EE141

1
Pass
Pass
-
-
Transistor
Transistor
Logic
Logic
EE141
2
Pass
Pass
-
-
Transistor Logic
Transistor Logic
I
n
p
u
t
s
Switch
Network
Out
Out
A
B
B
B
• N transistors
• No static consumption
Primary inputs drive the gate terminals + source-drain terminals. In contrast to static CMOS –
primary inputs drive gate terminals.
EE141
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Example: AND Gate
Example: AND Gate
B
B
A
F = AB
0
When B is “1”, top device turns on and copies the input
A to output F. When B is low, bottom device turns on
and passes a “0”.
The presence of the switch driven by B is essential to
ensure that the gate is static – a low-impedance path
must exist to supply rails.
Adv.: Fewer devices to implement some functions.
Example: AND2 requires 4 devices (including inverter to
invert B) vs. 6 for complementary CMOS (lower total
capacitance).
NMOS is effective at passing a 0, but poor at pulling a node to Vdd. When the pass transistor a
node high, the output only charges up to V
dd
-V
tn
. This becomes worse due to the body effect.
The node will be charged up to V
dd
– V
tn
(V
s
)
)) 2 2 ( (
0 f s f tn dd s
V V V V Φ − + Φ + − · γ
EE141
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NMOS
NMOS
-
-
Only Logic
Only Logic
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
Time [ns]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
[
V
]
s
Out
In
V
s
is initially 0. V
s
will initially charge up quickly, but the tail end of the transient is slow. The
current drive of the transistor (gate-to-source voltage) is reduce significantly as V
s
approaches V
dd
-V
tn
(the current available to charge up node “s” is reduced drastically.
For cascading, the output of a pass transistor (#1) should not drive the gate of another MOS
device (#2). This will produce an output = V
dd
-V
tn1
-V
tn2
V
DD
In
Out
s
0.5µm/0.25µm
0.5µm/0.25µm
1.5µm/0.25µm
EE141
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Energy Consumption
Energy Consumption
V
DD
In
Out
s
0.5µm/0.25µm
0.5µm/0.25µm
1.5µm/0.25µm
Pass transistors require lower switching energy to charge up a node, due to the reduces
voltage swing. The output node charges from 0 -> V
dd
-V
tn
, and the energy drawn from the
power supply for charging the output of a pass transistor is given by C
L
.V
dd
(V
dd
-V
tn
)
While lower switching power is consumed, it may consume static power when output is high –
the reduced voltage level may be insufficient to turn off the PMOS transistor of the subsequent
CMOS inverter.
EE141
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Complementary Pass Transistor Logic
Complementary Pass Transistor Logic
A
B
A
B
B B B B
A
B
A
B
F=AB
F= AB
F=A+B
F =A+B
B B
A
A
A
A
F=A ⊕Β
F= A⊕Β
OR/NOR
EXOR/NEXOR AND/NAND
F
F
Pass-Transistor
Network
Pass-Transistor
Network
A
A
B
B
A
A
B
B
Inverse
(a)
(b)
• Since circuit is differential, complimentary inputs and outputs are available. Although generating differential
signals require extra circuitry, complex gates such as XORs, MUXs and adders can be realized efficiently.
• CPL is a static gate, because outputs are connected to Vdd or GND through a low-resistance path (high noise
resilience).
• Design is modular – all gates use same topology; only inputs are permuted. This facilitates the design of a
library of gates.
To accept and produce true
and complementary inputs
and outputs.
EE141
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Main Problems of NMOS
Main Problems of NMOS
-
-
only Switch
only Switch
A = 2.5 V
B
C = 2.5
V
C
L
A = 2.5 V
C = 2.5 V
B
M
2
M
1
M
n
Threshold voltage loss causes
static power consumption + slower transition
V
B
does not pull up to 2.5V, but 2.5V -V
TN
EE141
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NMOS Only Logic:
NMOS Only Logic:
Level Restoring Transistor
Level Restoring Transistor
M
2
M
1
M
n
M
r
Out
A
B
V
DD
V
DD
Level Restorer
X
• Advantage: Full Swing. Eliminates static power in inverter + static power through level restorer and pass
transistor, since restorer is only active when A is high.
• Restorer adds capacitance, takes away pull down current at X – contention between M
n
and M
r
(slower
switching). Hence M
r
must be sized small. M
n
and M
r
must be sized such that the voltage at node X drops
below the threshold of the inverter V
M
, which is a function in the sizes of M
1
and M
2
.
EE141
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Solution 2: Single Transistor Pass Gate with
Solution 2: Single Transistor Pass Gate with
V
V
T T
~0
~0
Out
V
DD
V
DD
2.5V
V
DD
0V
2.5V
0V
WATCH OUT FOR LEAKAGE CURRENTS
(DC Sneak path)
Use very low threshold values for NMOS
pass transistors, and standard high-
threshold devices for inverters.
Note: Body effect will still cause an
increase in the threshold voltage.
While these leakage paths are not critical
when the device is switching constantly,
they do pose a large energy overhead
when the circuit is in the ideal state.
EE141
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Solution 3: Transmission Gate
Solution 3: Transmission Gate
A
B
C
C
A B
C
C
B
C
L
C= 0 V
A = 2.5 V
C = 2.5 V
NMOS passes a strong “0”
PMOS passes a strong “1”
Transmission gates enable rail-to-rail swing
These gates are particularly efficient in
implementing MUXs
A
M
2
M
1
B
S
S
S
F
V
DD
F=(AS+ BS)
6 devices vs. 8 for complementary CMOS
EE141
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Another Example: Transmission Gate XOR
Another Example: Transmission Gate XOR
A
B
F
B
A
B
B
M1
M2
M3/M4
6 devices (including inverter for B) vs. 12 for
complementary CMOS
For B=1, M3 & M4 are off, M1 & M2 are on. F = AB
For B=0, M1 & M2 are off. M3 & M4 are on. F = AB
Regardless of the value of A & B, node F is
connected to V
dd
or GND (static gate)
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Resistance of Transmission Gate
Resistance of Transmission Gate
V
out
0 V
2.5 V
2.5 V
R
n
R
p
0.0 1.0 2.0
0
10
20
30
V
out
, V
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,

o
h
m
s
R
n
R
p
R
n
|| R
p
R
n
{(V
dd
-V
out
)/I
n
} & R
p
{(V
dd
-V
out
)/I
p
} are in parallel. The currents through devices are
dependent on value of V
out
and hence the operating mode of the transistors. During the low-
to-high transition, the pass transistors traverse through a number of operation modes.
Since V
d
and V
g
= V
dd
, the NMOS is either in saturation or off. The PMOS changes from
saturation to linear during the transient.
EE141
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q V
out
< |V
tp
|: NMOS and PMOS saturated
q |V
tp
| < V
out
< V
dd
– V
tn
: NMOS saturated, PMOS linear
q V
dd
-V
tn
< V
out
: NMOS cutoff, PMOS linear
R
eq
is relatively constant. Thus when analyzing transmission-gate networks, the
simplifying assumption that the switch has a constant resistive value is
acceptable.
( )
) (
1
2
) (
) (
2
tn dd n
out dd
out dd tn dd n
out dd
n
out dd
n
V V k V V
V V V V k
V V
I
V V
R


1
]
1

¸

− − −

·

·
Similarly,
) (
1
tp dd p
p
out dd
p
V V k I
V V
R



·
V
out
0 V
2.5 V
2.5 V
R
n
R
p
0.0 1.0 2.0
0
10
20
30
V
out
, V
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,

o
h
m
s
R
n
R
p
R
n
|| R
p
EE141
14
Delay in Transmission Gate Networks
Delay in Transmission Gate Networks
V
1 V
i-1
C
2.5 2.5
0 0
V
i V
i+1
C
C
2.5
0
V
n-1 V
n
C
C
2.5
0
In
V
1 V
i Vi+1
C
V
n-1 V
n
C
C
In
R
eq
R
eq
R
eq
R
eq
C C
(a)
(b)

·
+
· ·
n
k
eq eq p
n n
CR k CR t
0
2
) 1 (
69 . 0 69 . 0
t
p
is proportional to n
2
and increases rapidly with the number of switches in the
chain.
Solution: Insert buffers.
EE141
15
Delay Optimization
Delay Optimization
V
1 V
i-1
C
2.5 2.5
0 0
V
i V
i+1
C
C
2.5
0
V
n-1 V
n
C
C
2.5
0
In
V
1
V
i Vi+1
C
V
n-1 V
n
C
C
In
R
eq
R
eq
R
eq
R
eq
C C
(a)
(b)
C
Req Req
C C
R
eq
C C
Req Req
C C
Req
C
In
m
(c)
buf eq p
t
m
n m m
CR
m
n
t

,
_

¸
¸
− +
1
]
1

¸

+
· 1
2
) 1 (
69 . 0 Linear dependence on n instead of n
2
To find m
opt
, then yielding
eq
buf
opt
CR
t
m 7 . 1 ·
0 ·


m
t
p

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