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1. DISTRIBUTION
• Normal distribution

• 

#ก#'.\$!
Histogram ก8/#-#'.\$! 
) 9')#'.\$!

• Binomial distribution
• Poisson distribution
2. CENTRAL TENDENCY

Arithmetic Mean : '/:!('2

Geometric Mean : '/:!('2

Harmonic Mean : '/:!;9. '

Median
Mode 

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Hct % %  60 
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;< ก:=9=<
a. median S.D.
b. mean S.D.
c. median range
d. mean range
e. mode range

3. VARIATION
The variance: &B '/!,/#,"ก\$6#กก ("#()".5/()3ก)C "C/#ก'/:!C "'/ก#("#

()".5("#& ก (δ2)
Standard deviation : &B '/!,/#,"ก\$6#กก ("#()".5("#ก%/."/# (S2)
The coefficient of variation
Probability ; risk , rate…etc.

4. INCIDENCE
CUMULAIVE INCIDENCE (CI)
number of new events at specified time
×k
number of risk group at specified time

K= 10n
Meaning: average risk in each event
Unit : rate per population
Example : new cases of DHF = 100 cases
persons During three months

Risk group or population at beginning of time = 10,000

100
CI=

×1000 = 10 per 1,000 population
10,000

Incidence density (ID)
Number of new events at specified time
×k
person – time
K = 10n

Meaning : risk hazard or hazard rate
Unit: cases per person per time
Person time (p-t): number of persons at each point of time;
10 persons × 10 days = 100 p-d
5 persons × 5 days = 25 p-d
Total of p-t = 125 p-d
Or number of persons × length of observation

Example: news cases of DHF 100 cases Person time = 125 p-d

During three months

100 cases
ID =

×100
125 p-d

= 80 cases per 100 person per day 

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a. 5%
b. 6.25%
c. 20%
d. 25%
e.50%

5. PREVALENCE
Number of existing cases of disease at point of time
×k
Total number of population at the same point of time

K= 10n
Meaning : magnitude of problems
Unit : rate per population

Example : total cases of DHF 200 cases Total population = 10,000 persons

200
P

=

× 1,000 = 20 per 1,000 population
10,000

6. OTHERS
6.1 Fatality rate

Number of death from each disease
×k
Total number of cases

K = 10n
Meaning : severity of disease
Unit : rate per population

Example : number of 10 death from DHF Total cases of DHF = 100 cases

10
Fatality rate =

× 100 = 10 %
100

10 er 100 population

6.2 SURVIVAL RATE
Survival rate is the rate to determined survival time of the patient in each disease by using KaplanMeier procedure. 

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IB
a. 0.0002
b. 0.004
c. 0.4
d. 0.02
%( ก 
e. 0.4
%( ก 

6.3 HEALTH IMPACT
6.3.1 Risk difference or attributable risk: Incidence of exposed (I e) – Incidence of
unexposed (I o)
Meaning : risk difference between exposed group and unexposed group
Unit : the same as incidence in the formula
Exposed persons who get sick
R (exposed) =
All exposed persons

Unexposed persons who get sick
R (unexposed)=
All unexposed persons

6.3.2

Risk ratio:
R (exposed)
RR=
R (unexposed)

Meaning : relative risk between exposed group and unexposed group.
6.3.3

Odds of case exposure

Exposed cases
All cases

6.3.4

Unexposed cases
All cases

Odds of control exposure

Exposed controls
All controls

Unexposed controls
All controls

6.3.5

Odds ratio:
Odds of case exposure
OR=
Odds of control exposure

7. EFFICACY OF DRUG THERAPY
1. Risk reduction (ARR) : EER-CER
EER = experimental event rate: number of success in experimental group divided by total samples of
experiment.
CER = control event rate: number of success in control group divided by total samples of control.
Using in phase III of drug trial
2. EFFICACY OF DRUG THERAPY
Number needed to treat (NNT) is the number of patient that must be treated with the proposed
therapy in order to have one additional successful result. ;H ก;H I<
NNT = 1/ ARR
3. RISK OF DRUG THERAPY
Number needed to harm (NNH) tell us how many people need to exposed before harm will be fall
one additional person or one additional harmful outcome event will be occur. ;H ก;H <
NNH = 1/ AAR
AAR= absolute risk difference.
Using in phase IV of drug trial.

8. ASSOCATIONS
Correlation : B ;  B % 
( B S%กก
Covariance: ( (   กH ; (, B 
( H)=B9 ก;<( ( =ก ;  B 

9%C:

9. ESTIMATION
9.1 Point estimation: (,ก (  ;
% % ( ก <9 : 
=< 
BJ H T<=9%9 C: 

%
9.2 Interval estimation: (,ก (  ;
% % ( ก %C= =< BJ H T<=9 

9%C: 
% : % ก (  +%ก8J H 
H) <:HC <%  ;
% 
10. Level of confidence: <+ SH%HB8J T%กH ;
% % ( ก %C= % H

( I<9  P(L<μ<U) =0.95 B8J T%กH μ %C= L : U (, 0.95 B S% 95% :
T%กH μ 9%ก L B S%กก U (, 0.05 B S% 5%
-

-

10.1 Confidence intervals (CI)
The limits of the 95% CI show how precise the result are.
If the CI is very wide, the result are not very precise.
If the CI is very narrow, the result are very precise
10.2 TYPE I ERROR
This occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected event though it is really true.
This is a false positive study result.
Alpha (α) known as the level of significance, is defined as the maximum probability of
making a Type I error that we are willing to except.
10.3 TYPE II ERROR
This occurs when the null hypothesis is not rejected (Ho is accepted and no difference is
found) even though it is really false (and the groups are different).
Beta (β) as the maximum probability of making a Type II error or failing to reject the null
hypothesis when it is actually false.
Power is the ability to detect a statistically significant difference when it actually exists.(1-β)
A summary of the types of conclusions and errors that may be drawn from a statistical test
of a drug vs. placebo 

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a. 0.3-1.3
b. 0.3-0.7
c. 0.5-0.9
d. 0.1-1.1
e. 1.3-2.9
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a. Type I error = 0.07
b. Type II error = 0.07
c. Type I error = 0.1
d. Type II error = 0.1
e. Type I error = 0.9

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C # " D3C)"/  
!..
1. Daniel W. W. Biostatistics: A foundation for analysis in the health sciences. Eight edition. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. 2005.
2. ก+,-. /.012-34+52. ก.6/1786.9:3;<1=1: ;<1=1;>.:6+4ก.6461:.6?,9/1@+- A6BC1DC3@EF.,Bก6G3D:./1H-.,+2546.
3. Dan Mayer. Essential evidence based medicine. Cambridge University press 2004.
4. David L. Katz. Clinical epidemiology & evidence-based medicine: fundamental principles of clinical
reasoning & research. Sage publications. 2001. 

ก
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SCREENING 

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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SCREENING
Scope:
The procedures which can be applied rapidly to sort out apparently well persons who probably have a
disease from those who probably do not.
1. DIAGNOSTIC
• It is the procedure to obtained clinical information from history, physical examination, laboratory and
imaging procedures.
2. CONCEPTS OF SCREENING
• Person with a disease can be identified by use of a screening test before the time of routine diagnosis.
• Treatment at the time of detection by screening, as opposed to the time of routine diagnosis, results in an
improved chance of survival.
3. TYPES OF SCREENING

• Mass screening: whole population
• Multiphasic screening
• Targeted screening
• Opportunistic screening

4. CRITERIA FOR A SUCCESSFUL SCREENING
• -Morbidity or mortality of the disease must be a sufficient concern to public health.
• -Effective early treatment must be known to reduce morbidity or mortaliy.
• -A high risk population must be exist.
CRITERIA
• The test should be sensitive and specific.
• The test must be acceptable to the target population.
• Minimal risk should be associated with the test.
5. VALIDITY
• Sensitivity: The proportion of people with the disease who have a positive test for the disease.
• Specificity: The proportion of people without the disease who have a negative test.
• Positive predictive value: The proportion of persons with positive test results who actually have the disease
of interest.
• Negative predictive value: The proportion of persons with negative test results who actually do not have
the disease of interest.

Sensitivity

True positive
TP

+ FN

Specificity

True negative
TN + FP

Negative predictive value

Positive predictive value

True positive
TP + FP

Accuracy

True negative

TP + TN

TN + FN

Grand total 

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D. =9ก  ( randomization ) =ก  
%
E.
;< 
ก: 
% I<9 100%

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(,T 

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: positive

60

40 

: negative

20

80

89BJH <%+I<9: positive jT%ก (,T  I
A. 0.3
B. 0.33
C. 0.6
D. 0.67
E. 0.75
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specificity % j);<=B;< (, 9%: IB
a.60
b.86
c.71
d.92
e.83

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a. 1
b. 2
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d. 8
e. 10
6. Cutoff point
• It is the point on the continuum between normal and abnormal.
• Receiver operator characteristics curve (ROC) 
 

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7. Ideality test
• Inexpensive, convenient and painless, safe and 100% accuracy.
• Gold standard is a jargon term, used to describe a method, procedure, or measurement that is widely
accepted as being the best available.
8. Bayes> theorem

Bayes’ theorem
Positive predictive value;
(Se) (P)
(Se)(P)+(1-Sp)(1-P)    

Se = Sensitivity 
Sp = Specificity 
P = Prevalence 

  (@ABCD@BD)

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%
cerebrovascular disease I<9< j
ODD ratio

95%Cl

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1.8

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<SH 

0.4

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A.
B.
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D.
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a. Ki-square
b. Pair T test

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b. simple random sampling
c. systematic random sampling
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b. Interval
c. Nominal
d. Ordinal

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1. Interval
2. Ordinal
3. Ratio
4. Nominal

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Reference
1. B. Burt Gerstman. (1998). Epidemiology kept simple: An introduction to classic and modern
epidemiology. New York: Wiley-Liss.
2. John M. Last.(1988) A dictionary of epidemiology. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford university press.
3. Raymond S. Greenberg., et al. (2001). Medical epidemiology. 3rd edition. New York: Lange/McGrawHill.
4. Leon Gordis. (2000). Epidemiology. 2nd edition. Philadelphia : W.B. Saunders company.

76b-476b-BAc- imork (Mc)
6.36 P.M. 27/10/2551