: Permanent magnet synchronous motor, PMSM, machine design UDC 621.313.323 : 621.313.8 : 621.3.042.3

.

Lappeenranta University of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering. for his guidance and support. Walter Ahlström Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. I am also grateful to Mr. Their co-operation is highly appreciated. HUT. for his guidance during this work and for the co-operation facilities. for their valuable comments and proposed corrections. Lappeenranta.Sc. friends and especially to my son Esa for their help and understanding during my work. Juhani Mantere. Markku Niemelä and Professor Juha Pyrhönen for their support during the research work. I wish to express my gratitude to D. Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research work was carried out at the Laboratory of Electrical Engineering. Markku Niemelä. I wish to express my gratitude to the pre-examinators of this thesis. December 2004 Pia Salminen . CDMC. head of the CDMC. head of the Electrical Machines Department of ABB Oy. I wish to express my deepest gratitude to Professor Juha Pyrhönen. Foundation of Technology and Association of Electrical Engineers in Finland. I wish to express my special thanks to M. Financial support by the South-Karelian Department of Finnish Cultural Foundation. D. Asko Parviainen. which whom I had valuable and guiding discussions on the subject of this thesis.Sc. I also wish to express my gratitude to my colleagues.Sc. Lappeenranta. D. KTH.Sc. head of the Department of Electrical Engineering and the supervisor of this thesis. Jarmo Perho. Special acknowledgements are due to M. Ulla Tuominen Foundation. The project was partly financed by ABB Oy.Sc. My warm thanks are due to FM Julia Vauterin for the language review of this thesis. and Professor Chandur Sadarangani. Harri Loisa for the manufacturing of the windings of the prototype machine. The work is a research project of the Carelian Drives Motor Centre. They are the core of a large group of dear colleagues.

t kFe. h hb hm I.ABBREVIATIONS AND VARIABLES Symbols a B Br b bb bm cosϕ D Dδ d EPM Fm f fs fsw g H. height Height of the end winding. radial Height of permanent magnet Current Rated current Index Carter’s coefficient Coefficient of excess loss Filling factor Factor for defining iron losses in teeth Factor for defining iron losses in yoke Coefficient of hysteresis loss Factor for defining bearing losses Factor for defining inductance Factor for defining inductance Factor for defining iron losses Factor for defining iron losses . Index number Magnetic field strength. i In k kC ke kf kFe. y kh krb k1 k2 k3 k4 Number of branches of winding Flux density Remanence flux density Width Width of end winding Width of magnet Power factor Diameter Air gap diameter Lamination sheet thickness Induced back electro magnetic force (EMF) Magnetomotive force Frequency Frequency of stator field Switching frequency Factor.

y mFe. l Ld Lq Li Lmd Lmq Ln Lsσ Lz Lχ lb lm m mCu mFe. axial Number of phases. t N Nn1 Nph n nc nmx nmz P PBr PCu PEddy PFe Ph Pin Pn PPu PStr p p10 Factor for defining eddy current losses Physical length of the stator core. teeth Natural number Effective turns of a coil Amount of winding turns in series of stator phase Denumerator of q (slots per poles and per phase). yoke Mass of iron. Length Direct axis inductance Quadrature axis inductance Effective length of the core Magnetizing inductance of the direct axis Magnetizing inductance of the quadrature axis Slot leakage inductance Stator leakage inductance Tooth tip leakage inductance Leakage inductance.k5 L. Inductance. skewing Length of the end winding Length of the permanent magnets. Speed Physical displacement in the number of slots Number of magnets (tangential direction) Number of magnets (axial direction) Power Bearing losses Copper losses Eddy current losses of the magnets Iron losses Total losses Input power Rated power Pulsation losses Stray losses Pole pair number Factor for defining iron loss . mass Mass of copper Mass of iron.

radial Load angle Equivalent air-gap length Phase shift Efficiency Permeance of upper layer Permeance of lower layer Mutual permeance Mutual permeance of upper layer Mutual permeance of lower layer Permeance factor Reactance factor for the end windings Reactance factor for the end windings Permeance factor. height Slot height Slot opening height Numerator of q (slots per poles and per phase) α β δ δa δeff γk η Λso Λsu Λg Λgo Λgu λ λe λw λ’n λz Φδ. Magnet width (Magnet arc width / pole pitch.12) Width of tooth. PM Electric angle. defines the winding arrangement Peak-to-peak torque ripple % of average torque Voltage Width Slot width Slot opening width Coil pitch. 3. Variable. describes all λ factors Leakage inductance factor Air gap flux created by permanent magnets . shown in Fig. angle Air-gap length.Qs q Rph s T t ∆Tp-p U x x1 x4 y y1 y4 z Greek letters Number of stator slots Slots per pole and per phase Phase resistance Slip Torque Time.

fundamental harmonic Distribution factor Pitch factor Skewing factor Flux linkage Armature flux linkage Flux linkage due to permanent magnet Stator flux linkage Air-gap flux linkage ν νslot τp τs τsk ω ωs ξν ξ1 ξd ξp ξsk Ψ Ψa ΨPM Ψs Ψδ Acronyms 2D A AC CD DC DTC DVD-ROM EMF ER Two-dimensional Analytical calculation Alternating current Compact disk Direct current Direct torque control Digital videodisk – read only memory Electro motive force Motor with radially embedded magnets .ρm σδ σ µ µFe µr µ0 Resistivity of the magnet Leakage factor Conductivity Permeability Permeability of iron Relative permeability Permeability of air (vacuum) Harmonic Slot harmonic Pole pitch Slot pitch Skewing pitch Electrical angular frequency Angular frequency of stator field Winding factor. νth harmonic Winding factor.

u. in italic Lower case letters.EV FEA HDD LCM mmf Nd-Fe-B PM PMSM S SM RMS Subscript b d q r s Motor with embedded magnets in V-position Finite element analysis Hard disc drive Least common multiplier Magnetomotive force Neodymium Iron Boron -alloy Permanent magnet Permanent magnet synchronous motor Motor with surface mounted magnets Synchronous motor Root mean square End winding Direct Quadrature Rotor Stator Leakage Fundamental wave Harmonic Rated Upper Lower Maximum Yoke Teeth σ 1 ν n o u max y t Superscripts e Others Electric angle Upper case letters. in italic p. _ Root mean square value Instantaneous value Per unit value Space vectors are underlined .

...33 CALCULATION OF A FRACTIONAL SLOT PM-MOTOR ......................................................................................... 2..3.........................69 Induced no-load back EMF.................................2...................................34 Winding factor .......................................................................... 2...................31 2...................................................4.46 Inductances ...................3....................................................................1................................ 2.......1.............. 2................................................ 1.........................4................................ INTRODUCTION............................................................................1......7.............................. Torque calculation...............22 Applications ............................................................................3..........60 Torque as a function of the load angle ........................................ 2...........5................................................................................ Winding factor according to the voltage vector graph ........................................... 2...........49 2.....................5......................................CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABBREVIATIONS AND VARIABLES CONTENTS 1.....................73 Cogging torque..........58 Finite element analysis.......30 Winding arrangements .............29 Two-layer fractional slot winding ................................1.....................82 Conclusion....................... 3............. 3......................1.......................... 1....................................25 Scientific contribution of this work......... 3................................................................................ 1.................. Leakage inductance method 1 .......58 Loss calculation................................................................................................................................1...................................36 2................2..............2......... 3.32 2nd-Grade fractional slot winding ..5.... 2................................. 3..................1............................. 2................87 ..........2..............5.......................24 End winding and stator resistance..............................62 3............................... 2...........................................2.....................................................................................50 Leakage inductance method 2 .......4..........................................................20 Location of the permanent magnets ..................................... Brushless motor types ........... 2......................65 Number of slots and poles....................................... 1st-Grade fractional slot winding .. Torque ripple of the current driven model ............................................56 2.........................5..... 1............. Semi-closed slot vs......... open slot .....4.......2....................................1....86 COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS ..............................................................1...........75 3......................................................8.. 3..............................13 1..........................................................45 Flux density and back EMF .........................4..6.........................3.

.............................................................................3.... 3................................................................... 3......................... 3........7.......3.......................2.113 Losses...........................................................2................................8........................................92 Conclusion.3.................117 3.........................................................2.....................................................................148 Prototype motor data..................................................................................143 Calculation example of inductances ................................................................97 The fractional slot winding compared to the integer slot winding ..................................................6......................................10...... Some examples.....................................................115 The analytical computations compared to the FE computations..............................................................129 Measured values compared to the computed values .......... 3...............3...5..........................111 Conclusion...........................101 Conclusion.............. 3....... 3....1........... 3....... 5..................................130 Comments and suggestions ....147 Torque ripples results from FEA .........3................................................................1..............................................................................131 CONCLUSION ....... 4..................................................................6.......................................................121 No-load test.....................................1.................... 4.....................................5............................6......................................106 Embedded V-magnet motors.................................... 3........................ Designing guidelines.112 Surface magnet motor versus embedded magnet motor..................................................... 4. 4............. 3..... 4...........5................97 24-slot-22-pole motor and 24-slot-20-pole motor .................................................136 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E APPENDIX F APPENDIX G .......................................4...................................................2.......................3...................................................6.................................... 3...........................140 Periodical behaviour of harmonics ....150 REFERENCES ............................................................124 Generator test ......................127 Vibration measurement ......... Temperature rise test .121 4....................9..5...... Design of the prototype V-magnet motor ....126 4....................................................................................1............6............................141 Winding factors ...........................................................................................................................129 Cogging torque measurement ............................................5...6...........145 B/H-curves for Neorem 495a ......................................6......4.......................6.. 3..................................................................................................... 4......104 Slot opening........................95 12-slot-10-pole motor...... 4... 3.....................................................................119 12-SLOT 10-POLE PROTOTYPE MOTOR ....................................................................................89 The magnet width and the slot opening width.....................................133 Winding arrangements.................6.........

correspondingly.and q-axis. This means that the rated current in the negative d-axis direction gives a 0. INTRODUCTION The appellation ‘synchronous motor’ is derived from the fact that the rotor and the rotating field of the stator rotate at the same speed. The flux created by the stator currents – depending on the construction of the permanent magnet motor – is typically only 0. flux value.3 p. value of about 0.g. Permanent magnets have been first used in DC motors and later in synchronous AC motors. the field weakening is often difficult in PMSMs. The values of these two synchronous inductances mainly determine the character of a synchronous motor.13 1. In these cases. This is the reason why. the quadrature-axis synchronous inductance Lq is the sum of the quadrature-axis magnetizing inductance Lmq and the leakage inductance Lsσ. After the rare earth magnets were developed for production in the 1970’s. The industrial interest to manufacture permanent magnet motors arose in the 1980’s as the new magnet material . it was possible to manufacture also large PM synchronous motors. The history of permanent magnet motors has been dependent on the development of the magnet materials. Thus.u. The rotor magnetization is caused by the permanent magnets in the rotor or by external magnetization such as e. a DCsupply feeding the field winding.7. The direct-axis synchronous inductance Ld consists of the magnetizing inductance Lmd and the leakage inductance Lsσ. for the permanent magnet synchronous motor. These motor types are called permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) and separately excited synchronous motors (SM). the permanent magnet motor has an obvious advantage over the induction motor.6 of the amount of the flux created by the permanent magnets.u. the armature flux (or armature reaction) is typically small. Different equivalent air-gaps in the direct and quadratureaxis cause different inductances in the directions of the d. The rotor tends to align itself with the rotating field produced by the stator. Correspondingly. The small armature reaction involves also the following difficulty. Depending on the rotor construction the motors are often called either salient-pole or nonsalient-pole motors. Also for this reason. Moderate field weakening properties are achieved in motors with embedded magnets and with a large number of poles. The stator has often a three-phase winding. the torque can be adjusted flexibly by changing the stator current. the synchronous inductance easily reaches a p.1… 0. The performance of the synchronous motor is very much dependent on the different inductances of the motor.

As a consequence. Nowadays. Nd-Fe-B was developed. In the 1990’s. For a motor with q (the number of slots per pole and per phase) less than unity. cylindrical rotor synchronous motors. The resulting air-gap flux density distribution is not sinusoidal. will certainly give new design aspects. it may be stated that the motor designer might be satisfied. This. In practice. the best Nd-Fe-B grades can reach Br of 1. The first machine applications of the PM motor were small-sized. Of course. 1. the flux density distribution in the air-gap over one pole pitch can consist of just one tooth and one slot. when it is available for various use a permanent magnet material which has a remanence flux density of nearly 2 T.2 T was considered to be a high value. This thesis introduces a performance comparison of different permanent magnet motor structures equipped with fractional slot windings in which the number of slots per pole and per phase is lower than unity. for the cogging torque or the dynamic torque ripple. The permanent magnet materials have nowadays almost all desired properties and create a strong flux. This value should guarantee an air-gap density of about 1 T. As the magnet materials have been further developed and their market prices decreased. full use of the steel mass and good use of the permanent magnet material in case of a surface magnet motor. The main flux can flow through one tooth from the rotor to the stator and return via two other teeth.14 Neodymium-Iron-Boron.5 T. Fig. . the demagnetization curve of the present-day permanent-magnet materials and the maximum energy product as well as the best utilisation of the permanent-magnet material. as it is illustrated in Fig. nevertheless. the motor designer will ask for still a larger remanence and temperature independency as well as for even better demagnetization properties.1. as for example the 24-slot-22 pole motor. but the present-day materials are. q < 1. In a well-designed fractional slot motor the voltages and the currents may be purely sinusoidal.1 b). Considering the properties of steel. 1. the permanent magnet remanence flux density Br = 1. also magnets with low Br values have been used to save costs. the use of permanent magnet machines has been growing. again. quite well suited for permanent magnet motor applications. problems may be expected to appear.

a q = 2 motor with 132 slots is illustrated. q = 1 and q = 4/11 at an instance when the stator phase currents i1 = 1 and i2 = i3 = −½. 1.0 0.15 Flux density normal component (T) 2π 32. 1. One electrical cycle of 2π is equal to 2τp (τp is the pole pitch).0 0 1 2π 2 4π 3 6π Air-gap periphery Air gap radius Fig.0 -0.6° 1. The magnetomotive force (mmf) waves of three different 22-pole motors are illustrated in Fig.364. q = 0.2.2. . in the middle a q = 1 motor with 66 slots and at the bottom a fractional slot q = 24/(3⋅22) = 4/11 motor with 24 slots. On the top. 1.364 Fig.5 0. The magnetomotive force waves of 22-pole motors with q = 2. q=2 q=1 q = 0.1 a) Flux lines of a fractional slot motor with 24 slots and 22 poles.5 -1. b) The corresponding normal (radial) component of the air-gap flux density along the air-gap periphery.

Because the problem of selecting the geometry and winding arrangements of the fractional slot motor remains still partly unsolved. The fractional slot winding (q < 1) solution. does not require many slots although the pole number is high. which is not the case for the integer slot windings. additional losses and vibration. The popularity of low speed applications is increasing as the use of direct drive systems in industry and domestic applications as well as in wind power production. instead. correspondingly. so their use at high power ratings has thus far been not very common. This offers a remarkable potential to reduce the machine copper losses. In low speed applications it is often a good selection to set a high pole number. Some fractional slot motors offer relatively low fundamental winding factors and create harmonics and sub-harmonics causing extra heating. . with 1 or 2 phase systems. in the worst case. If the copper weight can be reduced. The only feasible motor type that. also the material costs. as a result of which both the iron and the copper mass can be reduced.16 The figure reveals clearly the pulse-vice nature of the mmf of the fractional slot winding and that the harmonic content of the mmf is large. The machine type produces anyway losses in the rotor and is. It has the advantage that the iron weight per rated torque is low due to the rather low flux per pole. Therefore. which increases the costs and. leads to a low filling factor since the amount of insulation material compared to the slot area is high. Compared to the conventional windings (q ≥ 1) with the same slot number it can be shown that the length of the end winding is less than one third in concentrated fractional wound motors. commerce and leisure is growing. Even the permanent magnet material should be as poorly conducting as possible. A high pole number with conventional winding (q ≥ 1) structures involves also a high slot number. in some cases. the importance of manufacturing a prototype machine of considerable power should be stressed. may run equipped with a fractional slot winding is the synchronous motor the rotor conductivity of which should be as low as possible. it is important to further study in detail the fractional slot motors. It has been studied the use of these machine types merely in applications with small power and. There exist also low order sub-harmonics in the mmf. The rotor magnetic flux carrying parts must also be made of laminated steel in order to avoid excessive rotor iron losses due to the fluctuating flux in the rotor. in practice. because the raw material cost of copper is about 6 times the cost of iron. therefore. inherently best suited for low speed applications. will decrease.

. A fractional slot winding minimizes the need for skewing of either the poles or the lamination core to reduce the cogging. dividing the number of slots by the number of poles and rounding off to the next lower or higher whole number determine the winding pitch. The most significant advantage of this winding type is that it minimizes the length of the end windings. It was noticed that the minimum cogging torque was not dependent on whether the machine is of the fractional-slot or integerslot type. Hendershot and Miller (1994) studied the variations of possible pole and slot numbers for brushless motors in terms of how the cogging may be resisted. It is obvious that the end turns are most short when the pitch is one or two-slots and that is why some two-layer constructions may be useful. Analytical calculations and the finite element analysis (FEA) were carried out for several types of the fractional slot motor. In order to be able to fulfil these conditions the multi-pole machine with fractional slot windings should be studied carefully. Any number above two requires a considerable overlapping of the end turns. torque ripple and back EMF waveforms are analysed. If q is an integer every leading or lagging edge of poles lines up simultaneously with the stator slots – causing cogging. was selected for manufacturing. This actually precludes one of the best-known brushless motors.17 It was the author’s objective to design a low speed motor for the specific application. It may be noticed that only a few combinations of Qs and 2p produce a high fundamental winding factor. Almost all copper is contributing to the torque production of the machine. the end turns are most short when the pitch is one or two slot-pitches. in which a high torque and 45 kW output power could be achieved from a restricted motor volume. The torque. the 12-slot-4-pole motor. The fundamental winding factors for some concentrated windings (where two different coils are placed in the same slot) for different rotor pole (2p) and stator slot (Qs) combinations are given. A two-layer concentrated winding type. Obviously. Since the coils can be wound only over an integer number of slots. The machine design relies on an efficient forced air-cooling which brings an over 5 A/mm2 stator current density at rated load. as well as all the derivates from the 3 slots per pole series. 400 rpm. This may make some slot/pole combinations more difficult. but in fractional slot combinations fewer pole-edges line up with the slots. but one-slot. One of the designs studied was verified with the prototype machine. 420 rpm and 600 rpm machines. The given performance comparison is based on several 2D-finite element computations made on the 45 kW.and two-slot-pitch windings can be fabricated economically while using needle winders. Hendershot and Miller also paid attention to the winding pitch character. in which each stator tooth forms practically an independent pole. The actual pole arc can make this situation either worse or better.

The efficiency of the generator at rated load was 95. 10 kW and 5. The authors compared different structures taking into consideration the easiness of construction as well as the manufacturing costs.5 the torque ripple is about 15% peak-to-peak and with q = 1 about 20% (30 slots 10 poles). Such machines are recommended for low power applications since the winding factor of these machines is only 0. The details of the motors designed are not given in their papers. They used a 500 kW. machines with q between 1/2 and 1/3 generally produce a high performance.5 have a relatively low performance with sinusoidal currents.18 Spooner and Williamson (1996) have studied multi-pole machines. it is easy to manufacture and it has a small pole pitch. According to Cros and Viarouge. Lampola and Perho (1996) made a study of PM generators in wind turbine applications using fractional slot windings. According to the optimisations.4%.866 and the torque ripple is high. In an application like that. Lampola’s (2000) study focuses on the electromagnetic design of the generator and the optimisation of the radial flux permanent magnet synchronous generators with surface mounted magnets. Cros and Viarouge (1999. a smaller demagnetization risk and a low torque ripple. 2002) studied different fractional slot PM motors with concentrated windings. the choice between these two types of machines depends on the mechanical. From the given torque curves. According to Lampola (2000). The finite element method was used in computations and genetic algorithms were used to optimise the costs. also a high efficiency and a power factor over a wide range of operating power are demanded. the pull-out torque and the efficiency separately. that with q = 0. The machine with 10 poles and 12 slots is of . the conventional machine has a higher efficiency and smaller costs of active materials compared to the unconventional ones. a small diameter. economic and manufacturing requirements. Therefore. Therefore. it can be estimated. electrical.5 kW. They first built prototype machines of a smaller size with 16 poles and 26 poles (rotor diameters 100 mm and 150 mm) and then designed a 400 kW machine with 166 poles (rotor diameter 2100 mm). since direct-coupled generators were needed in wind turbines. The rated speeds of the machines were quite low varying from 40 rpm to 175 rpm. 40 rpm generator with frequency converter.8 (at rated power). It was noticed that machines with q equal to 0. He analysed machines with different powers: 500 kW. The unconventional fractional slot generator has a simple construction. The efficiency of this machine was reported to be 90. the machine must fit within the confined space of a nacelle. it is competitive for some PM generators. a comparison between the fractional slotted designs introduced by the authors is difficult.

The first structure is a theoretical reference machine. As the winding factor of the . the author was not granted permission to include the details of field-testing of the experimental motors or prototypes in his thesis. which have a slotted stator inside and in the outer side a rotor constructed of permanent magnets. because it can support a one-layer concentrated winding and the torque ripple of the machine is low. 0. Magnussen and Sadarangani (2003a) and Magnussen et al.866.75 as well as an integer slot motor with q equal to 1. An experimental in-wheel motor for a wheelchair application was built and tested and it was shown that the design specifications were met. Magnussen et al. According to his studies. Moreover. (2003a) compared conventional integer slot windings with fractional slot windings. The results were promising and showed a remarkable increase in performance compared to the existing conventional geared drive used in wheelchair applications. The author studied the force densities of fractional slot motors with q equal to 0. these structures also give a no-load cogging of low amplitude although the frequency is relatively high. The second and the third machine are equipped with concentrated one-layer and twolayer windings. A fractional 15-slot-14-pole prototype motor was designed for a hybrid vehicle application. but the fractional slot wound motors have a fundamental winding factor ξ1 = 0. The rated torque of the motor was 85 Nm and the estimated torque peak-to-peak ripple 3. (2004) also studied brushless DC motors with concentrated windings and segmented stator.5% of the rated torque. where a slotted armature is the rotating part and the permanent magnets are assembled in a non-rotating outer part of the machine. Kasinathan (2003) made a study of fractional slot machines. The thesis primarily analyses the practical limits for the force density in low-speed permanent magnet machines. Three winding structures were studied. by using concentrated windings it is possible to save 17% copper material. 24% iron material and to reduce the total copper losses up to 17% compared to the integer slot wound machine. The winding factor of the reference winding is ξ1 = 1. These limits are imposed by the magnetic saturation and heat transfer. 2004) introduced a study of machines.5) with one slot pitch skew. where the fundamental winding factor is unity and which has a distributed winding with q = 1 (integer slot winding).19 particular interest. The motor has 42 slots and 28 poles (q = 0. At a 150 rev/min rated speed the output power was approximately 600 W and the torque 42 Nm. Cros et al.5 and 0. Unfortunately. (2003b.375.

The larger the q value is. the • • • • AC induction motor.1. Brushless DC motor and Brushless AC motor. unless there will be more winding turns or a higher current density in the fractional slot wound machine. in which the current in the rotor windings is produced by electromagnetic induction.20 fractional slot winding is lower than that of the integer slot winding. created by the winding.5% higher current density and 33. the relative winding losses (DC losses) of both fractional machines were smaller than in the integer slot machine. which are required in a conventional DC motor or synchronous AC motor for connection to the rotor windings. The machine with a winding factor ξ1 = 0.g. as e. However. assuming that the machines have equal slot filling factors and a comparable magnetic design and also that the end windings are disregarded. 1. Stepping motor. will be and the torque production will be smooth. In the fractional slot machine the length of the end winding is smaller and the filling factors can be higher than those of integer slot windings. As the machines were compared concerning their slot filling factors. which satisfy this definition. The most common of these is the AC induction motor. the more the properties of the induction motor will improve. The larger the number of slots per pole and per phase q is. there are several motors. According to Hendershot and Miller (1994). mechanical commutator or slip rings. the lower super-harmonic magnetomotive force content. Because the rotor . The AC induction motor employs a rotating magnetic field that rotates at a synchronous speed set by the supply frequency. other parameters were calculated for each motor.3% higher copper losses compared to the reference machine for the same torque. It was also stated that these copper losses diminish as the pole pair number is increased. Brushless motor types A brushless motor is a motor without brushes. the rotor rotates at a slightly slower speed because the process of electromagnetic induction requires relative motion – slip – between the rotor conductors and the rotating field. also the torque developed is lower.866 has a 15. Therefore.

in the ideal case. The motor and its controller appear physically similar as in previous case. the rotor has permanent magnets and laminated soft iron poles. This brushless motor type is a pure synchronous AC motor that has its fixed excitation from the permanent . in which the magnets rotate while the conductors remain stationary. in high-precision motion control applications at least in the absence of a position encoder. The disadvantages of the stepping motor are its cost and acoustic noise levels. that the brushless permanent magnet motor overcomes the above-described restricting characteristics of the AC induction motor. sinusoidal. Hendershot and Miller (1994) state. Stepping motors are designed with small step angles. to ensure a unidirectional torque. The motor with sine waves operates with a rotating field. the motor is said to operate with square wave excitation and the back EMF is usually arranged to be trapezoidal. which is similar to the rotating magnetic field in the induction motor or the AC synchronous motor. the current in the conductors must reverse polarity every time a magnet pole passes by. again. One of the advantages of the stepping motor control is that an accurate position control may be achieved without a shaft position feedback. The performance equations and speed as well as the torque characteristics are almost identical for both motor types. The operation of the brushless DC motor is based on the rotating permanent magnet passing a set of conductors.g. The polarity reversal of the brushless DC motor is performed by power transistors. The variation of the rotor resistance with the temperature causes the effective torque to vary. a fine tooth geometry and small air-gap to achieve stable operation and enough torque. but there is an important difference. it may be comparable with the inverted DC commutator motor. which must be switched on and off in synchronism with the rotor position.21 speed is no longer exactly proportional to the supply frequency the motor is called an asynchronous machine. as it is e. the phase currents are sinusoidal and the back EMF should be. When the phase currents in the brushless DC motor are switching polarity as the magnet poles pass by. The torque is developed by the tendency of the rotor and stator teeth to pull the poles into alignment according to the sequential energization of the phases. The induced rotor current increases the copper losses. The commutator and the brushes are used to perform reverse polarity in the case of the DC commutator motor. In most structures. Thereby. In both of the motor types. In another operation mode. which. while all windings are in the stator. which actually makes the motor control difficult. The stepping motor is also a commonly used brushless motor type. heat the rotor and decrease the efficiency proportionally to the slip s.

permanent magnet frame N 3 phase 12-slot stator winding stator frame N S N S S 11-slot wound armature a) b) 4-pole permanent magnet rotor Fig.22 magnets. In a surface magnet motor the magnets are usually magnetized radially. 1. this motor type will be called surface magnet motor for simplicity reasons. Due to the use of low permeability (µr = 1 … 1. 1. The study in his thesis is mainly focused on a brushless AC motor. Herein. (Hendershot and Miller.3 b) shows a cross section of an interior rotor brushless DC motor and the same cross section can also be used for a brushless AC motor. b) Cross section for an interior rotor brushless DC motor and brushless AC motor. Fig. 1994). Different names may be used in the literature on the subject or by the manufactures in different countries for the motors described above. 1.3.3.2) Nd-Fe-B rare-earth magnets the synchronous inductances in the d. This motor is more like a wound rotor synchronous machine than a DC commutator motor. The construction of the . but it can also be used for an exterior rotor brushless DC motor. which is a synchronous motor equipped with an interior rotor with permanent magnets. the most commonly used construction for the PM motors is the rotor construction type which has the permanent magnets located on the rotor surface. Location of the permanent magnets Nowadays.and q-axis may be considered to be equal which can be helpful while designing the surface magnet motor. thereby.3 a).2. a) Motor cross-section of a DC commutator motor and exterior rotor brushless DC motor. The motor cross-section used for a DC commutator motor is shown in Fig. 1. Two cross-sections used in different motor types are shown in Fig. often called brushless AC motor. 1. and is.

1. d) embedded tangential magnets. 1. 2002) In the case of an embedded magnet motor. Location of the permanent magnets: a) Surface mounted magnets. c) surface magnets with pole shoes. Another method to increase the linkage flux crossing the airgap is to fit a non-ferromagnetic sleeve between the ferromagnetic shaft and the rotor core (Gieras and Wing. Compared to the embedded magnets.23 motor is quite cheap and simple.4. one important advantage of the surface mounted magnets is the smaller amount of magnet material needed in the design (in integer-slot machines). (Heikkilä. There are several possible ways to build a surface or an embedded magnet motor as shown in Fig. because the magnets can be attached to the rotor surface. If the same power is wanted from the same machine size. This is due to following two facts: in the embedded-magnets-case there is always a considerable amount of . The embedded magnet motor has permanent magnets embedded in the deep slots. 1997). If the motor has a ferromagnetic shaft a large portion of the permanent magnet produced flux goes through the shaft.4. In this study the embedded-magnet motor is equipped with a non-ferromagnetic shaft in order to increase the linkage flux crossing the air-gap. e) embedded radial magnets. the stator synchronous inductance in the q-axis is greater than the synchronous inductance in the d-axis. b) inset rotor with surface magnets. the surface mounted magnet machine needs less magnet material than the corresponding machine with embedded magnets. d q N S q N S S d q N S d S N N S S N N S N S S S S a) d q N S N b) d q S N S S N N c) d q q d N N S SN S S N N S S S N N S N N S N N S S N d) e) f) g) Fig. f) embedded inclined V-magnets with 1/cosine shaped air-gap and g) permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor with axially laminated construction.

it may be easier to adjust the pole number by using fractional slot windings than produce new steel laminations. More possibilities to select q can be found if fractional slot windings are used. the fractional slot wound PM-machine for train application by Koch . such as for example the hybrid electric vehicle application by Magnussen et al. which in these cases easily reaches values between 30 – 50 kN/m2. This may be described with the rotor surface average tangential stress. Because of the high air-gap flux density an embedded magnet low speed machine may produce a higher efficiency than the surface magnet machine. the machine may produce more torque per rotor volume compared to the rotor. integer slot windings are used with q = 2 … 6. 1. (2003b). which is the speed desired and how many poles will be used. there are several other advantages that make the use of embedded magnets favourable. which has surface mounted magnets. Additionally. however. The capacity of producing the motor torque grows up rapidly with the increased air-gap diameter. 2002). Zhu et al. Usually. The selection of q is done according to the mechanic limitations – the numbers of poles and slots suitable for the motor size. In cases where there is already a slotted rotor or stator of suitable size available. Because of the high air-gap flux density.24 leakage flux in the end regions of the permanent magnets and the armature reaction is also worse than in the surface magnet case. The magnets can be rectangular and there are less fixing and bonding problems with the magnets: The magnets are easy to mount into the holes of the rotor and the risk of damaging the magnets is small. Applications When many poles are used it is possible to increase the air-gap diameter since less space is needed for the stator yoke. What kind of the winding structure should be. The risk of permanent magnet material demagnetization remains smaller. (2002) reported that the embedded magnet structure facilitates extended flux-weakening operation when compared to a surface magnet motor with the same stator design (both machines are equipped with an integer slot winding). With an integer slot winding it is possible to adjust the winding turn amount only by chording the coils. This. Therefore. According to several scientific publications fractional slot wound machines are often used in vehicles. the torque per volume ratio of these motors can be especially high. this depends a lot on the application conditions for the motor to be used in: how much space is available. the copper losses of the stator diminish by decreasing the end winding length and the winding resistance. requires usually a larger amount of PM-material. (Heikkilä. He also stated that the iron losses of the embedded magnet machine were higher than that of the machine with surface magnet rotor.3. However.

The end winding of the conventional lap winding a) is as long as the length of the core L. therefore. where p = 4. . the surface magnet machine by Lampola (2000) and embedded magnet machine by Spooner and Williamson (1996) are examples of applications where fractional slot windings are used. which has a higher pole number than the machine in Fig. The machine structures a) conventional winding. a brushless DC motor with permanent magnets has been used as a spindle motor in diskette driving systems such as CD/DVD-ROM. 1. Reichert (2004). Today. 1. where q = 1 and the pole number is high (long machine where the relative end winding length is short despite of the traditional winding). There are some applications with only one or two phases. where p = 2. low speed machines for elevators. q = 0. fractional slot machines have been used also in converter fed high torque.5.g. washing machines.g. high torque and low mass per torque. q = 1. The machine with the air-gap diameter Dδ equal to the length of the core L. the end winding length is about 1/5 of the length of the machine. and as a direct drive motor in e. low speed. Direct drive permanent magnet generators used in wind turbines. is illustrated in a) with a conventional winding and b) with a concentrated fractional slot winding.5 b). 1. Fig.5 c) shows a long machine. machining and ski lift drives with torque ratings up to 200 kNm. 1. According to Cho et al. HDD etc.25 and Binder (2002). b) concentrated fractional slot winding. End winding and stator resistance Some possible machine structure sizes are illustrated in Fig 1. 1. as e. shown in Fig.4. In longer machines the relative end winding length may be much smaller than in short machines and.5 (short machine) and c) a winding. L +A -A +A -A -A +A +A -A a) b) c) Fig. With fractional slot windings. Koch and Binder (2002) discovered the fractional slot wound motor to be a suitable motor for their application requirements: it has a direct gearless drive. the end winding length may be a less important parameter in such cases.5 b).5. (1999).

6. and Koch and Binder (2002). 1. where the slots are divided vertically. . 1. Cros and Viarouge (2002) discovered that this motor type has a higher performance than the motor type with regular distribution of the slots. (2003). Bianchi et al. The end winding arrangements and the copper losses of a fractional slot machine were studied and the results were compared to an integer slot machine.26 According to Bianchi et al.g. Research has been done also on special machine types that are equipped with concentrated windings and have an irregular distribution of the slots with two widths. the 45 kW fractional wound (q = 0. +A -A +A -A +A +A -A -A a) b) c) Fig.4) prototype motor with 12 slots and 10 poles was compared to a motor with q = 1. The copper volume and copper losses in the end windings are reduced. It is easy to see that the length of the end windings of motor a) are about three times as long as in motor b) or c). The end windings of one phase of a 10-pole-machine with different winding constructions are shown in Fig. where the slots are divided horizontally c) two-layer winding.4 and c) a two-layer fractional slot winding with Qs = 12 and q = 0.6. A fractional slot motor with q = 0. when the number of poles is high the concentrated winding is convenient only when the stator length is smaller than the air-gap diameter. He compared a full-pitch winding to a concentrated fractional slot winding taking into consideration the capacity of torque production and the amount of copper losses. (2003) calculated the Dδ/L values for a fractional slot machine to estimate in which circumstances the use of concentrated windings may be beneficial. b) a one-layer fractional winding Qs = 12 and q = 0. First.4. e. where the slot is divided vertically. by Cros and Viarouge (2002).4 can have at least three different winding constructions: a) one-layer winding b) two-layer winding. End windings of one phase of a 10-pole-machine: a) a traditional one-layer winding with Qs = 30 and q = 1.

because different phase coils cross each other. as the example illustrates in Fig. 2p (1. x1 2. with lb = (0. because some equations do not function well if q is less than one. This is one method but also the proper way to do in the case of a concentrated winding.7. Qs lb = (1.6 c).083 p + 1. The equation below can be used for the concentrated winding π( Dδ + y1 ) + x1 + 0. p is pole pair number and y1 is the height of the stator slot. Definition of the length of the end winding lb. the two-layer winding type produces the smallest end windings as it is shown in Fig. In the concentrated fractional slot wound machine the space needed for the conductors to travel from one slot to the next one is as small as possible. 409).02 [m] . However.1) Variable Dδ is the air-gap diameter.7. according to Gieras and Wing (1997.6 b) where the coil is wound around one tooth.. Variable x1 is the width of the stator slot. again.217) pDδ + y1 + 0.5 mm y1 hb 1 2 1 2 x1 bb Dδ lb = 2hb + bb Fig.01 [m] .005. p. hb is the height and bb the width of end winding. 1.5 . lb of a cylindrical machine can be calculated. The average length of the end winding.. 1. It may be possible to measure the lengths of one particular motor. y1 is the height of the stator slot. If a coil is wound around one tooth the average end winding length is simply the length between two slots (measured from middle) and the width of the slot as illustrated in Fig.2) . 1.0.27 The end windings of a traditionally wound machine need more space (which. requires more copper volume and mass). Dδ is the air-gap diameter. 1.

7 28. It was noticed that the copper losses of the stator diminish with the decreasing of the end winding and the copper resistance.22 55 The least amount of copper was needed for the end windings of the motor a) with a concentrated wound fractional slot winding. The copper losses were calculated at a 90 A current with Wye connection. As the conductors come out from the slot they cannot twist directly to the next slot but there should be a small.3 28. one-layer winding (12 slots. d) one-layer winding (30 slots. 10 poles).5 37 0. 10 poles). 10-pole-machines 45 kW. machine core length 270 mm.43 30 d 1 330 34.1. e. then the copper losses are directly comparable to the copper weight).1. .5 28.5 kg in comparison to the non-fractional winding d) in which the mass was over 30 kg.4 machine (If the current density of the machines is about the same.3 28. 5 mm.4 130 12. 10 poles. q = 0. The copper losses of a 10-polemachine with q = 1 would be two times as high as those of the q = 0. The four different 10-pole-machines are: a) c) concentrated two-layer winding with vertically divided slots (12 slots.43 30 c 0. Table 1. air-gap diameter 249 mm (Nph = 132) q (slots per pole and per phase) End winding length (mm) (with a 5 mm minimum distance from the core) End winding copper Mass (kg) Copper mass in slots (kg) Copper in the whole motor (kg) End winding copper mass / Copper mass in slots End winding mass per total copper mass (%) a 0.28 where x1 is the width of the stator slot and y1 is the height of the stator slot. 10 poles.4). stator outer diameter 364 mm. The end winding constructions of the four different 10-pole-machines are compared in Table 1. The end windings of the concentrated wound fractional slot machine are 20…30% of the total copper weight of the machine in comparison to the end windings weight of the traditional machine (q = integer) which are typically over 50%.g. q = 1).4 118 8. b) concentrated two-layer winding with horizontally divided slots (12 slots.4 130 12.5 63 1.5 41 0. The mass of copper in the end windings was only 8.5 41 0. gap between the core end and the innermost winding turns.30 23 b 0.

Winding arrangements and winding factors are given for concentrated wound fractional slot machines. Different slot-pole (Qs . where coil is around tooth and q is equal or less than 0. which slot-pole combinations have a high pull-out torque. Scientific contribution of this work The popularity of industrial permanent magnet motors is growing. • A 45 kW prototype motor was manufactured to verify the computations. .29 1. a study is made on fractional slot wound permanent magnet motors. the fractional slot winding arrangement with q < 1 is an attractive alternative for traditional solutions – some of these applications have been studied in recent papers. q = 1.5. not available much knowledge on the fractional winding arrangements concerning PM motors. which has a fixed air-gap diameter and a 45 kW output power.5. where the fractional slot winding structure proved to be an attractive solution. The scientific contribution of this work can be summarized to be the following: • A comprehensive study of the winding design of concentrated wound fractional slot machines. • A comparison of different rotor structure performances. • A performance comparison of concentrated wound fractional slot machines in a same machine size. The literature on the subject poorly offers criteria for the selection of motor design variables. The performance analysis is done for machines having concentrated winding.5 and q = 2. however.2p) combinations for concentrated wound fractional (q ≤ 0. The cogging torque and torque ripple are also analysed.5 are popular traditional fractional slot winding arrangements. In those modern applications where multi-pole machines are needed.5) slot machines are analysed to find out. There is. in the literature on fractional slot machines the issue has usually been treated in the form where q is larger than unity. The main objective of this work is to compare different pole and slot combinations applied to a machine. Traditionally. if q < 1. because this type of motor can be used in various applications. E.g. Here. They have been increasingly used especially in low speed direct drive applications.

He divided these windings in to two groups: the 1st-grade and 2nd-grade winding. The winding is called fractional slot winding if q is not an integer number. These definitions may be defined through closer examination of the term q (slots per pole and per phase). different methods to calculate fractional slot wound machines are studied. Q* is the number of slots in a symmetrical base winding.30 2. If the denominator n is an odd number the winding is a 1st-grade winding and if n is even then it is a 2nd-grade winding. In a two-layer winding a slot can be divided into two different parts in which the coils may belong to different phases. In this study. A variable t is needed to calculate other values as e. Vogt (1996) introduced methods to design fractional slot windings. p* is the number of poles in a symmetrical base-winding. The value 0. but for the 2nd-grade windings there are different definitions depending on whether the winding is a one-layer or a two-layer winding. 2 pm n (2. The fundamental winding factor ξ1 of a fractional slot wound machine is often lower than the winding factors of an integer slot wound machine. . z is the numerator of q and n is the denominator of q reduced to the lowest terms. Some definitions are needed to describe whether the winding is a 1st-grade or a 2nd-grade winding.1).1. The 1st-grade winding is always built up based on one straight method (see Table 2. t* is the number of base windings in a stator winding.95 is considered to be a high value for a winding factor of the fractional slot machine. CALCULATION OF A FRACTIONAL SLOT PM-MOTOR In this chapter. phase shift angle and they may be paralleled. as it is shown below. It is also possible to wind the fractional slot wound motor in such a way that the slots include only coils of one phase or the slots are divided to embed two coil sides belonging to two different phases.1) where m is the number of phases. The winding definitions introduced by Vogt (1996) concerning the fractional slot windings are given in Table 2. Q* and p*. q= Qs z = . if required.g. both the one-layer and two-layer windings are discussed. Base windings have the same induced voltage.

a voltage vector graph for the machine may be drawn. In Appendix A more winding arrangements are given. Table 2.1. Winding definitions (Vogt. The winding factor can be solved using this graph.2. 1/4. 1996) 1st-Grade Denominator.31 Table 2. Numerical examples of winding definitions 1st-Grade Qs p q= Qs z = 2 pm n 2nd-Grade 162 24 162 9 = 2 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 3 8 2nd-Grade 21 11 21 7 = 2 ⋅ 11 ⋅ 3 22 12 5 12 2 = 2⋅5⋅3 5 Denominator.2. n t Layer Q* p* t* Odd p/n One or two Qs/t n 1 2nd-Grade Even 2p/n One 2⋅Qs/t n 2 2nd-Grade Even 2p/n Two Qs/t n/2 1 As the winding definitions are known. The winding definitions for some of the analysed machines are given in Table 2. n t Layer Q* p* t* Odd 5/5 = 1 One or two 12 5 1 Even 2⋅24/8 = 6 One 54 8 2 Even 2⋅11/22=1 Two 21 11 1 2.1. The winding arrangements of a 12-slot-10-pole and 21-slot-22-pole machine are described. . Two-layer fractional slot winding Two-layer windings are divided in two groups: The 1st-grade and the 2nd-grade windings.2. 2/5 and 2/7. such as q = 1/2. to the procedure of designing a two-layer winding will be discussed.1. This is described in Chapter 3. In this chapter.

As an example. b) The coil sides of the lower layer are placed first. there can be a different number of ± coils next to each other. now 150 electric degrees. Fig. -C. how the different coil sides of different phases are placed in the slots. The voltage vector graph in Fig. At first. 2. a voltage vector graph is drawn with Q* phasors. c) Also the coil sides of the upper layer in the slots. from the phasor 1 and so on. +A. +B. a) A voltage vector graph of a 12-slot-10-pole fractional slot two-layer winding of the 1st-grade. -A -A 8 1 6 +B +B +C 3 11 +C 10 αn = 150e 4 -C a) -B 5 9 -C 12 -B 7 +A 2 +A -B +B 11 12 -A 1 +A 2 3 4 5 -B -B +C +B 12 -A +B 1 2 3 4 5 8 7 6 +A +A -A +C -C 11 10 9 +C 10 9 -C +C +C +A -C -C +C -C -A 8 7 6 -B +B -C -B +A -A -A -B +A +B +B b) c) Fig. The coil sides are ordered into positive and negative values –A. The phasors are numbered from 1…to Q* so that the phasor number 2 is placed to 360⋅p/Q* electric degrees.1.1 a) shows.1. 2. a voltage vector graph consisting of 12 phasors is drawn for a 12-slot-10-pole machine.1 shows step-by-step how to select a suitable two-layer winding for a fractional slot wound motor.32 1st-Grade fractional slot winding 2. 2. With 12 slots there are 4 slots per phase: 2 positive ones and 2 negative ones.1. The vectors . -B and +C. Depending on the slot number.

from slot number 1 the -A coil side is connected to the +A coil side located in the upper layer of slot 2. a voltage vector graph is drawn with Q* = 21 phasors as it is shown in Fig 2.g.2. therefore. 2.318 (n = 22). Now. 3 and 4). The coil arrangements are shown in Fig.2. -b. the 12-slot-10-pole winding is ready and is shown in Fig 2. A one-layer may include a different number of positive and negative phase coils. (Because it is a tooth wound coil. For example. now 188. The phasors are numbered from 1…to Q* so that the phasor 2 is placed to 360p/Qs electric degrees. from the phasor 1 and so on.1 b).1 c). The coils are ordered into positive and negative values –c. For a two-layer winding of the 2nd-grade. the illustration of the lower winding layer is ready.956. e. in this example. The winding produces a large unbalanced magnetic pull since all the coil sides of one phase are located on one side of the stator. there are 7 coil sides in the one-layer forming the bars of one phase. Next. for a 21-slot stator there may be 7 slots per phase in a lower layer and 7 in an upper layer. the phase coils are placed into the lower winding layer. the winding arrangement is build for a 2nd-grade winding. 2.1. c. It must. there can occur a situation in which the width of the zone is not a constant. After having placed all 12 coils. in which the q = 7/22 = 0. 2.1 a). It can be selected so that you have 4 positive and 3 negative phase coils for a layer. The upper winding layer is constructed from the lower winding layer by rotating the lower winding layer and by changing the sign of each coil. which is located on the bottom of the slot. The fundamental winding factor can be solved to be 0.6 electric degrees. the winding is built as it was explained before for the 1st-grade winding. however. The required rotation angle is equal to a slot angle. -a and b. a. to be recommended for proper use.2. This will be discussed briefly in the next chapter. of a 21-slot-22-pole motor. the other coil side must be in the adjacent slot). Based on the slot numbering illustrated in Fig.953 and the distribution factor to be 0. . despite of its high winding factor.33 belonging to the same phase must be adjacent (see vectors –A –A +B +B –C –C). there will be an unequal number of positive and negative coil sides in both layers (4 and 3. Otherwise. Now. be remembered that this winding is not. as is shown in Fig. First. 2nd-Grade fractional slot winding 2.

The 7 coils of each phase are concentrated to one area of the machine causing asymmetrical distribution of the coils. In the 21-slot-20-pole machine all the coils of phase A are next to each other.956 Fig. Winding arrangements Fig. The coils of a 24-slot-20-pole machine are symmetrically divided around the machine. 2. 2. An asymmetrical placement of coils must be disadvantageous. The drawing on the right hand side illustrates how to solve the distribution factor.2. . Placing the coils for a 21-slot-22-pole fractional slot two-layer winding of the 2nd-grade.34 +B +B 18 +B -C 16 20 -A 1 -A 3 5 -A 7 9 +C -A 14 -C 12 -C 10 8 6 4 +A 2 +A 21 -B 19 -B 17 -B 15 11 +C 13 +C -C -B +A +B +B -B +B 19 20 -B 21 -A -A 1 +A +A 2 3 +A -A -A 4 5 6 7 -B +B +A +A -A -A 18 17 16 15 14 9 13 12 11 10 8 -B -B +B +B -B +A +A -A +C -C -B -C -C +B +C +C -C -C +C +C -C -C +C +C ξd1 = 0. ξd1.3 shows the winding arrangements of 21-slot-20-pole (q = 7/20) and 24-slot-20-pole (q = 8/20 = 2/5) machines. 2. Let us compare the winding arrangements. because in a load situation there may occur unwanted forces.2.

and in phase B and C the peak current is only –1/2i. 2. The winding arrangements of a) 21-slot-20-pole (q = 7/20) and b) 24-slot-20-pole (q = 8/20). The radial magnetic stress along the air-gap diameter (obtained from the FEA) for a 21-slot-20pole machine. In a situation like that the unwanted effect called unbalanced magnetic pull may occur. FEA) for a 21-slot-20pole machine. Both machines have two-layer windings.4. where in phase A the peak current is +i. At one instant of time. It is obvious that the radial forces on the air-gap periphery do not cancel each other and an unwanted magnetic pull bending in the rotor and the stator is affected. 2. the situation occurs. as the machine is loaded. 600 Radial magnetic stress (Nm/m2 ) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 90 180 Mechanical angle (deg) 270 360 Fig.35 +A -A -A +A 19 18 17 16 15 20 +B -A 1 +A 21 -B -B 2 +B +B 3 4 5 6 7 8 +A -A -A -B -B -B +C +B +B -C -C 22 21 +C -A 24 +A +A 1 -A +B 2 -B -B +B 3 4 5 +B -C +C 6 7 8 9 23 +B +B 20 19 +C +A -B -A -A +A -C -A -A -B +A +B +C +A +A -A -A +A -B -B +B +B -C +A +C 18 17 -C 14 9 13 12 11 10 -B -C +C +C 16 14 11 13 12 10 -B +B +C -B +C +C -C +C -C -C +C +C -C -C +C 15 -C +B -B -B +B -A +A +A -A +C -C -C a) b) Fig.3. 2. . Fig.4 illustrates the radial magnetic stress along the air-gap diameter (from finite element analysis.

2) where ξp is the pitch factor. the winding factor can be solved from (Koch and Binder. the number of poles should not be selected to be almost equal to the number of slots in the case of a concentrated three phase winding with an odd number of slots e. 62 and 64 poles.) Analytically.and super-harmonic winding factors as low as possible. which both are inversely proportional to the winding factor. Jang and Yoon (1996) discovered that also the 9-slot-8-pole and 9-slot-10-pole brushless dc-motor generates the same unwanted forces. Because of the unbalanced pull effect.36 Experimental results of the unbalanced magnetic pull effect in a fractional slot machine are described by Magnussen et al. The pitch factor ξp is defined for concentrated two-layer winding as (Koch and Binder.g. ξd is the distribution factor and ξsk is the skewing factor. (When the winding factors of a particular machine are to be solved by using the equations. A machine with a low fundamental winding factor needs to compensate its low torque with a high current or with more winding turns. Asano et al.3. He designed and tested a 15-slot-14-pole machine and noticed that the asymmetrical placement of the coils causes unwanted forces. especially for concentrated (two-layer) windings. where q < 1. it should be remembered that this must be done accurately. Winding factor In this chapter it is solved winding factors for the fractional slot windings. Also Libert and Soulard (2004) studied radial forces and magnetic noise of concentrated wound machines having 60. (2002) presented some results of vibrations measurements of concentrated wound machines and he introduced methods to decrease the radial stress. (2. The winding factor can be defined through a voltage vector graph or it can be solved from the analytical equations. 2002) . According to Magnussen. 2. The winding factors of an electrical machine are proportional to the generated electromagnetic torques. 9-slots8-pole. 2002) ξν = ξ p ⋅ ξ d ⋅ ξ sk . the fundamental winding factor of the machine must be high and its sub. because there are different equations to be applied for the different winding types. (2004). the motor designer should carefully consider whether to select an odd number of slots when fractional slot two-layer windings are used. 15-slot-14-pole and 21-slots-20-pole. So.

According to Jokinen (1973). The effect of skewing the fractional slot machine is studied e.37 ξ p = sin   νπτ s   = sin  νπ  . (2. (Huang et al. 401) ξ sk = sin νπτ sk / 2τ p (νπτ sk / 2τ p ) ( ).5) and (2. ±1.6) is valid also for non-fractional one-layer windings when the ± sign is removed. p* = n) are ν p =± 1 (2mg + 1) . 1996. there are cases. by Zhu and Howe (2000). ±3. where the amplitudes of the cogging torque are low.4) where τsk is the skewing pitch. 7. Skewing is used to minimize the cogging torque.5) The harmonics created by fractional two-layer windings of the1st-grade two-layer winding (if n is odd. Equation (2. p* = n/2) ν p =± 1 (2mg + 2) .3) The skewing factor can be solved from the equation (Vogt.. As to the concentrated fractional slot machine. ±2. it is estimated which harmonics arise from these fractional slot windings. For q ∈ N (n = 1) the order numbers are ν = 1. n g = 0. At first. 2004). … (2. in this thesis the matter is researched by using a conventional method.6) The ± sign in Eq.6) is chosen to be + or – to make the equations yield the positive sign for the fundamental (ν = +1). … The fractional slot winding q ∉ N generates also sub-harmonics (ν < 1) and integer order . A new universal method was introduced to solve the harmonic content of an AC machine and may be successfully applied to fractional slot machines.g. ±3. … (2. p. ±1. (2. as it will be shown later. ±2. the harmonics are for the 2nd-grade (if n is even.   Q   2τ p   s   (2. n g = 0. However. This is due to the fact that in a fractional slot machine the different stator slot pitch multiples do not coincide with the rotor pole pitch (as if 3τs in a q = 1 machine equals τp). -5.

10 (6g+2) 1 . -11.13 .11 (6g+1) 1 13 1 14 8 20 22 26 2 4 . because the bunch coil of one pole is shifted by an angle of π radians from the next coil.. 1973. … 1.. 19 . -2. 10 . -14.... 16 . The harmonic waves developed by a two-layer winding (Tüxen.. 13 . 7. 31. Jokinen. 16 ..11 .16 .13 . 14 .- 8 4 7 5 . 14 . 16 . 13.- 5 7 4 8 .10 . 14 . 4 4 . 17 . 1996).. In a three-phase winding not all integer harmonics are present.16 .7 7 7 7 20 8 23 5 23 7 22 8 25 5 25 7 26 8 (6g+1) (6g+2) .. 11 ..14 .14 ..14 . 11 ..1 .… ..2 lists the harmonic waves developed by a two-layer winding (Tüxen.16 .16 . 14 .16 (6g+2) 8 20 22 26 2 4 . For a symmetrical integer slot winding (n = 1) the winding factor can be solved from the equation (Tüxen. Table 2.14 .13 . -23. -29..17 .19 .14 .- 1 ...19 .11 11 11 11 1 13 2 14 25 11 . Table 2. 11 .4 4 4 20 4 . 25. 16 .. -5. (19)) .10 .. 19 .16 . … 10 10 10 5 7 23 1 . -8.10 . 10 .1 (6g+1) 5 1 7 1 8 . … 16 16 16 The harmonics generate unwanted forces and additional losses in the machine (Vogt. 17 . 8 . 13.11 .… (6g+1) (6g+2) 5 7 23 25 11 . … 13 13 13 8 20 4 22 26 . 1941.. 1941) n 1 2 4 5 7 8 10 11 13 14 16 1 4 ν/p 6g+1 3g+1 (6g+2) Harmonics 1. 1941).. 8 8 8 8 . -17.10 . 10 . This happens especially in most of the two-layer windings. 7 7 . -17. 13 . Eq.2. 10 . 22 4 .13 . 11 ... .10 . 19.17 .13 . … 14 14 14 1 . 14 .38 harmonics including both even and odd numbers.. … 2 4 . 13 .11 . 26 4 .. 10 ..… . 16 .. From the air-gap spatial harmonic spectrum all the harmonics which are multiplies of three are missing since their sinusoidal waves locally cancel each other in symmetrical operation of a non-salient three-phase machine.16 .5 5 1 7 2 8 .. 10. -5. 13 .… . 16. 7. These even harmonics can cancel each other as the phase coils are constructed from the individual coils.… . 4. 5 .. 5 5 5 5 .10 . -11. In the mmf waveform there appear also harmonic waves with even order numbers..

7) In the equations y is the coil pitch. 1941.3)) for some concentrated windings of different pole and slot combinations are given in Table 2. 2.8) For a 2nd-grade two-layer winding the winding factor can be solved as follows (Vogt. 1996. If the zones of the phase are unequal.4.3 and the fundamental winding factors for some two-layer windings are given in Table 2. the pitch factor can be used as a fundamental winding factor for a concentrated one-layer winding. According to Koch and Binder (2002). (2. 1973) ν π    sin    p 2m  sin  ν y π  . When equipped with an 18-pole rotor only the 27-slot-18-pole machine (ξ1 = 0. the winding factor can be found with the voltage vector graph. There are also many other slot-pole combinations with several slots and poles. if the teeth widths are equal (thereby the distribution factorξd = 1) and if the machine is not skewed (ξsk = 1).4.   ξν = ξ dξ p =  ν π   p qm 2     q sin   p 2qm    (2.39 ν π  sin   p 2m     sin  ν y π  .9) is valid only for the equal zone widths. Table 2. The pitch factors (calculated with Eq.866) allows concentrated windings.   ξν = sin   p 2 p 2     nq sin  ν π       p 2nmq    (2. which is one for concentrated two-layer windings.   ξν =  ν π   p qm 2    nq sin   p 2nqm     (2.52) ν π    sin   ν π   p m2  cos ν η v  .4. Eq. Jokinen.9) where ηv is an angle from voltage vector graph. Some windings with unbalanced windings are marked with * in Table 2. The highest value for a certain pole number is bolded in the Table 2. For a 1stgrade two-layer winding (two coils in the same slot) the winding factor can be solved as follows (Tüxen.4 can be continued as it is done by Libert and Soulard (2004). Eq.3 and in Table 2. because there is a . (2.

3 and in Table 2.375 0.273 0.89 0.125 20 0.286 0.214 0.227 ** 0.308 not recommended because of the unbalanced magnetic pull not recommended because the denominator n (q = z/n) is a multiple of the number of phases m.25 ** 0.25 0.985 0.25 ** ** 0.951* 0.5 14 0.5 0.866 0.643 0.985 0.866 0.711 0.143 16 0.953* 0.429 0.866 0.125 ** ** 0.318 0.4 0.2 0.115 0.5 0.953* 0.866 0.25 0.866 0.4 0.182 0.3 0.25 0.4 0.933 0.3 0.091 24 ** 26 0.866 0.5 0.2 0.143 0.951* 0.5 0.995* 0.192 0.3 0.2 12 ** 14 0.5 0.35 0.866 0.4 0.985* 0.231 0.866 0.269 0.5 20 0.866 0. Pitch factors ξp1 for concentrated windings (q ≤ 0.182 0.357 0.617 0. ** in Table 2.39 0.945* 0.94 0.866 0.318 0.1 22 0.286 0.5 0.5 0.945 0.3 0.5) Qs 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 * Poles 4 6 ** ξ1 ξ1 ξ1 ξ1 ξ1 ξ1 ξ1 q q q q q q q 0.227 0.25 0.95 0.5 16 0.125 ** 0.15 0.991 0.89 0.26 0.438 0.2 0. Libert and Soulard (2004).966 0.214 0.5 0.25 0.866 0.5 0.93 0.4 22 0.5 8 0.5 ** 0.997* 0. ** Table 2.375 0.192 0.1 0.4).866 0.231 q > 0.25 ** ** q > 0.866 0.866 0.273 0.364 24 ** 0.866 0.125 0.866 0.5 12 ** 0.328 0.77 0.25 0.996 0.945* 0.25 10 0.74 0.26 0.25 ** ** 26 0.34 0. Fundamental winding factors ξ1 for concentrated two-layer windings (q ≤ 0. ** .866 0.793 0.902 0.375 0.902 0.154 0.308 not recommended because of the unbalanced magnetic pull not recommended because denominator n (q = z/n) is a multiple of the number of phases m.5 0.5) Qs 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 * Poles 4 6 ** 8 0.136 0.15 0.188 0.25 0.3.115 0.364 0.34 0.866 0.313 0.866 0.866 0.154 0.617 0.5 0.866 0.5 0.188 0.5 10 0.933 0.5 0.429 0.643 0.949 0.5 0.5 0.313 0.985 0.375 0. are not recommended and therefore not presented (marked with Table 2.866 0.077 0.269 0.866 0.94 0.5 0.866 0.985* 0.328 0.5 0.953* 0.866 0.866 0.74 0.357 0.949 0.4.091 0.991 0.933 0.438 0.866 0.077 ξp1 ξp1 ξp1 ξp1 ξp1 ξp1 ξp1 q q q q q q q 0.40 risk of unbalanced pull effect.5 0.945 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.866 0.35 0.136 0. where the denominator n (q = z/n) is a multiple of the number of phases m.945 0.995* 0. Combinations.

12) and for k ± 1/5 by ν π ν  sin   p 2m − p π     sin  ν y π  . 2.11) When fractional ν/p are present their winding factors can be solved for k ± 1/4 by ν π ν π  sin   p 2m − p 2     sin  ν y π  . In the equations k is an integer.   ξν = ν π ν π   p mq 2     m nq sin   p 2nmq p 2    (2. The first winding type has a sequence of phase spreads qa qb qa qb qb for one phase and in the second winding type qa qa qb qb qb. For q = k ± 1/2. It is possible to arrange these windings in two ways. Jokinen.13) Tüxen (1941) introduced winding factor equations also for two different q = k ± 2/5 windings.   ξν = ν π ν   p mq 2    nq sin   p 2nmq m p π     (2. depending on the phase spreads qa = q ± 3/5 and qa = q ± 2/5. Eq.   ξν = ±  ν π   p mq 2      nq cos p 2nmq    (2. 1941. 1973) ν π  sin   p 2m     sin  ν y π  for odd ν/p   ξν =  ν π   p mq 2    nq sin   p 2nmq     (2.12 (for ν/p = odd) is valid for the first .10) and ν π  cos  p 2m     sin  ν y π  for even ν/p.41 Tüxen (1941) and Jokinen (1973) discussed some special cases where the fractional slot machine has q = k ± 1/2. k ± 1/4 or k ± 1/5. k ± 1/4 or k ± 1/5 the winding factors can be solved as (Tüxen.

1941. Jokinen. The slot harmonics are defined according to (Tüxen. 1973) ν π  sin   p 2m    ν π   ν y π    ξν = − 2 cos  p nmq  − 1 sin  p mq 2     ν π           nq sin     p 2nmq  (2.) Factor y is also an important parameter in these equations.14) The second winding type q = k ± 2/5 with a sequence of phase spreads qa qa qb qb qb has winding factors for odd ν/p as follows (Tüxen. For n = 5 there are no even harmonics. The ± sign depends on the selected origin place. 1941. because it takes into account the width between two slots in the same group. but with a negative sign. Jokinen. and it is not a constant parameter – it depends always on the winding arrangement selections. Also Tüxen (1941) presented winding arrangement solutions and winding factor equations for the 3-phase two-layer fractional slot windings as well as for the one-layer windings with integer or fractional coil arrangements. There may be different widths of coil groups in two-layer windings: the start point can be selected to be in the middle of the shorter or longer coil group. Jokinen. (The start point is used for building the Fourier series of the mmf. For fractional ν/p the winding factors can be solved by (Tüxen. For both the fractional slot windings and integer slot windings there occur also slot harmonics.15) and for fractional ν/p as follows ν π ν   sin   p 2m − p π   ν π ν   ν y π    ξν = − 2 cos  p nmq + p 4 π  − 1 sin  p mq 2  .42 type.16) The sign of the harmonic must be used in the equations.    ν π  ν       ± 2π  nq sin  p 2nmq p    (2. 1973) ν π ν  sin   p 2m − p π   ν y π    . 1973) . ξν = sin  ν π ν   p mq 2   nq sin  ± 2π    p 2nmq p    (2. The start point – origin – lies in the middle of the coil group. 1941.

the mmf harmonics created by these windings are studied using a comparison of the fractional slot q = 2/5 winding with integer slot (q = 3). The harmonics of (fractional slot q > 1) q = 3/2 includes all same harmonics as q = 3 and also odd number of harmonics. for q = 1/2 all amplitudes of the winding factors are the same. The winding factors can be organized in tables or series according to their order numbers. The harmonic waves created by the winding with q = k ± 2/5 (2nd-grade) were studied.17) Slot harmonics occur in pairs. ±3. In a harmonic pair. one harmonic rotates in the same direction as the fundamental wave does and the other one rotates in the opposite direction.5. The winding factors of the waves created by the fundamental wave (e. This will be shown next with the help of some examples. 7. 7/5. ±2. … (2. 11/5. The result obtained from the case q < 1 differs slightly from the result in which q ≥ 1. …) do not achieve exactly the same amplitudes as the integer slot waves (1. The amplitudes of the harmonics between them can have different amplitudes in different wave groups. q = 2/5) they are not. There appears periodical series. As an example. The winding factors and wave groups of the 1st-grade windings are always periodical.g. 5. 1. now the fractional slot numbered waves (1/5. but e. 2.5 there occurs several high amplitude harmonics. This study concentrates on windings in which q is less than unity.g. fractional slot q >1 (q = 3/2) and fractional slot q < 1 (q = 1/2) windings. According to Fig 2. The first slot harmonic pair occurs as g = ±1 and the second pair as g = ±2. with 12 slots and 10 poles. This means that there can be found some periodical behaviour for the winding factors of the fractional slot windings. The winding factor of a slot harmonic is the same as for the fundamental harmonic (ν = 1). Appendix B presents the winding factors and the periodical behaviour of integer slot (q = 9) and fractional slot q > 1 (q = 9/2 and q = 9/4) windings. …). 5. . Differently to the previous studies. ±4. as q < 1 and q is a fractional number for example q = 1/2 or 2/5. The harmonics of q = 3 are all even numbers. but in some special cases of the 2nd-grade windings (e. because one of the motors used for the comparisons in this thesis (the prototype motor) has q equal to 2/5.43 ν slot = ν p = 2mqg + 1 = Qs g +1 p g = ±1.g. The results for the winding factors solved from the voltage vector graph are shown in Fig. 7…) and the slot harmonic waves always remain the same amplitude.

0 1 1. 8. 7. In case of q = 2/5 there exist also fractional harmonic order numbers ν/p = 1/5.0 ξν 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 0. 11 . 7. 7/5. q= 3 ξν 0. 5..0 1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 ξν 0. . 10.5 q= 2 5 0 0 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 harmonic order number Fig. 4. … shown as grey bars.. 5/2.44 1. even ν/p = 2. integer slot (q = 3). fractional slot q > 1 (q = 3/2) and fractional slot q < 1 (q = 1/2) windings. 6.0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 ξν 0. 13 … shown as white bars. 10 .5. 4.0 integer. 11/5.. In this example. . there exist more harmonics with q < 1 than with q ≥ 1. In case of q = 3/2 there exist also harmonic order numbers which are even integer numbers ν/p = 2.0 1 1. 3. 3/2. 5. odd ν/p = 1. integer. fractional ν/p = 1/2..5 0. In case of q = 3 there exist harmonic order numbers which are all odd integer ν/p = 1. 11.5 q= 1 2 0. The winding factors of a fractional slot q = 2/5. 2.. … shown as black bars..5 even odd q= 3 2 0. 8.

6 b) on the right side.933. It may be noticed that most of the motors have few integer harmonics and . 2.45 2. 5/5.067. The vectors describing phase A are drawn separately to define the winding factor for the harmonic ν = 1/5. the winding factor gets the value ξ1/5 = 0. 7/5.6. It is also shown how the geometrical sum is used to calculate the winding factor ξ1 to be 0.1. the winding factors are defined for a 12-a slot 10-pole fractional slot concentrated winding using a voltage vector graph. The next harmonic order number ν = 1/5 (which is a sub harmonic because ν < 1) will have an angle α1/5 = 1/5·150 e = 30e between the vectors. 2. When q = 2/5. The angle αn is multiplied by the harmonic order number. Winding factor according to the voltage vector graph As the harmonic order numbers are known. Voltage vector graph of a 12-slot-10-pole fractional slot concentrated (two-layer) winding a) for a fundamental wave ν = 1 and b) for a harmonic wave ν = 1/5. The voltage vector graph for the harmonic waves can be constructed in a similar way as for the fundamental wave. it is possible to define the winding factors for the harmonic waves. As an example.3. Fig. the harmonic waves created by the winding are 1/5. -A -A 8 -A +C 3 +B -A 1 6 +B +B -C +B 11 -C +B -B -B 12 11 +B -A 1 α1/5 2 +A +A -A +C 3 +C +C 10 α1 5 12 -B -B 2 7 +A -B +A +A 9 4 -C -C +C+C 10 4 -C -C +C -B -C +A +A -C 9 8 -A -A 6 7 +A -B +B +B 5 -B +C a) ν = 1 b) ν = 1/5 Fig. 2.6 b) shows the arrows of ν = 1/5 harmonic. The vectors of the voltage vector graph are numbered and the angle between the vectors is now ναn. The angle α1 for the fundamental wave is 360ep/Qs = 150e.6 a). 2. 11/5 … The voltage vector graph of the fundamental (ν = 1) is shown in Fig. Using the geometrical sum as shown in Fig. Appendix C gives the harmonic order numbers of different fractional slot windings and their winding factors. The winding factors are defined as geometrical sum/arithmetic sum of the vectors.

2. 5. The mmf waveforms can be defined mathematically by using the equations given by Magnussen and Sadarangani (2003a). 2. The waveform pattern should be drawn once over the whole symmetrical cycle of the machine .5. PM can be solved.4.46 numerous non-integer harmonics. The q = 0. Flux density and back EMF By using the finite element analysis (FEA) it is possible to solve the electromagnetic state of the machine. EPM. methods for calculating the magnetizing and the leakage inductances can be found for the integer slot machines. 4.5 winding consists of purely integer numbers of harmonics: 1. Therefore.5. 7. 2. 6. 5. but it is also calculated analytically in order to compare the results. except those created by the slot harmonic. the value of the flux created by the permanent magnets Φδ. The method introduced by Richter is not accurate enough to be used for the permanent magnet structures treated in this study and it is assumed to be more suitable for the integer slot machines. The value of Φδ. Multiples of 3 are not included in the harmonic order numbers of fractional slot windings. PM depends greatly on the equivalent air-gap length δeff. 7. As the winding arrangement is known and thereby the harmonic order numbers included in the winding properties are known. 5. 4.866 winding factor. 3. 10… which all have a 0. PM . The Fmν wave is separated into two waves rotating in opposite directions. Therefore. The torque is inversely proportional to the inductance. 8. the mmf created by the stator current can be calculated.5.5.5. Richter (1967) and Vogt (1996) presented some slightly different methods to calculate the leakage inductance. When the machine geometry is described into the FEA-software. 2. which are sub-harmonics if q is less than one.25 winding consists of integer and non-integer numbers of harmonics: 0. In the literature. The motor inductances are the most critical parameters for calculating the pull-out torque achieved from the motor. it was the essential task to find an accurate analytical method. since they have the same winding factor as the fundamental harmonic. 8. in this study the FEA is used to solve Φδ.866 or 0. This is an important value for the calculating of the induced back EMF. The winding factors of the harmonics are quite small.5. Both methods are described in this chapter. 1. which can’t be obtained directly and accurately from the analytical equations. but there are no well-known methods described for the fractional slot machines. … which have a winding factor of 0. which enables to correctly calculate the inductances for the fractional slot machines. The q = 0.

47 (therefore the minimum harmonic order is 2/p). The waveform in this case is far from a sinusoidal as can be seen in Fig.18) where nx is the physical displacement in the number of slots. but in a waveform of fractional slot windings also even harmonics. 6q 3 (2. From the Fourier spectrums of the waveforms – in Fig.7.21) The parameter γ is distance (along air-gap diameter) and ϑc the distance between the coil sides. . Because the Fmν waveform is not the same for each pole.19) where nc is the number of coils and Nn1 is the effective turns of a coil.7. The forward Fm+ and backward Fm . In a waveform of an integer slot winding there exist harmonics with only odd numbers. 2. 2. The waveforms of some fractional slot machines are shown in Fig 2.8 – the amplitudes of the harmonics can be observed. fractional harmonics and sub harmonics may appear.20) (2. The magnetomotive force Fmν for a 3-phase machine with symmetrical phase windings is Fmν = ν= ∑∑ 2 p ∞ 4 N n1 − ξ F + + Fm νpπ p m c =1 nc ( ) (2. The slot harmonics often appear in pairs and the amplitudes of the harmonics diminish almost in proportion to 1/ν. 2 3    (2. a displacement – describing the phase shifts – factor ny is used as given by ny = nx 1 − . All these harmonics can be seen in the spectrum of the Fm waveform.rotating waves are defined as 1  2π  ˆ Fm + = i cos(ωt − ν (γ − ϑc ) ) + cos (ν − 1) + 2πνny  2 3    1  2π  ˆ Fm − = i cos(ωt + ν (γ − ϑc ) ) + cos (ν + 1) + 2πνny  .

48 3 All harmonics Fundamental F m (p. 1.) b) .4 0.6 0.) All harmonics Fundamental 0 -3 b) 0 Air-gap periphery 2π Fig.u. Magnussen and Sadarangani (2003a).7. but wound in two-layers.5): a) onelayer winding and b) two-layer winding.4 0.0 1.5) wound 4-pole 6-slot machine wound in one-layer and b) 4-pole 6-slot machine.u. The magnetomotive force wave of a) the fractional slot (q = 0.8 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Harmonic order number a) Fig. F m (p.2 0. Magnussen and Sadarangani (2003a).6 0.0 6-slot-4-pole one-layer 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Harmonic order number 6-slot-4-pole two-layer 0.2 0.) 0 -3 a) 3 0 Air-gap periphery 2π F m (p.u.8. There are more harmonic orders in the one-layer winding than in the two-layer winding.8 F m (p.) 0.u. 2. 2. The harmonics of the magnetomotive force of a 4-pole machine with 6 slots (q = 0.

PM is the fundamental air-gap flux due to magnet. 157) 2mµ 0 τ p Li ξ1 N ph π pπδ eff Lmd = ( )2 . It can be derived from the stator Fm and the stator flux linkages.23) The magnetizing inductance for the whole machine is solved as (Gieras and Wing. p. (2. the procedure by Heikkilä (2002). EPM of the fractional slot permanent magnet motor is solved as (Hendershot and Miller. 1997.5. 1994.g. τp is pole pitch and Li is the effective length of the stator core (Li ≈ L + 2δ : L. as e. (2. if the equivalent air-gap length is precisely known. p. There are different methods to derive the equation of the magnetizing inductance. The Φδ. the permanent magnets. 2. because it is not constant and because there are many parameters which affect it.49 The induced back EMF.22) where Nph is the amount of winding turns in series of stator phase. The magnetizing inductance can be calculated correctly only. It can also be solved with the finite element analysis. Equivalent air-gap can be defined as δeff = (δ + hm)kC. which depends on the mechanical air-gap length δ. in a considerable way. physical length of the stator core). 2. on the estimated inductances. FEA. according to Vogt (1996). PM 2 EPM = 2π .24) where µ0 is permeability of air.23).g. fs is the frequency of stator field and Φδ. the virtual . The air-gap length. (2. the height of the magnets hm and the Carters coefficient kC (and also the effect of the saturated iron. Inductances The direct-axis magnetizing inductance depends on the equivalent air-gap length δeff. The accuracy of the analytical PM motor torque calculation depends. δeff is not easy to define. PM can be analytically solved following e. 6-22) ˆ f s N phξ1Φδ. which is not included in Eq. or from the air-gap reluctance and flux linkage. according to Grauers (1996).

the stray fluxes and the iron saturation in both the stator and rotor iron (Heikkilä.24) should not have any effect on the inductance of a fractional slot machine. Flux paths of a 12-slot-10-pole machine for a A-phase.50 pole shoe above the magnets. 2.where magnetic fields are created by the coil current. In concentrated wound fractional slot machines the air-gap area which the flux travels through to produce flux linkage is the area spanned by the coils (Qs/mτsLi). The area for the air-gap for which Lmd is calculated is for an integer slot machine the whole pole arc τp along which the flux density distribution may be assumed to be even sinusoidal. 2002). as illustrated in Fig. The air-gap area which the flux Φ travels through to produce torque is the area spanned by the coils ((Qs/m)τsLi = 4τsLi). The coil inductance has three distinct components due to the three distinct areas . according to Hanselman (2003). 2.25) -B -B -C +B +B -A Φ +A +A Φ +C -A τs τs +C +C -C -C -C +A τs -A -A τs +A -B +B +B -B +C Φ Φ Fig. Leakage inductance method 1 The leakage inductance Lσ can be calculated as the sum of its partial inductances.the air-gap.1. Since the inductance is basically a stator-based quantity the rotor pole pitch or pole pair number in Eq. 1967). the slots and the end windings . The ferromagnetic portions do not contribute to the inductance as long as their relative permeability is high. 2.9. For the integer slot . The leakage inductances can be defined by the method given by Richter (1963. By using these correlations the magnetizing inductance for a three-phase machine can be solved as 2mµ 0 τs Li ξ1 N ph 2 .5. (2. π Qs πδ eff m Lmd = ( ) (2.9.

2. The leakage inductance is the sum of all partial inductances and is defined below Lσ = Lδ + Ln + Lz + Lw + Lχ .7 0.004 q=3 q=4 q=5 q=6 q= x1 a) 0. p.008 0. In a two-layer winding there may be slots that have coils of two different phases. (2.012 0. a) A two-layer winding with some important dimensions. 2.10 b) shows a diagram to define the leakage-factor σδ. b) A diagram to define the leakage-factor σδ for three phase (q = integer) windings as a function of the coil pitch/pole pitch (Vogt. 267).26) The structure of a two-layer winding is shown in Fig. 2.026 q=2 slot pitch.51 windings.8 y / τp 8 0. τs x4 y2 y3 y5 y12 y11 y1 y4 σδ 0. this method gives good results. 0. which is needed to calculate the air-gap leakage inductance Lδ.0 0.0 b) Fig.10 a).03 0. . Richter divides the leakage inductance into five components: • • • • • Lδ for the air-gap leakage inductance Ln for the slot leakage inductance Lz for the tooth tip leakage inductance Lw for the end winding leakage inductance Lχ for the skew leakage inductance.10. 1996. Fig.9 1.

933.067.28) According to Richter Eq.933   0. the air-gap leakage inductance can be defined as  N ph µ m Lδ = 0 Dδ Li   p π δ    σδ . because it depends on the winding concerned. According to Richter (1963).02 . the inductance factor is defined by integrating the magnetic field strength. In the case of a two-layer fractional slot winding the air-gap leakage inductance cannot be calculated from the basic equations. Traditionally. In the analytical computations the harmonics and their winding factors were computed to estimate the amount of the leakage airgap inductance. a 12-slot-10-pole machine has the harmonic winding factors ξν5 = 0.933   0. an air-gap leakage-factor.933.067   +  +  + . In the case of a two-layer winding. 2.  νξ  ν =−∞  1  ν ≠1 ν =+∞  2 (2.10 b) shows the values of σδ for a three-phase winding. ξν11 = 0. (2. 136) ξ  σδ = ∑  ν  . = 0.067 … and the factor σδ becomes σδ =   0.29) Slot leakage inductance The fractional slot arrangement does not differ from that of the integer slot machine with respect to the stator slot leakage.933   11 ⋅ 0.933   7 ⋅ 0. ξν7 = 0.933  2 2 2 (2. The mutual inductance of both coils should be taken into consideration as well as the fact that the coils may belong to different phases when .27) Fig.   2 (2.52 Air-gap leakage inductance The stator mmf-harmonic content of a traditional (q = integer) machine is small compared to the fractional slot machine (q < 1).28) is valid only for the integer windings. p. ξν13 = 0. As an example.  5 ⋅ 0. The factor σδ can be calculated from the winding harmonics content according to (Richter. 1954. σδ is calculated to define the air-gap leakage inductance..

( ) (2. The self-inductance of a two-layer winding can be defined as (Richter.32) λ so = (2.33) A factor λn3 depends on the shape of the slot (round.31) where Li is the effective length of the core. They can be defined as Λsu = µ 0 Li λsu and Λso = µ 0 Li λso . square.53 there is a phase shift between the currents flowing in them. 269) methods as follows: λ su = 4 y11 y 5 + y 2 y + + λn3 + 4 . …). 3x1 x1 x4 y12 y 2 y + + λn3 + 4 . 3x1 x1 x4 (2. and Λsu and Λso are the permeances of the upper and lower layers. p. The permeance factors λsu and λso can be defined by using Richter’s (1967. λsu and λso are permeance factors. x1 − x4 x4 (2. (2.35) Without the phase shift it can be stated that (the upper and lower coils belong to the same phase) . 269) 2 Ln1 = N n1 ( Λsu + Λso ) . 1967. p. If there are Nn1 winding turns in both parts of the coils the mutual inductance will be 2 Ln1 = N n1 Λgu + Λgo . (2. 1967) as λn3 = y3 x ln 1 .30) where Nn1 is the number of effective turns of the coil.34) Not only the self-inductance but also the mutual inductance must be taken into account. For a sharp-angular slot the factor may be defined (Richter.

39) Using a symbol λ’n (to describe the effects of all λ factors) λ'n = λsu + λso + 2 gλg 4 . k =1 n (2.36) Using the dimensions as shown in Fig.54 Λgu = µ 0 Li λgu   Λgo = µ 0 Li λgo . the resultant inductance for one phase. According to Richter (1967). The angle γk is the phase shift of the coils.  a  2 ( ) (2.37) The currents in the upper and lower coils do not always belong to the same phase shift. a (2. it is possible to calculate a factor g= 1 n ∑ cosγ k . 2 x1 x1 x4 (2. p. 2. to take into account the difference of the phase shift of two coils in the same slot. which has 2pq coils and a parallel branches of winding is (Richter. 1967. (2.41) the slot inductance of a two-layer winding can be written as . So.38) which is multiplied with the permeance between the coils in the slot.40) and Nph to present the number of effective turns of one phase (in series) N ph = 2 pqN n1 . The summation includes all coils of one phase.  (2. 271) N  Ln = 2 pq n1  Li µ 0 λsu + λso + 2 gλg .10 a) the permeance factors can be defined as λgu = λgo = λg = y5 y y + 2 + λn 3 + 4 .

5 + 4 x4 / δ λz = (2. 90). Qs (2.138 [1/m]. the leakage inductance factor can be defined by 5 x4 / δ .43) where λs is defined as 2hbλe + bbλw. which are defined for synchronous machines by Richter (1963). Factor hb is the height and bb is the width of the end winding.g. Qs (2. such as the winding structure.45) . p. 1963) Lw = 4m 2 µ 0 Li N ph qλs . According to Richter (1963.42) End winding inductance The end winding inductance can be defined as (Richter.44) The tooth tip inductance of the phase coil is (Richter.518 [1/m] and λw = 0. Tooth tip leakage inductance In this case too. rotor type etc… There are several methods available to estimate the values for these factors. Reactance factors for the end windings λe and λw depend on many parameters. In this study. The width of the end winding of the concentrated winding arrangement is the same as the slot pitch τs. end winding layer orders. 1963) Lz = 4m 2 µ 0 Li N ph λz . Qs (2. the traditional methods. as e. it was used the reactance factors λe = 0. given by Richter (1963) and Jokinen (1973). defined for the integer slot machine.55 Ln = 4m 2 µ 0 Li N ph λns . are directly applicable.

2. can be solved by Vogt as λn = y1 y2 y3 y4 + + + + λz 3 x1 x1 xk x4 y12 y 2 y3 y4 + + + + λz 3x1 x1 xk x4 (2. This stepped mmf is generated from different slots next to each other.5. which create the stepped magnetomotive force. The more slots there are (i. because there is no stepped mmf waveform at all.11). At saturation it might be wise to assume that some inductance will occur. The factors. Leakage inductance method 2 To estimate the amount of the leakage flux Vogt (1996) introduced a method. it is reasonable to assume that there is no air-gap inductance or it must be very low. Vogt made a study on the slot opening effect appearing in fractional slot winding machines. If there are two coils in the same slot. This mmf is not strongly magnetically connected to the coils of the phases next to it. which are later needed to calculate the slot inductance. if the value of the slot opening width per air-gap (x4/δ) is equal to 3. Vogt described many ways to calculate the air-gap inductance. then the factor of the tooth tip leakage λz is zero (Fig. The higher the x4/δ value is the more the air-gap flux is drawn into the slot.28) becomes – as well as the air-gap inductance value. 2. He noticed that in the case of a fractional slot machine the estimation of the leakage flux amount was rather complicated.46) λo = (2. In the case of a concentrated winding the situation is totally different.e. there will be some interaction of the leakage components. A single coil is wound around one tooth and will produce half of the mmf of one main flux route. 1996). If the value of q is large.56 2. He found out that. It is difficult to find in the literature any references to methods designed for the calculating of this inductance in fractional slot applications. The nature of the air-gap inductance is examined. And if the value λz is greater than 3. the larger q is) the more sinusoidal the mmf will look and the smaller σ δ (Eq. but only for integer slot windings. it means that there are several slots. (Vogt.2. λz can have negative values – to correct this effect. then λz can be considered to be a negative value. which is very similar to the method described above.47) . Thereby. Therefore.

57 λu = y + 0.8 0.4 y /τp 0.0 1.6 2/3 λz 0.48) Factor xk is (x1 – x4) and λz can be selected from the diagram in Fig 2.4 0.0 x4 / δ Fig.6 k1 { k2 0.11.2 0 2 1 6 2 10 14 3 -0.49) Factors k1 and k2 are selected from the diagram shown in Fig. + + + + λz + 5 x1 3 x1 x1 xk x4 (2. 2. for the calculation of the bottom slots (Nu) the factor λo should be used and for the slots (Nn) with both coils belonging to the same phase the factor λn should be used.5 y1 y11 y2 y3 y 4 . Factors k1 and k2 for the calculation of the inductance. p. 2. are shown on the left. A numerical example of calculating inductances for a 24-slot-22-pole fractional slot wound motor is given in Appendix D. x  4x 3 x1 1  1 x k x4  (2.2 0. In two-layer windings there may be slots where the coils are belonging either to the same phase. 254) for the selection of the factor λz is given as a function of slot opening width x4 per air-gap δ. This depends on the selected winding.1 -0. The slot inductance of the upper slots (No) should be calculated using the factor λo. .11.8 0.8 1.0 0. given by Vogt (1996). In symmetrical windings having the same amount of upper and bottom slots the slot inductance can be calculated as follows λns = k1 y  y y y1 y + k 2  2 + 3 + 4 + λz  + 5 . On the x-axis the ratio y /τp is the coil pitch per pole pitch. The diagram introduced by Vogt (1996. The dotted line is for machines with doubled zone width and the dashed line for 2 phase machines.6 k1 k2 0. or to different phases.11. The slot inductance is a combination of different slots λnz = Nu·λu + No·λo + Nn·λn. 1.

EPM and inductances are known the load angle can be solved from the power equation. The torque developed by a synchronous motor is solved from (Gieras and Wing. 1997.7 (at 1 T 50 Hz. induced back EMF.  60  ( ) (2.6.58 2.54) . −  Lq Ld      (2. P= mp EPMU mp EPMU sin(δ a ) = sin(δ a ) . t p10bt2    50  3/ 2 . y p10by    50  3/ 2 ˆ  f  + mFe. Loss calculation Resistive losses (copper losses) in windings may be defined by 2 PCu = mRph I n . The bearing losses are defined as n  PBr = k rb Dr L + 0. EPM are known the torque can be solved.51) 2.52) Iron losses in the stator and rotor are calculated as follows (Vogt.53) where f is frequency.6τ p  s  .5. (2. t k Fe. (2.50) In machines. When the supply voltage U. if Ld = Lq. 154) T= mp  EPMU U2  sin(δ a ) + 2 ω s 2  Ld    1 1    sin (2δ a ) . t = 1. 1996) ˆ2  f  PFe = mFe.7. where Ld = Lq the maximum torque is achieved with load angle. Torque calculation When the inductances and induced back EMF. kFe. subscript y means yoke and t means teeth). y k Fe. kFe. y = 1. p. ω s Ld ω s Lmd + Lsσ (2. In PMSMs the maximum torque is often reached at load angles larger than 90°.2 and p10 = 2. δa = 90°.

57) Eq.59 In the case of a surface cooled motor a factor krb of 8 … 10 Ws2/mm4 can be used for the calculation of the bearing losses.0075 ⋅ P . Factor k3 is solved from equation k3 = hm   4  l m + bm  2(lm − 2bm ) ln  l − 2b   2916  m   m  2l 4 − 13bm lm 3 − 54bm 2lm 2 − 52bm 3lm + 68bm 4   − 3bm m . bδ is the fundamental (peak) component of the air-gap flux density wave.56) where fsw is the switching frequency and ρm is the resistivity of the magnet. the eddy current losses for a surface magnet motor can be computed as ˆ2 PEddy = 2π 2 pnmx nmz f sw 2bδ ρm k3 . A simplified factor k3 may be used k3 ≈ hm bm 3lm .55) The stray losses may also be calculated by using other methods. According to Nipp (1999). 12 (2. which are related to the magnet geometry: lm is the length of magnet. Value nmx is the ˆ number of the magnets in x-axis direction along one pole arc. lm + bm   (2. the pulsation losses for a machine of this frame size of 225 are about 10 W.57) includes parameters. (2. (2. The stray losses are combined of the pulsation losses PPu and the eddy current losses PEddy of the magnets. bm is the width of magnet and hm the height of the magnet. Value nmz is the number of the magnets in z-axis direction (axial direction) of the machine. According to Richter (1963).58) . (2. The stray losses according to Gieras and Wing (1997) can be calculated as PStr = 0.

electric or thermal states of devices. prototypes.60 The eddy current losses may be calculated separately for the direct and quadrature-axis. windage losses and ventilation losses. q . The accuracy of the FEA depends on the geometry.60) α is electrical angle and n is the number of magnets along one pole pitch. force etc. (2. but may be easily solved with finite element analysis.59) ˆ2 PEddy. especially when a frequency converter is used. measurements).6. d + PEddy. η= P P = P + Ph P + PFe + PCu + PStr + PBr (2.60) PEddy = PEddy. These states allow computation of several quantities: field. Time stepping computations can be done with circuit couplings.g. tests. flux. In these computations ideal sinusoidal current supplies and ideal voltage supplies have been used. The eddy current losses are ˆ2 PEddy. It computes for plane sections (problems in the plane or problems with rotational symmetry) the magnetic. q = 4 π 2 pnmz f sw 2bδ  2α ∑ sin n  ρm n  mx k3  n   2 (2. potential. The quantities obtained would be difficult to define by other methods (analytical computations. .61) In Eq. There are also other additional losses e.62) 2. All loss components Ph can be summed up to finally solve the efficiency (PPu ≈ 10 W). the quality of the FE-mesh and also on the time-step values. FEA. In the case of a fractional slot machine the flux in the air-gap is difficult to estimate by any analytical method. which may be taken into consideration in some cases. (2. energy.59) and (2. d = 4 π 2 pnmz f sw 2bδ  2α ∑ cos n  ρm n  mx k3  n   2 (2. When using a direct torque controlled -drive the current is close to sinusoidal.8. Finite element analysis The finite element analysis program used in the computations is Cedrat’s Flux2D version 7. In real measurements the supplies usually have some harmonic components too.

The magnet material used in the computations is Neorem’s 495a. In the computations (and later in prototype machine) laminated steel M600-50 is used. kf = 0. . d the lamination sheet thickness. The parameters used in the computations for M600-50 are the conductivity.5 1T 1 T  d 2  db(t )   db(t )   ˆ PFe (t )dt = k h b 2 f kf + ∫ kf σ  dt . The iron losses can be calculated in a magnetic region during the analysis.67 . σ the conductivity. The B/H-curves of the magnet material are shown in Appendix E.5 mm the coefficient of hysteresis loss.  + ke   T∫ T 0  12  dt   dt   0   (2. computed with Flux2D. The factors depend on the steel material used. kh = 152 (Ws/T2/m3) the coefficient of excess loss.63) In periodic state (time stepping magnetic applications over one complete period) the iron losses are defined as 2 1.61 The iron losses of the stator and the rotor as well as eddy current losses of the magnets can be computed with FEA.64) ˆ where b is the maximum flux density at the element concerned.98. The losses. kh the coefficient of hysteresis loss. σ = 4⋅106 (1/ Ω m) the lamination sheet thickness. ke the coefficient of excess loss and kf is the filling factor. In harmonic state (magneto dynamic applications) the iron losses are defined as ˆ PFe = k h b 2 ⋅ f + π 2 σ d2 ˆ 2 ˆ (bf ) + ke (bf )1.5 ⋅ 8. f the frequency. The equations used for the computation of the iron losses are explained here. include the hysteresis losses.32 (W/Ts-1)1. ke = 2. d = 0.5/m3 the filling factor. 6 (2. For more information about the other computation mechanisms of Cedrat’s Flux2D it is referred to respective manuals. the classical losses (Joule losses) and the excess losses.

The structure must have a large fundamental winding factor. This no-load voltage level was found to be suitable to be used in DTC-controlled drives. the following statements must be valid when a 400 rpm. 21-slot-22-pole or 24-slot-26-pole do not produce enough torque even though their fundamental winding factors are equal to 0. The structure should use a low amount of PM material.method. The computations were carried out as follows: • • • The motor geometry is drawn for the FEA.949 (see chapter 2. It is searched for concentrated wound machines that have the capacity of producing a high torque and a good torque quality.9EPM/ 3 ) volts no-load induced phase voltage (EPM = 351 V) was achieved. machines such as 21-slot-20-pole. because the FEA (finite element analysis) proved to be an accurate .g.) 2. 3. The structure should have a low torque ripple. The target is to find suitable constructions for a 45 kW. such as an unbalanced magnetic pull etc. The structure should have a low cogging. Fractional slot motors have been studied with a 2D finite element method.951 or 0. 400 rpm machine. is not a sufficient condition.though time consuming . (This. 4. 45 kW. These combinations also have other unwanted properties. The number of coil turns is determined so that 180 (about 0. The structure should produce the highest possible torque. 5.62 3. . This excludes odd slot numbers. These are values that are typically applied in paper machines. The flux created by the magnets is computed. since e. An unbalanced magnetic pull should be avoided. 6. no currents in the stator. COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS In this chapter a performance analysis of several different fractional slot machines will be given. According to the author’s knowledge. Analyses were also carried out by using an analytic method and the results will be compared to the results obtained with the FEA. frame 225 machine is designed 1. a static computation.2). however.

63

• •

The rated values are first estimated by analytical calculations with the method described in Chapter 2. A time stepping computation is performed to solve the induced back EMF. In this computation the rotor is rotating at a 400 rpm constant speed and there are no currents in the stator. The cogging of the motor (as a function of the relative magnet width) is also computed from this computation. The results are given in Chapters 3.3 and 3.4.

The time stepping computations are carried out with circuit couplings. o o A circuit with sinusoidal current supply. The torque ripple peak-to-peak values are solved out as a function of the relative magnet width. A set of voltage driven computations with different load angles are performed for the motor. A purely sinusoidal voltage supply with 351 V terminal voltage is used although, in real measurements, the voltage is supplied with a DTC drive. From these computations the pull-out torque and the rated load angle are solved.

Fig. 3.1 shows three of the studied concentrated wound machines. The figure illustrates the three different structures: S = surface magnet motor, ER = radially embedded magnet motor ˆ ˆ and EV = embedded magnet motor where the pole consists of two rectangular magnets in ˆ V-position.

Fig. 3.1. Three different motor structures analysed in the study: a) 24-slot-22-pole, surface magnets (S), b) 12-slot-14-pole, radially embedded (ER) magnets and c) 12-slot-10-pole, embedded magnets in V-position (EV). To model the whole electrical cycle of these machines, in fact, the whole machine geometry must be described.

64

The investigated fractional slot machines are listed in Table 3.1, which also show the most important FEA results: the pull-out torque (compared to rated torque), the obtained minimum cogging torque and the minimum torque ripple peak-to-peak values (% of rated torque) for a certain magnet width and the amount of the magnet material in the machine. Table 3.1. Motor structures being analysed: A 45 kW, 400 rpm machine with sinusoidal voltage supply with 351 V terminal voltage. The pull-out torques are in p.u. values. Torque ripples (peak-to-peak values, % of rated torque) are computed with open slots. Structure, Stator slots/ rotor poles S, EV, ER 12/8 S 12/10 S 12/10 ER 12/10 EV 12/14 S 12/16 S 18/12 S 18/14 S 21/22 S 24/16 S 24/20 S 24/20 ER 24/22 S 24/22 ER 24/26 S 24/28 S 36/24 S 36/30 S 36/42 S q 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.286 0.25 0.5 0.429 0.318 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.364 0.364 0.308 0.286 0.5 0.4 0.286 Torque ripple PMCogging Pull-out torque (peak-to-peak%)/ (peak-to-peak%)/ material Winding (p.u.) / relative relative magnet relative magnet amount factor magnet width width width [kg] 0.866 1.7/0.85 4/0.78 13/0.77 10.6 0.933 1.7/0.81 1/0.73 2.5/0.87 10.3 0.933 1.2 10.3 0.933 1.1 12.5 0.933 1.2/0.84 0.2/0.93 1.5/0.76 10.5 0.933 1.0/0.7 3/0.73 3.5/0.75 10.5 0.866 2.1/0.7 10.3 0.902 1.8/0.72 1.2/0.81 10.3 0.951 1.1/0.85 10.3 0.866 2.0/0.78 3.8/0.77 10.3 0.933 1.8/0.83 1.7/0.89 10.3 0.933 1.7 9.6 0.949 1.6/0.83 0.3/0.75 10.3 0.949 1.5 10.3 0.949 1.0/0.84 0.3/0.81 10.3 0.933 1.3/0.81 0.8/0.75 10.3 0.866 1.7/0.71 3/0.73 2.0/0.78 10.3 0.866 1.5/0.77 1.5/0.7 10.3 0.933 1.0 0.05/0.72 0.6/0.9 10.4

Next, the process of computing the results will be explained. The content in this chapter will be presented in the following order: First, the structures that produce the highest torque will be determined. Secondly, the quality of the produced torque will be calculated. The effect of the relative magnet width (pole arc per pole pitch, defined in Fig. 3.12) on the amplitude of the cogging torque as well as the torque ripple values will be studied. From the results obtained the effect of the slot opening width in the cases of a semi-closed slot opening and a totally open slot will be analysed. Also the waveform of the induced back EMF will be calculated, because if the curve is not sinusoidal, it may indicate a high torque ripple. In the third stage, the performance of the surface permanent magnet motors will be compared to that of the embedded permanent magnet motors. And the fourth stage will present an analysis of the losses.

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3.1.

Torque as a function of the load angle

A set of voltage driven computations were performed for the motor, so that the maximum torque available could be solved. The torques obtained from the FE analysis were plotted as a function of the load angle. The graph shows the available maximum torque and from the graph it is also possible to determine the load angle at the rated point of the fractional slot motor. The FEA with voltage driven model was carried out for several motors of the same frame size. In order to obtain a fair comparison, some of the parameters reported in Table 3.2, were kept constant. The air-gap diameter and the machine length were selected to be constant, so that the area in which the torque is produced would be the same for the machines to be analysed. There is one exception, which is the machine with 12 slots, since with this machine the air-gap diameter has to be smaller to fit in the larger slots. In this case the stator inner diameter is 249 mm.

Table 3.2. Constant parameters for machines in voltage driven model computations Constant parameter Output power Speed Rated torque Stator outer diameter Stator inner diameter Stator core length Magnet material mass 45 kW 400 rpm 1074 Nm 364 mm 254 mm 270 mm 10.4 kg ±0.1 kg

The amount of the magnet material used was kept as equal as possible for each machine. The amount of magnet material varies a little, from 10.3 up to 10.5 kg. While drawing the geometry of the magnet a variation in the amount of magnet material may be possible. When comparing the embedded magnet structures to the surface magnet structures magnet material amount of 9.5 kg has also been used. To be able to compare the effect of the pole numbers, a 12-slot-stator was designed and computed using several rotors with different numbers of poles: 8, 10, 14 and 16, respectively. Also a 24-slot-stator was examined, using several rotors with different

66

numbers of poles, 16, 20, 22, 26 and 28, respectively. Furthermore a 36-slot-stator with 24, 30 and 42 poles was analysed.

In all, 16 different fractional slot surface magnet motors were computed with the FEA using a voltage driven model and also with analytical methods. Some of the studied motors were also computed using an embedded magnet rotor structure. Fig. 3.2 shows an example of the torque curve plotted for a 24-slot-22-pole machine. The points are got from the voltage driven model. The dashed line is computed from the Ld and Lq values obtained from FEA and the torque equation (Eq. 2.50). The black line is the obtained analytical result, which was computed using the inductances (Eq. 2.25 and Eq. 2.26), assumed that Lq equals to Ld and the torque equation (Eq. 2.50). The inductances were computed with 4 different analytical methods. From these methods it was selected the method the results of which were close to the FEA results. The computation of the inductances is shown in Appendix D.

2

FEA FEA points

1.5 Torque (p.u.)

Analytical

1

0.5

0 0 45 90 Load angle (deg) 135 180

Fig. 3.2. Torque as a function of the load angle (electrical degrees) of 24-slot-22-pole surface mounted machine. The points are got from the voltage driven FEA model. The dashed line is computed with the torque equation (Eq. 2.50) and with the inductance (Ld and Lq) values obtained from FEA. The black line is the obtained analytical result, calculated with the torque equation (Eq. 2.50) using the inductances (Eq. 2.25 and Eq. 2.26) and assuming, that Lq equals to Ld. Appendix D shows the calculation of the inductances.

u. Each machine has 10.67 The torque curves as a function of the load angle for the 24-slot surface magnet machines with different pole numbers are shown in Fig.) 14-pole 16-pole 1 0. 2 8-pole 10-pole 1.5 Torque (p.5 Torque (p. . 3.3 kg magnet material. Torque curves as a function of the load angle for 12-slot surface magnet machines.u. The highest curves are for the 12-slot-8-pole and the 12-slot-10-pole machines and the lowest for 12-slot-16-pole machine.4. 3.) 22-pole 26-pole 1 28-pole 0. 3. 3.5 0 0 45 90 Load angle (deg) 135 180 Fig. Torque curves as a function of load angle for 24-slot surface magnet machines. The curves are drawn according to the computation points from the FEA.3.5 0 0 45 90 Load angle (deg) 135 180 Fig.4.3 and for the 12-slot surface magnet machines in Fig. 2 16-pole 20-pole 1.

26 or 28 poles.25 22 0.5 22 24 26 0. When q varies from 0.) ∆Tp-p (%) Qs = 36 q Tmax/Tn ∆Tp-p (%) 12 14 16 20 0.3 1. the torque ripple of a 12-slot-8-pole (q = 0. e.5 2.31 the pull-out torque is less than 1.66 1. peak-to-peak value) obtained from the FEA are shown in Table 3.5 1.56 6 24 0. 22.) 1. torque is achieved with the 18-slot-12-pole motor and the lowest torque obtained is 1.286 1.g.0 p.5 16 20 0.46 28 0.0 >50 26 0.u. the magnet material about 10.0 7.u.5 Qs = 18 q Tmax/Tn (p.66 ∆Tp-p (%) 16 2.73 3.u. peak-to-peak value) for the surface mounted machines obtained from the voltage driven model.2 p. which have the same number of slots.29 0.18 0.5 0.27 0.5 0.5) motor is only 8% and 3.0 2 1 The highest pull-out 2.5 or close to that value.3 3 28 0. machines with 24 slots and with 16.3.38 0.3) of machines.31 1. as it is illustrated in Table 3.4 0. e. Table 3.25 0.. The torque ripple values (with sinusoidal voltage supply) for a certain value of q are decreasing as the pole and slot number are increasing.143 30 0.1 p. With a 24-slot .13 42 12 0.79 6.0 1.2 1.u.53 1.1 16 22 24 0.5) motor is 16%.17 0. 20.g. The pull-out torque Tmax/Tn (p.4 Tmax/Tn (p.5% with a 36-slot-24-pole (q = 0.5 26 0.25 to 0.4 2.429 30 42 0.u. The machine parameters were 400 rpm.3. The high pull-out torque values are achieved with q = 0.5) motor.68 The values of pull-out torque and torque ripples ∆T (% of the rated torque.) ∆Tp-p (%) Qs = 24 q Tmax/Tn (p.79 8 2.3 kg and the voltage supply was sinusoidal with a 351 V terminal voltage.) and torque ripple values ∆Tp-p (% of the rated torque.15 28 0. but the torque ripple of a 24-slot-16-pole (q = 0.5 13 14 16 20 0.43 0.36 1. Comparison can also be made (according to Table 3.3. Slots Poles Qs = 12 8 10 q 0.u.u.17 1.286 1.

Number of slots and poles From the manufacturer’s standpoint it may be a benefit to have a motor with few poles and slots so that the costs may be kept low. The geometries (in principle) of q = 0. then. E. air-gap diameter.4 motors to be analysed.5. a larger leakage flux is obtained. Each magnet has stray flux components on both sides of the magnet. A high pole number also needs a high supply frequency. One fifth of the machine is illustrated for a) a 12-slot-10-pole.0 p. As the number of slots is kept constant but the number of magnets is increased (while the amount of magnet material is kept the same). output power and speed. the highest pull-out torque 2. This was made for a particular slot per pole and per phase number q for a surface magnet motor equipped with semi-closed slots. q = 0. the number of slots and poles are doubled to 24 slots and 20 poles. so that.4 motors under study. Therefore. the relative amount of the leakage flux increases. 72o 72o 72o Fig. The fact is that. (In finite element model the whole machine geometry was be described. on the other hand.) . As the number of poles increases. Fig 3. b) 24-slot-20-pole and c) 36-slot-30-pole motor. The third computation is then performed with 36 slots and 30 poles. the torque production capabilities were examined for the case when the number of slots and poles are multiplied by an integer factor. as the pole number increases.4 is first observed with 12 slots and 10 poles and.5). when the number of poles and slots is high. This may be due to the stray flux of the magnets. A certain q value is examined with different numbers of slot and poles. 3. which.69 stator.2. there is more processing to do. considerably increases the losses. is achieved with the 24-slot-16-pole motor (q = 0. which has the same frame size.g. Each pole has some leakage flux on the edges. the maximum torque decreases.u.5 illustrates the geometrical structures of q = 0. 3.

3 258 22 2344 225 2849 94.09 1. This can be concluded especially from the stator iron losses values.8 189 96 0.286. but both the slot and pole numbers are increased. Machines are with semi-closed slots and with surface magnets. As the slot and pole numbers increase.6 262 19 2881 225 3387 93. the frequency increases causing also an increasing of the iron losses.77 188 104 0.933 86 400 93. s (W) PFe.286 0.4.86 0.93 0. (For the case of 24-slot machines also 9.11 2. r (W) PCu (W) PStr (W) Ph (W) Efficiency (%) 12 14 0.5 274 37 2512 225 3048 93.79 10.0 24 28 0.866 83. As q is kept constant.98 0.57 0.85 184 96 0.11 1. 0.49 0.02 10.933 90 400 100 0.75 185 112 0. the relative value of the magnetizing inductance Lmd decreases and the leakage inductance Lsσ increases.91 0.52 179 104 0. All motors studied have the same frame size.98 0.53 10.4 and 0.66 0.0 12 8 0.17 10.5 0.933 91.7 12 10 0.70 The weight of the magnet material was kept around 10.4 400 33. Table 3.8 36 42 0.10 1.0 36 24 0.3 507 30 2219 225 2981 93.5 0.66 10.5 24 16 0.u.u.5 with three different slot-pole combinations.8 168 108 0.0 10.96 0.4 984 24 2387 225 3620 92.5 0.4 0.3 0.10 1.66 10. 0.73 10.933 82 400 66.64 0.4 . ξ1 Rated current (A) Speed (rpm) Frequency (Hz) Power factor Inductance.286 0.3 350 15 2364 225 2954 93.8 24 20 0. The terminal voltage is 351 V and the frame size 225.97 0.5 400 46.) mmagn (kg) PFe.7 0.866 95. The values computed for the machines used in this comparison are presented in Table 3.4.3 511 14 2936 225 3686 92.3 kg.286.4 0.3 10.72 0.5 kg magnet material would have been sufficient to produce a suitable back EMF.12 1.6 36 30 0.5 400 53. Slots Poles q Winding factor.97 0.975 0.) The examined slots per pole and per phase numbers were equal to 0.91 0.933 92 400 140 0.48 180 120 0.4 and 0.10 1.90 0.7 0.933 88.10 1.286 0.2 696 19 2430 225 3145 93.7 0.79 192 104 0.) Lsσ / Ld Back EMF (V) Nph Rph (Ω) Tmax/Tn (p.10 1. The parameters and FEA results of 45 kW motors with q equal to 0.5.3 0. Ld (p.56 180 104 0.3 374 20 2017 225 2636 94.64 0.2 400 80 0.866 88 400 26.3 0. air-gap diameter.4 0.85 0. air-gap length and the same amount of magnet material.

5 Pull-out torque (p. pull-out torque) With a 24-slot stator and by decreasing the pole number from 20 to 16. As the pole pair number p is high. 2 q = 0.5 q = 0. achieved with 8 poles. This could be a possible structure. the pole numbers are changed from 8 poles to 14 poles. and this. For this machine size the 24-slot stator would be a good alternative. In the case of the 12-slot stator. the crosssectional area of a slot becomes large if the current density in the slot is to be kept constant. . 0. as it is shown in Table 3.1 p.6. is as high as the pull-out torque achieved with 10 poles. The calculated pull-out torques in p.3 also an 18-slot-12-pole structure would be a suitable alternative. but requires a reduced air-gap diameter. also the frequency f is higher and this gives a higher magnetizing inductance Lmd compared to a smaller pole number. 3. because it has a 2. decreases the maximum torque.6. As the pole number increases. The pull-out torque.71 From the results given in Table 3. due to the increased inductance. on the other hand. 3. Therefore.4. It can be seen that the amount of pull-out torque is slightly different as the number of slot and poles varies for a certain q value.) q = 0. The results from the FEA are shown in Fig. it is not possible to achieve the same back EMF with the same number of the stator winding turns. (As shown in Table 3. With a high inductance value it is not possible to achieve a high torque.4 also different pole numbers for a certain stator can be compared.u. values got from the voltage driven model for fractional slot machines with q equal to 0. 3.4 1. The highest values are achieved with the 24-slot machines.4 or 0.6. The values of the pull-out torque are illustrated in Fig.u.286.286 1 poles slots 8 12 16 1 24 24 36 10 12 20 2 24 30 36 14 12 28 3 24 42 36 Fig. since the winding factor is low and the numbers of coil turns needed are high. An 8-pole motor with 12 slots is difficult to fit into this frame size.5.u. the obtained pull-out torque decreases.

to 1.286 10 q = 0. which can cause a high current density and to a weak mechanical structure. 3. if the number of poles is increased. the 36-slot-30-pole motor was also computed with an air-gap diameter. After increasing the air-gap diameter by 8%. It must be noted that.286 4 q = 0. where the results from the voltage driven model are given.7. As an example. The amplitude of the cogging torque decreases as the number of slots and poles increases as shown in Fig.4.53 p. The stator yoke iron thickness as well as the slot depth was decreased. as the numbers of slots and poles increase.u. the torque ripple decreases. the FEA with the voltage driven model showed that the pull-out torque increased about 20% from 1. speed 400 rpm) and torque ripples at rated load (rated current.u. a) The peak-to-peak values of the cogging torque in (%) of the rated torque and b) torque ripple in (%) of the rated torque for fractional slot machines with q equal to 0. The torque ripple values are the results obtained from the voltage driven model.7 b). Some of the slot-pole combinations are .5. Also. 3.4 5 poles slots 0 8 12 1 16 24 24 36 10 12 2 20 30 24 36 14 283 42 12 24 36 0 poles slots 8 12 16 24 1 24 36 10 12 20 30 2 24 36 14 28 3 12 24 42 36 a) b) Fig. 3. This is described in Fig.7 a). which was 8% larger. 8 20 Cogging torque (%) of rated torque q = 0.3 and 3. Next. the height of the stator yoke as well as the iron area in the rotor (below magnets) could be decreased – in this study these values were kept constant.5 15 q = 0. 0.286. the machines with a same pole number but with a different number of slots in the stator will be compared. which can affect the torque ripple amplitude and the cogging torque amplitude.4 and 0. It should be remembered that the torque ripple is dependent on the machine geometry.4 2 q = 0.72 The values of the cogging torque ripples obtained at no-load (no current. This is more closely examined in chapters 3.85 p. speed 400 rpm) were also analysed for these machines.5 6 Torque ripple (%) of rated torque q = 0.

u.1 p.3.56 p. it is obvious that with 28. Another slot-pole combination (q = 0.73 differing up to 20 percent in the torque ripples values. while a 14-pole (with the same rotor geometry) with 18 slots generates a pull-out of 1. so that the synchronous reactance decreases in motors with high pole number. The highest obtained pull-out torque for the examined machine size was 2. according to the results obtained from the FEA.u.0 p. 3.u.0 p. as the magnet material and the machine size (and air-gap diameter) were kept practically constant. 3. If either the voltage or current is non-sinusoidal. the number of effective winding turns decreases in inverse proportion. Conclusion: Increasing the pole number and keeping the slot number constant reduces the developed pull-out torque in most of the analysed cases. – than with the higher slot number 24. depending on the relative magnet width and the relative slot opening width. for a 18-slot-12-pole motor with q equal to 0. 26 and 22 poles the back EMF is very sinusoidal. A 14-pole motor with 12 slots generates a pull-out torque of 1.5. The worst waveform was offered by a 24-slot-16-pole machine.8. Induced no-load back EMF The waveform of the induced back EMF can indicate the quality of the torque produced.u. as is the thickness of the stator yoke. The torque ripple decreases as the number of slots is increased if the pole number is kept constant. When studying 24-slot machines.1 p. There is a pattern that continues from one pole pair to the other: one magnet is completely under a tooth and the next magnet is completely under a slot – which is reflected in the induced waveform. while with 24-slots it generates a pull-out torque of 2.5. with q = 0.1. some torque ripple may be expected. Further increasing of the slot number and keeping the pole number constant increases the developed pull-out torque. The same behaviour may be observed with the 22-pole motor.79 p. A 16-pole motor with 12-slots generates a pull-out torque of 1. Although this machine has high pole and slot .u. where the pull-out torque is 1. with 21 slots the pull-out torque is smaller . As the number of poles is increased.17 p.5) for the machine was implemented: a 42-slot-28-pole machine.. Hendershot and Miller (1994) showed that every time the number of poles is doubled the required thickness of the rotor yoke or back-iron inside the magnets is reduced by one half. It could also be noticed that the smaller q value yields a more sinusoidal back EMF waveform.u..u. as it might be seen in Fig.

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numbers, the back EMF waveform is far away from a sinusoidal curve, which probably causes that the machine has a high torque ripple. Machines with q equal to 0.5 produce a distorted back EMF, as it can be seen from the EMF waveforms in Fig. 3.9.

300

q = 0.4

q = 0.5

150 Back EMF (V)

0
24 slots 28 poles (0.286)

-150

24 slots 26 poles (0.308) 24 slots 22 poles (0.364) 24 slots 20 poles (0.4) 24 slots 16 poles (0.5)

-300

0

ω mek

Fig. 3.8. Induced back EMFs of fractional slot machines with a 24-slot-stator. The results are given for a surface magnet machine with semi-closed slots.

300 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 0

42 slots 28 poles (0.5) 24 slots 16 poles (0.5) 12 slots 8 poles (0.5)

Back EMF (V)

ω mek

Fig. 3.9. Induced back EMFs of fractional slot machines with the number of slots per pole and per phase equal to 0.5. The results are given for a surface magnet machine with semi-closed slots.

75

According to the FEA results shown in Figs 3.8 and 3.9, some of the back EMFs of the analysed fractional slot machines are not sinusoidal, but flattened at the top. If there is a sinusoidal current and a sinusoidal voltage the power produced should be constant and the torque ripple should be small. But, e.g. in the case of the machines with q equal to 0.5, torque oscillations are expected because of the non-sinusoidal voltage waveform, as shown in Fig 3.9.

3.4.

Cogging torque

Cogging is an oscillatory torque, which is caused by the tendency of the rotor to line up with the stator in a particular direction where the permeance of the magnetic circuit from the standpoint of the permanent magnets is maximized. Cogging occurs even when there is no current in the stator. The manual rotation of a disconnected machine gives an indication about of the cogging torque. When the motor is running there are also other additional oscillatory torque components resulting from the interaction of the magnets with the space-harmonics created by the winding layout and with the magnetomotive forces created by the current harmonics. These additional oscillatory torque components are generally referred to as torque ripple, while the term cogging is often used for the no-current situation.

The torque ripple can be reduced by several methods (Hendershot and Miller (1994), Li and Slemon (1988)): by using an increased air-gap length, or a fractional slots/pole, or larger numbers of slots/pole, or thick tooth tips to prevent saturation, by keeping the slot opening to a minimum, by using magnetic slot wedges, by skewing the stator core or the permanent magnets, by forming or chamfering the magnet poles, by forming or chamfering the stator tip or punch holes in tooth tips, by varying the magnetization of the magnet poles, by using bifurcated teeth, by using a low magnetic flux density and compensating the cogging by modulating the drive current waveform. With a large number of slots/pole slightly skewing is usually sufficient to eliminate most of the cogging.

When the number of slots/pole is close to 1, the slot geometry becomes more important. Then, the width of the slot opening can be adjusted to minimize the cogging effect. It could be expected that a fractional slot machine with many slots and poles would have a very small cogging torque. Jahns and Soong (1996) introduced technique guidelines for the motor design as well as for the control to minimize the torque ripple. Zhu et al. (2003) have studied the

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cogging torque of some interior-magnet (q < 1) brushless machines. According to Cros and Viarouge (2002), the cogging torque is dependent on the geometry when q (slots per pole and per phase) is close to 0.3 (and Qs ≈ 2p). The authors stated that the performance of q ≈ 0.3 motors is relatively low if a supply with sinusoidal currents is used. In the case of a rectangular current supply and a smooth rotor with surface magnets, the no-load EMF generated in the windings does not produce a flat portion with a sufficient width.

According to Cros and Viarouge, a machine with a number of slots per pole and per phase between 1/2 and 1/3 generally produces a high performance and can have relatively high fundamental winding factors. A machine with these structures can also produce a low no-load cogging torque. The cogging frequency in these constructions is high. The number of cogging periods per rotor revolution is dependent on the least common multiplier LCM of Qs and 2p. The LCM values for some fractional slot machines are given in Table 3.5. These machines have q = 0.5 or q < 0.5 because they are concentrated wound machines. When both the number of slots and the number of poles are doubled, also the LCM increases. This means that the torque ripple is lower for the machines with multiple poles and slots compared to the simpler structures. As an example (shown bolded in table), if Qs is 9 and 2p is 6 the LCM number is 18, but if the numbers are doubled - Qs is 18 and 2p is 12 - the LMC number becomes 36.

Table 3.5. The least common multiplier LCM (of Qs and 2p) values for concentrated wound fractional slot machines Qs\2p 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 2 6 4 12 12 6 6 18 18 8 24 24 72 48 10 30 30 90 60 30 12 12 36 36 72 60 36 14 42 42 126 84 210 126 42 16 48 48 144 48 240 144 336 96 20 60 60 180 60 60 180 420 120 22 66 72 198 132 330 198 462 264 26 78 78 234 156 390 234 546 312 28 84 84 252 168 420 252 84 168

The waveform of the cogging torque as a function of electric angle of a 24-slot-20-pole motor is shown in Fig. 3.10 at the rated speed of 400 rpm. Fig. 3.10 describes the cogging torque from which it can be counted that there are 12 periods in the waveform during a cycle over one pole

11 gives the peak-to-peak cogging torque values for surface magnet machines with semi-closed slot openings and with a relative magnet width of about 0. but a 24-slot-16-pole (also q = 0. Cogging was also computed for open slot machines.00 -0.5) has a 6% cogging torque.) 0. Fig.5 machine) has 5% and a 42-slot-28-pole has only 0.02 -0. but its frequency increases.11. Such a scaling is used in order to reasonably fit the values into the same plot. a 12-slot-8-pole motor (q = 0. giving a total number of 120 periods over one mechanical cycle. The LCM is a measure of the frequency of the cogging torque. According to the results obtained from the FEA.85 p. This number 120 is exactly the number of the LCM for the 24-slot-20-pole motor.77 pair. the cogging torque is inversely proportional to the LCM numbers. 3. Cogging torques of 12-slot-8-pole and 24-slot-20-pole motor as a function of electric angle. For the 12-slot-8-pole machine there are 12 waves over one pole pair.1%. 3. therefore. If the basic structure is multiplied the amplitude of the cogging torque will decrease.11. The LCM value for the motor is easy and fast to calculate. which gives 48 waves during one mechanical cycle.04 0 Electric angle 12 slots 8 poles 24 slots 20 poles 2π Fig. a useful parameter for the designer of fractional slot windings. In this case the LCM ratio corresponds to a scaled value 240/LCM. The cogging torque (% of the rated torque) values obtained from the FEA and the LCM ratios for the surface magnet motors are shown in Fig.04 Cogging torque (p. as it is shown in Fig. 0. As an example.u.10. .02 0. because it is obvious that the slot opening width has effect on the cogging torque values. 3. The smallest cogging torques are achieved for the machines with several slots and poles. and is.u. 3.

85 p. e. τs Fig. LCM ratio = 240/LCM) on y-axis are proportional to the cogging results.5 0. 3. The definition of the relative permanent magnet width (pole arc / pole pitch) and the definition of the relative slot opening width (x4/τs). The effect of the relative magnet width and the slot opening width on the performance of a fractional slot wound PM motor was studied. In the literature several investigations for conventional wound (q = integer) machines are reported.78 6 LCM ratio Computed cogging torque (%) Cogging torque (%) 4 LCM ratio 2 0 slots-poles 12-8 q 0. as it is shown in Fig. pole pitch pole arc MAGNET hm x4 b) a) bm slot pitch.364 0.318 Fig.286 0.5 12-16 12-10 12-14 24-16 24-20 0. The pole arc is measured along the curved side of magnet.12 b) illustrates the definition of the relative slot opening width (x4/τs) used in this study. Li and Slemon (1988).308 0.429 24-28 42-28 24-22 24-26 21-22 0.4 0. 3.11. The definition of the relative magnet width (pole arc length/ pole pitch) is used to describe the magnet width. 3.286 0. % of rated torque) for several structures with semi-closed slots and surface magnet rotors according to the FE analysis.5. . Cogging torque (peak-to-peak values. The LCM ratios (scaled from the LCM numbers shown in Table 3. were used.u.12 a).4 18-14 0. and Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) discussed the selection of a suitable relative magnet width. Fig. Semi-closed slot openings and a relative magnet width of about 0.5 0.25 0.12.g. 3.

it is here examined.13. k is an integer and kw is the constant number 0. Some α values computed with method by Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) are gathered in Table 3. τp the pole pitch.362 αp = 0.79 For traditionally wound (q = integer) machines the suitable permanent magnet width may be calculated as given by Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) α = (k + k w ) τs . which gives results for kw equal to 0 and equal to 0. where q = 1.8 α Fig.862 0.17. The suitable relative magnet width is not an exact number.13. As an example. τp (3. .17.528 αp = 0. Cogging torque as a function of the relative permanent magnet width for an integer wound machine. for the integer slot machine.2 0.6 0.1) where τs is the slot pitch.695 αp = 0. 3. if it is also suitable for fractional slot machines. Even thought Ishikawa’s equation is designed for integer slot machines. q = 2 with kw = 0.195 αp = 0.6. T k=1 k=2 k=3 k=4 k=5 αp = 0. The theoretical behaviour of the cogging for an integer slot machine is given in Fig. 3.17 or 0.67 in order to diminish the cogging torque (as the 3rd harmonic is cancelled).14 suggested by Li and Slemon (1988).4 0. it is often wise to select the relative magnet width to be 0. it is rather a suitable range. The cogging torque appears even with no currents in the stator winding. and therefore the equation may be valid also for a fractional slot winding.

364 0.92 0.6 that machines with the same q have the same values of α.16 0.22 0.33 12 .4 0.33 24 .25 0.5 0 0. Which relative magnet width should be chosen for an individual motor depends on the application in question. (1992) explained the criteria of selecting a suitable relative magnet width to reduce cogging in the case of brushless DC motors. but Ackerman et al.16 0.78 0.364 0 0. for example.22 0.17. Ishikawa and Slemon (1993).17 0.8 0.98 0.78 0.20 0. Ackerman et al.56 12 .67 0.67 … 12 . the 12-slot10-pole (shadowed column) and 24-slot-20-pole machine have the same values. has several possible and also useful minimum values for the relative magnet width.5 0.67 (if kw is 0).4.33 and 0.56 24 .75 0.10 0.67 0. Relative magnet widths α (by Ishikawa and Slemon. The behaviour of the cogging torque in the case of a brushless DC motor can be expected to be similar to brushless PM motor. although the slot and pole numbers were doubled. 1993) for kw equal to 0 and 0. because the cogging is analysed at no-load situation. Also the 12-slot-16-pole machine has only few possible minima.10 0. (1992) also gives some guidance for the selecting of a suitable tooth width.67 0.78 … For the 12-slot-8-pole machine there exists only two minimum points. This indicates that the minimum torque values are achieved with the same relative magnet width.4 0 0. Reliable knowledge of the cogging may be achieved by the FEA.25 0 1 0. were the cogging might achieve the minimum. e.78 0. being 0.88 0.39 12 .17 … 0. The magnet widths are selected using similar methods.83 0.5 0. a 24-slot-22-pole machine.8 0.83 0. He developed his method especially for machines where Qs ≈ 2p.98 0.80 Table 3. In contrast.6.33 12 . (1992) .2p q k\kw 0 1 2 3 … 12 . Qs . for q is 0. where the currents are not effecting. as introduced by Li and Slemon (1988).4 0 0.83 0.17 0. A suitable relative magnet width for a vanishing cogging torque is proposed by Ackerman et al.17 … 0.59 0.67 0.g.5 0.33 24 . It can also be seen from Table 3.

which is the case e.308 Qs . A wider magnet may cause leakage flux.6 0.67 0.2 and 3. .538 α 0.364 Qs . ….923 0. 1. 2. (3. thereby.3) where N = 0.769 0.33 β 1 0.67 0.16 q = 0. 1.919 0. it is noticed that the given magnet widths are similar. Qs .2p 12 .455 α 0.26 q = 0. Qs – 1. 1993). Table 3.g.429 0.6 (Ishikawa and Slemon. 2.83 0.20 q = 0.22 q = 0.75 0.727 0.75 0.33 β 1 0.4 0. 2p –1 and K = 0. 2p –1 and K = 1.5 β 0.25 Qs . The magnet width used for the magnets of a fractional wound surface PM motor is often the width of the tooth.5 0. … .286 Qs .5 0.5 Qs .75 0. (3.5 β 0.545 0.2p 24 .857 0.67 0.2 α 0. 2.846 0.4 α 0. and Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) or the theory suggested by Ackerman et al.33 β 1 0.2p 24 .5 α 0.818 0.8 0.67 0.2 It was examined.83 0.2) where N = 1.5 0.583 0.4 Qs .615 0. The values α and β are given in Table 3.67 0. A suitable width of a tooth is according to Ackerman et al.83 0. whether the method introduced by Li and Slemon (1988). A suitable magnet width α and a suitable tooth width β according to Ackerman’s equations.8 0.8 q = 0. the optimal magnet width should be selected to be as wide as possible.636 0. (1992) β =K 2p Qs −N ( 0 < β < 1 ). 2.81 α=N Qs −K 2p ( 0 < α < 1 ).714 0.83 0.2p 12 . … .33 β 0.67 0.7.4 0. In order to achieve a high flux density in the air-gap and.2p 12 . 3.2p 24 . Eqs.10 q = 0.917 0. (1992) are appropriate for applying to fractional-slot PM machines. When comparing the values to those given in Table 3.286 α 1 0.58 0.571 0. ….3.2p 12 .67 0.83 0.92 0.6 0. Qs – 1.25 α 0.5 0. a high torque.7 for some 12-slot and 24-slot fractional slot machines.33 β 1 0.692 0. if the slot arc is much narrower than the pole arc.14 q = 0.

03 and for the 12-slot-16-pole motor -0. 3.9 1.67 and 0.7 are 0. which means that kw is 0.78 relative magnet width. relative slot opening of 0.8 0. 3. 3. The highest cogging torque level of the studied 12-slot motors with semi-closed slot opening was found for the 12-slot-16-pole motor type and the lowest for the 12-slot-14-pole motor type. The 12-slot-10-pole motor instead has three minima 0.14 shows the cogging torque values.5. Semi-closed slot vs. The minima in the Tables 3. obtained from the FEA.75.08.59. The expected value in Tables 3.1.82 Fig.074.6 is 0.14. when relative magnet width is 0. Therefore.09. Fig.15 gives the cogging torque values with open slots for the same 12-slot motors (with semi-closed slot openings) given in Fig.7 0. for the 12-slot-14-pole motor the factor kw would be 0.17. it can be stated that the method introduced by Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) can be used for this motor. 0.83.4.6 0.76 and 0. 12-slot-14-pole and 12-slot-16-pole machines with semi-closed stator slot openings. . open slot The effect of the width of the slot opening is studied for several motor types. 3. 16 12-08 Cogging torque % of rated 12 12-16 12-10 12-14 8 4 0 0. 3. 12-slot-10-pole. Logically.5 0. for 12-slot-motors with semi-closed slots. 0.14.0 Relative magnet width Fig.6 and 3. Cogging torque peak-to-peak values (% of the rated torque) for 12-slot-8-pole. The cogging torques of 12-slot-8-pole and 12-slot-16-pole machines are lower with open slots than they were with semi-closed slot opening.78 if kw is 0. The minimum cogging torque value for a 12slot-8-pole motor is found with a 0.92.

15. Cogging torque (peak-to-peak values % of rated torque) for 12-slot-8-pole. The cogging torques (peak-to-peak ripples % of rated torque) for a semi-closed-slot and for an open slot machine: a) 12-slot-10-pole machine (q = 0. 3.8 0.08 of the slot pitch and the open slot width is 0.16 b). 3. 12-slot-14-pole and 12-slot-16-pole machines with open slots.5 0. The curves indicate that there are minimum values the existence of which depends on the slot open width.63 of the slot pitch.286). The semi-closed slot opening width is 0.8 0.9 1.5 0. 6 Cogging torque % of rated Open slot 6 Cogging torque % of rated Open slot Semi-closed Semi-closed 4 4 2 2 0 0 0. The cogging torque values for a 12-slot-10-pole motor are given in Fig.0 Relative magnet width Fig. .9 1.7 0.16.0 Relative magnet width a) b) 0.8 0. 3.6 0.9 1. 3.4) and b) 12-slot-14-pole machine (q = 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0. 12-slot-10-pole.83 20 Cogging torque % of rated 16 12-8 12-16 12 12-10 12-14 8 4 0 0.16 a) and for a 12slot-14-pole motor in Fig. Changing the slot opening width changes the place of the minima.0 Relative magnet width Fig.

0 Relative magnet width Fig.25 relative slots opening the minimum is at 0.67 or 1.25 relative slot openings widths.84 12-slot-16-pole machine As an example.g.u. With the open slot structure the cogging torque ripple minimum is at 0. 1992) with 12 slots and 16 poles give a minimum cogging value at 0.5 Semi-closed 0.6 0. The totally open slot p.25). the cogging torque of a 12-slot-16-pole machine (q = 0. The semi-closed relative slot opening widths are 0.9 1. 3.8 0.08 relative slot opening width has the minimum values.25 Semi-closed 0.5 0. The semi-closed solutions have 0.17. width is 0. The results of the FEA for the 12-slot-16-pole motor as a function of the magnet width are shown in Fig. al.08 and 0. The methods for integer slot machines (given by e.17. in Fig 3.5. 3.25 of the slot pitch. Ackerman’s method gives a value that corresponds well to this FE analysis. The cogging torque peak-to-peak ripples (% of rated torque) for semi-closed-slots and for an open-slot 12-slot-16-pole machine (q = 0. as the relative magnet width is 0. Ishikawa and Slemon.68.6 to 0.25) was studied closer. The cogging of the semi-closed slot machine with the 0.6 or 0.75 tooth width the cogging minimum is estimated to be at 0.73 depending on the slot opening width.7 0.68. 25 Open slot 0. because with a 0. According to FE analyses presented here. The average level of the cogging torque for both the 12-slot16-pole machines is much higher than for the 12-slot-10-pole and 12-slot-14-pole machine studied earlier.08 and 0.73.67 and in the FE computations it was 0. With the 0.92.5. the minimum point of cogging in the case of the 12-slot-16-pole motor varies from 0. 1993 and Ackerman et.17. .08 Cogging torque % of rated 20 15 10 5 0 0. The open slot width is 0.

e.19.8 0.5 (36 slots and 24 poles) was studied with different slot openings widths. 3.5).85 36-slot-24-pole machine The cogging torque of q = 0. The semi-closed relative slot opening widths are 0.18. . in some areas of the examined relative magnet width.6 0.5). which can be seen from the torque ripple values in Fig.18 b)) the machine gives considerably high cogging values. 25 Cogging torque % of rated 20 15 Open slot Semi-closed 10 5 0 0. The cogging torque (% of the rated torque. peak-to-peak values) of a 36-slot-24-pole machine (q = 0. a) b) Fig. Semi-closed-slot and open-slot structures for a 36-slot-24-pole machine (q = 0.19.7 0. but the structure b) with open slots gives a 25% cogging torque.5 0. 3. The structure a) with semi-closed slots gives a 4% cogging torque peak-to-peak of the rated torque. Close to the value 0. The flux lines of different analysed structures are shown in Fig.42.09 and open slots 0.73 there is a minimum for the cogging torque of the open slot structure. 3. The cogging torque of the semi-closed structure was between 2 to 11 % of the average torque (depending on the relative magnet width). the value 20%.18. It is shown that with the open slots (in Fig.g.0 Relative magnet width Fig. 3. 3.9 1.

6 0. if the method suggested by Li and Slemon (1988) and Ishikawa and Slemon (1993) or the theory introduced by Ackerman et al. All cogging values regardless of the relative magnet width are less than 1%. It depends of the slot opening width where the minima appear. The semi-closed relative slot opening widths are 0.80 0.20.4 0.1%. Conclusion A study was carried out to investigate. In the case of a 36-slot-42-pole (q = 0.8 0. 1 Cogging torque % of rated 0.70 0.2 0 0. .4.285) machine with semi-closed slots. The effect of the slot opening is therefore studied closer with machines under load.286 (36 slots and 42 poles) was low compared to other studied machines as shown in Fig. 3.2. The cogging torques appears to behave as expected producing a curve with minima.09. 3. (1992) can be used for fractional-slot PM machines.60 0.20. as the torque ripple is usually higher than at no-load.00 Relative magnet width Fig.90 1.86 36-slot-42-pole machine The cogging torque of a fractional slot machine with high number of poles may be lower than 0. The cogging torque is about 0. especially in the case of multi-pole machines. For each machine a kw factor can be calculated to estimate the minimum points. 3. The cogging torque values of the analysed fractional slot motor types that are studied can be less than 1% of the rated torque.05% at the minima. all cogging torque values are less than 1%. The cogging torques level of q = 0.

a comparison between the torque ripples of several machines with current driven model is given.1 1.) 12-slot-14-pole 12-slot-10-pole 24-slot-26-pole 24-slot-22-pole 1 0. Some waveforms of the torque are shown in Fig 3. 24-26 and 24-22. In the following section. The torque ripple peak-to-peak values for a set of surface magnet and embedded magnet motors are given in Table 3. The torque ripple can be reduced to some extent when skewing is applied.21.95 0.000 0. 12-10. The 12-slot motors have a 249 mm stator inner diameter.4 kg).machines.u. The results are given for the surface magnet structures 12-14 (slots-poles). Furthermore.005 Time (s) 0.87 3.05 Torque (p. The torque ripple peak-to-peak value is computed using the FEA with a current driven model at 1000 Nm load and current density J ≥ 5 A/mm2. the slot surface area and current density.85 to ensure a high torque. .5. the stator inner and stator outer diameter. Torque as a function of time for different fractional slot – surface magnet .9 0. 3.8. some examples of the results obtained from the FEA will be given. It should now be remembered that all the results are valid for stators and rotors without any skew. Torque ripple of the current driven model The effect of the magnet width and the slot opening width on the torque ripple of the fractionalslot PM motor is studied. 1. The parameters that remain the same are the magnet mass (about 10.21. The relative magnet width of the surface magnet motors is fixed to 0.010 Fig.

19% for a 42-slot-28pole machine and 16% for a 24-slot-16-pole machine.5 3.8. 2004). The ripple of this motor was the worst.364 0. e.4 4 1.286 0.5.4 0.9% for the 12-slot-14-pole machine. The results of the current driven model for the relative magnet width of 0. As to the embedded magnet machines. The only exception among the analysed q values was a fractional slot 42-slot28-pole machine with q equal to 0. The highest values were obtained for the machines with q equal to 0.286 0.. the machines with embedded magnets generate lower ripples compared to the corresponding machines with surface magnets.. . S = surface magnet ˆ motor. at 1000 Nm load. In most of the cases. a 29% ripple for the embedded solution and a 19% ripple for the surface magnet solution.8% were obtained for the 24-slot-20-pole and 12-slot-10-pole machines. ER = radially embedded magnet motor and EV = embedded magnet motor where the ˆ ˆ pole consists of two magnets in V-position.5 4.1 19 29 Considering the surface magnet machines.5.8 2.4 0.8 4.364 0. (Salminen et al.2 6. 2004) Slots 12 12 12 12 12 24 24 24 24 24 24 42 42 Poles 8 10 10 14 14 20 22 22 26 26 28 28 28 q 0.308 0.308 0. ∆Tp-p is the peak-to-peak ripple in % of the average torque.5 3.5 Magnet S S EV S ER S S ER S ER S S ER ∆Tp-p (%) 16 2.85. the lowest torque ripple values 2. the lowest torque ripple obtained was 1. (Salminen et al.88 Table 3.4 0.5% and 2.9 2.5 0.5 0.286 0.g.

7 and 0. .75 magnet widths.25) was first studied with a 0. this is the value of the machine with open slots and with a 0. Torque ripple (% of the average torque. The harmonic components of the torque ripple with semi-closedslot structure and open slots are shown in Fig. B) Harmonics (from fast Fourier transform) are presented for the 0.9 1.7 Torque ripple % of average 15 4 open slot 0. 20 6 Torque ripple % of rated torque semi-closed 0.22 show that one value is differing from the others.08 and 0. 3.79 and b) a 12-slot-16-pole machine with open slots and with a 0.43 open slot were analysed. 3. The flux paths are periodical and four symmetrical areas appear in this machine type. which is one minimum ripple point for this machine. The torque ripple as a function of relative magnet width is shown in Fig. are examined. 3. The 4th harmonic of this machine disappeared.5. where the flux lines of the a) semi-closed slot and b) open slot machine differ from each other.1.23 describes a) a 12-slot-16-pole machine with semi-closed slots and with a magnet width of 0.75.43 relative slot opening width.75 magnet width.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 a) Relative magnet width b) Harmonic order number Fig.22 a).7 semi-closed 0.08 semi-closed slot opening width and 0.08 0 0.5 open slot 0. 3. 3. The current and rotor angle are the same for both of the machines.22. Some examples Torque ripple of a 12-slot-16-pole machine The effect of the magnet width of a 12-slot-16-pole machine (q = 0. The 0. 3.7 0. Fig. One symmetrical area consists of 4 poles and 3 slots along the periphery of the machine.75 magnet width. Fig.75 open slot 0. peak-to-peak) of a 12-slot-16-pole machine as a) a function of relative magnet width.43 0.75 10 2 5 semi-closed 0.22 b).6 0. but the 6th harmonic and the 12th are slightly higher than others.8 0. 0.7 and 0. Two magnet widths.23 shows some interesting areas. The results given in Fig.89 3.

For the machine type with semi-closed slots. On the other hand. 3.79 magnet width and b) with open slots and with a 0.23 b) there are less stray flux lines (in the same area C). The slot . There is an easy path for the flux to flow from one magnet to another. This explains the high torque ripple values of the 12-slot-16-pole machine type with semi-closed slot structures. 3. 3. B and C. the stray flux in the vicinity of the air-gap is always larger compared to the machine with open slots.90 The areas are marked with the circulated letters A. illustrate the disadvantage of wide tooth tips. The area B (in Fig. A B C a) A B C b) Fig. there occur stray flux lines in the area A. the flux lines in Fig 3. Flux lines of a 12-slot-16-pole machine with a) semi-closed slots and with a 0.23 a)) shows that the tooth tip leaves a wider path for the flux to flow from the stator into the rotor magnet compared to the area in Fig. 3.23 a) in the area C.23 a). as for this machine type Qs ≈ 2p.23.75 relative magnet width. which do not appear for the open slot machine shown in Fig 3. which creates a zigzag stray flux. Torque ripple of 24-slot-26-pole machine A 24-slot-26-pole machine (q = 0.364) was examined. it might be a benefit that the pole and slot numbers are almost the same.23 b). In Fig 3. For the semi-closed slot shown in Fig. For the torque ripple.23 b) where the flux path is narrower since the tooth tip is narrower.

as it is shown in Fig. The average torque ripple level of the open slot motor type is lower than the corresponding level of a semi-closed slot opening.24.9 a) b) Fig.8 0. 400 rpm speed and 45 kW output power demand.09 semiclosed slot opening width and 0.8 Relative magnet width 0.0 0 0.4 open slot were analysed.5 calculation was performed in order to define the effect of the magnet width on the .5 0 0. Kasinathan (2003). A study of motors with q equal to 0.82. The 0.7 0.6 0. The torque ripples (% of the average torque) are given in Fig. 36-slot-24-pole and 42-slot-28-pole machines.4 of the totally open type. a) The torque ripples (% of the average torque peak-to-peak) and b) the 6th and 12th harmonic components of a 24-slot-26-pole machine with different relative widths of the magnet.5 0.7 0. of this motor type was examined here. Koch and Binder (2002). 3.9 relative magnet width and for the open slot there is a minimum at a 0.9 0. but the torque ripple can be high. Therefore.24 a) and the harmonics of the torque in Fig. It is observed that this particular motor structure gives a good torque to volume ratio.5 used in different applications. 10 2. for example. 3.9 1. All these motors have the same frame size.7 0.24 b). The highest harmonic component in both cases is the 6th harmonic. In Fig.5 In the literature several representations are given of machines with q equal to 0.91 openings were similar to those of the semi-closed type with 0. 3. For the 42-slot-28-pole machine with q = 0. also the dynamic behaviour. 3. 3.8 Relative magnet width 0.24 it can be seen that for semi-closed there is a minimum at 0.24 b) with different widths of the magnet.5 Open slot 1 4 2 0. for instance the torque ripple values.09 slot opening and 0. The motors to be analysed are the 12-slot-8-pole. 24slot-16-pole.5 Semi-closed Torque ripple % of average Torque ripple % of average Semi-closed slot 6 th harmonic 12 th harmonic 8 Open slot 2 6 1. as.

25. The torque as a function of time is given in Fig.81 and 0.81 magnet width 0.2 A/mm2 with 93 Hz supply frequency.2.4 0. The amplitude of the torque pulsations is quite high. 1.81 the peak-to-peak torque ripple is 27% and with a 0.68 relative magnet width the peak-to-peak torque ripple is 19%.8 0.92 torque ripple. The magnet width and the slot opening width In order to define the effect of the slot opening width on the torque ripple. These magnet widths are similar to magnet widths 0.u) 0.6. 3. The torque ripples as a function of relative magnet width obtained from the current driven model for the 24-slot-16-pole and 36-slot-24-pole machine are shown in Appendix F.68 relative magnet widths. 3. A 13% ripple can be considered to be high.78 presented in Table 3.2 1 Torque (p. In some of the cases.77.68 and with open slots close to relative magnet width of 0.09 slot opening and an open slot structure were analysed.8% and for the 36-slot24-pole 2% (10% with semi-closed slot openings).5.6 0.25.2 A/mm2. The minimum torque peak-to-peak ripple with open slots (Table 3. 3.5 semi-closed machines is close to relative magnet width of 0.67 and 0.68 electric angle 2π Fig. also other relative slot opening widths were analysed. The torque ripples (% of the average torque peak-to-peak value) were recorded from the current driven computations at current density of 5. The semi-closed 0. According to FEA the torque ripple minima of q = 0.1) obtained for a 12-slot-8-pole machine was 13%. The . a series of FEA computations were carried out in which the magnet width was varied.2 0 0 magnet width 0. when the relative magnet width is 0. The torque as a function of electric angle for the 42-slot-28-pole machine with 0. The current density was 5. for a 24-slot-16-pole 3.

which is a magnet width that is found to be suitable to use in some applications.93 results for machines with 12-slots and semi-closed slot opening are shown in Fig.27 a) with b) it can be seen that the open slot structures produce lower torque ripples than the semi-closed structures.7 0. Torque ripples (% of the rated torque.7 0. Comparing Fig.8.9 1. For 12-slot machines. peak-to-peak values) as a function of the relative magnet width for the 12-slot stator with a) semi-closed slot and b) open slot. With open slots and a 0.26 b).7 to 0.73 and 0. With semi-closed slots the 20-pole and 28-pole machine have curves with local minima.87. The machines with open closed slots have a low torque ripple as the relative magnet width varies from 0. The curves of the torque ripples for the 24-slot machines are given in Fig.6 0. The semi-closed 12-slot-10-pole structure has minima all over the analysed relative magnet width range. 3.5 0. 25 12-slot-8-pole 12-slot-16-pole 25 12-slot-8-pole 12-slot-16-pole 12-slot-10-pole 12-slot-14-pole 20 Torque ripple % of average 12-slot-10-pole 12-slot-14-pole 20 Torque ripple % of average 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0. 3.8 relative magnet width the 24-slot-26-pole machine achieves a torque ripple that is as low as 0. the 12-slot-16-pole machine with open slot structure has a local minimum at the value of 0. 3.0 Relative magnet width a) b) Fig. 3.75.3%. with exception of the 24-slot-20-pole motor.9 1. the lowest torque ripples are obtained for the 12-slot-14-pole motor with open slots.26 a) and for the open slot machines the results are shown in Fig. It is shown that the 12-slot-8pole and 12-slot-16-pole machines produce higher torque ripples than the others with semiclosed slot structure.8 0.5 0. .8 0.0 Relative magnet width 0 0. The torque ripple values were analysed next for a series of 24-slot machines. On the other hand. but the curves of the 22-pole and 26-pole machines are almost straight lines crossing all over the analysed magnet width range.6 0.27 a) with semi-closed slots and b) with open slots. For the open slot structure there are two minima at 0. 3.26.

8 8 24-slot-20-pole 24-slot-22-pole 24-slot-26-pole Torque ripple % of average 6 Torque ripple % of average 6 24-slot-28-pole 4 4 2 0 0.5 0.8 Relative magnet width 24-slot-20-pole 24-slot-22-pole 24-slot-26-pole 24-slot-28-pole 2 0 0.28 shows the torque ripple values for the studied surface magnet machines with relative magnet widths 0.7 0. Torque ripples (% of the rated torque.8 Relative magnet width 0.9 1. 3.94 Low torque ripple values are also achieved with the 24-slot-22-pole machine with open slots. peak-to-peak values) as a function of the relative magnet width for the 24-slot stator a) semi-closed slot and b) open slot. it is possible to compare the different combinations of the slots and poles.0 0. 12-slot-16-pole and 24-slot-22-pole motor.7 to 0. the minimum torque ripple is achieved at rated load as the relative magnet width varies from 0.75 the torque ripple is 0.8.85.25%.82 and 0. 3. Fig. It is given an example that compares the torque ripples at a certain magnet width.75. From the values in Fig.6 0.5 0. For the open slot structure examined with 12-slot and 24-slot stators. 3. the minimum for open slots in the stator is achieved at 0. which have the same relative magnet width.27. at relative magnet width of 0.6 0.0 a) b) Fig.7 0.9 1. For the 12-slot-14pole. .28.

5.5.5.25 and 0.286 24-22 24-26 0.5 winding includes purely integer numbers of harmonics: 1.9. except if there is a slot harmonic. peak-to-peak values) obtained for different machines are repeated in Table 3.25 winding includes integer and non-integer numbers of harmonics: 0. 4.308 0.25. 7.4 12-10 0. Conclusion A comparing study is done for several fractional slot machine constructions of which the relative magnet widths and the relative slot opening widths were varied. which has the same winding factor as the 1st order harmonic.5. 3.4 0.250 0. 5.5.3. 10… with the 0. 2.286 0.429 12-14 12-16 18-14 0. 7. Peak-to-peak values of the torque ripple obtained from the FE computations for the surface magnet motors with the 0.364 0. .85 0. 3.85 relative magnet widths and with semi-closed slots.5 fractional slot machines may be due to the harmonic order numbers and the winding factors. 8.28. 1.866 winding factor. 3. 3.95 25 Torque ripple % of rated torque Relative magnet width 0. 6. The q = 0. It is shown that most of the motors have only few integer harmonics and many non-integer harmonics. The lowest ripple values (% of the rated torque.5.5 and q = 0. 3.82 and 0. The winding factors are quite small.5 0. 2.82 20 15 10 5 0 q Relative magnet width 0.28 it can be seen that the highest ripples occur for q = 0. … with the 0. In Fig.4 36-30 0. The different behaviour of the 0. The q = 0. Appendix C shows the harmonic order numbers of different fractional slot machines and the winding factors related to them. 8.5 0.866 winding factor. 2.5 12-8 0. 5.286 36-42 Q s-2p 24-16 24-20 24-28 36-24 Fig.

in such a case.72.5 4 5 3. This does not mean that the open slot construction were always the better alternative.429 0. This means that Table 3.09 0. 0.81 0.7 0.71.2 1.753 0.7 0.76 0.having the same geometry as the semi-closed slots – the induced voltage is lower than when semi-closed slots are used.87 0.82 0.9 are obtained from the torque ripple curves shown in this chapter and in Appendix F.7 0.8 2 1. According to the results given in Table 3.09 0.9 can be used to estimate the ripple of the motor and to decide whether the motor should be skewed.286 0. With open slots and Qs ≈ 2p (q close to 0. 0.71 0.5 3.96 Table. if in both of the cases the number of coil turns is the same.08 0.81 0. the peak-to-peak value of the torque ripple grows as the number of poles increases.09 0.82 0. make it possible to achieve a minimum for the torque ripple. 0.308 0. 0.91 0.08 0. Ripple values ≤ 1% are bolded.5 0. In most of the analysed cases.56. For the machines with semi-closed slots there seems to be several relative magnet widths that. The lowest torque ripple values (% of the rated torque.69 Relative slot opening. It may be stated that the value 0. . and.78 0.67 0.7 0. For some fractional slot machines it is not possible to use the same air-gap diameter.2 1.84 0. Open slot Qs 12 12 12 12 18 24 24 24 24 24 36 36 36 2p 8 10 14 16 14 16 20 22 26 28 24 30 42 q 0.5 1.09 0.08 0.09 The values in Table 3.6 10 1 1 Semi-closed slot Relative magnet width 0.4 0.6. 0.25 0. 0.75 0.9 Torque Ripple (%) 11 2.72 1. peak-to-peak) obtained for different surface magnet machines at 1000 Nm load.5 0. When using open slots .7 0.364 0.9 for a particular slot number.77 0. 0.07 0.75 0.5 0.9 0.09 0. the machines have a torque ripple average level for open slots lower than with semi-closed slots.82 1.66 0.89 0.09 0.66.9 4.25 0. the torque developed may be lower than what is required.75 for the relative magnet width is to be recommended if the stator includes open slots and a fractional slotted structure.4 0.63. x4 0. when used.09 0.33) the torque ripples are small compared to other q values.55.5 1.4 0.9.3 0.6 Relative magnet width 0.286 0.08 0.71.77 0.286 Torque Ripple (%) 13 2.5 3.5 0. 3. 0.56 0.2 3.

the surface and embedded rotor structures of 24-slot-22-pole. the open slot structure generates lower torque ripples than the semi-closed slot structure. as concerns the fractional slot surface mounted permanent magnet machine.1.6. but for the rotor with embedded magnets this is more complicated. 24-slot-20-pole and 12-slot-8-pole machines will be compared. Magneto static and dynamic computations were then carried out in order to define the torque production capability of differently designed motors. For most of the analysed fractional slot machines. the lowest torque ripple was achieved when the width of the magnet was selected to be slightly wider than the width of the tooth. 3. which has the magnets in V-position. The surface magnet motor is the most commonly used PM rotor type.6. e. First. In some applications a low torque ripple is required and the torque ripple of a machine with the magnets inside the rotor is usually lower than the torque ripple of a machine with surface magnets. 3. The FEA was performed at no-load situation for a surface magnet motor and for an embedded V magnet structure in order to solve the flux created by the magnets. Fig. b) smooth rotor surface with radially . The performance of fractionalslot PM machines were studied with two different rotors: the rotor with surface mounted permanent magnets and the rotor with embedded magnets. The rotor structures can have a smooth rotor surface or formed surface with cosine shape. For some applications it might be the beneficial alternative to manufacture a motor with embedded structure. For surface mounted magnet rotor it is quite simple to solve the flux produced by the magnets also analytically. 12-slot-10-pole motor Several configurations are possible to design a rotor with embedded magnets. Surface magnet motor versus embedded magnet motor A surface magnet motor (S) is compared with a radially embedded magnet motor (ER) and with an embedded magnet motor (EV).g. There can be rectangular magnets or two magnets in V-position. a 12-slot-10-pole machine is designed with a surface magnet rotor and with several different embedded magnet rotors.29 illustrates one surface magnet rotor and three embedded rotors: a) a surface magnet rotor and. Later.97 According to the computations referred to here. 3. in such cases when the magnets need to be safely embedded inside the rotor.

. If the tooth tip is located above the air-gap in a position where there is only air below the tooth tip. Since the flux may flow circumferentially in the rotor pole. Some differences in the flux paths can be seen when comparing the surface structures. 3. there is no ‘easy’ path available for the flux to flow. 3. with the embedded structures. obtained with Flux2D from the current driven model at rated load 1074 Nm. With the surface magnet structure the stator flux flows through a tooth and tooth tip to the air-gap and from the air-gap the flux will try to find its way to the rotor.29 a). Fig. With embedded magnets the flux can travel through rotor iron as it travels through the air-gap from the stator tooth tips to the rotor side. a) b) d) c) Fig. armature reaction may appear.29.98 embedded magnets c) a smooth rotor surface with magnets in V-position and d) a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in V-position. The flux lines of the machines at rated load are given in Fig 3. of 12-slot-10-pole motors a) a surface magnet rotor (S) and. Fig 3.29.29 b). It can flow from the air-gap to a magnet or to air. b) smooth rotor surface with radially embedded rectangular magnets (ER) and a non-magnetic rotor core c) a smooth rotor surface with magnets in V-shape (EV) and d) a 1/cosine formed air-gap with magnets embedded in V-position (EV). The geometry and the flux lines.

a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in V-position (10. Fig.7 kg V-magnet 12.2 0.3 A/mm2. .5 kg).5 kg).8 Torque (p.30.0 0.5 kg).8 kg formed pole V-magnet 10.92 T flux density in air-gap generated by the permanent magnets of the surface magnet machine is higher than the 0.) as a function of the rotor angle for several 12-slot-10-pole motors as constant phase currents are applied in the stator slots (steady state calculation from FEA).8 kg) and a smooth rotor surface with magnets in V-position (10. 3. a surface magnet rotor (10.8 kg). Current density is 5. Constant phase currents were applied to the stator slots and the rotor was rotated step-bystep over one pole pitch.2 1.5 kg magnet material is needed. a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in V-position (10.0 0 45 Surface magnet 10. a surface magnet rotor (10.u.49 kg formed pole V-magnet 10. Torque (p.30 shows the torque curves as a function of the rotor angle for several 12-slot-10-pole motors.8 kg smooth rotor surface 90 Rotor angle (deg) 135 180 Fig.5 kg).7 kg). The motors described in this figure are: a smooth rotor surface with radially embedded magnets (10.4 0.5 kg 0. in which the pole consists of two embedded rectangular magnets.7 kg). a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in V-position (12.86 T flux density generated by the embedded magnet machine. a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in Vposition (12.) surface magnets rectangular magnets V magnets 0. The torques of the motors in this figure are ranging from the highest to the lowest value: a smooth rotor surface with rectangular magnets (10.u. For both the machines 10.99 Different types of rotor structures were designed for the 12-slot-10-pole machine.8 kg).8 kg) and a smooth rotor surface with magnets in V-position (10. 3. A steady state calculation was performed with the FEA.6 embedded rectangular magnet 10. The 0. 1. At first. the FEA was performed at no-load situation for a surface magnet motor and for an embedded V magnet structure.

3.5 Torque (p.31.8 kg to 12. however. 2 Surface Embedded R 1.) Embedded V 1 0. The lowest value is achieved by the motor with embedded V-magnets and with smooth rotor surface. 3.31.5 0 0 45 90 Load angle (deg) 135 180 Fig. The amount of magnet material for the V-magnet motor was increased from 10. The FEA was performed with the voltage driven model for a 12-slot-10-pole motor with surface magnet and with embedded magnet structures.8 kg magnets were used.5 kg. The machine parameters and the results obtained from the FEA are given in Table 3. The torque curves described in the figure are those of a surface magnet motor with a mass of 10.3 kg magnet material.5 kg to 10. difficult to manufacture because it needs a non-ferromagnetic inner rotor core. this can be explained through the reluctance difference between the d. of a motor with radially embedded rectangular magnets with a mass of 10 kg magnet material and of a motor with embedded V-magnets with a mass of 12.935 T and the maximum torque increased.u. The maximum torque is achieved at load angle higher than 90 degrees for the rotor structure with smooth rotor surface and embedded V-magnets. as a result of which the flux density created by the magnets increased up to 0. As formed rotor pole shoe with V-magnets and 10. Because the 10.8 kg magnet material. Torque curves as a function of the load angle of 12-slot-10-pole machines obtained from the voltage driven model. the highest torque value is produced by the motor with rectangular embedded magnets. Forming the rotor pole can diminish this armature reaction. 3.8 kg V-magnet motor was not capable of producing the rated (1074 Nm) torque the amount of magnet material had to be increased.5 kg magnet material.and q-axis. . the obtained curvature became more symmetrical. This construction is.30 shows that with 10.10 and in Fig.100 Fig.

M.92 T. cos(ϕ) Inductance. the rotor iron losses are larger than in the case where surface magnets are used. speed 420 rpm Magnets Slots-poles Slot opening Magnet mass (kg) Load angle at nominal point (deg) Rated torque (Nm) Tmax/Tn (p.72 0. values were 0. 12-slot-10-pole machine parameters.2 260 22 2230 Embedded V 12 .3 35 1023 1. Lq (p.06 1. 24-slot-22-pole motor and 24-slot-20-pole motor The performance of a 24-slot-22-pole fractional-slot PM machine is described for the motor structure with surface mounted permanent magnets and with radially embedded magnets.10 Semi-closed 10.u.01 T and 1.056 104 97 0. Other possible angles were studied.) Torque ripple (%) of rated torque Iron losses in stator (W) Iron losses in rotor (W) Copper losses (W) Surface 12 .67 5. pull-out torque. introduced in Table 3. Ld (p.S. has a 74 degrees angle between the magnets of one pole.83 1.738 T and 0. Power 45 kW. The fundamental value (obtained from the Fourier spectrum) of the flux density normal component in air-gap were 1. (The embedded V-magnet structure.92 0. according to the FEA. respectively.u.83 1. The torque ripple is the lowest in the case of the embedded magnet motor with cosine formed rotor surface and magnets in Vposition. With the same amount of .6.u.18 80 103 0.10.66 104 88 0.2. The results show that.10.10 Semi-closed 10.8 250 51 2737 3. for example.05 2.2 p.28 1. The R. Nph Rated current (A) Power factor.17 T for the surface magnet motor and for the embedded magnet motor. a narrower angle of 60° would give a 1.) Table 3.) Nurber of turns.4 260 98 2820 Embedded rectangular 12 . in the case where embedded magnets are used.) Inductance.u.5 72 1023 1.10 Semi-closed 12.101 The surface magnet structure gave the highest pull-out torque compared to embedded structures.5 75 1023 1.1 3.

The result for the surface magnet motor is shown in Fig.25 0.33 45 93 0. 3.. Motor parameters of 24-slot-22-pole machines (Salminen et al.1 192. It can be seen that the curve of the flux density wave in the air-gap has a different character above each of the magnets.96 86. The flux density normal component along the air-gap diameter. The normal component of the flux density was solved along the whole air-gap for a loaded machine.32.364 at rated load.11.4 351 104 1.102 magnet material – 10..3 805 42 1074 Radially Embedded magnet 24 .22 127 0.3 805 48 1074 .96 86.25 0.07 188 1.1 351 88 1.93 10. 3.17 73.32.33 45 94 0. 2003) Fig. (Salminen et al.11.4 1. The results of the FEA computations for the best surface and for the best radially embedded magnet motor in terms of torque production capability are presented in Table 3.01 73. for a surface magnet motor q = 0.22 127 0. 2003) Surface magnet Slots-poles Stator radius inner (mm) Winding factor Rated current (A) Main voltage (V) Winding turns per phase Air-gap length (mm) Phase resistance (Ω) Back EMF (V) Air-gap flux density (T).3 kg – the embedded magnet solution gives clearly higher flux density values than the surface magnet solution at no-load. Table 3. due to permanent magnets Frequency (Hz) Output power (kW) Efficiency (%) Power factor Magnet mass (kg) Slot area (mm2) Load angle (deg) Rated torque (Nm) 24 .91 10.

instead of 1.5 Torque (p. it could be stated that the maximum torque available from this machine is 1675 Nm.85 relative magnet width and for the radially embedded magnet motor is 5. The number of turns and the phase resistance of the embedded magnet structure are smaller than those of the surface magnet structure. Thereby.u) 1. Based on the results.0 1.103 The curves of the torques versus load angle of these motors are shown in Fig. which is 8% less than the maximum torque of the surface magnet motor. The load angles of a) a 24-slot-22-pole surface and radially embedded magnet motor are similar at 1 p.09 slot opening width is compared to a radially embedded magnet motor with totally open slots.0 0 45 90 Load angle (deg) 135 180 0. The torque ripple (% of the rated torque) peak-to-peak value for the surface magnet motor with a 0.0 0. The radially embedded magnet solution with voltage control gave a little less torque so that the maximum torque was 1545 Nm. According to the computations performed with the voltage driven model the air-gap torque at a load angle of 42° is for the surface magnet motor 1090 Nm and for the embedded magnet motor 1000 Nm. Both the machines exceed the requirement made and the overloading capacity is fulfilled. 3. At rated 1074 Nm load the tangential stresses of the analysed motors are 39 kN/m2.5 Torque (p. the copper losses of the embedded motor are smaller.u.5 24-22 Embedded 24-22 Embedded FEA 24-22 Surface 24-22 Surface FEA 0. In this case. . respectively.5%. rated load – close to 38 degrees – but the pull-out torque is clearly higher when surface magnets are used: 1.33.0 2.0 0 45 90 Load angle (deg) 135 180 a) b) Fig.u) 1. 3.45 p.u. the radially embedded magnet motor gives less torque than the surface magnet motor at the same load angle. 2.0 1. In b) a 24-slot-20-pole surface magnet motor with a 0.33.7% and 4. A series of computations with voltage control were carried out for the surface magnet motor with different load angles.5 24-20 Embedded 24-20 Embedded FEA 24-20 Surface 24-20 Surface FEA 0.u.56 p.

the flux is higher and it travels longer paths in the rotor than it does in the case of the surface magnet motor.12.45 Semi 24-20 S 1. why do these 12-slot radially embedded magnet motors have a low pull-out torque. Conclusion The pull-out torques got from the FEA of several fractional slot machines are presented in Table 3. According to the computations of 24-slot-22-pole and 24-slot-20-pole machines. 400 rpm fractional slot machines. the radially embedded magnet structure gives a higher pull-out torque than the surface magnet structure.104 Different 24-slot-machines with 20 poles were also compared.02 Semi The question is. now. The pull-out torques obtained from the FEA of several 45 kW. 3. S = surface magnet motor and ER = radially embedded magnet motor.6.56 Semi 24-22 ER 1.12. 3.9 A.3. The solution may be found by comparing the motors at rated load.66 Semi 12-8 ER 1.09. Table 3. 3. similar pull-out torques can be achieved with the surface magnet structure as well as with the radially embedded magnet structures.34 a) and b).79 Semi 24-20 ER 1. respectively.73 Open 12-10 S 1. Fig. The current at the rated torque is practically the same for both of the machines.34.33 b) shows that. As the slot and pole number was smaller in the case of 12-slot-10-pole motor. These radially embedded structures have less copper losses and lower torque ripples than the corresponding surface mounted structures. The 12-slot-10-pole radially embedded magnet motor with open slots needed more stator coil turns than the surface structure to induce the same amount of back EMF.66 Semi 12-10 ER 1. The surface mounted magnet motor has a small slot opening of 0. The torque ripple (and the cogging torque ripple) with the radially embedded rotor structure is lower than with the surface rotor structure. and in the radially embedded magnet motor it is 92.5 A. A surface magnet and a radially embedded magnet 12-slot-8-pole motor at rated load are shown in. . but the radially embedded magnet motor is here equipped with totally open slots. In the case of the radially embedded magnet motor. Fig. In the surface magnet motor the current is 83.18 Semi 12-8 S 1. the developed pull-out torque of the radially embedded magnet structure was 30% smaller than with the surface magnet structure of the same frame size. 3. ˆ ˆ Slots-poles Rotor Pull-out torque ( ) Slot opening 24-22 S 1. according to Fig.

on the contrary.68 T 1. both at rated load.105 1. The armature reaction Ψa is high with the radially embedded magnets as a result of which the load angle is bigger.02 T 1. there is also a large portion of the flux travelling in the rotor without passing through the permanent magnet. between the stator flux linkage vector Ψs and the flux linkage vector due to permanent magnets ΨPM.46 T 1. there must be found the optimal pole dimension geometry for the ER machines.0 T 1.46 T 0. The us is stator voltage vector and is stator current vector. the developed torque diminished in the case of the radially embedded magnet motor.34.59 T 0. . the 24-20 radially embedded machine has a high performance. Both machines are presented at same load angle. 3.35 b).59 T a) b) Fig. 3.35 a) and of the radially embedded magnet machine in Fig.55 T 0.46 T 1. is us is Ψs Ψa δa a) surface magnet motor Ψs δa Ψa us ΨPM ΨPM b) radially embedded magnet motor Fig. A space vector diagram of a 12-slot-8-pole a) surface magnet motor and b) radially embedded magnet motor at rated load. The load angle. 3. A space vector diagram of the surface magnet motor is shown in Fig. Therefore. In the 12-slot-8-pole radially embedded magnet motor.6 T 2.4 T 1. is 28° in case of a) surface magnet motor and 70° in case of the radially embedded motor.3 T 1. The flux line plots and flux density magnitudes of a 12-slot-8-pole a) surface magnet motor and b) radially embedded magnet motor at rated load.7 T 1. 3.7 T 1. This may be regarded as the quadrature-axis armature reaction that deteriorates the motor performance. Since.35.

Thereby.106 For the 24-slot-22-pole and 24-slot-20-pole machines. is about 36°.73 p.6. which were performed at no-load and with the current driven model.u. The coils of the phases can be separately wound and then inserted (by hand or automatically) in the stator lamination core. the achieved pull-out torques were high 1.36. Fig. it was studied if the slot opening width has some effect on the torque production. between the stator flux linkage vector Ψs and the flux linkage vector due to permanent magnets ΨPM.). 3.4.79 p. because it appeared from earlier investigations. Thereby. Slot opening The effect of the slot opening width was studied more closely. This allows automatically winding of the machine. is us Ψs Ψa δa ΨPM radially embedded magnet motor a) b) Fig. The load angle. too.79 p.36 shows the 24-slot-20-pole embedded magnet motor at rated load situation. For this reason. the slot opening width is an important parameter. a closer examination of the 24-slot-20-pole machine will be done.u. that the slot opening does have some effect on the torque ripple values.u. Needle winders can be used to wind lap windings.56 p. and 1.u. the armature reaction will not be as large. (Table 3. which had only 8 magnets. 3. the distance between the magnets is obviously smaller than in the previous motor. For the manufacturing of the winding. a) The flux lines of the 24-slot-20-pole radially embedded magnet motor at rated load and b) the corresponding space vector diagram. There is only a high reluctance route for the quadrature armature reaction and thus this machine will give a high torque of 1. In the case of a concentrated winding the coil is wound around tooth.12). When the motor is equipped with 20 magnets. 3. which is a result independent of the position of the magnets. (the 24-slot-20-pole surface magnet solution gives 1. This option is .

Thereby. the situation is a little more complicated. relative magnet width.8 m 39 mm Fig. 3.83 18 mm m 25. which then. This reduces the amount of the flux producing the back EMF. the parameters. in some cases. It was noticed that the current driven computations do not . this causes the flux paths to be dependent on the geometry of the slot. In the case of a fractional winding. All studied motors have a terminal voltage of 351 V. In the example where the surface magnet 12-slot-10-pole motor is calculated. 3. also reduces the production costs. which are kept constant.37. Because in some combinations there is nearly just one pole per slot. the equivalent air-gap length δeff and the air-gap reluctance are increased. Geometry of 12-slot-10-pole motor . which obtained a high winding filling factor and gave a high torque. The geometry of the surface magnet motor with semi-closed slots is shown in Fig. It can be useful. To design a 12-slot-10-pole with open slots similar to the 12-slot-10-pole semi-closed structure was not easy and therefore several different open slot designs were done.for all of the fractional slot machines – give a reliable result because the fact is that currents are not purely sinusoidal. In this chapter. the surface magnet rotor is first investigated and later also embedded V-magnet rotor will be examined. If the slot opening is wide.5 kg. Jack et al. (2000). it normally occurs that the reluctance of the magnetic circuit is reduced if the slot opening is narrow unless the teeth or stator yoke iron are saturated. The tooth tips area gives a suitable space for the flux to flow. He studied the possibility to use powdered iron cores and pre-pressed windings. α = 0.37. a FEA with the voltage driven model was carried out. In the case of a conventional lap winding. a 12-slot-10-pole machine is studied with semi-closed slots and with open slots. to manufacture machines with totally open slots in order to keep stator structure simpler. among others authors.107 possible when there is a totally open slot structure. Special manufacturing methods are discussed by. obviously. As an example. He manufactured and tested a servo motor design. are • • • • • • • Stator outer diameter 364 mm Core length 270 mm Rotor geometry Speed 400 rpm Power 45 kW Frequency 35 Hz Magnet material mass 10.

First. 3. A comparison is made between the geometries a) and b). which is about 90% of the supply phase voltage. Both machines have the same slot area.38 b). 3. while it was only 5. Slot open width Picture in Fig.u. but the current density with the open-slot-version is 6. Table 3.84 <160 3900 1. With totally open slots only 154 volts was induced in the stator windings while the winding arrangements were the same as before (about 75% of the supply phase voltage).93 173 3327 92.5 1.38. e and f are illustrated in Fig 3. Air-gap diameter (mm) Slot area (mm ) Winding turns. it was then studied whether the machine performance with open slots can be improved by modifying the slot shape.92 <160 3100 e 231 1900 104 104 0.0 265 Open slot d 231 1550 104 95 0. voltage driven model.93 179 2344 94.u.86 <160 3700 90.66 p.91 257 f 220 2300 120 89 0.38.108 The results are shown in Table 3. 400 rpm 12-slot-10-pole surface magnet motor. The desired 45 kW power is achieved.5 2.91 p.81 154 4700 90.38 a) is modified to open slots structure b) shown in Fig. d. To achieve a high efficiency and a low current density. the structures with the same winding and the same slot .905) and the maximum torque available is 1.0 1.) Current at 90 deg (A) 2 Semi-closed a 249 1900 104 88 0. c.13.38.4 A/mm2 with the semi-closed slots. Results obtained from the FEA for a 45 kW.13 and the geometries of the motors marked with the corresponding letters a.91 257 c 249 1750 104 104 0.94) and the maximum torque is 1. The induced phase back EMF of the structure with semiclosed slots was 179 volts.u. The motor with the semi-closed slots gives the rated torque at 88 A (η is 0.66 194 b 249 1900 104 101 0. 3. Parameters that were varied to design an open slot machine are shown in Fig. and the coil turn count in series per phase Nph is 104.3 1. The motor with totally open slot gives the rated torque at 101 amperes (η is 0. which is 1900 mm2. 3. Nph Rated current (A) Power factor Back EMF (V) Copper losses (W) Efficiency (%) Pull-out torque (p.57 195 The semi-closed slot geometry a) shown in Fig. b.5 A/mm2.

Dδ = 249 mm Dδ = 249 mm δ Dδ = 249 mm x4 = 0. But. so that the required back EMF 180 V can be achieved. the area of the slot was increased in order to fit in more coil turns and to keep the value of the current density as the same as the previously i. This also means that the flux density in the narrow part of a particular tooth can be higher than without the tooth tips. it was soon discovered that more coil turns are needed. d) open slot with 1550 mm2 slot area.for machine a) 94.09 x4 = 0. Therefore. e) open slot with 1900 mm2 slot area and f) open slot with 2300 mm2 slot area. 3.e. The slot geometry of different 12-slot-10-pole-machines: a) semi-closed slot.a difference that may be explained as follows: In the machine with tooth tips there is wider area for the flux to flow into the stator teeth.13.63 d) e) f) Fig. For the studied motor a) as the machine was at . This is due to the fact that the air-gap diameter was diminished by 10% from 249 mm to 220 mm. 0. Another difference in the machines is the efficiency .09 relative slot opening b) open slot with 1900 mm2 slot area.6 x4 = 0. c) open slot with 1750 mm2 slot area.63 a) b) c) Dδ = 231 mm Dδ = 231 mm Dδ = 220 mm x4 = 0.0% and for machine f) 92.4 A/mm2.63 x4 = 0. The pull-out torque of the totally open slot motor f) is about 10% less than that of the semi-closed slot motor a).3% .63 x4 = 0. It can be seen that the motors a) and f) can induce almost the required back EMF and have almost the same current density.38.109 area were studied in order to obtain fairly comparable data. 5. The computation results of the motor f) with 220 mm air-gap diameter and 2300 mm2 slot area and of the original motor a) with 249 mm stator radius and 1900 mm2 slot area are shown in Table 3. The developed torque of the motor f) at a 45 degrees load angle is 20% less than of the motor a).

) 1 0. It is also to be considered that the increased current means that the copper losses are bigger and the efficiency is going to be smaller if the slot opening width is increased.6 A/mm2 current density.4 A/mm2 current density and the motor with open slots has a 5. 2 1. 3. The semi-closed structure at rated torque has a 5. In a motor with 12 slots and 10 poles these maximum values are obtained just in 2 or 3 teeth and in 2 parts of the yoke.4 A/mm2 current density and the motor with totally open slots has a 5. the same terminal voltage of 351 V and the same amount of magnet material 10. In the yoke area the maximum was 1. FEA 0 0 45 90 Load angle (deg) 135 180 Fig. . When the machine is rotating the areas of low/high flux values move with the speed of the machine generating iron losses if the frequency is high. The points represent the results obtained from the FEA and the lines are drawn using the torque equation.89 T.3 kg. Both machines have the same 225-frame size. 3.110 rated load the highest flux density magnitude in the tooth tips was 1.6 A/mm2 current density. the open slot structure gives less torque and a higher rated current than the semiclosed slot structure. Considering the 12-slot-10-pole surface magnet machine and according to the results given in Fig.39.5 T. The torque as a function of the load angle for a 12-slot-10-pole motor with surface magnets. the other teeth have a value that is even less than 0. FEA Open slots Open slots.5 Semi-closed Semi-closed.5 Torque (p.u.55 T. The motor with semi-closed slots has a 5.39.

40. 135 180 . The obtained torques of the motors with semi-closed slots and open slots are shown in Fig.5 kg. Both machines have the same 225-frame size. The rated current of both machines is practically the same and also the amount of conductors – 104 – is the same. FEA 1. The pull-out torque of the embedded V-magnet motor with open slots is about 20% higher than the pull-out torque of the motor with semi-closed slots. Embedded V-magnet motors A study is now made on a 12-slot-10-pole embedded machine with magnets in V-position with semi-closed slots (dimensions of semi-closed structure are shown in Appendix G) and with open slots. the only geometrical change is the width of the slot. FEA 1 0. The points represent the results obtained from the FEA and the lines are drawn using the torque equation.) Semi-closed Semi-closed.u.5.40. The torque as a function of the load angle for the embedded-V-magnet 12-slot-10-pole motor with semi-closed slots and open slots. Here. 3. the rotor has cosine formed pole shoes and the amount of the permanent magnet material is 12.5 0 0 45 90 Load angle (deg) Fig. The overall geometries of the motors for which this comparison is made remain the same.111 3.5 Torque (p. The results obtained are compared to the results of the corresponding surface magnet motor.5 kg. 2 Open slot Open slot.6. the same terminal voltage of 351 V and the same amount of magnet material 12. 3.

6.66 258/22 280 305 2344 225 94. On the other hand. PStr) 12 . The number of coil turns was increased from 104 to 120.u.3 400 35 1074 88.u.2p Magnets Slot opening Slot opening width (p.5 420 72 1023 97 104 0. this motor type is more practical to manufacture.6.14.3 400 41 1074 89 120 0.3%.09 10.1 1280 1. Qs . PCu. Therefore.14. the efficiency of the surface magnet motor with totally open slots got a value of 92. the efficiency of the motor with open slots is low.) Magnet mass (kg) Speed (rpm) Load angle at nominal point (deg) Rated torque (Nm) Rated current (A) Nph Rph (Ω) Pull-out torque (Nm) Tmax/Tn (p.2% and the current density rose up to 8.63 10. Table 3.5 mm stator inner radius was decreased to 110 mm.3 A/mm2. The surface magnet rotor gives the highest pull-out torque. 12-slot-10-pole motor with surface and embedded magnets (the same rotor for both the embedded magnet motors).0 12 .10 Surface Semi-closed 0.57 129/18 148 209 3327 225 92.5 .3 12 . Finally.4 A/mm2.4 104 0. the slot area was increased from 1900 mm2 to 2300 mm2 and the 124. but when the slot opening structure was changed to be an open slot one the efficiency dropped to 86. However. The efficiency of the motor with semi-closed slots was 94% and its current density 5. also other parameters than just the slot opening width were modified. Machine.2 104 0.1 1780 1.14 1690 1..09 12.10 Embedded V Semi-closed 0. (PFe anal. FEA results are given with semi-closed slots and with totally open slots.10 Surface Open slot 0.1 1080 1.5 420 58 1023 92.10 Embedded V Open slot 0. Conclusion The results of the surface magnet 12-slot-10-pole motor and the embedded magnet 12-slot-10pole motor computations with semi-closed slots and with totally open slots are given in Table 3.63 12.0 12 .112 3.26 207/116 323 328 2550 225 93.06 259/98 357 328 2820 225 93.) PFe stator/rotor (W) from FEA PFe (W) from FEA PFe (W) analytical computation PCu (W) PStr (W) Efficiency (%).

an integer slot machine q = 2 (speed 600 rpm).5% and with totally open slots it was 3% calculated with the voltage driven model. thereby the winding is simpler to construct than in a solution with tooth tips. because they have the same frame size. also for the frame size 225. The parameters of these machines are shown in Table 3. 2. The benefit of this motor type is unquestionably the ease with which the stator and rotor can be manufactured. when the slot is totally open the pull-out torque is high. Table 3. The open slot structure combined with the embedded V-magnet rotor gives a good torque to volume ratio and also a small torque ripple. The torque ripple of the surface mounted permanent magnet motor with semi-closed slots was 2.113 Of all the structures studied here. which are manufactured to different applications. The stator iron losses of the embedded magnet machines are slightly smaller when the stator has open slots than when it has semi-closed slots. The torque ripples of the embedded magnet rotor structures were 6%. regardless of the slot opening type. 3. it is the open slot surface motor that has the smallest stator iron losses PFe but that has also the worst efficiency due to the high current which causes high copper losses PCu.7. With a large inductance it is not possible to achieve a high torque. a prototype motor was manufactured and tested at laboratory: a fractional slot machine with q = 0. The embedded magnet structure produces a low pull-out torque if the slot opening is small. In an earlier investigation another machine with the same shaft power 45 kW was manufactured to the same frame size.4. speed 420 rpm and frame size of 225. The stator coils can be manufactured separately and plugged around the teeth.51).4 and q = 2. load angle equation (Eq. The fractional slot winding compared to the integer slot winding For this study. The obtained difference in the pull-out torques is related to the difference in the inductance values.15. according to the power vs. . The synchronous inductance. Ld of the surface magnet motor is 30% smaller that of the embedded V-magnet structure.15 proposes the values for two surface magnet motor designs. a shaft power of 45 kW. It is compared the parameters of these embedded V magnet machines with q = 0.

which is less than 1%. which are manufactures at LUT and two proposed surface magnet motor designs (not prototypes). cosϕ Torque ripple. which is much higher than the values of fractional slot machine.66 249 270 8 31 92.9 250 270 14 32 93 351 78 0.114 Table 3. Winding type Prototype/Motor design Magnets Slots-poles q Speed (rpm) Rated torque (Nm) Tmax/Tn (p. In the current driven model of the integer slot machine (q = 2) the torque ripple is 22% while it is for a fractional slot machine.) Air-gap diameter (mm) Core length (mm) Copper in end windings (kg) Copper in the machine (kg) Efficiency (%) Induced back EMF (V) Current (A) Power factor.4 420 1023 1. it can be expected that the torque ripple values are smaller for machines of this size and with fractional slot windings. Calculations .g.91 3 60-10 2 420 1023 1. e.832 3 Integer Prototype Embedded V 48-8 2 600 715 1. because the q = 2 machine has a 600 rpm speed instead of 420 rpm.5 0. The cogging torque of the integer slot machine is 3%.44 250 270 22 44 22 The prototype motor with q = 2 has a higher pull-out torque and better efficiency than the q = 0. Parameters of 45 kW motors: Embedded V-magnet prototype motors. When comparing the designed surface magnet motors with a 400 and 420 rpm speed.4 400 1074 1.15.4 machine only 2. In the voltage driven model the integer slot machine has a 9% torque ripple while the value for the fractional slot machine is 2.4 machines.u.5%.2 351 88.4 is a little higher than the corresponding integer slot q = 2 machine. ∆Tp-p (%) Fractional Prototype Embedded V 12-10 0.5 351 97 0. The pull-out torque achieved for the machine with fractional slot q equal to 0. The copper needed for the integer slot machines is higher than for the fractional slot machine.973 Fractional Integer Motor design Motor design Surface Surface 12-10 0. According to the FEA. it can be seen that the fractional slot machine obtained a higher pull-out torque than the integer slot machine. for a q = 0.5%.1 249 270 8 31 91.

3. (2002). but they can also be calculated analytically from the flux density values. because it was capable of producing enough back EMF with only 88 winding turns.375) machine only 2. . respectively. Zhu et al. (2004) compared a 9-slot-8-pole fractional slot machine to a 24-slot-8-pole integer slot machine.4 surface magnet machine is 44 kg and embedded magnet machine 31 kg. The copper losses vary from 1550 to 2880 W depending on the winding turns needed. The radially embedded 24-slot-22-pole machine has less copper losses than all the other studied machines. it could also be noticed that for some motor types the iron losses were lower .115 were also made on the amount of copper that is needed in the slots and in the end windings of the fractional slot 45 kW machine as well as of the integer wound 45 kW machine. The copper amount that can be saved by using fractional slot windings is about one fourth of the amount needed for the integer windings. Table 3. This is due to the high harmonic content of the armature reaction field. stated that with embedded magnet rotors have higher iron losses than with surface magnet rotors. The iron losses of the stator and rotor can be obtained from the FEA.2% and the torque ripple of the fractional slot (q = 0.6% for the fractional slot machine.8%. The copper amount needed for the q = 2 machine and for the q = 0. From the analysis shown in this thesis. The torque ripple of the integer slot (q = 1) machine with surface magnets was 24.with open slots than with semi-closed slot openings. The iron loss values obtained for several machines types indicated that the iron losses of the embedded magnet motors are about 20 to 30% higher than the iron losses of the corresponding surface magnet motor at rated load.6% for the integer slot machine and 3.16 shows the losses of some surface magnet motors (S) and a radially embedded magnet motor (ER).8. The corresponding values for the machines with radially embedded magnets were 42. in his study on integer slot 18-slot-6-pole machines.even 50% lower . Bianchi et al. Losses The loss components were calculated using the FEA and analytical methods.

91 0.7 S 24-20 0.28 .74 .2 2. Flux density plot from FEA for a) a 24-slot-16-pole and b) 24-slot-20-pole machines.8 S 24-22 0. each with radially embedded magnet structure.67 120 1.5 2512 420 93.37 2.0.2. For the 12-slot-10-pole machine. .364 86 73.74 2. It can be seen that the flux densities vary a lot in the magnet areas. respectively.0. All machines have the same magnet mass of 10. Considering the eddy current loss computation results obtained with the FEA. it must be noted that embedded magnet motors have usually lower eddy current losses than surface magnet motors.56 2.2.45 650 75 1553 155 94.3 kg.1. Magnets Slots-poles q Rated current (A) Frequency (Hz) Nph Tmax/Tn (p. It was also observed that machines with open slot structures have higher eddy current losses than those with semi-closed structures.002 .8 ER 24-22 0.0 2.0 350 15 2364 60 93.33 112 2.33 104 1.33 104 1.79 374 20 2017 105 94. for simplification.5 46. 3.055 .3 507 30 2219 200 93.002 0.7 S 12-10 0.003 0.37 . especially in case of the 24-slot-20pole machine.41.0.55 .46 .2.0 η. Fig.1. Color shade Flux density (T) 0 . the 12-slot-8-pole machine and the 24-slot-22-pole machine.91 .5 2239 175 93.286 91.92 a) b) Fig. 70 W and 155 W.) PFe.0 S 12-8 0.66 262 19 2881 235 93. Losses of surface magnet motors (S) and a radially embedded magnet motor (ER).67 104 1.364 86.09 1.u.83 .2.4 73.64 .55 0.1.2.5 88 26.2 .2.8 S 12-14 0.4 82 66.33 104 1.64 1.2 274 36.33 88 1. rotor (W) PCu (W) PEddy (W) S 24-28 0.83 1.46 1.73 0.09 .56 .67 104 1. 3.4 88.73 .4 33.16. stator (W) PFe.5 53.116 Table 3.1.0.5 83.41 shows a plot of the flux densities of a) a 24-slot-16-pole and b) a 24-slot-20-pole surface magnet machine.28 1.003 . efficiency (%) * * Efficiency is computed with a constant PStr = 225 W (for each machine).0.055 0.66 258 22 2344 405 94.286 86 93.5 S 24-16 0. the eddy current losses were 390 W.0.56 500 23.1.0 .

Therefore. (2000).42.5.286 0. Analytical methods of calculating the eddy current losses in permanent magnets are introduced e. The figure gives also the values of the pull-out torques to illustrate the machines capability of producing torque. it is to be recommended to carefully interpret the FEA results.364 0.5 q slots 12 12 24 36 21 24 12 24 36 18 12 24 36 Fig. which may cause computational problems in FEA. 3. 3.5 0. 225-frame size.4 0. a 45 kW shaft power and a 420 rpm speed. 351 V terminal voltage and the amount of magnet material is 10.00 2. Machines have semi-closed slots. Fig.3 kg.318 0. which have a 225 frame size.42 have the same frame size.3 offers a low performance (low efficiency and low pull-out torque). in most of the analysed machines.286 0.117 Some of the studied structures have high frequencies. 3. when comparing to machines. This causes that the flux densities vary rapidly in the magnet.90 1. 1.429 0. A comparison is made of the 45 kW motors that are discussed in earlier chapters and which have a 1074 Nm rated torque and a 400 rpm rated speed.95 0.5 0.17.42 shows the efficiencies of several studied surface magnet machines. In the analytical computations of the maximum torque .42 the amount of obtained pullout torque. by Nipp (1999) and Atallah et al.u) 0.286 0.25 0. All the machines in Fig. The efficiencies and the pull-out torques of the studied fractional slot machines with surface magnets. 3.9.4 0.4 0.g.0 Efficiency Pull-out torque Efficiency Pull-out torque (p.25 to 0. The values are presented in Table 3.0 0. According to Fig. The analytical computations compared to the FE computations The analytical computations are compared to computations carried out with the FEA in order to see if the values correspond to each other. increases as q increases from 0. It can also be noted that q ≈ 0. 3. the same main voltage and the same amount of magnet material.

866 83. A Magnet Slots Poles q Winding factor Rated current (A) Frequency (Hz) Power factor Synchronous inductance.2 742 2323 A 24 22 0.364 0.92 0.949 85..98 0. when the inductance was set close to the value 1 p.17 that the analytical computation results are close to the FEA results.5% efficiency was used.9 541 2602 FEA 24 16 0.) PFe (W) PCu (W) 24 28 0.3 2. which the FEA can take this into account but not the analytical method.933 80 66.33 0.59 184 9.65 400 1982 FEA Surface 24 20 0.33 0.u.866 88 53.5 0.49 183 10. the procedure to solve the inductances for a 24-slot-22-pole machine is shown in Appendix D. Ld that are about the same.6 1.) .6 1.286 0.0 365 2364 Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface Both the calculation (analytical and FEA) methods give results for the synchronous inductances.98 0.93 0.59 570 2188 FEA 24 22 0.4 73.949 86.33 0.33 0.8 1.933 82.5 53.118 92.u.33 0. Ld (p.96 0. As an example. Analytical computations (A) compared to the FE analysis (FEA) for 45 kW surface magnet motors.69 394 1920 A 24 16 0.17.3 1.3 1. The magnetizing inductance and the leakage inductance were computed separately following the equations (method 2) given in chapter 2. It was noticed that.98 0. It can be seen from Table 3.5 184 10. the equivalent airgap length is increased.67 0.u.9 192 9.8 1.56 524 2239 A 24 20 0.23 710 2376 FEA 24 28 0.1 66.33 0.364 0.67 0.3 1.70 183 10.933 89 93.98 0.4 0. This is also due to the fact that there is saturation in the motor.5 93. From these methods it was selected the method the results of which were close to the FEA results. The analytical method could be improved by using reluctance circuits. The inductances were computed with 4 different analytical methods. (If saturation occurs.98 0.286 0.933 84.4 0.57 188 9.) Back EMF (V) Magnet mass (kg) Tmax/Tn (p. In the analytical computation it is important to accurately estimate the value of the inductances in order to solve the maximum available torque. the analytical calculation result differs from the FEA.5 0.71 190 10.92 191 9. Table 3.4 73.

18 show that for a certain slot number the highest torque achieved is usually with a machine having a small pole number.866 20 22 24 26 28 30 42 12 18 ξ1 q Tmax (p. The LCM and fundamental winding factors ξ1 for concentrated two-layer windings are presented.29 1.79 1.866 0. .318 1.5 0.4 Tmax (p. The pull-out torque Tmax (p.902 12 16 0.866 0. some differences can be seen.4 1.) ∆Tp-p (%) LCM 36 ξ1 * Not recommended because of the unbalanced magnetic pull effect. Slots Poles 8 10 q 0.5 84 0.9 48 0.25 1.951 0.10.1 1.02 1 252 0.5 0. The highest torque obtained is 2.5 0.9 2.286 1.53 1.6 36 126 0.u.18 are designed to frame size of 225.18. and the lowest 1.933 0. They all have about the same amount of magnet material and about the same air-gap diameter.u.u.866 0.u.) ∆Tp-p (%) LCM 14 0.) ∆Tp-p (%) LCM 0. Table 3. peak-to-peak values) for the surface mounted machines obtained from the voltage driven model.933 24 ξ1 q Tmax (p.56 8 2.) and torque ripple values ∆Tp-p (% of the rated torque. Designing guidelines All the motors in Table 3.933 0.0 1.04 12.5 180 0.u.286 1.0 p.u.u.866 0.66 1.5 LCM 48 60 0.u.66 ∆Tp-p (%) 15.5 1.5 5.949 0.36 2.949 0.79 16 6.4 0.7 96 120 264 0.8 144 0.119 3.31 0.1 >50 462 0.17 7.3 >50 3 312 168 0.0 1. The results in Table 3.) 1.933 0.43 2.933 ξ1 q Tmax (p.) ∆Tp-p (%) LCM 21 * ξ1 q Tmax (p. When comparing the performances of these motors.73 3.1 p.

5. (2004) described this unwanted effect for the case of a 9-slot-8-pole and 15-slot-14-pole machines. The embedded magnet machine with open slot structure is to be preferred. The pull effect is caused by the radial forces that are much higher on one side of the machine than on the other side. It is possible to amend the unbalanced magnetic pull in the machine. With the embedded magnet machine a higher torque was achieved for most of the analysed structures even though.1 p. yet. As an example. the rotor losses were higher than in the case of the embedded structure with semi-closed slot openings. it is recommended not to select the smallest number for the slots and poles in order to avoid the risk of causing a high armature reaction effect. With low LCM or with q equals 0. except in some special cases where Qs ≈ 2p.5 or 0. which would reduce the machine capacity of producing the high pull-out torque. especially when the number of slots and poles is almost equal.866 winding factor and. Magnussen et al. A high LCM number indicates that the value of the torque ripple is small. High pull-out torques given by machines of this size category were obtained with the 18-slot-12-pole and 24slot-16-pole machines for both of which q is equal to 0.25 it can be expected that the torque ripple is high. the risk of unwanted forces must be taken into account. If an embedded motor is to be designed. the 18-slot-12-pole machine has a 0. it can produce a torque as high as 2. The winding arrangement of a 21-slots and 20-poles machine may consist of several coils from same phase that are next to each other. because there may appear unbalanced pull effect. The lowest torque ripple obtained with the voltage driven model was 1% and the highest torque ripple was over 50% of the rated torque (peak-to-peak values).120 Although a high fundamental winding factor is used. in this case. . this does not guarantee that the machine will have the capacity of producing a high torque. When designing a machine with Qs ≈ 2p.u. The motor structure with an odd number of slots is a special case.

In low speed applications this may be advantageous because of the increased air-gap area. It must be noted that the line frequency of (practical) fractional slot machines is in some applications higher than that of conventional wound one. Design of the prototype V-magnet motor According to the voltage driven model discussed in Chapter 3. Such a winding is easy to make and the manufacturing can be automated.4 to be operated as prototype machine.4 was compared to the q = 2 motor of the same frame size and with a 45 kW shaft power. it was decided manufacture a fractional slot machine with q = 0. To save manufacturing time and also costs.5 usually gives high pull-out torque. That was the reason to avoid q = 0.121 4.1. in high-speed applications the use of fractional slot machines may be unpractical because of the high iron losses. The axially longer stator core can thus be mounted into the same frame size. where the prototype motor q = 0. which is the possibility to use concentrated wound coils – one coil around each tooth.1. a high pull-out torque and low torque ripple can be achieved with a 24-slot-20-pole surface permanent magnet motor with q = 0. A prototype machine with 12-slot-10-pole structure was constructed in order to obtain practical experiences concerning the manufacturing of these machine types.7.or two-pole pair machines. The designing process of the 12-slot10-pole prototype machine was discussed in Chapter 3. Therefore.5 motor to be a proto motor although a q = 0. Furthermore. Therefore. The prototype motor was also discussed in Chapter 3. it was selected a proto motor.4 for the slots per poles per phase. the measurement results provide the essential information needed to verify both the analytical calculations and the computations made with the 2D FEA. thus a corresponding reduction of the copper losses may be expected. 4. Fractional slot windings have another advantage over conventional windings. Because of the short end windings the amount of active copper is increased compared to conventional windings. which reduces the manufacturing costs. where a comparison was done of the surface magnet and embedded magnet structures. 12-SLOT 10-POLE PROTOTYPE MOTOR Fractional slot permanent magnet machines can be manufactured with the short end windings in the axial direction of the machine. The decision to manufacture a 12-slot-10-pole machine type . where the torque ripple would be low and no skewing would be needed.6.

If there were steel lamination on the permanent magnet surface. 2) The magnets can be rectangular and there are less fixing and bonding problems with the magnets: The magnets are easy to mount into the slots of the rotor and the danger of damaging the magnets is smaller.u. on right in Fig. 4. The problem with the surface magnet structure is that the permanent magnets are facing a high reluctance tooth tip structures in the air-gap region – the tips are saturated. this goal was reached. For these reasons. unfortunately. Using a small slot number reduces the number of required coils and offering further savings in manufacturing time. shown on the left in Fig.66 p. the stator inductance would grow immediately and the potential benefit would be ineffectual. The surface magnet structure.4 machine was partly based on the manufacturing costs. but the V-magnet structure. The 12-slot-10-pole machine was designed with the object to achieve a high rated torque from a small volume for a relative low-speed application. The torque ripple of the embedded rotor structure was only half of the corresponding value of the surface magnet structure. Stators with a small slot number are a more attractive alternative for the manufacturer since a smaller amount of slots must be punched. There is the same concern with the rotor lamination. According to the calculation result. . It may be mentioned several advantages that favour the use of embedded magnets: 1) the risk of permanent magnet material demagnetization becomes smaller. produces a 1. FEA computations were carried out to find the best geometrical solution for an embedded Vmagnet motor. pull-out torque in the voltage driven FEA computations.122 of the q = 0.1 does not seem to achieve as high a torque. which results in low power. this would improve the utilization of the permanent magnets but. This facilitates a faster manufacturing process of the lamination core.1. 4. It was selected for the 12-slot-10-pole machine a rotor construction with embedded V-magnets. a 12-slot10-pole machine was selected to function as the prototype machine. This is because of the relative high inductance. even though the 24-slot-20pole or 24-slot-16-pole machines of the same frame size may have offered a better capacity for producing the torque.

5 0.114 5. shown in Fig. A surface magnet motor (10. 45 kW prototype parameters Magnet Slots-poles Winding factor Rated current (A) Output power (kW) Speed (rpm) Efficiency (%) Terminal voltage (V) Winding turns per phase.1.25 12. The parameters of the prototype machine are shown in Table 4. 4.5 351 104 0.4 1. It was calculated that the end winding length .1.10 0.2. Nph Phase resistance (Ω) Current density (A/mm2) Air-gap (mm) Mass of magnets (kg) Air-gap flux density created by magnets (T) V-magnet 12 . was only 80 mm and the length in axial direction 41 mm.123 Fig.3 kg magnet mass) and a cosine formed rotor surface with magnets in V-position (12. 4.935 The average length of the end winding of the prototype motor.933 97 45 420 91. Table 4.1. Dimensions and winding arrangements are shown in Appendix G.5 kg magnet mass) at load.

124 would be 120 mm. but. 4. at the end. No-load test A no-load test was carried out in the speed range of 50 to 600 rpm. The no-load losses at the rated (420 rpm) speed were 310 W and 374 W. the end winding copper mass for the concentrated fractional slot q = 0. In this machine size the copper in the end windings was about 70% less than for the corresponding conventional integer slot (q = 1) windings. 4. 80 mm 41 mm Fig. it became even shorter than expected. The end winding of the 12-slot-10-pole prototype motor with concentrated windings.2. . 4. The measurements were performed at room temperature (rotor temperature about 20°C) and at rotor temperature about 100°C.3 illustrates. The average length of the end winding is 80 mm and the length in axial direction is 41 mm. as Fig. A no-load computation was carried out with the FEA and the iron losses at no-load were 265 W. Thereby.2.4 motor is 6 kg while for an integer slot 10-poles motor with q = 1 the mass is estimated to be 25 kg.

4. Measured no-load power as a function of speed. 5th. The measurements were performed at room temperature (about 20°C) and at steady state (rotor temperature about 100°C).4.3. The no-load voltage waveform has a shape that is similar to the FE computed voltage waveform shown in Fig.125 700 600 500 Pnoload [W] Cold machine Hot machine 400 300 200 100 0 50 T ≈ 20°C T ≈ 100°C 100 150 200 250 300 350 n [rpm] 400 450 500 550 600 Fig. Measured and computed no-load voltage waveforms of the 45 kW prototype V-magnet motor. . The measured no-load voltage RMS value was 200 V while the analytically calculated value was 203 V. 4. In the computations the 3rd. 300 200 100 Voltage (V) 0 0 -100 -200 -300 Time (ms) 5 10 15 20 Measurement Computation 25 30 Fig.4. 4. 7th and 9th harmonic components appear.

The waveforms of the phase voltage and the current at the end of the measurement when the machine is at 22 kW load are given in Fig. In this test a DC-motor was used to run the PM machine.8 Ω load resistance the input power at the shaft was 23. The power produced by the machine was measured with a Yokogawa PZ4000 power analyser and the phase currents were measured with Strömberg Kore 05 current transformer (accuracy 0.05 T. power and voltage values are similar to the measurement results.6 kW total losses.16 0. The waveforms of the phase voltages and currents at the end of the measurement at steady state (rotor temperature about 100°C). The computed 140 V voltage is less than the measured 143 V. which is half of the rated power 45 kW.2 Fig.0 kW.6 kW and the output power was 22. if the same values would be achieved through computation.17 t [s] 0.5%).3.18 0.9 kW.18 0. The speed was fixed to a rated speed of 420 rpm. The motor winding was Wye connected. This might be because the magnet material used in the computations had a remanence flux density Br of 1. which means that the iron and the additional losses are about 0.2.3 kW output power and at the end of the test 93.5. Generator test The 45 kW PM machine was loaded (resistive load) to achieve an output power 22.7 kW.0 kW output power.15 0.5. 250 200 150 80 60 40 100 50 Uph [V] 20 Iph [A] 0 -50 -100 0 -20 -40 -150 -200 -250 0.17 t [s] 0. With 2. The machine is at 22 kW load and at 420 rpm speed.19 0.14 0.16 0.126 4. The finite element analysis showed that the current.15 0.5 kW.14 0.2 -60 -80 0. which caused 1. as it is shown in Table 4. 4. 4. . The temperature of the machine was measured with Pt-100 temperature sensors.19 0.2% at 22.6% at 24. The copper losses at this measurement are 0. The efficiency of the generator in the beginning of the test was 93. A time stepping FEA computation was carried out to see.

08 Time (s) 0. P (kW) Shaft torque.2 Generator resistive load test results compared to the FEA computations Measured at room temperature about 20° 54 150 24.6.92 Ω further temperature measurements were carried out.14 Fig. In this measurement the motor is a little hot at the start situation.5 Shaft torque (p.6 0.4 is ΨPM d 0.8 93. U (V) Power. Torque as a function of time obtained from a FEA computation of the generator test with resistive load.8 93.3.1 0 0. Fig.1.3 555 35 420 2. n (rpm) Load resistance (Ω) Efficiency.0 510 35 420 2.7 shows the measured temperatures with a) a 63 A phase current (at the end of the measurement) and b) .0 kW.7 - Current.7. T (Nm) Frequency. assuming that Ris = 0. f (Hz) Speed.3 us Ψδ Ψs isqXd isdXq ePM 0. Temperature rise test The machine was driven as a generator and the load resistor was diminished until the load phase resistance was 1. 4. I (A) Voltage. After adjusting the load phase resistance to 0.10 0. 4.46 ohms.) q 0. The results are shown in Table 4. A space vector diagram for the generator test is drawn. Wye connected. 4. output power 22.6 Measured at rotor temperature about 100° 52 143 22. η (%) 0.04 0.3 and Fig.127 Table 4.02 0.0 504 35 420 2. 4.12 0.u.2 0.00 0.2 Computed 52 140 22.06 0.

2. The end windings reach an F-class temperature of 150°C when phase current is 67 A.46 90. D-end Frame center 60 60 30 0 0 60 120 180 240 t (min) 300 0 0 60 120 t (min) 180 a) b) Fig. Measurement results with a) a 63 A phase current at the end of the measurement and b) with a 67 A phase current. 50 mm from the D-end at center T (° C) 90 Stator back. which caused 2.7. .3 35 420 1.5%. U (V) Power.8 35 420 0.128 with a 67 A phase current. η (%) 68 99 20. P (kW) Frequency. The results of the heat load test the machine being used as a generator at 420 rpm speed.46 89. friction losses and additional losses are about 0.4 Measured At end 63 92 17. because the rated phase current is 97 A.3. At the end of the measurement with 0. The copper losses are approximately 1.5 kW. D-end Frame center 30 90 Stator back. 50 mm from the D-end at center T (° C) 150 120 120 End winding at D-end Slot center. n (rpm) Load resistance (Ω) Efficiency. According to measurements.3 kW total losses. which means that the iron losses. From the loss values it can be estimated that the efficiency of the prototype motor at rated load is about 91.8 kW. I (A) Voltage. 4.8 kW and the input power at the shaft was 15. Generator test results Measured At start Current. The machine is not able to cool down enough without an external fan.92 Ω load resistance the output power was 12.2 Measured At end 67 64 12.2 35 420 1.92 85 150 End winding at D-end Slot center. Table 4.1 kW. f (Hz) Speed.4 kW power losses can be removed from the machine without external blower if ambient temperature is around 20°C.

6 0. Vibration measurement During the no-load measurements it was noticed that a mechanical resonance arises in the speed range of 320…340 rpm.08 0.4. is difficult to measure.1 1 1 0.4 0.5 1. there will be 10 poles passing one teeth.9 shows a FEA computed and a measured cogging torque for the prototype motor at 420 rpm speed.5 Acceleration (m/s-2) 0 0. Thicker tooth tips may have decreased the noise effect.2 seconds. This is exactly the tooth frequency of the machine.3 0 -0.1 0.04 0.8. During one mechanical rotation. especially at a low torque ripple level.06 0.1 -1. The measurement time was selected to be 0.8 a) shows the signal of the acceleration at 300 rpm speed and b) presents the fast Fourier transform spectrum of the signal showing the harmonic content of the signal.5 0. 1. which corresponds to one whole cycle at 300 rpm speed.8 0. A vibration measurement was carried out by an acceleration probe at 300 rpm speed to estimate the frequency of the vibration.9 Acceleration (m/s-2) 0. Fig.5 0 Time (s) 5 10 15 20 25 30 Harmonic order number a) b) Fig. . because the mechanics will produce their own resonances in the measurement.7 0.18 0.02 0.129 4.16 0. According to the measurement.3. The probe is attached to the stator yoke. Cogging torque measurement The torque ripple.5 -1 0. 4.14 0. 4.2 0.2.2 0. Fig 4.12 0. the frequency of the signal is 10 times the rated speed. 4. The acceleration probe showing a) a signal during one revolution of the rotor and b) the fast Fourier transform spectrum of the signal.

u. Measured values compared to the computed values The torque was measured with different load angles at 45 kW power.u.001 0.4 Measurement Torque (p. 4.6 0.2 0 0 45 90 FEA points FEA 135 180 Load angle (deg) Fig. 1. This means that also the other FE analysis might be reliable.002 FEA Measurement Cogging torque (p.5.02 Fig 4.10.130 0.10. Measured torque as a function of the load angle compared to the FEA computed torque (points). as it shown in Fig.8 0. The dashed line represents the developed torque according to the torque equation.002 0.) 0. 4.000 -0. Measurement is done at rated stator flux linkage. .00 0.2 1 0. at 240 rpm speed and the motor was supplied with DTC-inverter. The measured torque as a function of the load angle curve is almost identical to the FEA result.01 Time (s) 0.001 -0.) 0.9 A FEA computed cogging torque and a measured cogging torque for the prototype motor at 420 rpm speed. 4.

A calculatory load angle may be determined only by using the terminal quantities. since the load angle is an average value of all the different poles in the machine. but. the prototype motor served well to verify the calculation methods developed during the research. This proved to be a successful selection and no problems with the sensorless direct torque control were met. they may have caused some noise effect. It may be stated that the performance of the prototype machine does not at all meet the recommended criteria. According to the vibration measurements performed in the laboratory some noise occurred at speeds of 320 – 340 rpm and the noise frequency was analysed to coincide with the tooth frequency of the machine. in the case of a fractional slot winding. as high as 45 kW. It was aimed for a machine with high torque per volume. The tooth tips and also the teeth of the stator were analysed to be mechanically too weak and. no accurate load angle by the measurements of the rotor position may be done. which made it possible for the whole stator stack to vibrate.g. Despite of the sinusoidal terminal quantities – voltages and currents – another cause of concern appeared to be the supplying converter. for this reason. since the future operating field for this machine type is considered to be that of an industrial motor. In particular. it had to be solved what kind of a vector control could be used. In the embedded permanent magnet structure there may be high flux density harmonics in the rotor laminations causing high iron losses. as the designing process of the prototype fractional slot wound permanent magnet machine was started. which may lead to increased torque oscillations and extra heating of the machine. Comments and suggestions The main parameters of the prototype motor were selected in an early phase of the research. Usually. set the designer a demanding task. a high amount of copper conductors were needed in the slots and the slots had to be large since the 12-slot-10-pole .131 4. Some concerns came up. Therefore. instead of the prototype machine designed for this study it could be suggested e. to a certain degree. Also the stator stack fitting to the stator frame was too loose. very encouraging. It was decided to use a direct torque controlled converter drive to obtain a 35 Hz supply frequency. Fractional slot machines have a high air-gap flux density harmonic content. the load angle of a permanent magnet motor at start up should be exactly known. the power of the machine. of course. a prototype with 24 slots and 20 poles. According to the results of the work done. The prototype machine worked exactly like a rotating field machine. which is. Also the mechanical construction of the prototype motor should be improved. However. obscure.6. the concept of the load angle remains. compared to the rotating field machines.

This also allowed the end windings to become shorter than it was calculated.132 solution was chosen. The loss values of the machine were in close correlation to the computed values. a 12-slot-10-pole machine with surface magnet structure should have been a far better alternative. So. the core length is the same that may be used for an integer slot machine. The slot filling factor. became high due to the high-quality hand made winding. It was shown that the FEA results are similar to the computed values and both methods may thus be used to analyse these machines. as a matter of fact. The machine type also seems to need an exactly correct geometry. The embedded V-magnet structure is not at all as suitable for a fractional slot machine as it is for an integer slot machine. As a high pull-out torque is required. enough space is left for the same frame to enclose a considerably longer stator and also a considerably larger output torque. The heat transfer properties of the machine were thus also far from optimal. In the 12-slot-10-pole machine the dimensions of the poles seemed to be too large and far better results would have been reached by doubling the amount of poles and slots. . The cooling area of the few large slots is small compared to that of a machine with a higher number of small size slots. however. In the case of the prototype.

g. when the number of slots is odd and especially when Qs ≈ 2p. because the winding factor is usually an important parameter for the designing of a motor. The proper procedure to obtain a low cogging torque and low torque ripple is suggested to be the selecting of a high value for the LCM. The cogging torques appears to behave as expected. The performance analysis was done for machines with concentrated windings. CONCLUSION The results of this study offer new information on the performance characteristics of fractional slot machines (with q < 1) and some guiding criteria for choosing the proper and suitable slotpole combination to be used for the application concerned. in the case of multi-pole machines a cogging torque as low as 0. an unbalanced magnetic pull. The main objective of this work was to compare different pole and slot combinations applied to a machine. which slot-pole combinations have a high pull-out torque.05% could be estimated. which may be. producing a curve with minima. the least common multiplier LCM appears to be a useful and also easily available parameter.5.5) motors were analysed to find out. discovered that. It depends on the slot opening width where the minima do appear. . It was also noticed that some winding arrangements have unwanted properties. For each machine a factor kw can be calculated to estimate the minimum points. may be appropriately applied to certain fractional slot PM motors. Different slot-pole (Qs . The winding factors of fractional slot machines were closely examined. that when a low cogging torque is required. which has a fixed air-gap diameter. This study offers also criteria for the selection of motor design variables. It was. Therefore. It was discovered that the method used to estimate the cogging of brushless DC machines. the fundamental winding factor does not necessarily indicate the amount of pull-out torque.p) combinations for fractional slot (q ≤ 0. The cogging torque values of the analysed fractional slot motor types can be less than 1% of the rated torque.133 5. a 225 frame size and a 45 kW output power. the cogging torque and torque ripple were also analysed. It was discovered. in the case of fractional slot machines. however. Also the torque quality of machines producing a high pull-out torque was studied. e. the coil of which is around the tooth and with q is equal or less than 0.

u. According to the results obtained for a particular slot number. and the lowest 1. Machines with open slots and Qs ≈ 2p (q close to 0. The results show that for a certain slot number the highest torque is usually achieved then when the machine has a small pole number. Increasing the pole number and keeping the slot number constant reduces the developed pullout torque in most of the analysed cases.75 for the relative magnet width is to be recommended if the stator includes open slots and a fractional slotted structure.u. the torque ripple average level remains lower when the machine has open slots than when it has semi-closed slots. also the machines. which suffer from the unbalanced magnetic pull effect. as the magnet material and the machine size (and airgap diameter) were kept practically constant. and 2. Further increasing of the slot number and keeping the pole number constant increases the developed pull-out torque. The lowest ripple values (% of the rated torque. High pull-out torques of 2.1 p.u.33) produce torque ripples that are small compared to the other q values. Ripple values even less than 0.5.0 p. some differences are to be mentioned. the peak-to-peak value of the torque ripple grows as the number of poles increases. When comparing the pull-out torque of the motors belonging to the same frame size category.1 p. unfortunately. The results given can be used to estimate the ripple of the motor. make it possible to achieve a minimum for the torque ripple. were obtained with the 18-slot-12-pole and 24-slot-16-pole machines for both of which q is equal to 0.u. It may be stated that the value 0. A comparing study is done for 13 fractional slot machine constructions of which the relative magnet widths and the relative slot opening widths were varied.134 The effect of the slot opening was studied closer with machines under load. The highest torque obtained is 2. peak-to-peak values) obtained for different machines are presented as a function of the relative magnet width.0 p.5% were achieved. These are. . For machines with semi-closed slots there seems to be several relative magnet widths that. In most of the analysed cases. as the torque ripple is under load usually higher than at no-load. when used.

the surface magnet structure produces higher pull-out torques than the corresponding embedded magnet motor of the same frame size. This is due to the high armature reaction effect occurring in the embedded magnet machine. being a 12-slot-10-pole embedded magnet machine. was manufactured. . To verify the computations a 45 kW prototype motor. When the slot and pole numbers are high. It was shown that the values for the pull-out torque and losses obtained with the FEA are similar to the computed values. the pull-out torque may be similar for both the surface and embedded structures. When the slot and pole numbers are low.135 The performance of the surface magnet motor was compared to the embedded magnet motor.

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A+ C+ C.A+ B+ B.C+ A+ B+ B.B+ C+ A+ A.A.C+ A+ A.A+ A- 24-slot-26-pole q= Q z 24 4 = s = = n 2 pm 2 ⋅13 ⋅ 3 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B.B+ B.C.C+ A+ B+ B.C.C+ A+ AA+ B+ B.C.B.B+ C+ C.A+ C+ C.A- q= Q z 12 2 = s = = n 2 pm 2 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 3 5 upper layer lower layer 12-slot-14-pole 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A+ A.A.B.B+ .A+ C+ C.C.A.C+ C. two-layer windings: Q z 12 1 q= = s = = 12-slot-8-pole n 2 pm 2 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 C.C+ C.A+ A.B.B+ A+ A.C.A.A.B.A+ A.C+ B+ B.A.C+ C.B+ B.C.B.A- 24-slot-22-pole q= Q z 24 4 = s = = n 2 pm 2 ⋅11 ⋅ 3 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 A+ A.B+ B.B+ C+ C.C.C+ C.C+ C.B+ B.B.C.A.CA+ C+ B+ A+ C+ B+ upper layer lower layer q= Q z 12 1 = s = = n 2 pm 2 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 3 4 18-slot-14-pole q= Q z 18 3 = s = = n 2 pm 2 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 3 7 upper layer lower layer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 A+ A.C.A+ A.A+ A.A.B+ A+ A.A+ A.A.C+ C.A+ B+ B.A+ C+ C.B.B+ C+ C.B.A.A.B.B+ B.C.C+ C.C+ A+ B+ B.B+ B.C+ B+ q= Q z 12 2 = s = = n 2 pm 2 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 3 7 upper layer lower layer 12-slot-16-pole 1 2 3 4 5 6 B.C+ B+ B.B.C.140 APPENDIX A Winding arrangements Winding arrangements of some fractional slot machines.C+ A+ A.B+ C+ C.B.B.A+ B+ C+ C.C.B.B+ B.A.C.B+ C+ A+ B+ C+ C.A.BA+ B+ C+ A+ B+ C+ upper layer lower layer 12-slot-10-pole 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A+ A.C+ B+ B.A.B+ A+ A.B+ B.C+ C.B.A+ A.C.

2 gives the harmonic order numbers up to 79 and their winding factors for a winding with q = 9/4. (Tüxen. q = 9 n =2.1. From all harmonic order numbers and their winding factors of windings with q = 9. but now the order number is changed to the nth slot harmonic pair. An example of the periodical behaviour is given in table B. 9/4 and 9/5. q = 9/5 1 slot harmonics st 1 slot harmonics st 1 slot harmonics st 1st slot harmonics ν =2⋅3⋅9⋅-1+1=-53 ν =2⋅3⋅9⋅1+1=55 ν =2mqg+1 ν =2⋅3⋅9/2⋅-1+1=-26 ν =2⋅3⋅9/2⋅1+1=28 2nd slot harmonics ν =-25/2 and 29/2 2nd slot harmonics ν = -49/5 and 59/5 2nd slot harmonics ν =2⋅3⋅9/2⋅-2+1=53 ν =2⋅3⋅9/2⋅2+1=55 ν =-26 and 28 3rd slot harmonics ν =-103/5 and 113/5 3rd slot harmonics ν = -79/2 and 83/2 4 slot harmonics th ν =-157/5 and 167/5 4th slot harmonics ν = -53 and 55 ν =-211/5 and 221/5 5th slot harmonics ν =-53 and 55 From Table B. there are series of harmonic groups developed by the fractional slot windings. 9/4 and 9/5 a diagram was drawn. B. 9/2. 9/2. shown in Fig. The 1st slot harmonic pair (-53 and 55) of an integer slot winding q = 9 will be found also from the fractional slot winding.1. This will be shown next with the help of some examples. have the same winding factors. Table B.1 for a winding with z = 9 and n = 1. In a fractional slot winding.1.958. 2. shown in the same row. q = 9/2 n =4.1 it can be noticed that the slot harmonics are periodical. there will be harmonic groups depending on the value of n (in this example z = 9 and n = 1. 2 and 4). Table B. The first row gives the fundamental and the slot harmonic waves with the same winding factor ξ = 0. According to the staples shown in Fig.141 APPENDIX B Periodical behaviour of harmonics The winding factors can be organized in tables or series according to their order numbers. q = 9/4 n =5. B. There can be found some periodical behaviour for the winding factors of the fractional slot windings. The waves. 4 and 5. 1941) n =1. . Slot harmonics for windings q = 9. there appear also (n-1) fractional slot harmonic pairs between the slot harmonic pairs created by the fundamental wave. For a certain z.

1. 7..118 -0. 7/2. 11 . integer.062 0. q= 9 0.222 -0..5 even q= odd 9 2 0.056 0. 5.057 0.0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 harmonic order number Fig. 4.140 0.142 Table B. 6.5 integer. 13 … shown as white bars. . .193 -0.0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 1. odd fractional ν = 1/2. … shown as grey bars. 5.0 ξν 0. even ν = 2... … shown as black bars. 7. 8.081 0.145 0. 8. . Winding factors of windings q = 9. odd ν = 1. In case of q = 9/4 there exist also fractional harmonic order numbers ν = 1/2. In case of q = 9/2 there exist also harmonic order numbers which are even integer numbers ν = 2.0 ξν 0.5 fractional q= 9 4 0. 3/2. 1941) ν -1 (3) -5 7 (9) -11 -13 (15) -17 -19 (21) -23 -25 -25/2 (21/2) 17/2 -13/2 (9/2) 5/2 -1/2 (3/2) 7/2 21/2 (15/2) -19/2 23/2 (27/2) 29/2 (33/2) -37/2 41/2 (45/2) -49/2 53/2 (57/2) -61/2 65/2 (69/2) -73/2 77/2 -26 (24) 22 -20 (18) 16 -14 (12) 10 -8 (6) 4 -2 (27) 28 (30) -32 34 (36) -38 40 (42) -44 46 (48) -50 52 -79/2 (75/2) 71/2 -67/2 (63/2) 59/2 -55/2 (51/2) 47/2 -43/2 (39/2) 35/2 -31/2 (81/2) 83/2 (87/2) -91/2 95/2 (99/2) -103/2 107/2 (111/2) -115/2 119/2 (123/2) -127/2 131/2 -53 (51) 49 -47 (45) 43 -41 (39) 37 -35 (33) 31 -29 (54) 55 (57) -59 61 (63) -65 67 (69) -71 73 (75) -77 79 ξν 0.111 1. 3.638 0. Harmonic waves and their winding factors ξν for a q = 9/4 winding (Tüxen..0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 1.. 11. 4.2. 10.093 0. B. 5/2.958 0.0 ξν 0. 5/2.066 -0. In case of q = 9 there exist harmonic order numbers which are all integer ν = 1. 9/2 and 9/4.

143

APPENDIX C

Winding factors

Harmonics ν and their winding factors ξν for fractional slot concentrated windings
Qs – 2p 12 – 8 q = 1/2
ν
1 2 4 5 7 8 10 11 13 14 16 17 19 20 22 23 25 26 28 29 31 32 34 35 37 38 40 41 43 44 46 47 49 50 52 53 55 56 58 59 61 62 64 65 67 68 70 71 73 74 76

Qs – 2p 12 – 10 q = 2/5
ξν
0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866 0.866

Qs – 2p 12 – 14 q = 2/7
ξν
0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933 0.067 0.067 0.933 0.933

Qs – 2p 12 – 16 q = 1/4
ξν
0.25 0.5 0.707 0.866 0.933 0 0.933 0.866 0.707 0.5 0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.707 0.866 0.933 0 0.933 0.866 0.707 0.5 0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.707 0.866 0.933 0 0.933 0.866 0.707 0.5 0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.707 0.866 0.933 0 0.933 0.866 0.707 0.5 0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.707

ν
0.2 1 1.4 2.2 2.6 3.4 3.8 4.6 5 5.8 6.2 7 7.4 8.2 8.6 9.4 9.8 10.6 11 11.8 12.2 13 13.4 14.2 14.6 15.4 15.8 16.6 17 17.8 18.2 19 19.4 20.2 20.6 21.4 21.8 22.6 23 23.8 24.2 25 25.4 26.2 26.6 27.4 27.8 28.6 29 29.8 30.2

ν
0.14 0.29 0.43 0.57 0.71 0.86 1 1.14 1.29 1.43 1.57 1.71 1.86 2 2.14 2.29 2.43 2.57 2.71 2.86 3 3.14 3.29 3.43 3.57 3.71 3.86 4 4.14 4.29 4.43 4.57 4.71 4.86 5 5.14 5.29 5.43 5.57 5.71 5.86 6.00 6.14 6.29 6.43 6.57 6.71 6.86 7 7.14 7.29

ν
0.5 1 2 2.5 3.5 4 5 5.5 6.5 7 8 8.5 9.5 10 11 11.5 12.5 13 14 14.5 15.5 16 17 17.5 18.5 19 20 20.5 21.5 22 23 23.5 24.5 25 26 26.5 27.5 28 29 29.5 30.5 31 32 32.5 33.5 34 35 35.5 36.5 37 38

ξν
0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866 0.5 0.5 0.866 0.866

144

Harmonics ν and their winding factors ξν for fractional slot concentrated windings presented in stables diagram.

1.0 0.8 winding factor 0.6 12-slot-8-pole 0.4 0.2 0.0 1 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 harmonic order number

1.0 0.8 winding factor 0.6 12-slot-10-pole 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.2 2.6 5.0 7.4 9.8 12.2 14.6 17.0 19.4 21.8 24.2 26.6 29.0 harmonic order number

1.0 0.8 winding factor 0.6 12-slot-14-pole 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.14 0.71 1.29 1.86 2.43 3.00 3.57 4.14 4.71 5.29 5.86 6.43 7.00 harmonic order number

1.0 0.8 winding factor 0.6 12-slot-16-pole 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.5 4 8 11.5 15.5 19 23 26.5 30.5 34 38 harmonic order number

145

APPENDIX D

Calculation example of inductances

Calculation example of inductances for a 24-slot-22-pole fractional slot wound motor

The slot dimensions are: Slot width x1 = 25 mm, Slot opening width x4 = 3 mm, Slot height y1 = 32 mm, y2 = 0.5 mm, y3 = 0.5 mm, y4 = 0.5 mm, y5 = 0.5 mm. (Thickness of insulation material ≈ 0.5 mm) Air-gap length (radial) δ = 1.25 mm. xk = x1 - x4 = 22 mm Physical length of the stator core, L = 270 mm Equivalent air-gap δeff = (δ + hm)kC. Magnet height hm is 7.43 mm and Carter’s factor kC is 1.032. The magnetizing reactance Xmd is based on Eq. (2.25) in page 50.
X md = 4mµ 0 f s

slot pitch, τs x4 y2 y3 y5 y12 y11 x1
Fig. D1. Slot dimensions

y4 y1

τs
 Qs  π δ eff  m 

Li ξ1N ph 2 .

(

)

(D.1)

0.033 [m]  Vs  = 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4π10- 7  0.27 [m](0.949 ⋅ 104)2 = 0.42 [Ω]  ⋅ 73.333 [Hz ] 24 -3  Am  π ⋅ 8.96 ⋅ 10 [m] 3

Leakage reactance: The leakage inductance factor λz is defined using Fig. 2.11 in page 57. Because x4/δ is 2.4, λz gets the value of 0.05. For a 24-slot 22-pole machine τs/τp ≈ 1 and the factors k1 = 1 and k2 = 1 were selected (shown in Fig. 2.11). Leakage factor λns according to Eq. (2.49), in page 57, may be defined as

λ ns = k1
= 1⋅

y  y y y1 y + k 2  2 + 3 + 4 + λz  + 5 x  4x 3x1 1  1 xk x4 

(D.2)

0.032  0.0005 0.0005 0.0005  0.0005 = 0.691. + 1 + + + 0.05  + 3 ⋅ 0.026  0.026 0.023 0.003  4 ⋅ 0.025

27 [m ] ⋅ 104 2 ⋅ 0.7 [Ω] /(2π ⋅ 73. The leakage reactance is X sσ = X n + X δ + X w = 1.027 [Ω] .518 [m-1] and λw = 0.10) .01 = 0. which are defined for synchronous machines by Richter (1963).8) The synchronous reactance is (in d-direction) X d = X md + X sσ = 1.254 [m] ⋅ 0.333 [Hz ] ⋅ 4π ⋅ 10 − 7  ⋅ 0. It was used the reactance factors λe = 0.033 [Ω] 24 Am    (D.27 [m] ⋅ 104 2 ⋅ 0. (D.3) =2 4⋅3  Vs  ⋅ 2π ⋅ 73. (2.28).029 [ ] (D. (D.518 m -1 + 0.g.7) 2 4π10-7  Vs  3  104  ⋅ (2π ⋅ 73.7 Ω .0037 H .43) in page 55) Xw = 4m 2 q 2πf s µ 0 Li N ph λs . (D.5) Factor hb is the height and bb is the width of the end winding. (2.333 [Hz] ⋅ 4π ⋅ 10 − 7  ⋅ 0.  0. (2. Xw = 4⋅3  Vs  ⋅ 0. (2.42)) Xn = 2 4m 2 2πf sµ 0 Li N ph λns Qs (D.27) in page 52) is calculated as  N ph µ m X δ = 0 ⋅ ω Dδ ⋅ Li   p δ π  = 2   ⋅σ δ   (D.6) The air-gap leakage reactance (based on Eq.00125 [m] π  Am   11   where the leakage factor σ δ was computed using Eq.33 [Hz]) = 0.3636 ⋅ 2π ⋅ 73.033 m -1 ⋅ 0.169 [Ω] 24 Am    End winding reactance is computed as (based on Eq.333 [Hz]) 0.691 = 1. There are several methods available to estimate the values for the reactance factors for the end windings λe and λw.4) λs = 2bb λe + hb λw = 2 ⋅ 0.24 Ω . Qs (D.029 = 0.146 Slot reactance of both layers is computed as (based on Eq.023 [m] ⋅ 0.138 [m-1]. as e.138 = 0.27 [m]  ⋅ 0.9) The synchronous inductance is (in d-direction) Ld = 1. given by Richter (1963) and Jokinen (1973).

0 kG 830 kA/m 2400 kA/m 230 kJ/m3 10.2 kOe 29 MGOe (BH)max Nominal values at 20°C .5 kOe 30.1 T 11.147 APPENDIX E B/H-curves for Neorem 495a B/H-curves for Neorem 495a magnet material Br Coercivity BH0 JH0 1.

7 0.7 0.5 Semi-closed 0.09 and open slot structure were studied.148 APPENDIX F Torque ripples results from FEA Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak values of fractional motors from current driven FEA model are presented as a function of relative magnet width. Fig. Semi-closed 0.07 and 0.43 were studied. F.8 0.8 0.9 1.8 0. . Semiclosed slot openings of 0.8 0.3 Semi-closed 0.0 Relative magnet width Fig.2.08 Open slot Torque ripple % of average Torque ripple % of average 0.429) motor. Semi-closed slot openings of 0. Semiclosed slot openings of 0.6 0. F.9 1.1.5) motor.3.0 Relative magnet width Fig. F.9 1.5 0.0 Relative magnet width Fig.0 Relative magnet width 0 0.6 0.5) motor.14 Open slot 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.4) motor.5 0.6 0.4. Semiclosed slot openings of 0.14. and open slot structure of 0. F.07 Semi-closed 0.7 0. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak values of 12-slot-10-pole (q = 0.3.7 0. Semi-closed slot openings and open slot structures were studied. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak values of 18-slot-14-pole (q = 0.09 and open slot structure were studied. and open slot structure were studied. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak values of 36-slot-24-pole (q = 0.5 0. 30 Semi-closed Open slot Torque ripple % of average 30 Semi-closed Open slot Torque ripple % of average 20 20 10 10 0 0.9 1.6 0.08 and 0. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak values of 24-slot-16-pole (q = 0.

9 1.4).0 Relative magnet width Fig. Semiclosed slot openings of 0.3 Open slot Torque ripple % of average 8 6 4 2 0 0. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-topeak values of 36-slot-42-pole (q = 0.09 and open slot structure were studied.5 0. Semi-closed slot openings of 0.8 0. 10 Fig.6 0. .286) motor.0 0 0.6 0. F.5. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-topeak values of 36-slot-30-pole (q = 0. F. Semi-closed slot openings and open slot structures were studied. Torque ripples (% of average) peak-topeak values of 24-slot-28-pole (q = 0.6.09 Semi-closed 0.0 Fig. Semiclosed slot openings of 0.7 0.09 and open slot structure were studied. Semi-closed 0.9 Relative magnet width 1.5 0.7.149 Torque ripples (% of average) peak-to-peak values of fractional motors from current driven FEA model are presented as a function of relative magnet width. 4 Semi-closed Open slots Torque ripple % of average 3 Torque ripple % of average 3 4 Semi-closed Open slots 2 2 1 1 0 0.6 0.7 0.286).9 Relative magnet width 1.7 0.09 and open slot structure were studied.5 0.8 0. F.8 0.

4 4 5. Dδ = 249 mm δ = 1.150 APPENDIX G Prototype motor data Stator outer diameter 364 mm Air-gap diameter.B+ B- B- Fig.2 mm 25 38 50. G.5 6. G.6 Fig. 12-slot-10-pole prototype motor dimensions [mm] B.3 2 57 .2.A+ B+ BC+ CCC+ AA+ A+ B+ A- AA+ CC+ C+ CB+ A.1. 12-slot-10-pole prototype motor wiring diagram .

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