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Marketing Management

Project Report

Blackberry Torch :
Segmentation,Targetting and positioning in Indian Market

Prepared by Jaimin N. Dave :- ePGP-03-121 Dhananjay Singh :- ePGP-03-111 Shishir Purohit :- ePGP-03-169

Submitted to Prof Atanu Adhikari Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode 30th Jan 2011.

Table of Content
Executive Summary History Market Scenario Current Smart Phone Industry & Major Players Indian Mobile Industry. Manufacturers details What customers want? Customer Segmentation Competition Information and Product comparisons. PODs of top competitors. Pricing SWOT Analysis of Nokia and Blackberry Marketing Strategy Objectives & Goals Product details Target Segment Positioning Product Price Place Promotion Sales Plan.

Executive Summary :A Smart Phone is a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary basic feature phone. Smart Phones and feature phones may be thought of as handheld computers integrated within a mobile telephone, but while most feature phones are able to run applications based on platforms such as Java ME, a Smart Phone allows the user to install and run more advanced applications based on a specific platform. Smart Phones run complete operating system software providing a platform for application developers. A Smart Phone can be considered as a Personal Pocket Computer (PPC) with mobile phone functions, because these devices are mainly computers, although much smaller than a desktop computer (DC). Additionally a PPC (Personal Pocket Computer) is more personal than a DC (desktop computer). BlackBerry is a line of mobile e-mail and Smart Phone devices developed and designed by Canadian company Research InMotion (RIM) since 1996. BlackBerry functions as a personal digital assistant with address book, calendar and todo list capabilities. It also functions as a portable media player with support for music and video playback and camera picture and video capabilities. BlackBerry is primarily known for its ability to send and receive (push) Internet e-mail wherever mobile network service coverage is present, or through Wi-Fi connectivity. BlackBerry is mainly a messaging phone with the largest array of messaging features in a Smart Phone today. This includes auto-text, auto-correct, text prediction, support for many languages, keyboard shortcuts, text emoticons, push email, push Facebook and Myspace notifications, push Ebay notifications, push instant messaging with BlackBerry Messenger, Google Messenger, ICQ, Windows Live Messenger and Yahoo Messenger; threaded text messaging and a customizable indicator light near the top right of all Blackberry devices. All notifications and conversations from applications are shown in a unified messaging application which third party applications can access also. Many of these applications would have to be running in the background of other phones to be used. BlackBerry's push gives BlackBerry devices their renowned battery life. All data on the phone is compressed through BlackBerry Internet Service (BIS). BlackBerry has about two thirds less data transfer than any other smart phone, while supplying the same information.

In the following project we try to investigate the market scenario for the smart phones available in India and try to develop a Marketing Plan for Blackberrys new model know as Blackberry Torch for launch in Indian market.

History :1984

In 1984, RIM was founded by Mike Lazaridis, now president and co-CEO along with Douglas Fregin, Vice President of Operations. Jim Balsille was there from the beginning, but officially joined the company in 1992.

1988

RIM was the second developer in the world to develop products for the Mobitex wireless network. This is the original network that the first RIM pager BlackBerrys worked on. 1990 RIM came to market with the DigiSync Film KeyKode Reader. The DigiSync, film barcode readers read the machine-readable barcode edge numbers on motion picture film. RIM won an Emmy and an Oscar for the DigiSync 1991 RIM introduced the first Mobitex protocol converter (MPC). 1992 RIM introduced the first Mobitex point-of-sale solution. This made regular point of sale equipment wireless.
1993

RIM introduced RIMGate, the first general-purpose Mobitex X.25 gateway. RIM launched Ericsson Mobidem AT and Intel Wireless Modem containing RIM modem firmware. RIM introduced the first Mobitex mobile point-of-sale terminal (MPT). Instead of enabling other terminals with wireless technology, RIM created their own. RIM introduced Freedom, the first Type II PCMCIA radio modem for Mobitex.

1994

1995

1996

RIM introduced the Inter@ctive Pager (a.k.a. RIM 900), the first two-way messaging pager, and the RIM 900 OEM radio modem. The RIM 900 was the origins of the BlackBerry as we all know it today. 1997 RIM became a publicly traded company on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE: RIM). RIM introduced the RIM 901M OEM radio modem, the RIM 801D OEM radio modem and the RIM Wireless PC Card for Mobitex.
1998

RIM introduced the RIM 950 Wireless Handheld This is the device that started it all! RIM licensed the Intellisync Synchronization Platform from Puma Technology to enhance its wireless handhelds.

1999 RIM got listed on the Nasdaq. RIM introduced the BlackBerry wireless email solution, BlackBerry Enterprise Server Software for Microsoft Exchange and the RIM 850 Wireless Handheld as well as the RIM 802D OEM radio modem and the RIM 902M OEM radio modem. The BlackBerry name was then born along with the BES! The funny part is that the devices themselves were not originally called BlackBerry. The enterprise server got the BlackBerry branding first and the devices were called RIM Wireless Handhelds

Market Scenario : Current Smart Phone Industry & Major Players :As per the operating system the primary competitors in India are Symbian(Nokia), Android, Windows Mobile, Apple iphone , Samsung mobile. Growth in demand for advanced mobile devices boasting powerful processors, abundant memory, larger screens, and open operating systems has outpaced the rest of the mobile phone market for several years. According to a study by ComScore, over 45.5 million people in the United States owned Smart Phones in 2010 and it is the fastest growing segment of the mobile phone market, which comprised 234 million subscribers in the United States. Despite the large increase in Smart Phone sales in the last few years, Smart Phone shipments only make up 20% of total handset shipments, as of the first half of 2010.

Indian Mobile Industry :Indian mobile handsets market continued to grow to record a quarter-on-quarter growth of 3.6% (3Q 2010 to 2Q 2010) .The numbers of emerging vendors in Indias burgeoning mobile handset market grew to 68 representing 41.2% of total shipments during the Jul-Sep 2010 quarter. This represented a steady rise from only 5 new vendors representing a 0.9% combined share of units shipped in the January-March 2008 quarter. 3Q 2010 saw a strong quarter-on-quarter (3Q 2010 over 2Q 2010) growth in smart phone sales by 34.2% and a year-on-year (3Q 2010 over 3Q 2009) increase by 294.9%. This clearly underscores the trend that India mobile handset consumers have started showing higher inclination towards adopting smart phones. Smart Phone prices continued to drop through the year and as competition increased, devices were made available by vendors at successively lower price points. So, while 80% of total India smart phone sales were below the ASV (Average Sales Value) of Rs. 18,000 in 2Q 2010, this proportion increased to 90% in 3Q 2010.

Sales units(million)

150 100 50 0 Vol-2008-09 Vol-2009-10

Manufacturer Details :Figure below, show performance of various manufacturers on the basis of volume and M.S.

Manufacturer Wise Volume FY09 Vs FY10


Others ZTE Sony Ericson Micromax Motorola LG Samsung Nokia Vol. 09 - 10(in Lakhs) Vol 08 - 09(in Lakhs) 56.86 20.52 56.86 32.4 60.92 43.2 8.12 10.8 35.54 63.72 45.69 157.68

101.54

187.92 563.76 649.86

Manufacturer wise Volume FY09 Vs. FY10

0.80% 3.50% 4.50%

Market Share FY 09 Vs FY 10
6.00% 5.60% 5.60% 64.00%

10.00%

Nokia

Samsung

LG

Motorola

Micromax

Sony Ericson

ZTE

Others

Market Share FY09 Vs. FY 10

In Asia-Pacific, the overall mobile phone markets covers 415.7 million units, with smart phones representing 69.6 million units. The global smart phone market covers around 173 million units. RIM has an Asia-Pacific smart phone market share of 1.7 percent, compared with 48 percent share in North America and 20 percent globally, which reflects the opportunity for growth there.

What customers want


As a busy person, todays customers know the importance of staying a step ahead of their clients and family. They probably know the feeling of being tied to the desk or home so as not to miss that important email or phone call and to maintain convenient access to essential dataproposals, schedules, contact information, business news or the stock market. However, thousands have found freedom using PDAstyle Smart Phones designed for business (and fun). These cellular devices trace their roots back to the personal digital assistant or PDA. Originally used as businesspersons

right hand to track important client information, project statuses, and task lists, these devices have evolved into an everymans (and womans) tool. These cellular devices are much more than just cell phones; they provide instant access to the web. Whether someone is researching news to predict the stock market or looking for the perfect golf course on the weekend, theyll find it on the net. Many of these devices can be synchronised with desktop computer. This means that all the work related documents can be stored, viewed, and worked on directly on the handheld device. E-mails can be also be received and responded to as they arrive in inbox on the home computer with real-time push email facility. These produces can also serve as multimedia devices, so the entertainment goes with users wherever they go. They can store and display pictures and videos of friends and family and even entire feature-length movies. Most can take pictures and capture video, but the most common multimedia function is the ability to play MP3ssit back, relax, and enjoy your favorite tunes while traveling or during breaks. Another perk of using one of these devices is the fairly recent development of third-party applications (or apps). These apps range from those geared toward hardworking business tasks to entertaining games and everything in between. With thousands of apps available to download in a range of prices, theres sure to be something that will appeal.

What to Look for in a Smart Phone for Business


In the past, business people were easily identifiablethey carried large briefcases, binder planners and perhaps a brick cell phone. The scene has changed and so has the way we conduct life and business. One of these devices stores important data and documents, offers a calendar planner, provides instant access to the internet and email and keeps you in touch with clients, co-workers, friends and family anytime and anywhere. Below are the criterias which customers use to evaluate the cellular devices: Design Size and weight, along with screen size and resolution, make a difference in the display and handling of these devices. Multimedia The best business cell phones have at least a 2 megapixel camera with zoom features and the ability to play and record audio and video. These cell phones act as life management devices and include organizational features like calendars and task lists. Most sync with home computers allowing for document viewing and editing. Call Features/Quality The foundation of business is communication, and these product's first function is as a cellular phone. These devices for business should include all typical cell phone features including speakerphone, three-way calling, voice dialling, call waiting, etc. Memory/Storage The most practical products are compact, include good input and display options, and enough battery life to last through a full days work and beyond.

Additional Features Many cellular devices include practical tools like calculators, map applications and GPS. Some have the ability to support third-party or browser-based programs that can perform a variety of specific functions. Third-party apps are becoming a key component, allowing the user to customize their phones to support their lifestyles.

Customer Segmentation:Smart Phone users can be segmented mainly in two ways as mentioned below.

By behavioral :-

Sales
23% 53% 24%

Mobile restrained Mobile casuals Mobile intensives

This means that 23% are heavy mobile users. Insight Express calls these people Mobile Intensives. This group falls into the 18-44 year age range and they are generally better-off economically. Forty-five percent of this group check their phone first or second thing in the morning. They make the most use of texting, email, using apps and playing video, hence the intensive label. This is the also the group with the highest Smart Phone ownership level at 68%. The medium usage behaviour, called Mobile Casuals, represent around 24 % of the mobile phone market. Lightly biased towards being female (65%) these people treat their mobile phone as a lifestyle convenience, and the age range falls into the 39 to 54 age group (59%). This group is likely to text once a week (73%) and take a picture once a week (43%). This groups proportion of the total market appears to have remained constant since 2008 and makes up around 15 % of Smart Phone ownership. Light mobile phone usage still totals up to around half of US mobile phone owners, although this appears to have declined slightly since 2008 when it was 60%. But this may well be an artefact of the research methodology, and different research methodology would be needed to confirm this decline. Labelled the Mobile Restrained, 57% of this group are

over 45 years old and they are economically less well-off. Not surprisingly, this group has the lowest number of Smart Phone owners at just 4%.

By Psychographic:Classification of mobile market to user by personality and range of existing mobile products is shown in the Figure below.

Figure : Psychographic Segmentation The entertainment-focused users: Younger Gen mobile as a lifestyle choice and willing to pay extra for entertainment, game-playing, media (music and video), social messaging. The communication-focused users: Extroverts mobile for communication and willing to pay extra for a E-mail, SMS, voice, conferencing, video calling. The information-centric users: Introverts - mobile for memory supplement and willing to pay extra for information management devices.

Competition Information :The primary competitors of the BlackBerry are Smart Phones running Symbian (Nokia) Android, Windows Mobile, Windows Phone 7, and the iPhone. Those who use the BlackBerry defend its utility, supporting its physical keyboard, secure e-mail, and applications such as BlackBerry Messenger. In June 2010, according to RIM, they had sold up to 100 million BlackBerry including record sales in their first trimester.


Rank

Products
#1
Apple iPhone 4

#2
Droid X

#3
Samsung Focus

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor

Apple HTC EVO 4G BlackBerry Droid HTC Desire LG Quantum Samsung iPhone 3GS Torch 9800 Incredible Vibrant 8GB

Overall Rating

Ratings
Design Multimedia Call Features/Q uality Memory/St orage Additional Features

Design
Phone Style Display Resolution Screen Size Depth Height Width Weight Touchscreen Candy Bar 480 x 854 4.3 in 0.4 in 2.5 in 5 in 5.4 oz Touchscre en Touch Screen 480 x 320 3.5 in 0.4 in 4.5 in 2.4 in 4.8 oz Touchscr een 480 x 800 4.3 in 0.5 in 4.8 in 2.6 in 6 oz Slider Touchsc reen 480 x 800 3.7 in 0.5 in 4.6 in 2.3 in 4.6 oz Touchsc reen 480 x 800 3.7 in 0.47 in 4.7 in 2.36 in 4.76 oz Slider Candy Bar 800 x 480 4.0 in 0.4 in 4.8 in 4.8 in 4.2 oz

960 x 640

480 x 800

480 x 360 3.18 in 0.57 in 4.37 in 2.44 in 5.68 oz

480 x 800 3.5 in 0.6 in 4.7 in 2.34 in 6.21 oz

3.5 in 0.37 in 4.5 in 2.31 in 4.8 oz

4.0 in 0.39 in 4.84 in 2.56 in 4.1 oz

Multimedia
Digital Player

Digital Camera Video Recorder Email

5MP

8MP

5MP

3MP

8.0/1.3M P

5MP

8.0MP

5MP

5MP

5MP

Call Features/Quality
3 Way Calling Call Hold Call Timer Call Waiting Caller ID

Memory/Storage
Battery Life Up to 420 min Up to 480 min Up to 390 min Up to 300 min Up to 330 min Up to 313 min Up to 390 min Up to 300 min Up to 390 min

Additional Features
Wi-Fi Operating System GPS Bluetooth Standby Time Warranty Internet Browser Up to 220 h 1 year Up to 250 h 1 year Up to 280 h 1 year 1 year Up to 432 h 1 year up to 146 h 1 year Up to 340 h 1 year Up to 350 h 1 year Up to 432 h 1 year Android 2.1 Windows Phone 7 Android 2.1 BlackBerr y OS 6 Android 2.1 Android 2.1 Windows Phone 7 Android 2.1

iOS 4

OS X

Up to 300 h

1 year

PODs of top competitors:To understand the Points of Differences, we have picked three major competitors and looked at their USPs. The Table below, lists all the PODs for the top three competitors. iPhone4

Nokia N8 Dedicated 3d graphics processor Just 1200 mAh-Yet the phone can outlast all the competing smart phones even with WiFi and GPS in use HDMI for home theatre connection

HTA EVO 4G

Enhanced design (It is surrounded by a metallic border, Front and back sides are flat and made up of glass, The oleo phobic coating makes it less prone to smudges and fingerprints) Incredible display (Retina Display which is four times the resolution of earlier i Phones. You dont see pixels, and the picture is vivid, sharp and fantastically bright.) Ease of Use Lots of applications available for iPhone4

Dual camera 4G ready 1.3MP front-facing camera for video calls. It has HTC's renowned Sense UI on top of Android 2.1, which means users will have access to thousands of applications. Another premium feature of the Smart Phone is the 8MP camera with HD video recording

Pricing
We performed the price analysis for the top 10 competitor products mentioned in the previous sections. Figure below, shows what price segment each of the competitor products fall into.

Price (INR)
35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

Competitor Price analysis

SWOT Analysis of Nokia and Blackberry:-

Nokia
Strengths:-Product portfolio,suitable for Indian conditions,leading market position,Market leadership,largest no of distribution and selling points,haigh quality and proffesional team in the HR dept,high resale value.Largest installed base and hence the economies of scale Oppurtunities :-Due to wider range of products compared to competition and due to the increased purchasing power of Weaknesses :consumers in India Threats:Price of the Nokia can increase its Emmerging product market share by other local offered,some targetting right manufacturers, models not being consumers at the right Rapid user time.There is also an technological friendly,service increasing demand of centre no are smartphones from which innovations. fewer and Nokia can benefit.Nokia centered can also enter into strategic alliances and acqusitions and consquently increase its market share.

Blackberry
Strengths :- Unique offering and strategy, Well designed software,powerful brand,carrier friendly offering best suited for enterprise customers. Weaknesses :- Selling done by operators which takes time and the cost associated with the launch can be high,data transfers ia in encrypted form which is required to be changed by different companies,high total cost of ownership which can be leveraged by competitors,businedd model is not carrier friendly. Oppurtunities :Threats :differentiated offerings Tougher for several categories of competition from mobile workers,Extend a range of the range of therd party suppliers. blackberry devices.

Marketing Strategy :Following points discuss in detail the marketing strategy for Blackberry Torch.

Objectives & Goals


To identify customer segments to be targeted for Blackberry Torch To define a roadmap for positioning of Blackberry Torch To project volumes for Blackberry Torch for attaining a 5% market share in Smart phoner segment

Product details : Key Innovations Push it real good Nobody yet bettered RIMs push email software instant delivery wherever you are.

Company kit - RIMs concentration on the business sector with its integrating Enterprise software has bagged it a lucrative income that even Nokia hasnt fully tapped into. Multimedia mobile The latest BlackBerries pack as much portable media prowess as an iPhone to let the suits wind down on the commute. BlackBerry PIN BlackBerry PIN is an eight character hexadecimal identification number assigned to each BlackBerry device. PINs cannot be changed manually on the device (though Blackberry technicians are able to reset or update a PIN server-side), and are locked to each specific BlackBerry. BlackBerrys can message each other using the PIN directly or by using theBlackBerry Messenger application. Torch comes with the following features : Enhanced browsing Engaging multimedia Social feeds feature 5 MP camera All in design with touch screen and slide out QWERTY keypad. Universal search Blackberry messenger Long lasting battery Fully loaded with GPS,3G and Wi-Fi. New and improved dynamic operating system BlackBerry 6 OS.

Target segment
As per the behavioral segmentations described above we should target
Blackberry torch at Mobile Intensives and Mobile Casuals. These groups are better off economically. In these segments mobile intensives comprise 68% of smart phone users and mobile casuals represent 15% of the smart phone users. They use this mobile for business activities, social connections and entertainment which can be done very effectively by Torch which has QWERTY keypad,5 MP camera and BlackBerry 6 OS which allows faster web browsing and social networking. The Blackberry Torch is available in 2 colors- Black and White. Its design is also very sleek and it also has features like HD video which makes it easy to target it to young explorers and technology stylists. By psychographic traits we should target it to both the Entertainment and Communication users.

Positioning Statement: "The propensity to adopt feature phones and Smart Phones is greatest amongst the youth and business executive segments, whose purchase decisions are often driven by peer group influence and workplace usage patterns, as well as larger disposable incomes and willingness experiment with new technology platforms", stated Anirban Banerjee, Associate Vice President, Research, IDC India. Blackberry should target the young college goers along with the working executive and corporate honchos whom they have been targeting traditionally. BlackBerry Torch has all the features to give a feeling of a mini personal computer and should be directed at the people who want to stay in touch and entertained on the go.

Product :The table below shows the comparison between Blackberry Torch and the top three competitors. It compares the features that customers want. iPhone4 115.2x58.6x9.3; 137g 2 Colors Display - TFT 5MP Camera Up to 40 hrs music Video 720p@30fps HTC Desire 119x60x11.9 mm; 135g 3 Colors Display AMOLED 5MP Camera NA Video WVGA@15fp s Talk time 6/5 hrs. (2G/3G) 576MB RAM 512MB ROM YouTube, Picasa. Gtalk integration with dedicated search key USB Java capable Nokia N8 113.5x59.1x1 2.9mm; 135g 5 Colors Display AMOLED 12 MP Camera Up to 50 hrs music 720p@30fps Dolby Digital Talk time 12/5 hrs. (2G/3G) 16GB Storage 256MB RAM 512MB ROM Integrated Social Networking (Single app connecting to several SN sites) HDMI Java capable

Design

BlackBerry Torch 111x 62x14.5; 161.1g


3 Colors Display-HVGA

Multimedia

5MP Camera Up to 30 Hours Music VGA(640 X 480) video recording Talktime 18/5.5 hrs. (2G/3G) 16/32 GB Storage 512 MB RAM
Integrated Social Networking (Single app connecting to several SN sites)

Call Features/ Talk time 14/7 Quality hrs. (2G/3G) Memory/ Storage Social Networking 16/32GB Storage

NA

Additional Features

USB NA

BlackBerry messanger NA

Price :-

Interestingly, of all the Indian youth who have mobile phones, only 10 percent have Smart Phones and 90 percent of them still have feature phones.

India is a price conscious country Infact, about 4 out of 10 Indian youths have sighted that as the primary purchase driver, which is more than any other country. In my opinion, 90 percent of all user want to move to Smart Phones, given the kind of features it offers, but Smart Phones is a much newer phenomenon in India as compared to rest of the world and hence such low penetrations. The sales of Smart Phones actually saw tremendous growth only in last few months, specifically due to fall in prices of phones. Till start of this year most of the Smart Phones cost above 15k which was out of budget of most of Indians, especially younger people.

But the scenario has changes drastically, thanks to local Indian brands like Micromax, Zen, Maxx and others, who have bought Smart Phones in every ones reach. Today one can buy a decent Smart Phone for as low as 3000 rupees (about 60 70 USD).

But still the market potential remains huge-80 percent of Smart Phone market is still there for the taking ( Imagine the numbers we are talking here).There will be two main factors that will decide how soon the Smart Phones proliferate. The price of the handset and cost of Data usage.

Price (INR)
35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Price (INR)

Place :Blackberry sells all the mobiles through their operators only. Torch should also be sold through the traditional channels such as network operators. As these phones are mainly used by financially well to do people it should be sold in state capitals and b category cities only. While trying to find the blackberry we found out that it was difficult to locate a operator place where we can actually see and touch the model. There are lot of people who want to actually touch and feel the phone before making a purchasing decision. India being a developing country it is a tendency to purchase the required things personally by going to the place. That is why blackberry should adopt a strategy that is adopted by Dell. They should make "Blackberry Experience Zones. All the competitors sell their phones through multiple outlets. Blackberry should also get into these multiple channels. In this way they can increase their reach to the masses and increase their revenues and

Promotion :Till date Blackberry has been used by business honchos and corporate clients. It was not advertising much as it had BlackBerry Messanger on its side. BlackBerry has very strong network that one can stay in touch with their loved ones even in the most extreme circumstances. When the World Trade centre crashed in 2001 the only people who were able to contact their loved ones while they were still stuck in the Debris were the ones with a BlackBerry device. All the other networks were down. It also provided a secrecy to the corporate clients when they wanted to communicate with the counter parts as all the messages and emails that were sent through the BlackBerry devices were encrypted. But after the iPhone happened Blackberrys competitive advantage has been diminishing. Now the BlackBerry should also target the young generations. They can increase their market reach in this manner. Torch should be promoted through Television ads Newspaper ads Experience Zones etc.

As we can see from the above chart we can see that the BlackBerry should be targeted at Male as they are the mail users of the Smart Phones. We have made a detailed promotion plan which is as mentioned below.

Post Launch
Market survey for evaluation On going advertisements New applications should be introduced continiuously.

Launch
Advertisements through TV,Newspapers & web Additional features should be emphasised in the ads such as BB Massenger,touch screen with QWERTY keypad and lotsof free applications.

Pre launch
Web ads to increase the customers curiosity

Sales plan:Based on our analysis we have prepared a quarterly forecast as mentioned below. Particular Overall Market Blackberry Selling 5% from existing Smart phones To attain 7% market share Difference to be achieved Taking cannibalizing into effect Torch has to contribute 20% of total sales Quarterly Forecasting Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4 Volume 6000000 300000 420000 120000 84000 24000 23000 20000 17000

References :http://www.idcindia.com/Press/27dec2010.asp http://www.idcindia.com/analyst_viewpoint/index.asp http://www.idcindia.com/press/02april2010.asp www.telecomnews.com www.blackberry.com www.newsreports.com www.toptenreviews.com www.telecomcircle.com www.wikipedia.com www.scribd.com