人參 味甘微寒微溫無毒主補五臟安精神定魂魄止惊悸除邪氣明目開心益智療腸胃中冷心腹鼓痛胸脅逆 滿霍亂吐逆調中止消渴通血脈破堅積令人不忘久服輕身延年一名人銜一名鬼蓋一名神草一名人微 一名土精一名血參如人形者有神生上黨山谷及遼東二月四月八月上旬採根竹刀刮暴乾無令見風1 Rénshēn [Panax ginseng Meyer], taste: sweet, slightly cold [and] slightly warm,2 not

poisonous. Mainly for supplementing- mending the five internal-viscerai, quietsii the essence-spirit,iii settles the superior [and] inferior souls,3 stops fright palpitation, does away with evil qìiv [and] brightens the eyes.v Opens the heartvi [and] increases wisdom.vii Treats4 [the] intestines, stomach [and] center cold,viii drum distention painix [in] the heart [region] [and] abdomen, chest [and] rib-side counter-flow fullness,x sudden turmoilxi [,?] vomiting,xii moves the center, stops dispersion thirst,xiii frees the blood vessels, breaks up hard accumulations [and] causes a person to not forget.xiv Long term consumptionxv [makes] the body light [and] delays aging. Another name is rénxián (rank of man),5 another name is guīgaì (ghost cover),6 another name is Shencao (divine herb), 7 renwei,8 another name is tǔjīng (earth essence) [and] another name is Xueshen (blood root). [A root] that has the form of a man has shén (spirit), it grows above villages(?)9[in] the mountains [and] valleys [and its range?] extends to the distant east. [On] the second month, fourth month [or] eight month [in] the first ten day period gather the root, [using] a bamboo knife scrape [the root], dry in the sun, [but] do not allow [it] to see the wind.

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From Qiānjīn Yì Fāng.

In the Shénnóng BěncǎoJīng ginseng (rénshēn man root) is listed as slightly cold. Unprocessed ginseng (white), especially when fresh, is definitely considered slightly cool, whereas steamed (processed) or red ginseng, especially Korean red ginseng, is warm to hot. I don’t know at what point in time red ginseng was invented. [Check 雷公 Leigong’s <<炮炙论 Paozhilun>> ancient text on prepared medicinals.] Steaming ginseng increases its radical-scavenging activity, its ability to induce endothelium-dependent relaxation, as well as creating new active ingredients not present in unsteamed ginseng; new research suggests that ginseng steamed at 120 degress Celsius for two hours celcius is more efficacious than the traditional method of steaming ginseng at 98-100 degrees Celsius for two to threee hours (Kim, 2000). Steaming also causes the roots to turn a translucent reddish brown color. In addition, sometimes processors add herbs to the steam water. According to Ron Teeguarden the preparation of (high grade ?) North Korean red ginseng is a closely guarded secret process and makes the ginseng very hot and yang. (Teeguarden, 1998, pages 102-103) In the Bencao Jing Jizhu, which is a collection of commentaries on the Shénnóng Běncǎo Jīng, “slightly warm” is written in as an addition by a later commentator. It appears that in subsequent works such as the Qianjin Yi Fang this distinction (at least in my modern reprint) between original text and commentary is not present. The likely correct reading should be “slightly cold or slightly warm,” even though the text is not explicitly written with an “or.” 3 See appendix I on魂魄húnpò “superior and inferior souls.” 4 The Běncǎo Jīng Jízhù has 治zhì (to rule, to govern, to manage, to cure) instead of 療liáo (to treat, to cure). Interestingly, the character liáo never appears in older medical texts Huángdì Nèijīng Sùwèn, Lingshu and Shang Han Lun only zhì. In the Sùwèn, zhì appears about 430 times, in the Lingshu almost two hundred times and in the Shāng Hán Lùn about one hundred times. Further, liáo only appears twice in the Daoist work Bàopǔzǐ, whereas the use of zhì as “to cure” appears tens of times. In the Shénnóng Běncǎo Jīng, zhì appears about three hundred fifty times, but liáo only appears around ten times. These frequency counts weakly suggest that the use of liáo in medical texts, evolved sometime after the Hàn dynasty, and that perhaps select portions of the Shénnóng Běncǎo Jīng were written shortly after the Hàn dynasty, around the time the Bàopǔzǐ was written. Since the Shénnóng Běncǎo Jīng is a reconstructed text with multiple variants, and the Bàopǔzǐ is a difficult text for me to translate, not to mention the small number of texts examined, this may all be idle speculation on my part. 5 According to the Bencao Gangmu (vol. 12-02) 銜xián means rank, so rénxián is so named as the ginseng root has horizontal layers and is shaped like a man when it is fully developed. [Check Bencao Gangmu text in original Chinese.] 6 So named because ginseng grows in shady places, ibid., page 1246. 7 Meaning it has magical and miraculous powers, ibid. 8 According to Bencao Gangmu: <…according to Mingyi Bielu wei is a character similar to shen, but this is an error.> . [Check Bencao Gangmu text in original Chinese.] 9 黨 dǎng means a village of five hundred families.

likewise. personal communication. cholerae do not become ill.” is a quotation from the神農本草經Shénnóng Běncǎo Jīng (Divine Husbandman's Classic of the Materia Medica). Professor of Infectious Diseases. spleen. In serious cases. The bacteria produces an enterotoxin that causes a copious. page 179) describe it as “the manifestation of life force” as well as vitality. x Means the qi is moving upward (the wrong way). For this reason the evil qi of nature touches and then causes harm to the five internal organs of man. also see WHO Fact sheet N°107. In severe cases of dehydration. (2006. blood drum. In most cases (approximately 75% for adults) vomiting is not present. Since ginseng opens the heart it follows that it would be good for severe distention pain in the heart region. not all reconstructed versions of the Shénnóng Běncǎo Jīng have the character 主zhǔ. why? Qíbó said: “Since ancient times sages prepared decoctions. settle. due to the debility of cholera causing other infections that cause fever. but resistance to it is on the rise. [and] [the people] swallowed these [medicinal-liquids] to insure [their] well-being. however there is no inflammation present in the intestional tissue. opaque wines (unfiltered wines containing the lees) [and] sweet wines. In poor countries the standard treatment is oral rehydration. consisting of a packets of salts and sugar mixed with water. watery diarrhea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and possibly death if treatment is not promptly given. kidneys and liver. Intuitively one of my teachers explained to me that when jīng-shén is strong the mind is calm. About ten percent of adults will have a fever. The toxin makes it impossible for the intestional cells to absorb water. water–damp encumbering the spleen. liver-spleen blood stasis. painless. However. I do not know how the patterns of drum distention pain were described in Sūn Sīmiǎo’s time. literally means: sudden turmoil and in more modern usage is synonymous with cholera. it just grows in the GI tract and produces a toxin that affects the lining so it can’t absorb fluid. iii 精神jīng-shén: essence-spirit. damp obstruction. 明目míng mù.The statement “It mainly (zhǔ) supplements the five zàng (臟). water drum and worm drum. “In the era of middle antiquity the Dao [and] Virtuous-Power declined slightly [and] often evil qi arrived. alert and able to concentrate. Another meaning according to Wiseman and Feng Ye (1998. mania or withdrawal. The sugar facilitates the absorption of the mineral salts. 帝曰 : 上 古 聖 人 作 湯 液 醪 醴 , 為 而 不 用 何 也 ? 岐伯 曰 : 自 古 聖 人 之 作 湯 液 醪 醴 者 , 以 為 備 耳 ! 夫 上 古 作湯 液 , 故 為 而 弗 服 也 。 中 古 之 世 , 道 德 稍 衰 , 邪 氣 時 至 , 服 之 萬 全 。 Yellow [Thearch] asked: “In high antiquity the sages prepared decoctions. This term has several meanings: 正氣zhèng qì (right qì) and 精氣和神志jīngqì hé shénzhì (essential qi together with consciousness or state of mind). The majority of persons infected with V. Historically it was further divided into qì drum. the bacteria itself is non invasive. intravenous fluids are necessary. When jīng-shén is weak the person is tired and is not able to concentrate the mind as the mind is scattered and weak. According to the Hanyu Da Cidian開心kāi xīn could mean: 開通心竅kāi tōng xīn qiào (opens [and] unblocks the orifices of the heart [spirit]). It has a short incubation period. And in Suwen treatise fourteen. 故天之邪氣感 則害人五臟Gù tiān zhī xié qì gǎn zé hài rén wǔ zàng. more than 90% of episodes are of mild or moderate severity and are difficult to distinguish clinically from other types of acute diarrhea. In Wiseman and Fe (pages 150–152) only abdominal drum distention is mentioned. [they] made [these] and did not employ [them]. but not taken. causative sense) here means: calm. Professor Burton Andersen. xi 霍亂huò luàn. University of Illinois-Chicago. make content and pacify. Today distinctions are made between the following patterns of drum distention pain: qi stagnation. In this context the second meaning applies. Studies have shown that an adult receiving constant fluids can lose several gallons of fluid in a twenty-four hour period due to the watery diarrhea. From chapter five of the Suwen. it is accompanied by severe pain. A third of infants will have fever. from less than one day to five days. Also. see the entry for calamus in the Shénnóng Běncǎo Jīng. ii 安ān (transitive verb. lungs. brewing damp heat. ix 鼓gǔ refers to distention so severe that the area becomes tight like a drum. iv 邪氣xiéqì ‘evil qi’ refers to pathogenic factors. opaque wines [and] sweet wines only in order to be prepared. viii 冷lěng equals 寒 hán equals cold. however today the first three types are not distinguished. When illness does occur. literally means: brightens-clears the eyes which is an ancient idiom for sharpens vision. Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is spread by contaminated water and food. soothe. At any rate when the orifices of the heart are free and clear. although the bacterium is present in their feces for seven to fourteen days. when the orifices are blocked there is clouded spirit (consciousness). antibiotics can reduce the volume and duration of diarrhea and the period of time the bacteria is excreted. According to Wiseman and Fe (page 421) the orifices of the heart spirit either denotes a speculative entity or is a metaphor describing consciousness as a portal to the external world. Cholera in TCM includes Western medicine’s definition of cholera as well as acute gastroenteritis when it has the same signs and symptoms (see vi v i Wiseman and Fe page 61). the spirit-mind (神志shén zhì) is clear. vii 益智yì zhì can also be translated as: increases intelligence.) . So in high antiquity prepared decoctions [were] made. The five yin storing zàng-organs are the heart. Tetracycline is the usual antibiotic of choice. spleen-kidney yang vacuity and liver-kidney yin vacuity.

There is also thirst. xiv The standard interpretation is ginseng improves a person’s memory. but is broader in scope. Dispersion thirst includes diabetes mellitus. 消渴xiāo kě Dispersion thirst (synonym for wasting-thirst). ejection counter-flow. xv 服fú: literally: to swallow. (See Wiseman and Ye. page 142 for the full description from Wai2 Tai2 Mi4 Yao4 Essential Secrets from Outside the Metropolis – Tang dynasty. increased fluid intake and copious urine. is a condition characterized by episodes of extremely sweet urine caused by kidney vacuity. means: to take medicine. xiii xii . 752 CE).吐逆tù nì: literally.

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