You are on page 1of 9

India Demographics Profile 2011

Home > India

Population
1,189,172,906 (July 2011 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years: 29.7% (male 187,450,635/female 165,415,758) 15-64 years: 64.9% (male 398,757,331/female 372,719,379) 65 years and over: 5.5% (male 30,831,190/female 33,998,613) (2011 est.)

Median age
total: 26.2 years male: 25.6 years female: 26.9 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate


1.344% (2011 est.)

Birth rate
20.97 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death rate
7.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net migration rate


-0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Urbanization
urban population: 30% of total population (2010)

rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate


total: 47.57 deaths/1,000 live births male: 46.18 deaths/1,000 live births female: 49.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth


total population: 66.8 years male: 65.77 years female: 67.95 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate


2.62 children born/woman (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


0.3% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


2.4 million (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths
170,000 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria animal contact disease: rabies water contact disease: leptospirosis note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Nationality
noun: Indian(s) adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)

Religions
Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)

Languages
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9% note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 61% male: 73.4%

female: 47.8% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)


total: 10 years male: 11 years female: 10 years (2007)

Education expenditures
3.1% of GDP (2006)

Maternal mortality rate


230 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight


43.5% (2006)

Health expenditures
2.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.599 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density


0.9 beds/1,000 population (2005)

National Population Policy 2000 - APPENDIX III

APPENDIX III - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE India is following the demographic transition pattern of all developing countries from initial levels of high birth rate - high death rate to the current intermediate transition stage of high birth rate - low death rate which leads to high rates of population growth, before graduating to levels of low birth rate - low death rate. 1. Age Composition 1. (i) The age distribution of the population of India is projected to change by 2016, and these changes should determine allocation of resources in policy intervention. The population below 15 years of age (currently 35 percent) is projected to decline to 28 percent by 2016. The population in the age group 15 - 59 years (currently 58 percent) is projected to increase to nearly 64 percent by 2016. The age group of 60 plus years is projected to increase from the current levels of 7 percent to nearly 9 percent by 2016. Table 4 : Age Composition as Percentage of the Total Population Year 1991 2001 2011 2016 Below 5 years 12.80 10.70 10.10 9.7 Between 0-15 37.76 34.33 28.48 27.73 Between >15 - 59 years 55.58 58.70 63.38 63.33
2

+ 60 years 6.67 6.97 8.14 8.94

2. Inter-State Differences 2. (i) India is a country of striking demographic diversity. Substantial differences are visible between states in the achievement of basic demographic indices. This has led to significant disparity in current population size and the potential to influence population increases during 1996-2016. There are wide inter-state, male-female and rural-urban disparities in outcomes and impacts. These differences stem largely from poverty, illiteracy, and inadequate access to health and family welfare services, which coexist and reinforce each other. In many parts, the widespread health infrastructure is not responsive. 2. (ii) At least 9 states and union territories in India have already achieved replacement levels of fertility. These are ranked in accordance with their total fertility rates. Additionally, in each of the three tables below, the current population of each state/union territory, the ratio of this population to the country population, the infant mortality rate and the contraceptive prevalence rate of the state / union territory is also indicated:
2 Technical Group on Population Projections, Planning Commission.

Table 5 : Population Profile of 9 States and Union Territories of India with TFR less than or equal to 2.1 State Population Size Percent of Total Infant Contraceptive

(in millions) as on 1 March 1999*

Total Population

Fertility Mortality Prevalence Rate Rate 1997 Rate 1998 1999

INDIA Goa Nagaland Delhi Kerala Pondichery A&N Islands Tamil Nadu Chandigarh Mizoram

981 .3 3.3 72 Group A (TFR less than or equal to 2.1) 1.5 0.2 1.0@ 23 1.6 0.2 1.5@ NA 13.4 1.4 1.6@ 36 32.0 3.3 1.8 16 1.1 0.1 1.8@ 21 0.4 0.04 1.9@ 30 61.3 6.2 2.0 53 0.9 0.09 2.1@ 32 0.9 0.09 NA 23

44 % 27.1 7.8 28.8 40.5 56.9 39.9 50.4 35.0 34.6

@ Three year moving average TFR1995-97 *Population Projections by Technical Group on Population Projections,1996 Source: Registrar General of India

2.(iii) There are 11 states and union territories that have a total fertility rate of more than 2.1 but less than 3.0, ranked accordingly : Table 6 : Population Profile of 11 States and Union Territories of India with TFR > 2.1 but < 3 State Population Percent of Total Infant Contraceptive Size (in Total Fertility Mortality Prevalence Rate 1999 millions) as Population Rate Rate 1998 on 1 March 1997 1999* Group B (TFR > 2.1 and < than 3.0) 2.21 0.2 2.4@ 25 0.1 0.01 2.5@ 51 51.4 5.2 2.5 58 74.6 7.6 2.5 66 6.5 0.7 2.5 64 0.5 0.06 2.5 52 78.0 7.9 2.6 53 90.1 9.2 2.7 49 23.3 2.4 2.7 54 1.2 0.1 2.8@ 47 0.07 0.01 2.8@ 37

Manipur Daman & Diu Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Sikkim West Bengal Maharashtra Punjab Arunachal Pradesh Lakshadweep

20.1 30.2 55.4 50.3 48.2 21.9 32.9 50.1 66.0 14.0 9.1

@ Three year moving average TFR1995-97 *Population Projections by Technical Group on Population Projections,1996 Source: Registrar General of India

2. (iv) However, there are at least 12 states and union territories that have a total fertility rate of over 3.0. These have been listed below: Table 7 : Population Profile of 11 States and Union Territories of India with TFR greater than or equal to 3 State Population Size (in millions) as on 1 March 1999* 35.5 47.6 25.6 19.5 0.2 3.6 2.4 78.3 52.6 98.1 166.4 9.7 Percent of Total Infant Contraceptive Total Fertility Mortality Prevalence Population Rate 1997 Rate Rate 1999 1998 Group C (>3.0) Orissa Gujarat Assam Haryana Dadra & Nagar Haveli Tripura Meghalaya Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Bihar Uttar Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir 3.6 4.8 2.6 2.0 0.02 0.3 0.2 8.0 5.4 10.0 17.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.5@ 3.9@ 4.8@ 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.8 NA 98 64 78 69 61 49 52 98 83 67 85 45 39 54.5 16.7 49.7 29.1 25.2 4.6 46.5 36.4 19.7 38.2 15.0

@ Three year moving average TFR1995-97 *Population Projections by Technical Group on Population Projections,1996 Source : Registrar General of India

2.(v) The five states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh that currently constitute nearly 44 percent of the total population of India, are projected to comprise 48 percent of the total population in 2016. In other words, these states alone will contribute an anticipated 55 percent increase during the period 1996-2016. Demographic outcomes in these states will determine the timing and size of population at which India achieves population stabilisation. 3. Maternal Mortality 3.(i) With 16% of the world's population, India accounts for over 20% of the world's maternal deaths. The maternal mortality ratio, defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, is incredibly high at 408 per 100,000 live births for the country (1997), which is unacceptable when compared to current indices elsewhere in Asia.

Table 8 : Maternal Mortality Ratios in Asia Sri China Lanka 30 115 Thailand 200 Pakistan 340 Indonesia 390 India 437

Bangladesh 850

Nepal 1500

3 UNFPA, The State of World Population, 1999, 6 Billion : A Time for Choices, 1995 estimates.

3. (ii) Within India, the inter-state differentials are a matter of concern. Table 9 : Inter-State Differences within India in Maternal Mortality Ratios Kerala 30 Bihar 115 Madhya Pradesh 200 Rajasthan 340 Uttar Pradesh 390 Orissa 437 Bangladesh 850
4

4. Infant Mortality 4. It is estimated that about 7 percent of new-born infants perish within a year. Poor maternal health results in low birth weight and premature babies. Infant and childhood diarrhoeal diseases, acute respiratory infections and malnutrition contribute to high infant mortality rates. Additionally, in India, across the board (rural or urban areas), there are more female deaths in the age group of 0-14 than elsewhere5. Although the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has decreased from 146 per 1000 births in 1951 to 72 per 1000 births (1997), and the sex differentials are narrowing, again there are wide inter-state differences recorded in 1998, as is clear from Table 4-6. In comparison, we note the infant mortality rates in South Asia and elsewhere: Table 10 : Infant Mortality Rates in Asia Sri Lanka 18 5. Sex Ratio 5. (i) India shares a distinctive feature of South Asian and Chinese populations as regards the sex ratio, with a century's old deficit of females. The (female to male) sex ratio has been steadily declining. From 1901 to 1991, the sex ratio has declined from 972 to 927. This is largely attributed to the son preference, discrimination against the girl child leading to lower female literacy, female foeticide, higher fertility and higher mortality levels for females, in all age groups up to 45. Thailand 29 China 41 Indonesia 48 India 72 Pakistan 74
6

Bangladesh 79

Nepal 83