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LONDON: SWAN SONNLNSCHE1N SC-CO-LTD: paternostlrsqvr;

DUKE UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY
The Glenn Negley Collection
of Utopian Literature

GARDEN CITIES
OF

TO-MORROW
(BEING THE SECOND EDITION OF " TO-MORROW
:

A PEACEFUL PATH

TO REAL REFORM")

7' .

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University Libraries Duke http://www.org/details/gardencitiesoftoOOhowa .archive.

.

GARDEN CITIES TO-MORROW OF (being the second edition of "to-morrow: a peaceful path ") to REAL reform EBENEZER HOWARD 1 New occasions teach new duties Time makes ancient good uncouth They must upward still."— J. LONDON SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & 1902 CO. PATERNOSTER SQUARE .. R. "Who would keep abreast of Truth.' and steer boldly Through the desperate winter sea. Nor attempt the Future's portal With the Past's blood-rusted key. Lowell. Launch our Mayflower. Lo. and onward." —"The Present Crisis. gleam her camp-fires ' ! "We ourselves must Pilgrims be. . before us. Ltd. .

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- 76 - Pro-Municipal Work. and how - it is obtained - — Estate. up. Postscript. Garden City — Town Estate. XII. - PAGE g - The Town-Country Magnet. A Unique Combination of Proposals. - - - - The Path followed Social Cities. - - 43 V. - 153 161 . - 20 II. Further Details of Expenditure on Garden City. - - - 114 126 141 of London. VIII. ------------. XIII.-. - - - - X.Municipal Enterprise — Local - Option - — Temper- ance Reform. - - - - 86 94 101 Some Difficulties Considered. The Future Index. VI.CONTENTS CHAPTER Introduction. The Revenue of Garden The Agricultural City. - - 57 68 - - - Semi. I. VII. XI. -28 - III. Administration.. IX. — General Observations - 38 Expenditure.. The Revenue The Revenue on its of Garden City of IV.

.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE THE THREE MAGNETS GARDEN CITY - • - - - - - l6 22 - - - - - WARD AND CENTRE GARDEN ADELAIDE - CITY - - - - - 22 1 - - - - 28 DIAGRAM REPRESENTING TRUE MODE OF A CITY'S GROWTH - 128 .

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which had been beneath the crust of re-action. no matter of and well-being on which political party. it might perhaps be all thought difficult to find a single question having a vital life bearing upon national persons. new aims."— The Times." Chap. silently gathering into view. burst suddenly Green's " Short History of the English People. or of what what 2 ." — new cravings. 27th November. and a breath sufficed to topple over the sapped structure.Garden Cities of To-Morrow. 1891. was congruous with the conscious habits and modes of thought cf the community. In the second. and men do not observe that almost everything has been silently effected by causes to which few people paid any heed. " Change is consummated in many cases after much argument and agitation. INTRODUCTION. " New forces. these had changed from influences which the acutest analysis would probably fail to explain. In one generation an institution is unassailable. if indeed they are allowed utterance at all. the institution. in the next bold men may assail it. In these days of strong party feeling and of keenlycontested social and religious issues. At one time the most conclusive arguments are advanced against it in vain. At another time the most childish sophistry i3 enough to secure its condemnation. and in the third bold men defend it. In the first place. x. though probably indefensible by pure reason.

however. and. and that the Chinese are capable. thanks to opium. John Morley that greatest moral cause. would be found to be fully and entirely agreed. of doing work which to a European is quite impossible. that this is rapidly destroying the morale of the people of China.000. since the movement will for the abolition of slavery " but Lord Bruce remind you maintains that " every year the trade contributes £40. animate nearly all There is. for if it were not for them the refreshment bars at the Crystal Palace would have been closed long ago. quite a delusion. the din of battle and the struggles contending hosts are more forcibly suggested to the onlooker than the really sincere love of truth and love of country which. it is and " the movement . in the very realms where calm. not only in England. so that practically the it Army and Navy. to besides which of persons" it affords employtee- ment many thousands —that "even the totalers owe much to the licensed victuallers.IO GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. one breasts. and that on of food at which the least squeamish English people would turn up their noses in into hostile disgust. dispassionate thought and pure emotions are the essentials of all advance towards right beliefs and sound of principles of action. and. but all over Europe and America and our . and so. Religious and political questions too often divide us camps. a question in regard to which one can scarcely find any difference of opinion. shade of sociological opinion. on the one hand. Discuss the temperance you will hear from Mr." Discuss the opium traffic.000 to the revenue of the country. It is wellnigh universally agreed by men of all parties. may yet be sure. you will hear that opium is on the other.

they must back the tide. Dean Farrar says "We are becoming a land of great cities. so squalid. and should thus further the country districts. without having the slightest idea how the other lives the heedless casualty cf unnumbered thousands of men. 1891. If it was a wen then. called it a — wen. Villages are stationary or receding. speaking some years ago as Chairman the London County Council. on the banks of this noble stream. working each in their own groove and their own cell. and get the people back to the land." Sir — tumour. and stop the migration of the people into the towns. A John Gorst points out the evil. colonies.: : — 1 INTRODUCTION. so vitiated by neglect and dirt ? " . without heeding each other. can we wonder at it when we see the houses so foul. 1891. without regard or knowledge of each other. and suggests the remedy " If they wanted a permanent remedy of the evil they must remove the cause. I am always haunted by the awfulness of London: by the great appalling fact of these millions cast down. of Lord Rosebery. dwelt with very special : emphasis on this point — "There is no thought of pride associated in my mind with the idea of London. 6th November. that it is deeply to 1 be deplored that the people deplete should continue to stream into the already ovei'-crowded cities. what is it now? elephantiasis sucking into its gorged system half the the blood and the bone of the rural districts. Cobbett. cities are enormously increasing. an life and March. Sixty years ago a great Englishman. so ill-drained. as it would appear by hazard. The interest and the safety of the towns themselves were involved in the solution of the problem. And if it be true that great cities tend more and more to become the graves of the physique of our race." Daily Chronicle.

warning. and Conservative. and the people so deteriorated in physique that they were not able to do the amount of work which ablebodied persons should do. and lands are starving for . 1891. " The Daily News. loth August.— : 12 GARDEN Dr. same alarm. 9th October." are hungry for toil. the cottages were so abominable that they could not call them houses. a few years ago. Unless something was done to make the lot of the agricultural labourer better. views this grave symptom of the time with the 6. Liberal. Ben Tillet says : same note of "Hands labour." modern existence proper antidote against the is a question of no mean The Star. Press. they would have over 60 per cent. from the country is one of the main The labourer may perhaps be restored to country industries be restored to the land. Radical. says: " How to stem the drift problems rural of the day. published a series of Life in our Villages. at the Demographic Congress. remarks "How provide the greatest danger of significance. on June best to 1892. " tural districts." Times. Trade Unionist leaders utter Mr." dealing with the same the problem. The The St. of the population were over 60 years of age. called Rhodes. but how ? will the England " articles. CITIES OF TO-MORROW. 1891. James's Gazette. the exodus would go but in agricultural districts of Many on. with what results in the future he dared not say. attention to the migration which was going on from the English agriculIn Lancashire and other manufacturing districts 35 per cent.

of excessive anxiety. it is immense importance that. and though it would doubtless be quite Utopian to expect a similar agreement any remedy that may be proposed. the rain and dew that moisten it the very embodiment of Divine love for man is indeed a Master- canopy — Keij. even when scarce ajar. Yes. will be seen to pour a flood of light on toil. work. 1 Tom Mann observes " The congestion of labour in the metropolis is caused mainly by the influx from the country districts of those who were needed there to cultivate the land. Mr. This will be the more remarkable and the more hopeful sign is when it shown. ay. tion one of the most pressing makes of comparatively easy solu- many other problems which have hitherto taxed the ingenuity of the greatest thinkers and reformers of our time. as I believe will be conclusively shown in this this. for it is the key to a portal through which. the problems of intemperance. the air that blows upon it.: 3 INTRODUCTION. the sun that warms it. of grinding poverty of restless —the true limits of Governof mental interference. all are bent on its on the pressing nature of this solution. the key to the problem how to restore the people to the land —that beautiful land — of ours. we have as to the value of at least of such a consensus of opinion at the outset. that the answer to questions of the day. with its of sky. on a subject thus universally regarded as of supreme importance. are agreed problem. and even the relations the Supreme Power. then. man to It may perhaps be thought that the first step to be taken towards the solution of this question how to restore the people to the land —would — involve a careful ." All.

alike for writer and for is an analysis not. not to say superior. each person as a it is needle and. What. The and man or . so that the force of the old " attractions " shall be overcome by the force of new which are to be created. to those enjoyed in our large cities? " The issue one constantly finds presented in a form vei*y similar to that. and obvious. of solution. a very prolonged enquiry Were would be necessary at the outset. reader. or at least the standard of physical comf ort. may the be regarded as a magnet." some may be disposed to ask. if may appear at " first sight to not impossible. : 14 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. higher in the country than in the town to secure in the country equal possibilities of social intercourse. here requisite. greater " attractions " than our cities " attractions " now possess. which may be stated thus —Whatever may have been cities. however. average make the prospects of advancement for the woman equal. and for a very simple reason. to draw the people into the those causes it is may which all be summed up not present as "attractions''. at once seen that nothing for of discovery of a magnets of yet greater method power than our constructing cities possess can be effective for re-distributing the population in a spontaneous and health)' manner. considex'ation of the very numerous causes which have cities. therefore. the causes which have operated in the past. so viewed. or at least to considerable portions of them. and are operating now. the problem be difficult. " can possibly be done to make the country more attractive to a work-a-day people than the town —to to make wages. such Fortunately. So presented.. Each short city . hitherto led to their aggregation in large this the case. that no will remedy can possibly be effective to the people.

to forego almost entirely all — is or. each striving to draw the people to — new form of life. and never could have. quite impossible for working people to live in the country and yet be engaged in pursuits other than agricultural last . This fallacy common one of ignoring altogether the possibility of alternatives other than those presented to the mind. of wealth. subject all is 1 treated continually in the public press. though men. be regarded as two magnets. is were necessarily an enduring one. therefore. any choice or alternative. to their love for stifle human society —at least in wider relations than can be found in a straggling village other hand. and in as forms of discussion. or at least working-men. There are in reality not only. two alternatives life —but a third —town life and country with all alternative. in which sharp the very lines divide agricultural from industrial pursuits. perfect combination live this life will . on the the keen and universally pure delights of the country. in which all the advantages the of the most energetic and active town life. beauty and delight of the country. rivalry which a of both. considered as though it The question were now. may be illustrated . on the one hand. cities were the word and as if our present form of industry. partaking of the nature This comes to take part in. and of power. had not now. may be secured in and the certainty of being able to be the magnet which will produce the effect for which we are all striving the spontaneous movement of the people from our crowded cities to the bosom of our kindly mother earth. but either. as of though crowded. The town itself and the country may.5 a INTRODUCTION. unhealthy economic science . and for ever must remain. as is so con- stantly assumed. — of happiness. at once the source of life.

6

1

GARDEN
of "

CITIES OF

TO-MORROW.

by a diagram

chief advantages of the

The Three Magnets," in which the Town and of the Country are set

forth with their corresponding drawbacks, while the ad-

vantages of the Town-Country are seen to be free from
the disadvantages of either.

The Town magnet,

it will

be seen,

offers, as

compared

with the Country magnet, the advantages of high wages,
opportunities for employment, tempting prospects of ad-

vancement, but these are largely counterbalanced by high
rents and prices.
of

Its social opportunities and its places amusement are very alluring, but excessive hours of " toil, distance from work, and the " isolation of crowds

tend greatly to reduce the value of these good things.

The

well-lit streets are a great attraction,
is

especially in

winter, but the sunlight

being more and more shut out,

while the air

is so

vitiated that the fine public buildings,

like the sparrows, rapidly

become covered with

soot,

and

the very statues are in despair.
fearful slums are the strange,

Palatial edifices and

complementary features of modern cities. The Country magnet declares herself to be the source of all beauty and wealth; but the Town magnet
mockingly reminds her that she
society,
is

very dull for lack of

and very sparing

of her gifts for lack of capital.
vistas, lordly parks,

There are in the country beautiful

violet-scented woods, fresh air, sounds of rippling water;

but too often one

sees those threatening words, " Tres-

passers will be prosecuted."
acre, are certainly low,

Rents, if estimated by the but such low rents are the natural

fruit of low wages rather than a cause of substantial comfort ; while long hours and lack of amusements forbid the bright sunshine and the pure air to gladden the hearts

THE
NT

THREE MAGNETS.
<*>*

&

«tf*'
jetf

«*^\
Of, ^ *V* NGE u «or/Y*<jr*%\*<*r<

o

«r

Where waL they Go?

Town -Country.

-

kfc

>*o M

**,.. f

ts

^o OAf

water. GooX V ^ * * Gardens, K° * - v o^

is And the country ! The country the symbol of God's x Dr. and it was all the water that the whole of the children had to wash in. . \J The one industry. giving evidence before a Select Committee of the House of Commons. while. of fatherhood. when they were thirsty there was no other water for them to have. society Human and the beauty of nature are meant to be enjoyed together. a child with ringworm or something of that kind might spread it through the whole of the children. in answer to Question " At Brimington Common School I saw some basins full 1873 of soapsuds. In fact. and she had seen them actually drink this dirty water. Medical Officer of Health for the County Council of Derbyshire. so should town and country. art. on the Water Bill. the symbol of society — of expanding sympathies — — of science. in times of drought. drinking purposes. The two magnets must be made one. Barwise. motherhood. of the people. so that. quently from excessive harvest of the clouds but this wondrous even for seldom properly ingathered. said. But neither the Town magnet nor the Country magnet represents the full plan and purpose of nature. each other. there is frequently. in parts almost deserted by the people. The schoolmistress told me that the children came in from the playground hot. . . on 25th April.INTRODUCTION. Of course. 1894. brotherhood. suffers fre. rainfalls is agriculture. the few who remain are yet frequently huddled together as if in rivalry with the slums of our cities." Chesterfield Gas and : . religion. They had to wash one after another in the same water. 1 natural healthfulness of the country lack of proper drainage is Even the largely lost for and other sanitary conditions. As man and woman by their varied gifts and faculties supplement The town is mutual help and friendly cooperation. of wide relations between man and man of broad. culture. sisterhood. a most insufficient supply.

the its source of all health. Its forces propel all the wheels of industry. all knowledge. to We are fed by clothed we warmed and beauty is sheltered. how the most admirable sanitary conditions may be ensured how beautiful homes and gardens may be seen on every hand . first It is the purpose of this work to show how a in this direction step can be taken by the construction of a Town-country magnet. how abundant opportunities for employment and bright prospects of advancement may be secured for all . Town and country married. how capital may be attracted and wealth created. all wealth. to show how in " Towncountry " equal. opportunities of social inter- course city. how the bounds of freedom may be widened. I will undertake. It is the inspiration of art. it. so long as this unholy. people. and by it On its bosom we rest. . Nor can must be it ever. whether viewed from the ethical or the economic standpoint. of music. and yet all the best results of concert and co-operation gathered in by a happy . unnatural separa- tion of society and nature endures. and out of this joyous union will spring life. and I hope to convince the reader that this is practicable. of poetry. a new hope. then. are formed of it. All that we are and that we it have comes from they return. are Its Our bodies it. here and now. enfold each dweller therein patible with reduced rents may encompass and how higher wages are comand rates. by it. may be enjoyed than are enjoyed in any crowded while yet the beauties of nature . all and care for man.GARDEN love CITIES OF TO-MORROW. nay better. and that on principles which are the very soundest. But fulness of joy and wisdom has not revealed itself to man. a new a new civilisation.

as it would by the construction a solution of many more. be. to get and A fuller description of such a .question set before us by Sir John Gorst." magnet and its mode of construction will form the theme of subsequent chapters. " how to back the tide of migration of the people into the towns. followed. The construction of 19 could such a magnet. it be of effected.INTRODUCTION. them back upon the land. would certainly afford the burning.

which at present purely agricul- and has been obtained by purchase in the open market at a cost of £40 x an acre. " Thorough sanitary and remedial action in the houses that we have and then the building of more. with a belt of beautiful garden and orchard round the walls. bearing interest at an average rate not exThis was the average price paid for agricultural land in and.CHAPTER I. it is hardly likely to be much exceeded." in and — The reader tural." —Blake. This the final aim. but clean and busy street within and tli8 open country without." John Ruskin. THE TOWN-COUNTRY MAGNET. The purchase money is supposed to have been raised on mortgage debentures. groups of limited extent. Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand. .000 acres. or £240. so that there may be no festering and wretched suburb anywhere. is asked to imagine an estate embracing an is area of 6. though this estimate may prove far more than sufficient. beautifully. strongly. Till we have built Jerusalem In England's green and pleasant land. " I will not cease from mental strife. so that from any part of the city perfectly fresh air and grass and sight of far horizon might be reachable in a few minutes' walk. 1 : 1S98 . " Sesame and Lilies.000. kept in proportion to their streams and walled round.

THE TOWN-COUNTRY MAGNET.
ceeding ,£4 per cent. 1

21

The estate is legally vested in the names of four gentlemen of responsible position and of undoubted probity and honour, who hold it in trust, first,
as a security for the debenture-holders, and, secondly, in trust for the people of

Garden
is

City, the

Town-country

magnet, which

it

is

intended to build thereon.
that
all

One
rents,

essential feature of the plan

ground

which are to be based upon the annual value of the land,
shall be paid to the trustees,

who, after providing for

interest

and sinking fund,

will

hand the balance

to the

Central Council of the

new

municipality, 2 to be employed
of all

by such Council in the creation and maintenance
necessary public works

—roads,
:

schools, parks, etc.

The

objects of this land purchase
it is sufficient

may be

stated in

various ways, but

here to say that some of
find for our industrial

the chief objects are these

To

population work at wages of higher purchasing power,

employment.
tive

and to secure healthier surroundings and more regular To enterprising manufacturers, co-operasocieties,

architects,
all

engineers,

builders,

and
in
of

mechanicians of
securing

kinds, as well as to
it
is

many engaged
offer a

various professions,

intended to

means

new and

better

employment
the
to

for their capital

and talents, while to on the estate, as well
1

agriculturists

at

present

as

those

who may migrate

likely

arrangements described in this book are from in form, but not in essential principle. And until a definite scheme has been agreed upon, I think it better to repeat them precisely as they appeared in " To-Morrow," the original title of this book the book which led to the formation of the Garden City Association. See Appendix.
financial
to

The

be

departed

2

This word,

"

municipality,"

is

not used in a technical sense.

22

GARDEN
is

CITIES OF

TO-MORROW.

thither, it

designed to open a new market for their
Its object
is,

produce close to their doors.
raise

in short, to
all

the standard of health and comfort of

true

workers of whatever grade

objects are to be achieved being a healthy, natural,

economic combination of

means by which these and town and country life, and this
to

—the

on land owned by the municipality.

Garden

City,

which

is

be built near the centre of

the 6,000 acres, covers an area of 1,000 acres, or a sixth
part of the 6,000 acres, and might be of circular* form,
1,240 yards (or nearly three-quarters
of

a mile) from

centre to circumference.

(Diagram

2 is

a ground-plan of

the whole municipal
centre; and

area,
3,

showing the town in the

Diagram
itself

which represents one section or

ward

of the

town, will be useful in following the descrip-

tion of the

town

ever, merely suggestive,

a description which is, howand v/ill probably be much

departed from.)
Six

magnificent boulevards

—each

120 feet wide

traverse the city from centre to circumference, dividing
it

into six equal parts or wards.

In the centre

is

a

circular space containing about five

and a half
;

acres, laid

out as a beautiful and well-watered garden

and, sur-

rounding this garden, each standing in
grounds,
principal

its

own ample
hall,

are

the larger public

buildings

—town

and lecture hall, theatre, museum, picture-gallery, and hospital. The rest of the large space encircled by the
concert

library,

" Crystal

Palace

"

is

a public park, containing 145 acres, which

includes ample recreation grounds within very easy a-ccess
of all the people.

Running

all

round the Central Park (except where

it

t .

V ca .

.

each standing in of own ample grounds . facing the various avenues (as the circular roads are termed). may be. Passing out of the Crystal Palace on our outer ring of the town. as we continue our walk. we are told about in the agricul- and about 2. as the roads of the town. with trees — —fronting which. whilst circular form brings it near to every dweller in the town —the furthest removed inhabitant being within 600 we cross Fifth yards. and. are all way to the Avenue lined. a good deal larger than required for these purposes. The space enclosed by is it the Crystal Palace however. and a considerable part of is used as a Winter Garden —the whole forming a per- manent its exhibition of a most attractive character." opening on to the park. the friend who accompanies little city itself. is. whilst the knowledge that bright hand tempts people into Central Park. .000 in and that there are the town 5.000 in the city tural estate.THE TOWN-COUNTRY MAGNET. its and looking on to the Crystal Palace. is 23 intersected by the boulevards) is a wide glass arcade called the " Crystal Palace. and here most shelter is ever close at of that class of shopping which requires the joy of deliberation and selection is done. even in the most doubtful of weathers. we find a ring very excellently-built houses. Here manufactured goods are exposed for sale. which all converge to the centre of the town. us on our journey Asking what the population of this 30. we observe that the houses are for the most part built either in concentric rings. of the favourite its This building is in wet weather one resorts of the people. or fronting the boulevards and roads.500 building lots of an average size of 20 feet x 130 feet —the minimum space allotted for the purpose being 20 x 100.

in order to ensure a longer line of frontage on Grand Avenue." titled to the we This avenue is is fully en- name it bears. divides that part of the town which lies outside Central Park into two the furthest belts. for it 420 feet wide. 1 Portland Place. the fullest strictly en- measure of individual taste and preoutskirts of the town. though proper sanitary arrangements are forced. 1 and. that the houses fronting on (at least in We observe one of the wards Grand Avenue have departed that of which Diagram 3 is a representation) —from — the general plan of concentric rings. to* be erected and maintained out of the funds of the worshippers and their friends. London. In splendid avenue six sites. and. of are arranged in crescents —thus also to the eye yet further enlarging the already splendid width Grand Avenue. Noticing the very varied architecture and design which the houses and groups of houses display common gardens and departure from it co-operative —some having kitchens— we learn or harmonious for. . It really constitutes an additional this park of 115 acres —a park which is within 240 yards of removed inhabitant. are occupied by public schools and their surrounding play-grounds and gardens. of such denominations as the religious beliefs of the people may determine. is only 100 feet wide. ference is encouraged.GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. each of four acres. forming a belt of green upwards of three miles long. that general observance of street line are the chief points as to house-building over which the municipal authorities exercise control. while other sites are reserved for churches. Walking still toward the come upon " Grand Avenue.

while the cultivation of or by a body of co-operators vegetables. thus not only packing and and reducing to a minimum loss from breakage. allotments. which encompasses the main whole town. houses. 25 On all the outer ring of the town are factories. electric energy. or . and so sent by railway to distant markets. involving united action under a capitalist farmer. tending to bring about the best system of husbandry. by reducing the traffic on the roads of the town. cow . which are held by various inlarge farms. by the willingness of or. occupiers to offer the highest rent to the municipality. but also. fruits. pastures. wareetc. and which has sidings connecting it with a line of railway which passes through the estate. fronting on the circle railway.. which requires closer and more personal care. dairies. markets. the natural competition of these various tested methods of agriculture. what faculty. 3 may possibly be best dealt with by individuals. The smoke fiend is kept well within bounds in Garden City. the best systems adapted for various purposes. or to be taken direct from the trucks into the warehouses or factories . small holdings. more probable. Thus it is easily conceivable that it may prove advantageous to grow wheat in very large fields.THE TOWN-COUNTRY MAGNET. The refuse of the portions of dividuals in town is utilised on the agricultural the estate. and flowers. coal yards. and more of the artistic and inventive is . This arrangement enables goods to be loaded direct into trucks from the warehouses and workshops. timber yards. lessening to a very marked extent the cost of their maintenance. with the result that the cost of electricity is for lighting and other purposes greatly reduced. for all machinery is driven by effecting a very great saving in regard to cartage. etc.

but have the fullest right to dispose of their produce to whomsoever they please. subject. callings. This plan. but the area of choice which enlarged. and professions. the reader be pleased to so term it. offers the most natural market to the people engaged on the agricultural estate. with its population engaged in various trades. methods of culture. or. While the town proper. and by far the larger part of them are expended in permanent improvements. rights is it will be seen that it is not the area of which is contracted. avoids the dangers of stagnation or dead level. to the general law of the and subject to the provision of sufficient space for workmen and reasonable sanitary conditions. This principle of freedom holds good with regard to manufacturers and others who have established themselves in the town. is —which a municipality. by small groups of individuals having a common belief in the efficacy and value of certain dressings. Here. inasmuch as to the extent to which the townspeople demand their produce they escape altogether any railway rates and charges yet the farmers and others are not by any means limited to the town as their only market. permits of the fullest co-operation. or artificial and natural surroundings. and with a store or depot in each ward. as in every feature of . and telephonic communication honest. land.26 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. the experiment. though encouraging individual initiative. lighting. while the increased rents which follow from this form of competition are common or municipal property. Even in regard to such matters as water. of course. if efficient and to certainly the best and most natural body . and. These manage their affairs in their own way. if this absence of plan.

and that faith can be best shown by a wide extension of the area of freedom. probably destined to become to be so. These are not under the control of the municipality. and on land let to them at a it pepper-corn rent. — town or a section of it. with these any commodities the supply of which was taken up by the corporation. No really sound terms. occurring to the authorities that they can the better afford to be thus generous. it is most energetic and resourceful but just and right that their more helpless its brethren should be able to enjoy the benefits of an experi- ment which is designed for humanity at large. supply 2J no rigid or absolute monopoly is sought and if any private corporation or any body of individuals proved itself capable of supplying on more advantageous . the town are Besides. it will but. . either the whole or system of action is is in more need of thought. but are supported and invited managed by various public-spirited people who have been by the municipality to establish these institutions in an open healthy district. is of artificial support than any sound system The area of municipal and corporate action greatly enlarged . this would be allowed. Dotted about the estate are seen various charitable and philanthropic institutions. as those persons who migrate among members. as the spending power of these institutions greatly benefits the whole to community.THE TOWN-COUNTRY MAGNET. if it is be because the people possess faith in such action.

if paid into the coffers of Garden City. and one of the purposes of this work will show that the rents which may very reasonably be expected be amply (a) to is from the various tenants on the estate sufficient.£30. while in some parts of London the rent is equal to .CHAPTER THE REVENUE OF GARDEN CITY. almost entirely due to the presence in the one case and the absence in the other of a large population. one of raising its revenue. Perhaps no difference between town and country is more noticeable than the difference in the rent charged for the use of the soil. Thus. . and. to construct and maintain such works as are usually constructed and maintained local authorities by municipal and other pulsorily levied. pay the interest on the money with which the estate purchased.000 an acre. AND HOW IT IS OBTAINED THE AGRICULTURAL ESTATE. of the chief is its method to Its entire revenue is derived from is rents. out of rates com- and (<7) (after redemption of debentures) to provide a large surplus for other purposes.£4 an acre is an extremely high rent for agricultural land. of all (b) to provide a sinking-fund for the purpose (c) paying off the principal. as it . This enormous difference of rental value is. such as old- age pensions or insurance against accident and sickness. of course. II. Amongst the essential differences between Garden City and other municipalities.

THE REVENUE OF GARDEN

CITY.

2Q
in-

cannot be attributed to the action of any particular
dividuals, it
is

frequently spoken of as the " unearned

increment,''

i.e.,

correct term

unearned by the landlord, though a more would be " collectively-earned increment."
of

The presence

a considerable population thus giving

soil, it is obvious that a migration of population on any considerable scale to any

a greatly additional value to the

particular area will be certainly attended with a corre-

sponding

rise in the value of

and

it is also

the land so settled upon, obvious that such increment of value may,

with some foresight and pre-arrangement, become the property of the migrating people.
exercised

Such foresight and pre-arrangement, never before in an effective manner, are displayed con-

spicuously in the case of Garden City, where the land, as we have seen, is vested in trustees, who hold it in trust (after payment of the debentures) for the whole com-

munity, so that the entire increment of value gradually created becomes the property of the municipality, with the effect that though rents may rise, and even rise considerably, such rise in rent will not
of private individuals,
rates.

become the property

It

is

be applied in relief of this arrangement which will be seen to give
will

but

Garden City much of its magnetic power. The site of Garden City we have taken to be worth at the time of its purchase £40 an acre, or £240,000. The purchase money may be assumed to represent 30 years' purchase, and on this basis the annual rent paid by the
former tenants was £8,000. If, therefore, there was a population of 1,000 persons upon the estate at the time of the purchase, then each man, woman, and child was contributing towards this rent-roll an average

sum

of

£S per

30

GARDEN

CITIES

OF TO-MORROW.

But the population of Garden City, including is, when completed, 32,000, and the estate has cost them a sum on which they pay an annual charge by way of interest of £9,600. Thus, while before
annum.
its

agricultural land,

the experiment was initiated, 1,000 persons out of their united earnings contributed £8,000 a year, or

£S

a head,

on the completion
average of

of the

town 32,000 persons out

of their

united earnings will contribute £9,600 a year, or an
6s.

a head.
6s.

This sum of

per head per

annum
;

is all

the rent,

strictly speaking,

which the inhabitants
for it

of
is

Garden City
all

will ever

be called upon to pay

the rent

which they pay away, any further sum they pay being a
contribution towards their rates.

Let us now suppose that each person, besides
buting annually
6s.

contri-

a head, contributes an average annual
in
all.

sum

of

£1

14s.,

or

£2

In that case two things

may

be noticed.

First, each person will

be paying for ground

rent and rates only one-fourth of the

sum which each

person before the purchase paid in ground-rent alone;
and, secondly, the Board of Management, after the payment of interest on the debentures, will receive an annual sum of £54,400, which, as will be presently shown, would,
after providing a sinking

fund

(of

£4,400), defray all

those costs, charges, and expenses which are usually

met

by

local taxation.

The average annual sum contributed by each man, woman, and child in England and Wales for local purposes is about £2 a head, and the average sum contributed for ground rent
is,

at a very low estimate, about
for ground-

£2

10s.

The average yearly contribution
is,

rent and local rates

therefore, about

£4

10s.

It might,

THE REVENUE OF GARDEN
therefore,

CITY.

3

be safely assumed that the people of Garden
dis-

City would willingly pay £2 per head in complete

charge of ground-rent and local rates
case the clearer

;

but to make the

and stronger, we

will test the supposed

willingness of the tenants of

sum

as

£2

a year for

Garden City to pay such a rates and rents in another way.
with the agricultural

For

this purpose, let us deal first

estate, leaving the

town estate to be dealt with separately. Obviously the rent which can be secured will be considerably greater than before the town was built. Every
There are
30,000 townspeople to be fed.

farmer now has a market close to his doors.

Those persons, of course,

are perfectly free to get their food stuffs from any part of

the world, and in the case of
less

many

products will doubts

continue to be supplied from abroad.

These farmers

with coffee, with tropical fruits or with sugar, 1 and their struggle to compete with America and Russia for the
tea,

are hardly likely to supply
spices,

them with

with

supply of wheat or flour to the town
ever.

may

be as keen as

But

A

ray

—a

surely the struggle will not be so despairing.

beam
to

of

hope

will

gladden the heart of the
wheat,
for

despairing

home-producer

of

while

the

pay railway charges to the sea^board, charges for Atlantic transit and railway charges to the consumer, the farmer of Garden City has a market at his very doors, and this a market which the rent he contributes will help to build up. 2
1

American has

The

electric light, with

cheap motive power for

its

genera-

tion, with glass-houses,

may make even some

of these things

possible.

See "Fields, Farms, and Workshops," by Prince Krapot1/-, and "The Coming Revolution," by Capt. Petavel, 1/-, both published by Swan Sonnenschein & Co.
kin,

2

32 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. the combination of town and is country not only healthful. thus increasing is its fertility. the words of Dr. be readily brought back to the soil. consider vegetables and fruits. To quote when they " try to dispose of these things they find themselves struggling so web of rings. M. in his joint report with Mr..000 would consume 1." A curious calculation may be interesting town consumed only one-third of a pint a day. upwards with regard to milk. and the high charges for freights and commission.900 per Assuming each person annum in railway rates upon the one item of milk. but economic will serve to —a point which every step taken make yet more clear. and might thus save. Sir Benjamin Baker. that they are open market. taking railway charges at a penny per gallon. but is inhex*ent difficulty often much increased by artificial and imperfect conditions already in existence. The question of sewage its disposal naturally a difficult one to deal with. then 30. and this without heavy charges for railway transport or other expensive agencies. in the of £1. In other words. Thus. except Or. The waste products of the town could. Farmers.250 gallons a day. near towns. a saving which must be multiplied by a large close associa- figure in order to realise the general saving to be effected by placing consumer and producer in such tion.P. and middlemen. and fall back on those things that stand up straight and square to their prices in the hopelessly in a spider's speculators. But the rents which the agricultural tenants of Garden City would be willing to pay would increase for another reason. and more than half-inclined to give up the attempt in despair. Farquharson. do not often grow them now. (now Sir) . Why? Chiefly because of the difficulty and uncertainty of a market.

he would have a free course before him.. besides being increased system of sewage disposal. But on Garden City site. we had clearly at once to recognise the fact that the general main drainage system were unalterably and must be accepted in the same way as the main lines of thoroughfares have to be accepted whether quite as we could wish them to> be or not. as were. and the whole estate being equally the property of the municipality. There are yet other reasons why the rent which a farmer on the Garden City estate would be willing to pay for his farm. to by a well-devised and by a new and somewhat also be increased because is extensive market. he would features of the settled. a clean sheet on which to prepare his plans. The productiveness of the agricultural of the estate. a just tenure. given the skilful engineer. is let The agri- cultural portion of the estate at fair rents. would also tend to raise the total sum offered in rent. as a practical problem . and the state of the Thames. or a labourer for his allotment.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN CITY. with a is right to continue in occupation as long as the tenant . would tenure the on which the It is land held encourages maximum cultivation. and would doubtless succeed in adding greatly to the pro- ductiveness of the agricultural estate.. - ' have comparatively it little difficulty. with unique conveniences for transit more distant markets. The great especially increase in the number of allotments. would tend part to increase. He would have. allotments as such favourably situated are shown in Diagram 2. 33 Alexander Binnie to the London County Council. says " In approaching the consideration whole sewerage system of the vast question of the of the Metropolis.

tend greatly to the productivity of the soil. and would know that he would not lose those fruits of which were not yet ingathered but were still adding their value to the soil. while it would be impossible any undue share of for the tenant to secure to himself that natural increment of land-value which would be brought about by the general growth in well-being town. he would yet have. City. for the sake That part of the rent of clearness. as all of the tenants in possession px-obably should have. ing tenant less. and industry of the tenant. and would thus. 10 per cent. and. and the farmer would have a share equal to that of every adult in the administration of such money.34 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. in acquired a new meaning. except so far as the debentures were held by residents on the estate. That there would be this increased offer of rent will become yet more obvious if we consider for a moment the nature of the rent paid by a tenant of Garden City." therefore. any would- willing to pay a rent equal to that offered by be occupier. pass away from the community altogether. it will be necessary in future to use terms will not be ambiguous. Part of what he pays would be in respect of interest on the debentures on which the money to purchase the estate was raised. but the whole of the remaining sum paid would be expended locally. or in the redemption of those debentures. Surely no one can his past industry doubt that such a tenure would. in favour of the occupy- —the incoming tenant having also to comall pensate the outgoing tenant for ments. Garden which The term " rent. has. . say. a preference over any new-comer. and the rent which the tenant would be willing to pay. of increase at once the activity itself. unexhausted improve- Under this system.

who. though indirectly. will also leave him with In the full burden of local taxation resting upon him. materially. that part which represents . which will assist him most but which. hitherto lost him by being paid away left it. exhausted exchequer. and to it also embraces a system of rate-rents by which to his landlord. the willing soil and the hopeful fanner will alike respond to their new enupon some of Who can doubt that if . in his work. by exhausting natural demand elsewhere that the application of manures so expensive farmer becomes sometimes blinded to their necessity." From these considerations. not indeed in the form in which they roads. 35 will be hereafter that part rent". such as markets. naturally slow to see their inherent necessity. surely it is obvious that the " rate-rent " which the farmer will be willing to pay into the treasury of Garden City will be considerably higher than the rent he would be willing to pay to a private landlord.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN which represents interest on debentures called " landlord's of CITY. to look them with suspicion and the farm and the farmer can be placed under conditions so healthful and natural alike in a physical and moral sense. shall return to many his of the farmer's hard-earned sovereigns. besides increasing his rent as the farmer makes his land more valuable. short the plan proposed embraces a system of sewagedisposal which will return to the soil in a transmuted form many the of those its products the growth of which. repayment purchase-money " sinking fund " . but in a variety of useful forms. entail so^ severe a burden as to make him and even dislike. fertility. under present conditions. which total is devoted to public purposes " rates " while the sum will be termed " rate-rent. schools.

(3) by the just. equitable. in view of all the circum- we estimate that the farming will population of Garden City be prepared to pay for rates and rent 50 per cent. say Add 50 per cent.._. (2) by the due return to the soil of its natural elements. small occupier. But certain as it is that the " rate-rent " would repreover the bare rent it is still sent a very considerable increase formerly paid by the tenants on the estate. would be considerably greater than the (1) because of the presence of a new town population demanding new and more profitable farm products. . Original rent paid by tenants of 5.000 acres. and we shall.500 3._. then. we shall reach the following result : — Estimated Gross Revenue.250 Total " rate-rent " from estate. stances. therefore. from Agricultural Estate. If. £9. be acting prudently if we greatly under-estimate the " rate-rent " which would pro- bably be offered. fertile —the now soil becoming more by every blade of grass it yields. while the rent formerly paid left the rates to be paid by the rent he paid before . the farmer richer by every penny of rate-rent he contributes? We which are in a position to see that the rate-rent will be readily paid by fanner. for contributions to rates and sinking fund. and allotment holder. in respect of which railway charges can be largely saved. and natural and (4) by reason conditions on which the land is held of the fact that the rent now paid is rate and rent. very much a matter of conjecture what the " rate-rent " would be. tenant. agricultural £6.750 .36 vironment GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. more than they before paid for rent alone.

THE REVENUE OF GARDEN CITY. 37 We shall in the next chapter estimate the amount be which may. sider on the most reasonable calculation. and then proceed to con- the sufficiency the total rate-rents for the municipal needs of the town. . of expected from the town estate.

000. is assumed to have cost £40. obviously. Of the 150. it will still remain true that the whole area of London is insufficient to supply its population with fresh air and the free space that is wanted for wholesome recreation. " The Housing of the London Poor. it will be remem- — — bered. is the interest of which. by far the greater part are very poorly paid..600 per annum. . .600 therefore. and is. " Whatever reforms be introduced into the dwellings of the London poor.. any additional " rate-rent " they may contribute being devoted either to the payment of the purchase- ." Contemporary Bcview.000 or more hired workers in the clothes-making trades. . There are large classes of the population of London whose removal into the country would be in the long run economically advantageous it would benefit alike those who moved and those who remained behind. town will be attended with a very large rise in land and endeavour roughly to estimate again taking care to keep well within the mark the amount of " raterent " which will be freely offered by the tenants of the town estate. THE REVENUE OF GARDEN CITY TOWN ESTATE.. This sum of £1.750. £1." Professor Marshall. 1884. all the landlord's rent which the people of the town site will be called upon to pay. and do work which it is against all economic reason to have done where ground-rent is high. of 1. at 4 per cent. . the conversion of an agricultural area into a values). . The site of the town proper consists. — Having in the last chapter estimated the gross revenue of which may be anticipated from the agricultural part the estate at £9.CHAPTER III. we will now turn to the town estate (where. A remedy for the overcrowding of London will still be wanted.000 acres.

churches. public markets. ample sites for homes. schools. each lot. first. public library. 5| persons to It obtains ample space for roads. This is all the " landlord's rent " which will ever be levied." be divided by 30. and a magnificent avenue 420 feet wide. concert-hall. if the sum of . unbroken save by spacious boulevards and by schools and churches. these averaging. some of which are of truly magnificent proportions. . and and grass give to the town a semi-rural appearance. 39 as " sinking-fund. schools. It will of be therefore. and to other municipal purposes. so wide and feet. etc. museum and picture-gallery. 20 feet by 130 and accommodating. interesting. It obtains for Is. baths. shrubs. woman. be found to equal an of annual contribution by each man.£1. per head. of It also secures a central park 145 acres. a burden and what the " Now. as we have seen. and child rather less than Is. will not be the less beautiful money has been expended on their sites. It also obtains ample sites for town-hall. hospital. community would secure by such contribution. to see what sort " landlord's rent " will represent per head.600. any additional sum collected as " rate-rent " being applied to sinking-fund or to local purposes. Id.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN money CITY. on an average. being the annual interest or landlord's rent. extending in a circle of over three miles. one because so may little be sure. which. And now let us notice what this fortunately-placed community obtains for this insignificant sum." or applied as " rates " to the construction and maintenance of roads. theatre. may freely circulate. water- works.000 (the supposed it will population of the town). swimming spacious that sunlight and air in which trees. Id. per head per annum.

secondly. we will deal with the home-building lots. as to the whole of the balance. contain a covenant by the landlord to apply the whole sum received. therefore. admit that an average rate-rent of a foot frontage foi home make lots would be extremely moderate. The question is of the form of Leases to be granted is on* being carefully considered by the Land Tenure Section of tho Garden City Association. and assessments levied of such property. All are excellently situated.40 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. . towards the redemption of the debentures. The to leases under which all building sites are let do not. but those fronting Grand Avenue feet) (420 feet) and the magnificent boulevards (120 call forth would probably the highest tenders. in payment of debenture interest. first. We can here deal only with averages. lot This would the rale-rent of 20 feet wide in an this basis the average position building lots £Q a and on 5.000. to be applied to public purposes. a building year. taxes. of the city. contain the usual covenant by the tenant in respect pay all rates. but.500 would yield a gross revenue of £33. and thirdly. factories. encompassing the town houses. 1 Let us now attempt to estimate the rate-rents which may be anticipated in respect of our town-estate. 82 acres for waresite markets. 1 which . on the contrary. into a public fund. among these being the rates levied by public authorities. First. and serving also as a winter garden. and a splendid for a crystal palace devoted to shopping. warehouses. It secures also all the land required for a railway 4^ miles long. other than the municipal authority. The rate-rents from the sites of factories. but we think anyone would 6s.

625 persons employed at an average of £2 a head. other than a home-building to be leased from the municipality.000 Or £2 per head of population for rates and rent. . or individuals working on their own account. lot.625 of . £64. 36).000. as has been . markets.. co-operative societies. site. not suggested that the . would be able to judge whether they would be lightly rated position. that we are dealing with averages and if the figure will should seem high to a large employer. but we may perhaps is. it seem ridiculously low to a small shopkeeper.. The fore be : — gross revenue of the entire estate would there- Rate-rent from agricultural ©state (see p.500 home building lots at £6 per . or in any way which involved the use of a site. £9.. warehouses. Now.250. factories. CITY. It of course. these would be employed in etc. however. etc. . 5. it would.000 21.. in a town with a population of 30.250 from business premises 10. safely assume that an average employer would willingly pay £2 in respect of each employee. there would be about twenty thousand persons between the ages of 16 and 65 and if it is assumed that 10. distinctly borne in mind . rate-rent levied should be a poll-tax said. there would be a revenue from this source of £21.750 33. shops. be raised by competition among the tenants of estimating rate-rent to but this way be paid will perhaps give a ready means by which manufacturers or other employers.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN markets. and rented as compared with their present It must be. 41 cannot perhaps be so well estimated by the foot frontage.

42 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. : This sum would be available as follows For landlord's rent or interest — - on purchase - money £240.600 4. 50.000 It is now important to inquire whether £50. For such purposes as are elsewhere defrayed out of rates. £9.400 For sinking fund (30 years). .000 £64.000 at 4 per cent.000 will suffice for the municipal needs of Garden City..

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS EXPENDITURE. to the payment of interest and sinking fund in respect of the " A " debentures on which the purchase money of the estate is raised. and it would be by no means necessary or advisable to defer the commencement of operations until the whole sum which might be ultimately required should be raised. yet in regard to public works to be carried out upon the estate. Probably no town was ever built on such onerous conditions as would be involved in the mencing operations. I will very shortly state how " " it is proposed to raise the money required for com1 The money would be borrowed on B debentures. It is. superfluous to remark that. and would be secured by a charge upon the " rate-rent. of course. . 1 See note on page 21.CHAPTER THE REVENUE OF GARDEN CITY ON ITS IV. or operations upon it commenced." subject. though in the case of the land purchase it might be requisite to raise the whole. the case is quite different.000 per annum) would be sufficient for its municipal needs. itself Before entering upon the question which presented at the conclusion of the last chapter —that of endeavour- ing to ascertain whether the estimated net available income of Garden City (£50. perhaps. or at least some very considerable part of the purchase money before possession would be given of the estate.

and therefore inexpedient. sum to as raising at the outset of such a very considerable would defray the cost built of all its public works. there must be a sufficient all real sum to enable economies to be readily effected. and though is the circumstances under which Garden City be may be unique. . of a large iron bridge across of the bridge it is highly expedient to raise the entire sum required before commencing operations. it is Except. therefore. " invest We will who are asked to not put any money into this enterprise until complete speedy etc. it Perhaps may be well in this connection to draw a distinction as to the the case of the building of a amount of capital required between town and the building. as will respect of initial capital. on it offers the assumption that to be fully completed. In the case say. until enth'e completion and its connection with the railways or roadways at either end. nor. of course. for the simple reason that the bridge is is not a bridge until the its last rivet driven home. making an exception of the town in is. it. very it little security for the capital sunk for those upon it. but quite exceptional reasons will become more and more apparent which make the al- overlaying of the enterprise with superabundant capital altogether unnecessary. to be expended Garden City site leads to upon roads. though. Hence would be very natural to say. therefore. let us an estuary.44 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. . let to tenants. These works will be carried out with due regard to the number of lots which have been who undertake to build as from a certain date and. has it any revenue-earning power. there not only no need for by and by be seen. schools." you show us that you can get enough to But the money which it is proposed to of raise for the development It is results.

either as allotments. it is and at reduced rate of interest. in reality. or one-sixth part of the sense a complete should be in some town by itself. when those who have advanced money on the " really first-class security.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN the CITY. as brickfields. Let us now deal with the subject immediately before Will the principles on which Garden City is to be built have expenditure? any bearing on the effectiveness of its municipal In other words. easily have a and further sums should be will B a " debentures obtainable. but which would certainly represent in the aggregate a very large sum. perhaps. a greatly-improved ground-rent. effectively spent many money will be more than elsewhere. but as places for religious worship. of the project that each city. or. . for libraries. pound for pound. will a given revenue yield These It will greater results than under ordinary conditions? questions will be answered in the affirmative. cow-pastures. representing. not only as schools. so that all outlay on expensive municipal and other buildings might be deferred until the later stages of the enterprise. so that those portions of the town site on which building- operations were not in progress would also be a source of revenue. and the operations in the various wards would be taken up in due and proper sequence. Again. and that there will be great and obvious economies which cannot be ex- pressed in figures with much accuracy. in the earlier stages. an important part ward. too. would be practically completed in one ward before commencing on another. "Work. 45 money expended will very soon begin to yield a return in the shape of a rate-rent. and for meetings of various kinds. for concerts. us. be shown that. and thus the school buildings might serve.

which lord's rent in a capitalised form. but either to what " landlord's we have termed interest rent. will cost the ratepayers nothing whatever. £50. their cost. all such expenditure. libraries. is and site the revenue of the town. require administrative buildings." in the shape of on money borrowed to effect the purchase. largely enters into municipal expenditure.000. has been covered. Id. has been already provided for. or. swimming baths. In such cases the money necessary for the puris chase of the sites of the rates . generally borrowed on the security it is and thus that a very considerable part of the total rates levied applied. all interest the net revenue after and sinking fund in respect of the whole has been deducted. in City. which was really £40 per acre. In considering. under ordinary conditions. will. with such exceptions as road sites on the agricultural estate. Thus. to put it more correctly. by the annual average contribution of Is. scarcely enter at all. parks. in Garden City.46 GARDEN The first CITIES OF TO-MORROW. therefore. and the sites which these and other corporate undertakings occupy are usually purchased. the sites for schools and other public buildings. per head. land- Now. is great economy to be noticed that the item of " landlord's rent. or to the provision of a sinking fund in payment of the is purchase money of the land so acquired. as we have seen. all well-ordered towns schools.000 a sufficient revenue.'' which. it must be remembered that sites to in no case has any cost of municipal be first deducted from that amount. the 250 acres for public parks. not to by a municipality are ordinarily productive works. . the quesis tion whether £50. Garden Thus. which each person is supposed to make in discharge of landlord's rent.

and frequently In it has also to meet claims for business-disturbance.*' I would reply. the cost. and which are purchased solely. constitution. London wishes to to breathe a fuller municipal struct schools.. with a view to their demolition and to a clearing of the ground. the wealthy capital of a mighty Empire. 516. business-disturbetc. has already reached the enormous cost of the sites is sum of £3. . swimming baths. etc. law charges.. 6th May. may be remarked that the inclusive cost of sites of schools purits chased by the London School Board since i. and would be out of the question in London.000. " It is quite true that the cost of land in London would 1 See Report. and it is altogether unfair to compare a small town like Garden City with London. on the average. to spirit. including old buildings.500 per acre. " the school sites of Garden City are extravagantly large. but to pay for the buildings which had been previously erected thereon. 1897. it has not only to also has usually purchase the freeholds of the sites. " Oh. p. 47 effected will be Another item in which a great economy will be found in a comparison between Garden City and any old city like London." it may be said. so that another site for a model city could be purchased out of what would be saved in Garden City in respect of school sites alone. together with heavy legal exthis connection it penses in settling claims. but.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN CITY.072/ and the exclusive (370 acres in extent) ready for building by the Board equal. and so proceeds to con- pull down slums. to £9. 1480. erect libraries. At for this i*ate the cost of the 24 acres of school sites Garden City would be £228. of course.e. London School Board. ance. In these cases.

is If Lombard Street is an not a park like the Central ideal place for schools? Avenue is of Garden City an —and it not the welfare of our children the primary considera- tion with any well-ordered community?" be said. as all educationists admit. " the children "But. and that vital part? most Can children be better taught where land site.48 GARDEN sites CITIES OF TO-MORROW. a matter. that these 150. should not be in London at all and does not the conthe childi-en of such sideration that the education of workers is carried on at once under inferior conditions . of immense importance. make such would at a of itself extravagant. wherein sites the advantage that the on which its schools are built are frequently surrounded by dingy factories or crowded courts and alleys? ideal place for banks. not to say prohibitive cost about £40." may must be educated near their homes.000 people . But further.500 an acre than where £40? Whatever may be the thing to say at a later lies real economic value of the London for other purposes — as to which we may have somestage—for school purposes. costs £9. engaged in the clothes-making trades.) that " 150." Precisely . especially in the winter. are doing all work which it is economic reason to have done where ground- rent is high " —in other words.000 people. have respect also are not the school superior to those of London ? we not heard from Chapter against Professor Marshall (see heading to III. and these homes must be near the places where their parents work. in London.000.000 sterling —they —but does not this it costs suggest a most serious defect of system. but does not the scheme provide for this in the most effective manner. and in that sites of Garden City The children will have to expend less than an average amount of energy in going to school.

proper pro- vision beforehand) not only a great saving in respect of ground-rent for their workshops. ought not to be in London . when spread over the whole population of London (this being taken at 6. and various other whom the wages earned by these persons in the clothes-making trade give employment should not be in London. involves an annual saving of £517 in perpetuity. as I have suggested. they pay heavy rents. upwards of lis. for which. Let us for the sake in another way.000. by Professor Marshall. real one which to compare the cost these people of school sites in Garden City with the because obviously if cost of school sites in as suggested London. have entirely saved that lis. schools. which at 3 per cent.250. but also a vast saving in respect of sites for homes. of course. migrate from London. there it is fair is a sense —and a very do. in Hence. exclusive of the sites for voluntary schools.000). 30. a sum which is. per head. certain proportion of the shopkeepers who supply their wants should not be in London people to . minus the loss incurred (if any). 49 add weight and significance to the Professor's words? If these workers ought not to be in London. and plus the numerous gains secured as the result of such removal. And besides thus . 6d.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN and at enormous cost CITY. making a total saving of £17.000 in number. per head of population for school sites held by the London School Board. 6d. they can at once effect (if they make. then their homes. of clearness make the comparison The people of London have paid a capital sum representing. insanitary as they a are. and other purposes and is this saving is obviously the difference between what now paid and what would be paid under the new con- ditions. The population of Garden City.

(See " Principles of Economics.come after them . disturbance. while the people of Garden City have obtained 24 acres or 1 acre for every 1.50 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW." (2nd ed. and secure the coming increment for themselves and those who.) Book v. at a mere fraction of the cost which in is London are. x.) . 1 the Professor remarks " Ultimately would gain by the migration. and not. or about 1 acre to- every 16. accommodation for only half of the children of the municipality. Garden City lias secured sites for its schools incomparably better than those of London schools sites which afford ample accommodation for all the children of the town. better placed. and secondly. effected by the two simple expedients we have referred value is to.000 of the population. The economies with which we have thus dealt will be seen. (The sites of the London School Board — are 370 acres in extent. First.) In other words. by coming for to a new site. Chap. and for heavy legal The practicability workers of London the first Marshall for of securing for the poor of these great advantages appears to have been for the fessor moment in overlooked by Pro- in his article the Contemporary all Eevieiv. but most " (the italics are 1 No one is. and xiii.250. it given to by buying the land before a new by migration. for compensation charges. they do not have to pay large sums for old buildings. it incurred for sites vastly inferior in every respect. of course. saving £517 a year as interest on cost of sites for schools. and in every way more suitable for educational purposes.. better aware of this possibility than the Professor himself. as in the case of the London School Board. Garden City secures sites which are larger. the migrating people obtain a site at an extremely low figure.

shall be those a class now low down very -people themselves. . while no doubt the building specially benefit the up of the town would main line of railway which passed through the estate. As to the benefit to be derived by the railways. that there should be unity of design and the town should be planned as a whole. 5 my own) " the landowners and the railroads connected Let us then adopt the expedient here advocated of securing that the landowners. It will no doubt be the work of many minds the minds of and it is not. so that the whole question of municipal administration may be dealt with by one far-reaching scheme. and then a strong additional inducement will be held out to them to make a change. possible. page 60. But it is essential. sary. we have said. A town." will gain most " . as members of a new municipality. ii.) We now come to deal with an element of economy which will be simply incalculable. also Chap. of architects and surveyors. or a of its growth. . {See Chap. of landscape as gardeners and electricians. purpose —that left to and not grow up in a chaotic manner as has less so been with the case with the towns of tree. by a project specially designed to benefit in the social scale. it is also true that the earnings of the people would not be diminished to the usual extent by railway freights and charges. effect of an animal. that the final scheme should be the work of one mind. at each stage possess unity.. symmetry. completeness. and the . " who with the colony. or all English towns. It is not by any means neceshumanly speaking. This is to be found in the fact that the town is definitely planned.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN CITY. and more or all countries. which nothing but the lack of combined effort has hitherto prevented. like a flower.. v. should. — engineers.

and In other and more no main arteries have been provided for. Sometimes a great landlord laid out a quarter in a manner to tempt the better class of residents by squares. imposing an enormous cost on the 1 " London has grown up in a chaotic manner. and without open spaces or wide approaches. growth should never be to destroy that unity. p. In London the question of building a new street between Holborn and the Strand has been for many years under consideration. perhaps best dealt with by a concrete illustration. but to make it more symmetrical . A careful examination of a map of London shows how absolutely wanting in any kind of plan has been its growth. to make out of fresh material a new instrument than to patch up and This element of economy will be alter an old one. Shaw-Lefevre. Garden City is not only planned. while the completeness of the in the yet greater com- early structure should be merged pleteness of the later development. and at the chance discretion of any persons who were fortunate enough to own land as it came into demand at successive periods for building operations. regardless of anything around them. but of it is planned with a view to the very latest modern requirements. traffic by gates and bars. nor to mar that symmetry. 1891. 1 and it is obviously always easier. 435. but to give it greater purpose. frequent cases of small landowners. or retired streets. without any unity of design. often cut off from through in these cases London as — ." Right Hon. and at length a scheme is being carried out. G. gardens.52 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. New Beview. J. the only design of builders has been to crowd upon the land as many streets and houses as possible. and usually far more economical and completely satisfactory. and how little the convenience and wants of the whole population or the considerations of dignity and beauty have been consulted. but even a whole has not been thought of. and one of a very striking nature at once presents itself.

or others tethered to the —hangers-on spot—the itself." better middle-class delight But on what scale of comfort will the poor Covent Garden . In the present case some three it is thousand souls of the working population have to be After some searching of heart. — " and of for many public or quasi-public schemes have been charged with the liability to re-house as many them as possible. would buy an excellent. public asked to' face the music and pay the turned out. in the house market. If one went further afield.400 it five or six.400 house represents actual magnificence. to the cost will be even higher. but the is diffi- culty begins when the bill. a £1. in fact a sumptuous. As to those who cannot fairly be asked to go even a mile away market. It would purchase anywhere in the nearer suburbs such houses as men with £1. is that London must spend in re-housing them about £100 a head —or £300. 53 Every such change in the 1898 street " geography of London displaces thousands of the poor I quote from the Daily Chronicle of July years all 6. to the new neighbourhoods which the City clerk can easily reach by rail. decided that most of them are so closely tied to the spot by their employment that it would be a hardship to send them more than a mile away. house and garden at Hampstead.000 in all.000 a year inhabit. such as the in. in cash. Let us make It a little more intelligible. Financial statements convey to the ordinary mind.400 means. " CITY. a rental of nearly £100 a year.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN people of London. This is as it should be. or some £1. The result. A sum of £1. They will require to have parcels of the precious land cleared by the great scheme result of that will be figure of to' and the house them at the handsome for every family of little £260 a-piece.

so in new ones. to say nothing of magnificence. instead of providing 1 family with three rooms sufficiently small in blocks at least three storeys high. There cities is another modern need which all towns and should be designed to meet —a need which has arisen with the evolution of modem sanitation. electric for lighting wires. a block at least three storeys Contrast this with what might be done on a new by carefully planning a bold scheme at the outset. motive power. trenches some- . and which has of recent years been accentuated by the rapid growth of invention.'' with a Garden City comfortable six-roomed cottage each. come But to if they would be a source of economy an old city. gas. how much more struction. Before the subways can be constructed.400.54 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW." area. He will live rooms high. manufacturers being concurrently sites set induced to build on the apart for them. T for water. Subways wires for for sewerage and surface drainage. The £1. and with a would provide 7 families in .- while a " sum of £1. for on a clean sheet it will be easy to use the very best appliances for their con- and to avail ourselves to the fullest extent of the ever-growing advantages which they possess as the number of services which they accommodate increases.400 in three labourer with a wife and four children live? will by no means represent a sufficiently small in fair " standard of comfort. conve) ing purposes. pneumatic be tubes as postal if have in regarded economic not essential. telegraph and telephone wires. each within easy breadwinner would be placed walking distance of his work. Streets of greater width than this new street would be laid out and constructed at a mere fraction of the cost. nice little garden and.

not. quite impossible. from practical experience. but where they were coming to live after its work in preparing the it way had if been completed. and the light and the power turned on. the factories and the houses built.THE REVENUE OF GARDEN what wide and deep must be excavated. indeed. We have now shown four cogent reasons why a given . but gradually becoming as locomotives are to the of much first superior to as our present crude attempts of the pioneers mechanical traction. and that not only upon those who actually own it or use it. the subways finished. What a grand thing would be the people of England could. and the sooner can others start the work of building other towns. But here. that machinery can be used on an extended scale to give employment them. until a large number of houses and factories are built. be convinced that machinery can be so used as to confer not only an ultimate national benefit. ployed. if CITY. 55 In making these the most approved excavating machinery could be em- In old towns this might be very objectionable. as well as to take as well as to displace it —to implace labour —to free men as well as to enslave it away There will be plenty of work to be done in Garden That is obvious. the sooner can this town. City. it. and that the faster the trenches are dug. by an actual illustration under their very eyes. and of all who countries. but a direct and immediate advantage. in its Garden City. be built. but on others are given work by its magic aid. the steam navvy would not make appearance in the parts where people were living. What a happy day it would be for the people of this country. It is also obvious that. many of these things cannot be done. if they could learn. the home of an industrious and not like it a hajipy people.

as the whole site will be clear for operations. (4) The possibility. (2) That the site being practically clear of buildings little and other works. but. revenue should. yield vastly greater than under ordinary conditions. (3) The economy arising out of a definite plan. . thus saving those items of expenditure which are incurred in old cities as it is sought to bring them into harmony with modern ideas. and one in accordance with modern needs and requirements. or compensation for business-disturbance. ground by discussing general we shall be better prepared to discuss the question as to the suffi- ciency of our estimates in another chapter. in Garden City. or legal and other expenses in con- nection therewith. in road-making and other engineering will There are other economies which to the become apparent reader as he proceeds. having cleared the principles. of introducing machinery of the very best and most modern type operations. That no "landlord's rent" or interest in respect of freeholds would be payable other than the small amount which has been already provided for in estimating results (1) net revenue. but expenditure would be incurred in the purchase of such buildings.56 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW.

I think. may be the more valuable in preis paring the ground for an experiment such as advocated. ment of interest on debentures and providing fund for the landed £50.. annum Chap. perhaps impossible. FURTHER DETAILS OF EXPENDITURE ON GARDEN To make would be this chapter interesting to the general reader difficult. it will. CITY. The net available revenue of Garden City. be found to abundantly establish one of the main propositions of this book —that the rate- rent of a well-planned town. having something here tangible to deal with. will amply suffice for the creation and maintenance of such municijDal undertakings as are usually provided for out of rates compulsorily levied. but if carefully studied. so that any which this book may elicit. (see after pay- a sinking has been already estimated at hi. I will criticism now enter into fuller details. page 42). Having. built on an agricultural estate. 5 .CHAPTER V. given special reasons why a given expenditure in Garden City would be unusually productive.000 per estate. in the fourth chapter.

.58 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW.

be doubtless inadequate if subways are constructed. The first point to be observed under this head is that meet the growth of population is generally not borne by the ground landlord nor defrayed out of the rates. and electric mains is avoided. while any waste from leaky pipes is quickly detected. It is usually paid by the streets to the cost of making new building-owner before the local authorities will consent to take the road over as a free gift. The cost of maintaining roads is lessened.000 might be struck out. be . fore. and that. The cost. 59 I will now deal separately with most of the items in the above estimate. as probably they ought to be. the more expensive methods of paving need not be resorted to. It is obvious. £4. and the cost of laying out and maintenance of these portions " the roads is dealt with under the head Parks. has led me not to estimate for these. as the continual breaking-up for laying and repairing of water. the railway relieving the streets of most of the heavy traffic.DETAILS OF EXPENDITURE ON GARDEN CITY. Subways are. gas. however. however. a source of economy. they will also remember that half of the boulevards oneone-third and of the streets and avenues may of be regarded as in the nature of park. In considering the question of the actual sufficiency of the estimate. and thus the subways pay. therefore. Roads and Streets. where useful. A." They will also note that road-making materials would probably be found near at hand.000 per mile. Their cost should. Experts will also not forget that the cost of is the road sites elsewhere provided for. there- that the greater part of the £100. would. The following consideration.

by showing that the expense undertook prove. as in the case of roads. is The cost of sites has in this case to be defrayed out of estimate. Country Roads. etc. and £1. for such purposes as are usually defrayed out of rent.200 a mile ample. gas. To cover these a charge based on cost might be made to traders using the line.60 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. and also for greatly extending the area of municipal activity. 1894. of course. and electric supplies. Tariff Section 4 enacts: Railway and Canal is Act. The cost of site is elsewhere provided for (see p. Whenever merchandise i-ailway company at any received or delivered by a siding or branch railway not belonging to the company. but him to claim a rebate of the " from the railway company. include working expenses. I to' am more than I is am proving that the rate-rent sufficient to provide for landlords' rent. and a dispute arises between the railway company and the consignor or consignee of . Circular Hallway and Bridges. debited rather to cost of water. It may here be well to point out that this circle will save the trader the rail- way not only to expense of carting will enable and from his warehouse or factory. C. I of this undertaking could be jn-oving defrayed out of the rate-rent. locomotives. services are almost invariably a source of revenue to the Company or Corporation which constructs B. These roads are only 40 feet wide. and these them. The cost of maintenance does not. It should also be noticed that. 40).

8545. c. 1896-97. is probably view of the fact that the " expenditure per " scholar in actual average attendance in England and It Wales. and no one can doubt that buildings greatly superior to those in London could be obtained London the for this sum. the Railway and Canal Commissioners shall have jurisdiction to hear and if is a just and reasonable allow- D. ance or rebate. with a view of keeping out the School Board. that the whole cost of cduca- . too. sufficient." any. as given in the Report of the Committee of Council on Education.'' at £2. in respect that the railway company does not provide station accom- modation or perform terminal determine what. architect. is £2 lis. but cost per child may be remarked that in for sites has been £6 lis lOd.500 for 400 places. in £3 per head. must be especially noticed. and clerk of the works. As showing how ample observed " this estimate is. or but little is esti- mated more than half the sum per City. as to any allowance or rebate from the rates charged to such consignor or consignee. 6l such merchandise. lUd. and for furnitui'e and fittings. Schools. This estimate of £12 per school place represents what was only a few years ago (1892) the average cost per child of the London School Board for building. school place provided in the estimate for Garden The cost of maintenance. it The saving in sites has been already dealt with. it may be that the cost of schools which have been proposed to be built by a private company at Eastbourne. services.DETAILS OF EXPENDITURE ON GARDEN CITY.

000 for maintenance and working expenses under this head is. Further. Library. assumed to be borne by Garden ordi- though a considerable part would be. and G. intended to include only the salaries of town clerk and of officials other than those comprised under special heads. as against a rate in Garden City of £3. . as in the case circle railway. This item of cost would not be incurred until the undertaking was in a thoroughly sound financial condition. of roads and proving more than I set out to prove. engineers. as given in the same report. City. together with incidental expenses. etc. in the case of the schools. in the nary course.62 GARDEN is. borne by the National Exchequer. F. elsewhere provided for out of funds other than rates. teachers. therefore. It is Town Hall and Expenses of Management. The amount is of income per scholar in actual average attend- ance in England and Wales. E. here again. So that I am again. I am more than proving my case. H. Parks and Road Ornamentation. 2d. The latter is usually and the former not infrequently So. and the park space for a considerable period might be a source of revenue as agricultural land. to be noticed that the estimates of the various undertakings are intended to cover professional direction and supervision of architects. £1 Is. The £2. Museum. CITIES OF TO-MORROW tion in these estimates.

whether miles of road. Interest. Again. and. " B " debentures? who lend money on the — — My (1) answer is three-fold. mentation. I venture to say that. All that need be said on this subject has been said in Chap. I. (2) it be measured by numbers of school children Those who advance money to effect improvements . i. Sewage. and the clubs using public grounds might perhaps be called upon to contri- bute to the expense of keeping these in order. for effectiveness of expendi- no money which the investing public has been for many years asked to subscribe for improvements of a like ture.DETAILS OF EXPENDITURE ON GARDEN CITY. Those who advance money to effect any improve- ments on land have a security the safety of which is in reality largely determined by the effectiveness with which the money so advanced is spent. and Chap. or well provided for. acres of park. The money to construct the public works with which we have been dealing is supposed to be borrowed at 4^ per cent. iv. page 32. applying this truism... page 25. K. lawn-tennis courts. and other playgrounds. ii. 63 park spaco would probably be left in a state Forty acres of this park space is road ornaof nature. but the planting of trees and shrubs would not entail great expense. as is customary elsewhere. a considerable part of much of the the area would be reserved for cricket-fields. nature has an equal security. The question here arises a question partly what is the security for those dealt with in Chap.

prick at 2 or 2k. —public and possibly. or may even advance . as to some persons. security. with a will.\ per cent. and this of the very best known That the scheme and would in its but little doubt. though its points of novelty are the very elements which really make with they may not make it seem so. I entertain do not forget that.64 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. later stages I become so.. expended in converting an agricultural estate into an urban. I There- put down A. etc. as they probably fore. (costing far more money than the public works necessary at any given — were It about to be built or were in process of building. and that those who are merely looking out for an investment may eye it some the distrust because of its novelty. lurking belief that they will be able to dispose of their debentures at a premium. and. are other and yet more valuable works to be simultaneously carried out by others at their own expense. of on land have a security the safety which is largely determined by the consideration. aye or no. the quality of the security would be a very high one. applying this second truism. it secure. with somewhat mixed motives enterprise. houses. We will shall have in love of first instance to look to those who advance money spirit. I say that. which other works are to become a security in respect cf the first-mentioned advance. as the money for effecting the public improvements here described would only be asked for as and when other improvements period) — factories. shops. (3) is difficult to is name a to be better security than that offered when money type. is in reality a 3 per cent. but if anyone's conscience him he may tender money without interest.

as rates raised for the purpose of public expenditure. be provided out of the funds of the new will "'• municipality. parks. libraries. within whose jurisdiction the estate It will be seen that the whole will scheme of Garden City resources of make extremely few demands upon the outside local authorities.." and in this way the whole scheme come to the agriculturists at present on the estate are only it very much like " a rate in aid". compares most favourably with that usually provided by local bodies for works of so per- manent a character. forget that there are some functions which such a voluntary organisation as Garden City could not take over. its full been fully paid pensions for all its needy old is Meantime and from the very outset doing . as long run make such all Garden City provide. schools. I do not. for. Sinking Fund. Balance available for Bates levied by Local Bodies is situated. etc. the must fall. such as the police latter. 65 L. It is fre- quently allows loans to be created with a sinking fund extending over much to be rememp. M. however. sewers.. 42). ill to the in the will believed that the whole scheme rates unnecessary. This sinking fund. The Local Government Board longer periods. bered also that an additional sinking fund for the landed estate has been already provided (see Chapter iv. will Roads. that.DETAILS OF EXPENDITURE ON GARDEN CITY. which provides for the extinction of the debt in thirty years. at events from the time for. when it the estate has citizens. As v. and the administration it is of the poor-law. there being little or follows rat-es no fresh is call upon the while the number of ratepayers rate per head greatly increased.

whicb. for the most part. Revenue-bearing Expenditure. of vii. I think. are . I think. water-supply. law-abiding class this the . there being but one landlord. in respect of the advantages would be amply sufficient. now fully established my contention that the rate-rent which would be willingly offered by the ten mts afforded them. lighting.) will not be difficult to prevent the creation of those surroundings which make the inter{See vention the police so frequently necessary. lord's Garden City. it is not believed that these can be largely increased by the coming into the town who. (1) to pay landrent in the form of interest on debentures. share of charitable work. With regard of 30. and the like. and (3) to provide for the municipal needs of the town without recourse to any Act of Parliament for the enforcement of rates —the it community depending possesses as a landlord. be equally sound in regard to tramways. will be of the for. Chapter I have. (2) to of provide a sinking fund for the entire abolition of landlord's rent. less It has allotted sites of 30 acres and at a later stage will doubt- be prepared to assume the whole cost of maintaining them. solely on the very large powers N. If the conclusion already arrived at ment advocated tive affords expenditure of —that the experian outlet for an extremely sound labour and capital — is effec- in regard to objects the cost of which is usually defrayed out of rates.000 citizens.66 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. to police rates. for various institutions. when carried on by municipalities. and it community. that conclusion must.

thus relieving the rate- payer by making his rates lighter."— Daily Chronide. The Electrical Committee of Manchester has promised to pay £10. make any estimate 1 " Birmingham rates are relieved to the extent of £50. 1 And as I have added to nothing to the proposed revenue for any prospective profits on such undertakings.000 this year to the city fund. . 6/ usually made a source of revenue.DETAILS OF EXPENDITURE ON GARDEN CITY. in relief of rate* out of a net profit of over £16. I do not propose of expenditure. 1897.000.000 a year out of profits on gas. 9lh Juno.

Joseph Chamberlain has said: " The true field for municipal activity is limited to those things . (2) to provide a sinking fund which will at a comparatively early date leave the community free from the burden of interest on such debentures. that the endeavoured to show. We already by implication stated that the experiment ad- vocated does not involve. But what principle is to guide us in determining the line which shall separate municipal from private control and management? Mr.CHAPTEU I VI. and (3) to enable . and have success. for the most by means of rates compulsorily levied. as has been the case in so social many in- experiments — the complete municipalisation of dustry and the elimination of private enterprise. carried out as are elsewhere. ADMINISTRATION. (1) to provide interest on the debentures with which the estate is purchased. have in the 4th at the disposal of the and 5th chapters dealt with the fund Board of Management. A how most important question now is arises is regarding the extent to which municipal enterprise far it to be carried. and I believe with rate-rents collected by the trustees in their capacity of landlords of the towns will suffice. the Board of Management to carry on such undertakings part. and have to supersede private enterprise.

too. for the very question at issue those things are as to what which the community can do better than the individual . With a growing intelligence and honesty in municipal enterprise. The difficulty of raising the necessary funds with which to carry on municipal undertakings would be greatly increased to do everything . and will differ in different communities and at different periods. the municipality of Garden City will. at the outset. in the prospectus to be ultimately issued. these things are best left to the individual. exercise great caution. may grow so as embrace a very large and yet the municipality claim no rigid monopoly and the fullest rights of combination exist. and when we seek for an answer to this question we find two directly conflicting views of the socialist. obvious. Bearing this in mind." Precisely. if the Board of Management attempted and. ' more ready to offer adequate rate-rents " . . it is things which experience has proved municipalities can perform better than individuals. land to it may be found field of —that the — especially on municipally-owned municipal activity area. be far Tenants. But probably is the true answer to be gained is to be found at neither extreme.ADMINISTRATION 69 which the community can do better than the individual. a clear statement will be made of what the Cor- poration undertakes to do with the moneys entrusted to it. only by experiment. who contends tion . : —the view who says Every phase of wealth-producand distribution can be best performed by the community and the view of the individualist. but that is a truism. and not attempt too much. and does not carry us one is whit further. and this will at first embrace little more than those will. with greater freedom from the control of the Central Govern- ment.

B. and Mrs.GARDEN if CITIES OF TO-MORROW. the reader of Dickens will remember. and done well. be compared with Mr. was furnished at one end to suit the taste of Mrs. fashion. and after those things are done. is and will grow in proportion as municipal work done efficiently and honestly. little difficulty will bo placed in the the field of way of further appropriate extensions of municipal enterprise." Mrs. as it is done dishonestly or recently inefficiently. Boffin. B." while at the other end it was furnished to conform to the notions of solid comfort which so gratified Mr. if the inhabitants become greater . they are given distinctly to understand to what pur- pose those " rate-rents " are to be devoted. the tenants find that a very small additional contribution. in this respect. then.'s carpet would gradually whilst if " come of for'arder. or decline If. should become " less a dab at So. then Mrs. Boffin's famous apartment. Its extent will be measured simply by the willingness of the tenants to pay rate-rents. The site of Garden City may. which. Boffin. and they are convinced that so good a result at so small a cost would not have been achieved through the agency of any private undertaking working for a profit. they will naturally be willing and even anxious that further hopeful-looking experiments in municipal work should be undertaken. made in the shape of " rate-rent. B." in Garden City. B. who was " a dab at fashion. " at fashion. what field is to be covered by municipal enterprise. but with the if mutual understanding between the parties that should get by degrees to be " a high-flyer Mr. is this. for example.'s carpet would " go back'arder. to the question." has enabled the authorities to provide an excellent supply of water for all purposes. Our answer." Mrs.

plan which makes the public to perceive where any leakage or friction may be is taking The constitution is modelled upon that of a large and well-appointed business. the at co-operation. will so frame constitution that the responsibility for each branch of the municipal service will be thrown directly upon the central officers of that branch and upon the larger difficult for not be practically lost sight of because loosely thrown it body— a place. {see THE CENTRAL COUNCIL Diagram 5). if they become less at co-opera" while the municipality will " go back'arder . the municipality " will "come for'arder " . 7 "dabs" tion. dabs " relative by municipal workers and non-municipal workers at any period will very fairly reflect the skill and integrity of the public administration and the degree of value which is thereof number positions occupied fore associated with municipal effort. But the municipality its of face against any attempt Garden City. In this council (or its nominees) are vested the rights and powers of the community as sole landlord of Garden .ADMINISTRATION. besides setting to embark upon too large a its field of enterprise. THE BOARD OF MANAGEMENT consists of (1) (2) The Central Council. which divided into various departments. not so own continued much for their knowledge of the business generally as for their special fitness for the work of their department. The Departments. each justify its department being expected to existence — its officers being selected.

public bodies which acquire land or obtain power to levy rates by Acts of Parliament. for convenience of ad- various departments. more ample than those possessed by other municipal bodies. though possessing these large of many them. we have seen. how- over. powers and privileges which are en- joyed by landlords under the common law. are amply pulsory rates. so long as is not a nuisance to his neighbour. sufficient to discharge all public burdens without any resort to the expedient of com- The powers possessed by the Central Council are. The he private owner of land can do with his land and with the revenue it he derives from what he pleases while. treasury are paid (after provision has been made from for landlord's rent its and sinking fund) all rate-rents received from its tenants. GARDEN Into its CITIES OF TO-MORROW. for whilst most of these enjoy only such powers as are expressly conof ferred on them by Acts Parliament. But Garden City by stepping is in a greatly superior position. as well as the profits derived various municipal undertakings.72 City. can only use that land or spend those rates for such purposes as are expressly prescribed by those Acts. as a quasi public body into the rights of a private landlord. But the Central powers. it becomes at once local bodies. clothed with far larger powers for carrying out the will of the people than are possessed by other and thus solves to a large extent the problem of local self- government. it may be noticed in passing. retaining. the Central Council of Garden City exercises on behalf of the people those wider rights. to its Council. and these. for. delegates ministration. on the other hand. . responsibility for (1) The general plan on which the estate is laid out.

all rate-rents. These are divided into various groups (A) Public Control. being fixed arbitrarily by the depart- ment. Inspection. Assessment. may consist of the following sub-groups Finance. — for example GROUP This group A. The amount of 73 (2) money voted to each of the various etc. Assessment. (B) Engineering. as schools. roads. parks. Finance. This department receives all applications from would- be tenants. PUBLIC CONTROL. and out of it the necessary sums for the various departments are voted by the Central Council. THE DEPARTMENTS. but upon the essential principle adopted by other Assessment Committees —the really determining factor 6 . Into this department are paid. (3) Such measure of oversight and control is of the de- partments as necessary to preserve a general unity and harmony. spending departments.ADMINISTRATION. but no more. and fixes the rate-rent to be paid —such rate- rents not. however. (C) Social Purposes. after making provision for landlord's rent and sinking fund. Law.

spaces. may with GROUP the tenants of the municipality mutually agree upon. Tramways. Municipal Railway. Motive-power & Lighting." . Canals. Messages. Sewers. 1 Recreation. ENGINEERING. Irrigation. 1 found Law. in its capacity of landlord. Subways. Music. shall be granted. Baths and Wash-houses. This department carries out such reasonable duties in relation to inspection as the municipality. —some of which would be Roads. Education. Libraries. SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL. Public Buildings (other? Water-supply. and conditions and the nature of the covenants to be entered into by and with the Central Inspection. This department settles the terms under which leases Council. than schools). — is also divided into various departments.74 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. B. GROUP This group dealing with : C. This group may consist of the following depai*tments later creations. is being the rate-rent which an average tenant willing to pay. Parks and open Drainage. This individual is known to Assessment Committees under the name of the " hypothetical tenant.

would have clear and distinct issues brought before it. but would simply state their views as to some special question or of group of questions. .ADMINISTRATION. and. because immediately connected with the welfare of the town. and Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen the departments constitute the Central Council. and which would probably not give rise within their term of office to the necessity for recording their votes. a sound opinion upon which would be urgent importance to the electors. or Members (who may be men the women) of are elected by the rate-renter3 to serve on one or more departments. at election times. The candidates would not be expected to specify their views upon a hundred and one questions of municipal policy upon which they had no definite opinions. Election of 75 Members of Board of Management. Under such a constitution it is believed that the com- munity would have the readiest means of rightly estimate ing the work of its servants.

libraries. at the public expense.CHAPTER SEMI-MUNICIPAL ENTERPRISE VII. and solely with a takings. or those view to the public advantage. other." Among by many of the most reliable sources of revenue possessed our existing municipalities are their so-called " public markets. but who are not. water under- numerous other branches of municipal work which are carried on upon public property. so one or the . but partaking. this Hitherto shalt thou come. may be termed " semi-municipal. In the that " last chapter we saw that no say of line could be sharply drawn between municipal and individual one could definitely enterprise." But it is important to notice that in the these markets are by no sense as means public same full are our public parks. by public officials. LOCAL OPTION TEMPERANCE REFORM. except on . of the character of both. On the contrary. our so- called " public markets " are. who pay tolls for the parts of the buildings which they occupy. for the most part. carried on by private individuals. but no further " and ever-changing character of the problem can be usefully illustrated in our examination of the industrial life of Garden City by reference to a form carried on which is of enterprise there neither distinctly municipal nor dis- tinctly individualistic. as it dees.

"/7 a few points. have been scarcely necessary to touch on this question. termed semi-mtinicipal It would. in which the most attractive wares on sale in Garden City are exhibited.SEMI-MUNICIPAL ENTERPRISE. controlled by the municipality. of the townspeople. but by various individuals option. is it will be remembered. however. however. one of the The business carried on. his products go all over the world. a wide arcade. is to be found in the Crystal Palace. the number of traders being. for this gives him a larger choice . and on the other of the dis- tributive societies and shopkeepers who are invited to the Thus. not by the municipality. and he would scarcely wish that the number within boot the fact. of boots. most favourite resorts at the shops is this garden as well as the great shopping centre. therefore. skirting the Central being a winter is Park. he it. in more than he would gain by restrictions of this kind. say. and societies. for example: In the case of the manu- — facturer. but that it naturally leads up to the consideration of a form of semi-municipal enterprise which This is one of the characteristic features of Garden City. limited by the principle of local The considerations which have arise out of the distinction led to this system between the cases on the one hand town. by no means of dependent on manufacturers limited. of the manufacturers. and. which. A manufacturer fre- quently prefers to have others carrying on the same trade in his vicinity. area lose should be specially He would. fitly Markets may. and whose profits are personally enjoyed by the various dealers. be enterprises. though he may be glad of the is custom of the people of the town.

seems to be how to make such suitable arrangements as will at once (1) Induce tenants of the shcpkeeping class to and start in business. which will have the effect of converting competition from an active into a latent force to be brought into play or held in reserve. (3) Secure the advantages usually gained (or supposed to be) by competition —such as low prices. or because gives But in in the case of workwomen. wide range of choice. Avoid the evils attending monopoly. we have said. arrangements were to be of his competitors. GARDEN workmen it CITIES OF TO-MORROW. fair dealing. who themselves desire them a larger range of employers. (4) civility. (2) Prevent the absurd and wasteful multiplication of shops referred to in the note at the foot of page 81. Indeed it frequently hajDpens that a private landlord. shops and stores the case is entirely a drapery store. It is. etc. offering to the come community adequate rate-rents. All these results may be secured by a simple ex- pedient. when laying out a building with his estate. any. for made for limiting the number he would depend almost entirely on the trade of the town or neighbourhood. as application of the principle of local option./8 of skilled it also. an To explain : . would be most if different. makes in the arrangements shopkeeping tenants designed to prevent them from being swamped by others same trade starting on his estate. say anxious to know what. The problem. An individual or a society proposing to open Garden City. therefore.

be considerably greater than or stores. therefore. If. at a certain annual rate-rent. town. and the permanent exhibition in which the manufacturers of the town display The their wares. 7Q —Garden or City is the sole landlord. to guard against monoj^oly. therefore. depend upon the good-will of prices of his his customers. and it can say. It is necessary." Under this arrangement it will be seen the trader will methods of trading. the people become dissatisfied with your and desire that the force of competition shall be actively brought into play against you. if he misrepresents the quality he does not treat his employees with proper consideration in regard to horn's of labour. or other matters. on the requisition of a certain number. he will run a great risk of losing the good-will of his customers. the necessary space in the Arcade will be allotted by the municipality to some one desirous of starting an opposition store. but a summer and winter garden. " That site is the only space in that ward which we for the present intend to let to is. if is actually required for the purposes of shops these are kept within reasonable limits. in effect. centre of the space this Arcade covers will. if . any tenant engaged in your trade. so long as you give the satisfaction to the people of the none of space devoted to these recreative purposes will be let to anyone engaged in your calling. If he charges which are too high goods . The Arcade however. to its tenant. then. and the people of the town will have a . Now. wages. designed to be not only the great shopping town and district.SEMI-MUNICIPAL ENTERPRISE. however. and it can grant to a proposed tenant —we will suppose a co-operative society in an individual trader drapery or fancy goods — long leaso of a certain amount of space in the Grand Arcade (Crystal Palace).

perhaps at the very time him at any moment without when he had purchased some expensive goods. has a trade of 100 gallons of milk a can. on the other hand. therefore. while the two competitors could not afford to pay so large a rent as could the original trader. In other towns a competitor might enter the field against warning. they will simply invite But. in of the background is long as the a fire competition brought to bear upon trader. say.8o GARDEN of CITIES OF TO-MORROW. the members of the community. at 4d. he has full notice of his danger time to prepare for it and even to avert it. hand. day. pay his expenses. and bare living. earn a and supply his customers with milk. a quart. which. his good-will resting on the solid basis of the good-will of his customers. A. His advantages are. we will suppose. but their interests competition If will be best served by as keeping possible. except for the purpose of bringing a trader to reason. . Thus. could only be realised at — Besides. In Garden City. unless sold during the an enonnous sacrifice. method which a expressing their sentiments regarding him will be extremely powerful . would far rather see devoted to will some other purpose —they be bound to pay higher first than those at which the if trader could supply them he would. effect of For in sum in ratemany cases the competition is to make a rise in price absolutely necessary. enormous. and they will have to render municipal services to two traders instead of to one. But if a competitor enters the field. as long as he perform his functions wisely and well. they They prices will lose space they must suffer with him. on the other new competitor to enter the field. season. he will be protected. will not only have no interest in bringing a competitor into the field.

certain risks. but by their skill and judgment tion. Thus the competition prices. as well courtesy as business men and women. 1 Under this system of local option it will be seen that societies the tradesmen of the town or individuals —would —be they co-operative if become. Marshall. But they would not be bound up in the red-tape of officialism. sec. Neale " (" Economics of Cooperation") "that there are 41. can only is 8 sell milk and water at 4d. — . municipal servants." A. If for each of these trades there were 648 shops that is 9 to the square mile. less of and in return they course in the form of salary. by their integrity and that they would win and maintain their good-will. there are in London 251 shops for every hundred that are really wanted. as all tradesmen must. They would run would be paid. then A. of shopkeepers absolutely tends not only to ruin the competitors. not in profits. Chap. yet in a very real sense. but But the risks they than they must be where competition would run would be far is unchecked profits in propor- and uncontrolled. and would have the fullest rights and powers of initiaIt would not be by any literal conformity to castiron and inflexible rules.SEMI-MUNICIPAL ENTERPRISE. no — one would have to go more than a quarter of a mile to the nearest shop. and M. There would be 14. ix. but to maintain and even to raise and so to lower real wages. in foi'ecasting the wishes and in anticipating the tastes of as their constituents. Assuming that this supply would be sufficient." " Economics of Industry. a quart if lie to continue to pay his way. not strictly or techni- cally so. while their annual 1 " It has been calculated by Mr.735 separate establishments for 22 of the principal retail trades in London. 10. P. The general prosperity of the country will be much increased when the capital and labour that are now wastefully employed in the retail trade are set free for other work.256 shops in all..

8> GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. or treated his employees inconsiderately. would largely depend upon the trade of the locality. which is is distributive callings. though they would doubtless make announcements to them of any novelties. but those in his employ would be a trader also. even although in other respects he might prove himself an admirable public servant. They would not have to advertise for customers. and the distinction between master servant would be gradually lost in the simple process of all becoming co-operators. but 1 an opportunity for chiefly applicable to This principle of local option. some of its branches. 1 This system of local option as applied to shopkeejjing it affords is not only business-like. They might even sell considerably below the ordinary rate pre- vailing elsewhere. would be absurdly small. also be tion to capital invested might greater. It true such would have the his if fullest if right to engage and dismiss servants . too. which . he would certainly run the risk of losing the good-will of the majority of his customers. but he acted arbitrarily or harshly. to secure customers or to prevent their going elsewhere. but yet. And is not only would each trader be in a sense a muni- cipal servant. seem to present instances where it might with some caution be applied. having an assured trade and being able very accurately to gauge demand. the example were set of profit-sharing. they might turn their money over with remarkable frequency. this might grow and into a custom. but all that waste of effort and of money which is so frequently expended by tradesmen in order Their working expenses. Few businesses seem to require more thorough supervision and perhaps applicable to production in Thus bakeries and laundries. would be quite unnecessary. he paid insufficient wages. if On the other hand.

But such a movement as the Consumers' League advocated could make but little headway without the support of the shopkeeper. and to do this with the special is object of putting down sweating. the object of which was not. to court failure. while to establish cities. express itself in direct relation to more Indeed. the expression of is 83 that public conscience against the sweater which now being stirred. but was to protect the sweated. and a shopkeeper under ordinary circumstances would scarcely be disposed either to give such information or to guarantee that the goods he sold were produced under " shops in large distributive fair " conditions . so that they might be able to studiously avoid the products which had passed through sweaters' hands. there will be a splendid to' opportunity for the public conscience control than these. Thus there was established in London some years ago the Consumers' League. which are already overcrowded with agencies. That consumer must be an uncommonly earnest opponent of sweating who insists upon knowing the source whence every article he purchases has come. as its name might lead one to suspect.SEMI-MUNICIPAL ENTERPRISE. and it is evident that the control of an industry by the community is a half-way house to its assumption of it. . Here in Garden City. should this prove desirable and practicable. end few have a health. however. Its aim was to assist such of the public as hate and detest the sweat- ing system to avail themselves of the League's carefully compiled information. over-driven producer against a con- suming public over-clamorous for cheapness. to protect the consuming it public against the unscrupulous producer. but which scarcely knows bow to effectually respond to the new impulse. a very strong case might be made out for municipal bakeries and municipal laundries.

. that it may be possible. but as to whom reformers would be most anxious that they should be brought under the healthful influences which would surround or its them in Garden City. and no shopkeeper hope. would. in its position of sole landlord.84 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. But would class be wise? such a restriction would keep away increasing also of the very large and moderate of drinkers. because. be more valuable if the were permitted under reason- able regulations than were stopped . I refer to the temperance question. There well known. to entirely keej) away the traffic from one small area while intensifying the evils elsewhere. in such a community. as one in the direction of temperance reform. the effects in the direction of temper- ance would be clearly traceable to the more natural and healthy form of life. and are would scarcely keep away many those who moderate in their use of alcohol. as is manner possible with the liquor traffic. would. The public-house. therefore. I this regard. many landlords who will not permit a public- house to be opened on their estate. what no one now denies. equivalent. venture to sell " sweated goods. has the yotver of dealing in the most drastic are. while. will. have . many competitors for the favour of the people cities. in the former case. Now it will be noticed that the municipality. of Garden City course. and the landlord I think not. while. — the people themselves this could adopt this First." There is another question with which the term " local option " is most closely associated which may be dealt with here. has its own way. if the latter course were adopted it could only prove. in large with few opportunities of cheap and rational enit joyment. traffic if it The experiment. by restrictive measures.

George Cadbury. S. provides for the complete restriction of the traffic at the outset. It may be interesting also to observe that Mr. that the profits- might be better should be entirely applied to purposes traffic. is fixed all profits beyond are expended in useful public enterprises. The municipal authorities might conduct the liquor traffic themselves.W. in the Deed of Foundation of the Bourneville Trust.SEMI-MUNICIPAL ENTERPRISE. and." And from the . although the town is but a small one. as on all points in- volved. Westminster. But as a practical man. various Companies have been formed by tbe Public House Trust Association. which would compete with the its evil effects or in minimising affected by establishing asylums for those with alcoholism. and. plete restrictions. 116 Victoria Street. There is. therefore. But the community would it 85 certainly take care to prevent the undue multiplication of licensed houses. and the Managers have no interest whatever in pushing the trade in intoxicating liquors. much force in the objection that it is not desirable that the revenue of a community it should be so derived. A limited dividend of 5 per cent. with the object of carrying on the trade on principles advocated by the Bishop of Chester. profits arising he provides that in that event "all the net sale and co-operative distribution of intoxicating liquors shall be devoted to securing recreation and counter attractions to the liquor trade as ordinarily conducted. however. I earnestly invite correspondence from those who have practical suggestions to offer. and any one of the various methods more moderate of temperance reformers suggest.. it would perhaps not be im- practicable to test various promising suggestions in the different wards. he sees that as the Trust grows (and its power of growth is among its most admirable features) it may be necessary to remove such com. 1 Since " To-Morrow " was published. and employ the profits in relief would be the free to adopt which of rates. 1 On this subject.

To insist on a whole community being made at once to submit to the reign of new practices and new ideas which have just begun to commend themselves to the most advanced speculative intelligence of the time this... lish its ideas unless . even if it were a possible process. be found in every progressive community and organisations which represent a far higher level of public spirit and enterprise than that possessed or displayed by such communities in their collective capacity.. and it will greatly conduce to the wellbeing of any society if the efforts of its State or municipal organisations are inspired and quickened by those of its members whose ideals of society duty rise higher societies than the average. social dissolution. and endurance enough to bear it along rugged and untrodden ways. 1 And covered so it may be in Garden City. PRO-MUNICIPAL WORK. There will be dismany opportunities for public service which 1 " Only a proportion of each in one society can have nerve enough to grasp the banner of a new truth. It is probable that the government of a community can never reach a higher tone or work on a higher plane than the average sense of that community demands and enforces. v. " On Compromise. John Morley. . A .CHAPTER There will VIII." Chap. would do much to make life impracticable and to hurry on — new social state can never estabthe persons who hold them confess them openly and give them an honest and effective adherence." Mr..

be always able to conscience experiment on their own responsibility. will at first recognise the importance of. to expect the municipality to undertake heart will. but in getting their plans or who have not as yet succeeded schemes adopted by the Central Council. therefore. and thus quicken the public standing. are not satisfied merely to advocate that those advantages should be secured on the land. so are the various pro-municipal under- who way in enterprises designed to further the well-being of the town.PRO-MUNICIPAL WORK. and social advantages of common ownership of and who. so may what we term of " pro-municipal " undertakings be to the Garden City or is to society generally. Philanthropic and charitable institutions. Just as the larger experiment designed to lead the nation into a juster and better system of land tenure and a better and more common-sense view takings of Garden City devised by those to lead the of how towns are prepared should be built. but those who have the welfare of society at in tho free air of the city. neither the its 87 community as a whole. or it see their way . And what community the whole experiment to the nation. nor even a majority of members. sanitary. but are impelled to give their views shape and form as soon as they can see their way to join with a sufficient number is of kindred spirits. but an effective belief in the economic. largest scale at the national expense. and which public services would be useless. to embrace. indeed of this chai'acter. religious . and enlarge the public under- The whole is of the experiment which this book describes It represents pioneer work. therefore. will which be carried out by those who have not a merely pious opinion.

at least at the outset. done much to make the any over- building of bright and beautiful homes for the people It has effectually provided against its area. The municipality would be attempting too if much To do ever it essayed this task. Bank paved the way for the Post Office Savings Bank. into the municipal exchequer. the municipality . like the Penny Bank. so may some of those who study carefully the experiment of building up Garden City see how useful a bank might be. aims not so much at gain be found here for its founders as at the' well-being of the large. and these have heen already referred to. of the and give to the authorities it town the option its utility is of taking over should they be convinced of and of its general soundness. crowding within size at thus solving a problem found insoluble in existing cities. CITIES OF TO-MORROW. has. its community at of Such a bank might arrange to pay the whole all its profits net profits or over a certain fixed rate. howso much might be said in favour of such a course on the part of a municipal body in The municipality possible. field There activity another the large for pro-municipal for in work building homes the people.GARDEN societies. and their nature and purposes are well known. Having done much. may Just as the founders of the Penny too. and it offers sites of ample will an average: rate of £6 per annum so for ground-rent and rates. such as banks and building societies. But institutions which aim at the more strictly material side of well-being. command of ample funds. would be perhaps to depart too widely from the path which experience has justified. which. however. and educational agencies of various kinds occupy a very large part in this group of pro-municipal or pronational agencies.

M. They may form. workmen A better security the lenders could scarcely have. spirit will manifest itself in There are in this country individuals and societies —who can doubt it ? —many who would be ready to raise funds and organise associations for assisting bodies of secure of good wages to build their own homes on favourable terms. however.).C. and to help quisite machinery. whence it is withdrawn by those who with it " exploit the very men who have placed it there. especially having regard to the ridiculously small landlord's rent paid by the borrowers.P. 89 pay heed to the warning of an experienced municipal whose desire for the extension of municipal enterprise cannot be doubted (Mr. Council by councillors that they would choke who it are so anxious for its success by a burden of work.C.. amongst others. friendly societies. who has said: " A lot of work has been thrown upon the Works Committee of the London County reformer. L. other sources to which the workers may look for means to build their own homes.PRO-MUNICIPAL WORK. building societies or induce co-operative societies. it will be the fault." There are. and to talk of nationalising the entire land and capital of 7 . John Bums. and these reap golden harvests. of Certain it is that if the building of the homes for these speculative builders workmen is left to a strongly-pronounced indivi- dualistic type. and that an infinite variety of ways. of those large organisations of working-men which now place their capital in banks. them to organise the re- Granted the existence of the true and not its mere letter and name. and trade unions to lend them the necessary money. It is idle for working-men to complain of this self-imposed exploitation. social spirit.

But would not the amount enormous? of capital required for the building of the dwelling-houses of a town of 30. until they have first been through an apprenticeship at the humbler task men and women with work of their own capital in constructive a less ambitious character —until they have strikes. where The true not the remedy for capitalist oppression it exists. . of their this country under an executive of organising own class. costing on an average 1 position was so stated by Mr. So many houses in Garden City at capital so many hundred This is. employed by capitalists in fighting but in securing homes and employment for themjust selves and others on and honourable terms. this last but the strike of true work. How many houses have been built in Shall London within the The last ten years? we say. the end of our present unjust system would be at hand. pounds Let us a-piece. will In Garden City such leaders have a fair field for the exercise of proKmunicipal functions exercised for the municipality. 1 of course. matter thus. quite a test the mistaken way of regarding the problem. leaders spent half the energy in co-operative organisation that they now waste in co-operative disorganisation. in "National Evils and Practical Remedies.QO GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. Buckingham x.000 be Some persons with whom of I have discussed the question look at the matter thus. and against If labour blow the oppressor has no weapon. required so much.000. though not —functions which are by — and the it formation of building societies of this type would be of the greatest possible utility. or assisted far more largely than they have yet done in building up capital. is strike of no work." see Chap. at the very roughest of guesses 150. not to be wasted in strikers.

£300 a-piece.). plasterers. certainly. there would be presented the apparent anomaly of two.000 raised raised for this purpose? Yes. when Thus presently. Before it is completed. who have built his house. A work- man Garden City borrows £200 from a pro-municipal building society. builders. those 200 identical sovereigns might be drawn out and employed in building another house. far more than in London. and the 200 sovereigns disappear so far as he is concerned. " by Mummery and Ilobson (MacMillan & Co. three. But this capital will not be raised all at once.000.000. For observe. So in Garden City. factories.000 houses. plumbers. etc. each £200. being built with 200 sovereigns. Well. would find their way into the pockets of the tradesmen and others with whom such workmen would pass into the pro-municipal bank and thence of the town. 1 But no real anomaly about it.000.PRO-MUNICIPAL WORK. money is not lost or consumed when it is spent. that £45. and builds a house with it.650. making £1. That house costs him £200. But the money was not at once. there will be 5. but they become the property of the of brickmakers. carpenters. whence those sovereigns deal. one would often find the very same up again and again. the very same sovereigns would be employed in building many houses. or the houses would not have been all built.500 houses at. and warehouses. £300 a-piece 91 — to say nothing is of shops.000. and if one could recognise the actual sovecoins turning reigns that were raised for the building of these 150. The coins. of course. and then costing there 1 is and then four or more houses. in a A .. Was £45. similar line of argument to this is very fully elaborated most able work entitled " The Physiology of Industry. and here. It merely changes hands. say.

What built the houses was really labour. amount paid more is to labour. the reader it asked to observe how admir- and. though paid at the normal or usual rate. set to and be work to measure another —that they may be turned over as order that the many amount times as possible in the year. of scales . must be mainly determined by the skill and energy with which its labours are directed. a well-organised migratory movement to land held in common lends itself . or their unnecessary use dispensed with. and upon the annual tax levied in the shape of interest on borrowed capital. skill. as in a banker's clearing house. will have a most important bearing upon the cost of the town. shall bear as small a proportion as possible to the effectively. and like a pair and weights. enterprise. and of great importance to use them skilfully —for the skill with which they are used. may be used over and over again without any perceptible lessening of their worth. And now ably. in of labour measured by each coin may be as large as possible. be effected. and thus the amount repre- sented by interest on the coins borrowed. Still. the cost of all buildings and works in Garden City The coins were but the measure of value.92 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. it will be necessary to use them. as automatically. Skill must be therefore directed to the object of so using coins that they may quickly effect their object of measuring one value. working up the free gifts of nature and though each of the workers might have his reward weighed out to him in coins. did not build the houses in any of the supposed cases. so long as gold and silver are recognised as the medium of exchange. If this is done then a saving to the community in respect of easily interest as great as the in landlord's rent demonstrated saving may probably were.

chaotic slum-towns —the past— new old. and the current of population in precisely the opposite direction —to the towns." Like labour itself. and loudly calling for children. on the site of Garden City. yesterday it may have been is so. migration to of the the towns crowded. but to-day the enchanted its land is awake. Only wandering workless and penniless. bright and fair. and thus one sees millions in gold and silver lying idle in banks facing the very streets where men are But here. wholesome and beautiful. the cry for employment on the part of those willing to work will no more be heard in vain. There is no difficulty in finding is work — profitable work — work that this really urgently. as men hasten to build up and the other towns which must inevitably follow the construction. Money. and to the making of one coin serve many purposes. will be set effectually checked. and. it is often said. to the economic use of 93 money. it is " a drug in the market. . imperatively needed —the its building of a home-city. seems en- chanted.PRO-MUNICIPAL WORK.

in the face of such a record of failure. Having now. and. with an objection : which may arise in the thought of the reader but it is Your scheme may be very with but those? but one of a great number. and demands an is : My reply It is quite true that the pathway is experiment towards a better state of society failures. of a very natural one. it stated the objects and purposes of our scheme. until at last precisely the right elements . intermittent efforts. built on failure. and subsequently in au outward form. strewn with But is so is the pathway of experiment to is. Success for the most part. first in the thought of the inventor. and from which old elements are removed. to which new elements are added. As Mrs. any result that worth achieving. many of which have been tried and have met little success. How do> you distinguish it from How.CHAPTER IX. briefly." A successful invention or discovery is usually a slow growth. as the bystander thinks. though somewhat attractive. do you expect to secure that large measure of public support which is necessary ere such a scheme can be put into operation? " is The question answer. may " be well to deal. Humphrey Ward remarks in " Robert Elsmere " " All great changes are : preceded by numbers of sporadic. SOME DIFFICULTIES CONSIDERED. in a concrete rather than an abstract form.

Indeed. in and defeat. To social deal at all exhaustively here with the history of experiments would be beyond the scope of this book . all from regarding one principle of others. communistic parks. spite of failure success. but a few leading features may be noticed with a view of meeting the objection with which this chapter opens. A great orchestra which enraptures U3 with its delightful music is . and aim at retaining the strong points without the weaknesses of former efforts. kindred mistake has arisen of action to the exclusion for instance. who would shudder at For we all believe in communistic roads. there will eventually be produced the result for which so many have been industriously searching. Individualism is no less excellent. 95 and no others are brought together. He must all by past experiences. is the fore-runner of complete He who wishes profit to achieve success may turn past defeat into future victory by observing one condition. and communistic libraries. Take Communism. Probably the chief cause element in the problem of failure in former social ex- periments has been a misconception of the principal —human A nature itself. Long-continued effort. even those being told so. is Communism us are Com- a most excellent principle. it may be truly said that if you find a series of experiments continued through many years by various workers. The degree of strain which average human nature will bear in an altruistic direction has not been duly considered by those who have essayed the task of suggesting new forms of social organisation.SOME DIFFICULTIES CONSIDERED. But though Communism is an excellent principle. and of munists in some degree.

Nor is the scheme fc> be regarded as a socialistic experiSocialists. machinery. lessons learned in associated effort that the best individual work is accomplished and that society will prove the most healthy and vigorous where the freest and fullest . that because is associated effort can produce marvels. distribu- ment. but have carried one principle. best results of combination are to be secured. altogether too They have assumed that because common property all good. and exchange- —railways. factories. or at least futile. and to delight themselves and their friends by their own. property should be common . individual effort to be regarded as dangerous. as combina- and co-ojieration are essential. No reader will confuse the experi- ment here advocated with any experiment in absolute Communism. feeble efforts. but to practise separately. like. if is the best results of by isolated thought that new combinations are worked out it is through the isolated effort are to be gained. It .q6 composed garden of cities of to-morrow. and the but they would preserve . do not the whole series of to* communistic experi- ments owe their failure largely this —that they have not recognised this duality of principle. some ex- tremists even seeking to abolish altogether the idea of the family or home. who may be regarded as Communists a more moderate type. it may the be comparatively. advocate common property in land and in all the instruments of production. opportunities are afforded alike for individual and for combined effort. Nay. banks. docks. Now. of tion. more : isolated if and individual thought and action are tion as essential. excellent enough in far? is itself. are accustomed not men and women who only to play together.

in which there is a certain measure of recognition of the individual side of man's nature as well as of his social side. of with a view to possessing for his own personal use and enjoyment. be under effort. with little opportunity some independent line of action. the principle of private ownership in as of all 97 such things have passed in the form of wages to the servants the community. or of taking a leading part in the creation of enterprise. But very doubtful whether this principle of the Socialist. represents a basis on which an experiment can fairly proceed with the hope of permanent success. that involving these wages shall not be employed in organised creative employment of more than one for all forms of employment with a view to person remuneration should. his personal ambition. the self- seeking side of man —his too frequent desire to produce. with the proviso. and.SOME DIFFICULTIES CONSIDERED. secondly. as the Socialists contend. however. the . which is to claim a rigid monopoly. even if we pass over the if first difficulty human body self-seeking —even —that of we assume that we have a of men and women who have realised the truth that concerted social effort will achieve far better results in enjoyable commodities for each member of the community than can possibly be achieved by ordinary competitive methods each struggling for himself we have still the other difficulty. his love of initiative. First. independence and his consequent and unwillingness to put himself under the guidance of others for the whole of his of striking out working day. the direction of some is recognised department of the it Government. new forms of Now. difficulties Two chief appear to present themselves. arising out of the higher and not the — — .

X. was started on a considerable tract of land obtained under concession from the Mexican Government. but they must leave the settlement. and they in will not be content with such few oppor- tunities for personal effort as they would be allowed to make a rigid socialistic community. even though their sole desire might be the common good 1 .. one can easily imagine men filled with a desire to serve the community in some way which the community as a whole did not at the of. 150 Integral Co-operation at Worth St." In other words. and only members can be employed through the settlement. Besides. moment appreciate and who' would be precluded by the very constitution of the socialistic state from carrying the advantage their proposals into effect. One member 1 directly employ another member.S. Work. Book .). an American civil engineer. A. were dissatisfied with the cannot management. The experiment. And " Co." A. it is at this very point that a most interesting experiment at Topolobampo has broken down. they could not arrange to work with each other. and to have a share in the work of organising. whether owing to doubts as to its com- petency or honesty. Owen. which was initiated by Mr. Men too. they like to lead as well as to be led. love combined effort.g8 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. but some also want to be leaders. but they love individual effort.Y. Owen (U. Owen was employment must be through the Department for the Diversity of Home Industries. are to be lower nature of the organised men and women who of —their love independence and of initiative. if A. K.. that " all One principle adopted by Mr. Now. N. and B. Men do not object to being organised under competent leadership.

this is 99 what they accordingly did in very considerable numbers. just existing. In Garden City no such monopoly is claimed. at present sphere of municipal work is still very small as in as compared with the work performed by other groups. At the outset.ture which have been hitherto advocated or put into actual practice. The one advantage gained —cheap land — seems to be altogether insufficient to compensate for these and other disadvantages. and each member must work under the direction of those who controlled that monopoly. by far the larger part of the work done will be by individuals or combinations of individuals quite other than municipal servants. Other sources of failure in some social experiments are the considerable expense incurred by migrants before they reach the scene of their future labours. what is perhaps the chief difference between the scheme advocated in this work and most We now come to other schemes of a like na. at least. claimed a monopoly of all productive work. and the difficulty of previously obtaining any real knowledge of the conditions of life and labour there prevailing. and any dissatisfaction affairs of with the public administration of the the town would no more necessarily lead to a split in widespread Garden City than in any other municipality.SOME DIFFICULTIES CONSIDERED. this : That difference is While others have sought to weld into one large organisation individuals who have not yet been combined . It is at this point that a great distinction between the Topolobampo experiment and the scheme advocated in In Topolobampo the organisation this work is evident. or must leave the organisation. the any other municipality. the great distance from any large market.

paying in rents. manufacturers. my pro- posal appeals not only to individuals but to co-operators. while for the other all the parts are ready to hand and have but to be fitted together. or who must groups on their joining the larger organisation. philanthropic societies. a but these will themselves form a valuable nucleus. is a very large measure in existence it accomplished. and with organisations under their control. a striking feature of the wider freedom. of the enterprise. to tions involving come and place themselves under condino new restraints but rather securing And. and these gradually). is. to be mobilised The army . from the very inception which will go very far towards the interest on the with which the estate will is sum money purchased—rents which they and in be more willing to pay to a landlord who will treat them their with doors perfect equity. .IOO GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. leave those smaller into smaller groups. Or the comparison between it this experilike ment and those which have preceded between two machines that —one of which has to be created first out of various ores which have to be gathered together and then cast into various shapes. present scheme is that the very considerable number of persons already engaged on the estate will not be displaced (except those on the town site. who will bring to consumers for their produce. of organisation therefore. The work . now has but that it is with no undisciplined mob is we have to deal. further. and others ex- perienced in organisation.

never been united These arc-(l) The proposals for an organised . my scheme is a combination of three which have. Shortly stated. entitled to some consideration on that account. perhaps. In the last chapter.' even in the minds of their authors. were clearly and distinctly seen. and is. distinct projects before.CHAPTER X. It is my present purpose to show that though the scheme taken as a whole is a new one. have ended in disaster. its chief claim upon the attention of the public lies in the fact that it combines the important features of several schemes which have been advocated at various times. and I urged that there were features of the proposed experiment which so completely distin- from those unsuccessful schemes that they could not be fairly regarded as any indication of the results which would probably follow from launching this it guished experiment. I pointed out the great differences of principle between the project placed before the reader of this work and some of those schemes of social reform which. I think. A UNIQUE COMBINATION OP PROPOSALS. and so combines them as to secure the best results of each. without the dangers and difficulties which sometimes. having been put to the test of experience.

made up of a single class of persons and that the most helpless and the most unfit to perpetuate our national character. and as. migratory movement of population of Wakefield and of Professor Marshall . without the belly and the head. W. in his " Art of Colonisation " (London J. I had not seen either the proposals of Professor Marshall or of Wakefield (beyond a very short reference to the latter in J. and (3) Let us take these proposals in the order named. nor had I seen the work of Buckingham. we are cherishing at home. the plants matted confusedly together. colonies in the community. . which. urged that colonies when formed " : not thinking of home colonies —should —he was send out or even be based on scientific principles. of needy persons. that. A hop-ground colonists without poles. Herbert Spencer the model city of Jas. published nearly fifty years ago.102 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. Mill's "Elements of Political Economy"). them mere paupers. creeping and climbing plants. and to become the fathers of a race whose habits of thinking and feeling shall correspond to those which. Wakefield. till I had got far on with my project. (2) the system of land tenure first proposed by Thos. possibly. Buckingham. : Parker. without any trees of firmer growth for them to entwine round. in the meantime. some additional argument for the soundness of the proposals thus combined. with here and 1 1 may. and scrambling on the ground in tangled heaps. Spenceand afterwards (though with an important modification) by Mr. on the con- trary. 1 . many criminals. perhaps. He of said (page 109) We colonies of the limbs. sent out a representation of the parent State — We stock the farm with from all ranis. The ancients. 1849). S. state as showing how in the search for truth men's minds rim in the same channels. seems to have attracted but little attention. S.

because they found themselves moving with and not away from the state of society in which they had been living. The new colony was made appear as the same time or chance had reduced the whole com- munity to smaller dimensions. left Nothing was to behind that could be moved of if all that the heart or eye of an exile misses. These naturally carried along life with them some of their own station in also —their comclass. all the component parts of that which sent it was a transfer of population. members from all and It so became. that held together festivals. as the colonist . most influential citizen. It consisted of a general contribution of classes. was observed in They carried with them their gods. a mature state. The office of if ancients began by nominating to the honourable chief captain or leader of the colony one of the chief men. their short. It was the same social and political union under which they had been born and bred . like the queen bee leading the a democracy workers. an aristocracy its choicest nobleman . on its first settlement. would be an apt emblem of a modern colony. the utmost solemnity transferring the rites of pagan superstition. panions and friends . therefore. which if gave rise to no sense of degradation. 103 there some clinging to rank thistles and hemlock. with forth. Monarchies provided a prince of the royal its blood . and to prevent any contrary impres- sion being made. some of their immediate dependents of those between themselves and the lowest and were encouraged in various ways to do so. — The lowest class again followed with alacrity. their games all. leaving it still essentially home and country to its surviving members.A UNIQUE COMBINATION OF PROPOSALS. and kept entire the fabric — in of society as it existed in the parent state. not the man of the State.

S. § 3. but the following passage from the article already referred to> may be quoted : — " There might be great variety of method. they would show them the advantages of . viii. which it is important to move are would find an employer —and there must be many such fit whoi really cares for the misery of his employees. with him and by his advice. and. as we have They Acting happens that most of the industries of this kind. selves in the formation of a colony in them- some place well there. . they would make themselves the friends of people employed or his to be employed in trade. Mill. system consists of arrangements for securing that each colony shall have from the first a town population bearing culti- due proportion to the agricultural. After seeing their way to building or buying suitable cottages would enter into communication with some of the employers of low-waged labour." Book I." J. and that the vators of the soil shall not be so widely scattered as to be deprived by distance of the benefit of that town population as a market for their produce. iu his " Elements of Political Economy. says of this work : " Wakefield's theory of colonisation has excited doubtless destined to excite 1 much attention.104 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. they beyond the range of London smoke.. at first. They would select.. . Chap. it fortunately . and is His much more. but the to interest general plan would probably be for a committee. industries that used very little fixed capital seen. of were thrust out from a higher to a lower description community." Professor Marshall's proposals for an organised migratory movement of population from London have been already noticed. whether formed specially for the purpose or not. .

by warm. But. made for the value of the garden produce. the where they knew no one. the employer perhaps opening an agency in the colony. in some sent together.A UNIQUE COMBINATION OF PROPOSALS. to drink which is caused by They would meet with much The unknown has terrors to but especially to those who have lost their natural of spring. cases. Ultimately all would gain. every suc- ceeding step would be easier. mere employei'S to bring self-interest would induce main workshops. But after being once started it ought to be self-supporting. and help them to move. poor as are their acquaintanceships at home. with gentle committee would urge their way. might. And more than as much gain would probably be saved allowance be by removing the temptation the sadness of London. trying to in- to get those who knew one another It is move together. They would organise the sending of work back- wards and forwards. off the chill of the first only the first step that costs. and even to start factories in the colony. The work of several firms. both with counsel and money. be Gradually a prosperous industrial district would grow up. they might fear to go sistence. for the cost of carriage. taking change. not always in the same business. but most the landowners and the railroads con- down their nected with the colony. 105 moving. even if the employees went in sometimes to get instructions. and then. passive resistance at all. Those who have lived always in the obscurity a London court might shrink away from the free light. would be ix less than the saving made in rent —at all events. patient sympathy." What could more strongly point than the last sentence of that quotation from Professor Marshall's proposal buying the land. so that the to the necessity of first most admir- . first.

There are no any kind paid among them by native or . and other structures. in making and maintaining convenient highways. he occupies in . . it. poor.. in paying the necessary in building.106 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. in a word. on November 8th. are all maintained with the rent.. on which account all wares. . bridges. in doing whatever the people think proper. " Here it is : — Then you may behold the rent which the people have its paid into the parish treasuries employed by each parish in paying the Government share of the sum which the . . repairing. and adorning houses. The government. for printing which the Society did the author the honour to expel him. as and carriages . . allowable trade employments or actions are entirely duty-free. etc. roads. . making and maintaining canals and other conveniences for trade and navigation in planting and taking in waste grounds. work . put forward more than a hundred years ago. . both for in and delightful foot streets. to support and spread luxury. Parliament or National Congress at any time grants maintaining and relieving its in of own poor and people out officers their salaries its . and not. tolls or taxes of foreigner but the aforesaid rent. manufactures. into practice. which every person pays to the parish. in premiums for the encouragement of agriculture or anything else thought worthy of encouragement and. and all manner of vice.. and conveniences of the land . 1775. and passages. quality. according to the quantity." —From a lecture read at the Philosophical Society in Newcastle. . formerly. pride. at once suggests how to secure the desired end. able project of Thomas Spence can be put terrible rise in rent and thus prevent the Marshall forsees? which Professor Spence's proposal.

Mr. Herbert Spencer (having laid first down the grand liberty principle that all men are equally entitled to the use of the earth. The change required would be simply a change of landlords. but a difference (and a very important one) as to the its method of inauguration. may be carried out without involving a com- munity tion in of goods. berries. Spence appears to have thought that fiat. the people would. and to trust to the inherent its advantages of the system leading to gradual adoption. as a corollary of the law of equal generally). Separate ownership would merge in the joint-stock ownership of the public. not a difference of system. in this work. by a dispossess the existing owners and establish the system at once . the country would be held by the great corporate an body — society. Instead of leasing his acres from isolated proprietor. lead? men are equally Must we return to subsist the times of unenclosed wilds. the farmer would lease them from the . existing and need cause no very serious revoluarrangements. and universally throughis out the country while. Writing some seventy years after Spence had put forward his proposal. in discussing this subject. clearness : observes. Louis Blanc & Co. IOJ It will be observed that the only difference between this proposal and the proposals is as to land reform put forward in this book. Instead of being in the possession of indivi- duals. Fourrier. it proposed to purchase the necessary land with which to establish the system on a small scale. with his usual force " and — But to what does this doctrine that entitled to the use of the earth. Such a doctrine consistent with the highest civilisation. and game ? Or are ment of Messi-s. we to be left to the manageOwen.A UNIQUE COMBINATION OF PROPOSALS.? is Neither. and on roots.

having discovered two grave the way first of his of as own proposal. But if the reader examines the scheme of Spence. all law. all parties would have done that which they willed. All would be equally free to bid all would be equally free to refrain. ix. unreservedly withdrew The these difficulties was the evils which he considered inseparable from State ownership .108 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW.. public officials to an agent or Stewards would be instead of private ones. . compete for a vacant farm as now. Herbert Spencer at a difficulties in it. 290) the of second. as Mr. Instead of paying his rent to the agent of Sir it John and His Grace. Mr. Spencer regarded it. he would pay deputy agent of the community. written. which preceded the now-withdrawn proposals of Mr." law sec. there- on such a system the earth might be enclosed. appendix B. C. and cultivated freedom. B. and tenancy the only land tenure." Chap." published in 1891. Clearly. equal — in entire subordination to the " Social Statics. and one of ciples of might them might pi'in- take that farm without in any way violating the pure equity. fore... or C. p.. the impossibility. B. A. nation. Under rest men would be free to men would be and the alike become tenants. (see " Justice. of 8.. occupied. acquiring the land on terms which would be at once equitable to existing owners and remunerative to the community. But having thus later period.. And when the farm had been let to A. in perfect A state of things so ordered would be it all harmony with the moral equally landlords. the one in choosing to pay a given sum to his fellow-men for the use of certain lands — the others in refusing to pay the sum.

letting it in the then bringing about the daring fashion) by Professor Marshall. proposals. Herbert Spencer. seeing no way out rashly concluded —that difficulty is entirely removed by my proposal of buying agricultural or sparsely-settled manner advocated by Spence. and scientific migratory movement advocated by Wakefield and (though in a somewhat less land. Herbert Spencer. Surely a project. says. he entirely freed (as is IO9 will see that Spence's scheme was little the one put forward in this book). Herbert Spencer. must be one the greatest public importance. from the objections which 1 control by the State.A UNIQUE COMBINATION OF PROPOSALS. under Spence's own. Herbert Spencer all still terms " the dictum of absolute ethics " men are equally entitled to the use of the earth —that —into of the field of practical life. When a great philosopher life to we cannot conform our the highest moral principles because men have laid an immoral 1 Though Mr. which thus brings what Mr. of acquiring it re- the land on equitable terms." . itself As to the other difficulty which presented Mr. and of yet making munerative to the purchasers to be insuperable —a difficulty which Mr. as in my might probably attend The rents were. and makes it a thing immedi- ately realisable by those who believe in it. " Political speculation which sets out with the assumption that the State has in all cases the same nature must end in profoundly erroneous conclusions. but by the very parish removed from contact with (in my scheme the municipality) which people reside. as if to rebuke his own theory that State control is inherently bad. Herbert Spencer's mind —that of. in effect says. not to be levied by a Central Government in far the the to people.

Buckingham says (p. and the desirability of forming at least one model 1 2 " Justice. Herbert Spencer. Martins le Grand. of Wakefield and of Professor Marshall. St. they of would their more to to equality claims assert 1 the land of than their they claims would to hesitate to equality light and air" life —one cannot help wishing — so inharmonious does itself of seem that the opportunity presented migrating to a new planet where the " ethical sentiments which social discipline has now produced " might be indulged in. But a new planet." is by no means necessary if we are but in real earnest. for it has been shown that an movement from over-developed. 85. but " while possessing those ethical sentiments which social discipline has now no produced. xi. Mr." published by Peter Jackson. Buckingham. Buckingham's scheme is set forth in a work entitled "National Evils and Practical Remedies.110 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW.. will enable all who desire it to live this life of equal migratory freedom and opportunity . and a sense of the possibility of a life on earth at once orderly and free dawns upon the heart and mind. foundation for us in the past. 2 though I have purposely omitted some of the essential features of that " My thoughts scheme. embraces one essential feature of a scheme James S. of The third proposal which I have combined with those Spence and Mr. or even " a territory not yet individually portioned out. if. 25) : were thus directed to the great defects of all existing towns. about 1849. high-priced land to comparatively raw and unoccupied land. . organised." Chap. yet men stood in possession of a territory not individually hesitate portioned assert out. p.

000 acres. as one large undertaking covering the whole field and permitting no rivals. whether agri- £30 a year cultural or industrial. and war. the labours of agriculture and manufacture to be so mingled and the variety of fabrics and materials to be wrought upon also so assorted as to make short : periods of labour on each alternately with others produce that satisfaction and freedom from tedium and weariness which an unbroken round of monotonous occupation so frequently occasions. of com- plete or integral co-operation to remove intemperance by the total exclusion of intoxicants. dining-halls. as he thought.000.A UNIQUE COMBINATION OF PROPOSALS. saw the great tural estate." In his work he exhibits a ground plan and a sketch of a town of about 1. ." But though on these points the scheme is strikingly like my own. dwellingto factories. and surrounded by a large agriculBuckingham. houses. at rents varying from and to carry on all £300 a year. proposed by forming a system . Ill town which should avoid the most prominent of these defects. . intemperance.000 schools. with a capital of £4.000. warehouses. and urged " Wherever practicable. and substitute advantages not yet possessed by any. and to erect churches. it is also a very different one. to buy a large estate. like Wakefield. to put an end to war by the absolute prohibition of gunpowder. Buckingham having traced. productive operations. the to annihilate competition evils of society to their source in competition. advantages to be derived by combining an agricultural community with an industrial. He proposed to form a large company. containing a population of 25. and because also variety of employ- ment develops the mental as well as physical faculties much more perfectly than any single occuption.

My proj:>osal is that there organise a an earnest attempt made to migratory movement of population from our overcrowded centres to sparsely-settled rural districts. the making of suitable arrangements before the move- ment commences) that the whole due to their migration mitting in their of increase in land-values . while perits members to do those own eyes (provided they shall things which are good infringe not the rights and expend them in those public works which the migratory movement renders necessary or expedient thus eliminating others) receive all " rate-rents " — . and exhibiting the most varied forms of individual and co-operative work and endeavour. or breaking it up of into various sections. natural way. and farming pursuits might be earned on in a healthy. but that great thought and attention shall be first concentrated on a single movement yet one sufficiently large to be at once attractive and resourceful that the migrants shall be guaranteed (by . To sum up should be this chapter. which. in Now it will be seen that though outward form Buckingham's scheme and my own present the same feature of a model town set in a large agricultural estate. the members of Buckingham's city being held together by the bonds of a rigid cast-iron organisation.112 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. from which there could be no escape but by leaving the association. or the efforts of organisers wasted in a premature attempt to accomplish this work on a national scale. that the of the public mind should not be confused. yet the inner life of the two communities would be entirely different the inhabitants so that industrial — Garden City enjoying the fullest rights of free association. shall be secured to them that this be done by creating an organisation.

the smallest skill avails to weld those elements into an effective combination.A UNIQUE COMBINATION OF PROPOSALS. still sunlight. and the patient effort of many earnest souls. but one having its origin in the thoughtful study of many minds. no scheme hatched in a restless is night in the fevered brain of an enthusiast. the free gifts of Nature —fresh be air. . greatly 1 13 reducing the necessity for any that compulsory levy . till. as it grows. and the golden opportunity afforded by the fact that the land to be settled upon has but few buildings or works upon it. and by so of employing the resources modern life science that Art may supplement Nature. And it is important to notice that this proposal. rates. or. each bringing some element of value. so im- perfectly put forward. by so laying out a Garden City that. the time and the opportunity having come. and may become an is abiding joy and delight. breathing room and playing in all room—shall retained needed abundance. shall be availed of in the fullest manner. at least.

" Goethe. But what is thy duty? The demand of the hour. "How can a man learn to know himself? By reflection never only by action. for the sake of argument. and then we will endeavour to. All that a man summed up now in his work and ends worth working and all that he may become. and to consider more important effects which such an object-lesson.CHAPTER XI THE PATH FOLLOWED UP. — The reader is now asked to kindly assume. as at all times. by the light which it will throw upon the pathway of reform. countries no less " noble and adequate " than that they should forthwith gird themselves to the task of building up clusters of beautiful home-towns. briefly some of the features of the after-development. and this is no less true of it. for those who now dwell in crowded. sluminfested cities. each zoned by gardens. that our Garden City experiment has been and is a decided success. Among the greatest needs of : man and of society to-day. set before the people of this country is The end I venture to and of other this. We have already seen how one such town . is.trace some of the broader fairly launched. must inevitably produce upon society. society than of the individual. is aspirations. In the measure that thou seekest to do thy duty shalt thou know what is in thee. are these A worthy aim and opportunity to realise for.

The it utilisation of —a force — long recognised. let us UP. though such a future has often been foretold by daring spirits. and in which the distribution of the wealth forms so created will take place on a far juster and more equitable basis. if resolutely followed. and at the same time the greater be divided in a juster manner. broadly. ouce discovered. but the discovery of a force for method for giving effect to a far greater than the force of steam a better and nobler social life —to the long pent-up desire here on earth— will work changes even more remarkable. through a creation of new wealth forms. will. industrial dividend may Speaking reformers may be divided into two camps. There have in the past been inventions and discoveries on the making of which society has suddenly leaped upward to a new and higher plane steam of existence. lead society ou to a far higher destiny than has ever yet ventured to hope for. The . but which harness to the task proved somewhat fitted to difficult to was accomplish effected mighty changes. Society may have more to divide among its members. The first camp of includes those who urge duction: is the primary importance of paying close and to the necessity constant attention increased yro- the second includes those whose special aim directed to more just and equitable division. What clearly marked economic truth is brought into view by the successful issue of such an experiment as we That there is a broad path have been advocating This open. to a new 1 : — industrial system in which the productive forces of society and of nature may be used with far greater effectiveness than at present.THE PATH FOLLOWED may be built. II now see how the it true path of reform.

)." by Frank F airman this con- (William Reeves. " The it fairly sufficient were but divided of The former are for the most part the in- dividualistic. for I have made it abundantly clear that on a small scale society may readily become more individualistic than now if by Individualism is meant a society in which there is fuller and freer opportunity for its members to do and to produce what they — . the employed got more. I have already shown. Balfour. : not primarily or fundamentally a question of division it was a question of production.C. effect. We had to consider that the produce of the if country was not a fixed quantity. former are constantly saying. As an instance of the former point of view." " Principles of Socialism made plain. sponding degree. . 1894. I may cite the words of Mr.Il6 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. both the Individualist and the Socialist must inevitably travel. A. and national dividend equitably. 83 Charing Cross Road. and I hope to make is tention yet more clear. in national dividend. the latter of the socialistic type. page 33. said represented society as if : Those who it consisted of two> sections dis- puting over their share of the general produce were utterly mistaken as to the real bearing of the great social problem. the employed would get the emor if less.'' As an : instance of the " second point of view. J." is all will be well " " Increase the the latter. that there a path along which sooner or later. who. ployers got more. of which. W. at a Conference of the National Union of Conservative Associations held at " Sunderland on 14th November. depressing the rich will be obvious. take the following The absurdity to a corre- of the notion of raising the poor without. the employers would get real question for the working-classes of this The country was less.

as I have shown. is constitutional . in- Most socialistic writers appear to me to exhibit too keen a desire to appropriate old forms of wealth. and in a manner which need cause no ill-will. either by purchasing out or by taxing out the owners." and. and in which is the collective spirit manifested by a wide extension of effort. they can never be reconciled they are herently and essentially irreconcilable " (page 85). I have. the area of municipal ends. and " borrowed from Socialism its large conception of common life. whom I have referred be attained. UP. by a concrete illustration. I have. of reformers to' and involves no direct attack upon Thus may the desires of the two sections . I To> achieve these desirable have taken a leaf out of the books of each type of of reformer and bound practicability. 11/ and to kinds. while the other and equally important end of more equitable distribution is. and its vigorous conception of municipal and from Individualism the preservation of self- respect and self-reliance. effort.THE PATH FOLLOWED will. disproved the cardinal contention of Mr. strife. of the most varied if by it may also become more socialistic — being of meant a condition of life in which the wellthe community is safe-guarded. I think. or bitterness ." that " the interests of the social organism dividuals comprising it and of the in- any particular time are actually . have shown how it can be achieved . them together by a thread I Not content with urging the necessity of increased production. followed out Lord Rosebery's suggestion. Benjamin Kidd in his famous book. requires no revolu- tionary legislation vested interests. while Socialism is form free associations. at " Social Evolution. in short. and they seem to have little conception that the truer method is to . easily possible. antagonistic .

any part except farm-houses and manufactories and a few ships and machines and even these would not in most cases have survived so long if fresh labour had scarcely . new forms and . not been employed within that period in putting them into repair. But this inconsistency of socialistic writers is all the more striking when one remembers that these writers are the very ones who insist most strongly upon the view that their a vexy large part of the wealth-forms nov? in existence are not really wealth at all —that they are " ilth. S. the planet on which we " live and the elements of nature.1 1 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. indeed. of material wealth. — of the present productive capital of the country." Book " : Mill. yet this quite elementary truth seems to fade from minds when they are discussing methods of reform. and they appear to be as anxious to seize upon present forms of wealth as if they regarded them as of a really lasting and permanent nature." and that any form of society which represents even a step . Chapter says existing The greater part in value of the wealth now in England has been produced by human hands within the last twelve months. of and the land is almost The leaders of the great course. 1. except. A very small proportion indeed of that large aggregate was in existence ten years ago. know all this perfectly well ." socialistic movement. are extremely fugitive J. Elements of Political Economy. and prone to decay.. to create them under juster condiBut this latter conception should inevitably follow an adequate realisation of the ephemeral nature of most forms of wealth and there is no truth more fully recognised by economic winters than that nearly all forms create tions. the only thing that subsists. in v. Thus for instance. The land subsists.

Hyndman If the see that in striving to is become possessed of present wealth forms. they exhibit an insatiable desire to become possessed of forms of wealth which are not only rapidly decaying. and other insanitary cities conditions. present itself in a somewhat startling fashion? A similar inconsistency is to be noticed in a little . the first would do. Their large towns had no longer any large agricultural population from which to recruit their ranks. 1893. or a London. is to be transplanted elsewhere.THE PATH FOLLOWED UP. and through bad and insufficient food." but does not Mr. and physically. 29th March. when the problem of London administration and of London reform would. IIQ towards their ideal must involve the sweeping away of such forms and the creation of new forms in their place. the physique of the masses of the teriorating. when some future event has happened. they should —"It said: and see at the was map out formulate socialistic ideas which they should desire to as it inevitably brought about when the so-called Individualism of the present day has broken down. but are in their opinion absolutely useless or injurious. With a degree these of inconsistency that is positively startling. he laying siege to the wrong fortress? population of London. vitiated atmosphere. Thus desirable Mr Hyudman. One of things that they as Socialists would have to do would be to depopulate the vast centres of their overcrowded cities. as we shall shortly discover. large part of the population of would it not be well to see if we cannot induce large numbers of these people to transplant themselves now. both materially was rapidly dePrecisely. that at a lecture delivered Democratic Club.

The " The Nunquam. the people are to struggle hard to become possessed of factories. number actually needed for the supply Then I would stop the smoke In I would malce all the lands. entii'e and of railways. And how long is this useless struggle Would it not I ask Nunquam to consider this to last lation such as ? point carefully first. at least half of which must be to be closed if Nunquam's desires are attained if . mines. " Merrie England " (Clarion Offices. mills. : He condemns the factory system. and railways the property of the people. say. shops. —be — better to study a smaller problem and. to paraphrase his words. 6. their want of gardens. nuisance by developing water-power and electricity." That is (the italics are my own)." cities.) . abandoned. factories. and rear cattle and poultry for our own use. with an redistribution of popu- Nunquam desires. must for the most part become dex*elict.120 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. let us endeavour to make the best use of . chemical works.000 acres of land." remarks at the outset problem we have to consider is — Given a country and a people. order to achieve these ends. He then proceeds to condemn our with their houses ugly and mean. mills. ships. and Then construct great fish-bi*eeding lakes and harbours. and emphasises the advantages of out-door occupations. Fleet Street). I would restrict our mines." Chap. book which has had an enormous and well-deserved sale. Then I would develop the fisheries. furnaces. of is ships which will become (see " useless our foreign trade iv. works. " Given. and says " I would set men to grow wheat and fruit. and shops. which. and factories to the of our own people. Merrie England. works. their narrow streets. " : - : country vigorously and themselves. find how the people may make the best of the author.

machinery. which our private civilisation public and buildings. its artificial harbours. and heirlooms. So marked are the changes which society exhibits progressive state — especially a society in a its —that its it the outward and visible forms presents to-day. instruments of war and instruments of peace. its the appliances with which its docks. certainly not of a kind which we need wrangle over or fight about. for the most part. Those material relics of the past which were created more than sixty years ago. But can any reasonable person. means works. and these should certainly teach us a different lesson. I2i " ? For then. of electric lighting. examples. of and of sewerage are. have most of them undergone a complete change. possess one thousand millions of invested capital. and cathedrals. of recent date. having dealt with this. within the last sixty years. who Q reflects for a . The best of them are our universities. Let me state again in other terms this fugitiveness of wealth forms. now sixty years since the first railway was constructed from Birmingham to London. not one artisan or labourer in a is hundred is engaged in a workshop or handling tools or driving a It cart which was in existence sixty years ago.THE PATH FOLLOWED it UP. while our systems of water supply. not one sailor in a thousand sailing a ship. we shall have educated ourselves to deal with a larger area. and then suggest the conclusion to which that consideration should lead us. though some of them are of infinite value as mementos. I suppose not one living in a house is person in twenty in this country is which is sixty years old . schools. and our Railway Companies gas. churches. are. its of its communication. and many of them several complete changes. for the most part.

There is is. however. in their very nature are and they are besides liable to constant displacement by the better forms which in an advancing state of fugitive. moment on the recent unexampled rate of progress and invention. should we squabble and wrangle about what man has produced ? Why not rather seek to learn what man can produce when. then. which must of render ! forms altogether useless and effete many material Why. which . society are constantly arising. then. new methods of water supply. and then organise our people with the object of producing those things in the best and easiest way. but ditions? of how to produce them under far juster conTo quote the author of " Merrie England": " We should first of all ascertain what things are desirable for our health and happiness of body and mind. and the finding of work for the thousands of idle hands which are eager which I claim to opened up by the bare contemplation of the discovery of new motive powers. aiming to do that. the correctness of —a have demonstrated —what possibilities are air. which have sprung up were in a night. we may perhaps discover a grand opportunity for producing not only better forms wealth. through the for it solution.122 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. or a new distribution itself of population. perhaps. new means of locomotion. and to render more form of material wealth . doubt that the next sixty years will reveal changes fully as remarkable? that these Can any person suppose as it mushroom forms. but will serve only to make more clear." Wealth forms. one most permanent and abiding from the value and utility of which our most wonderful inventions can never detract one jot. have any real permanence? Even apart from the solution of the labour problem.

though. known work. and the race is just emerging Those of from there savagery. how best the earth may be But here again our friends. as every form of wealth as its foundation. all that our land laws are responsible for evils of society. to a more noble use of its infinite The earth for all practical purposes may be treasures. " little likely to commend in his their well- Henry George. and must be its built must rest on the earth up out of the con- stituents found at or near surface. Now. it follows (because foundations are ever of primary importance) that the reformer should first consider used in tbe service of man. miss the essential point. for UP. and that. if Progress and Poverty. of reform. ideal is to make society the . regarded as abiding for ever. owner of land and of all instruments of production but they have been so anxious to carry both points of their programme that they have been a little too slow to consider the special importance of the land question. a type of reformers who push the it land question very much Mr. 1 23 millions its is The planet on which we live has lasted of years. through toil much and pain." urges with much not with complete accuracy of reasoning. and have thus missed the true path There is. Their professed the Socialists. to the front. eloquence. the economic and that as our landlords are little better . however. as appears to me.THE PATH FOLLOWED universal. having learned a few of its less obscure secrets. in a manner views to society. they are finding their way. us who believe that a grand purpose behind nature cannot believe is that the career of this planet likely to be speedily cut short now that better hopes are rising in the hearts of men.

therefore. It is quite true that the average man is a potential landlord. and by a little skill in the grouping of forces and manipulation of ideas. he suggests. than pirates and robbers. to attack landlords as individuals very like a nation drawing up an indictment against and then making a scape-goat of a particular class. little chance of ever becoming a landlord and of appropriating rent-values created by others. 1 But to endeavour to change our land system is a very different matter from attacking those individuals who represent it. quite dispassionately. and as ready to appropriate the unearned increment as to cry out against its appropriation. whether and whether it may not be possible to gradually establish a new and more equitable system under which. the sooner the State forcibly appropriates their rents the better. the average man is is a potential landlord. much . If then.124 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. the better able to consider. 1 1 hope it is inspiration from " not ungrateful in one who has derived Progress and Poverty " to write thus. and he will embrace it to-morrow. will. But how is this change to be effected ? I reply— By the force of example. without enjoying the privilege of appropriating rent-values created by others. for when this is accomplished the problem of poverty be entirely solved. that is. by setting up a itself. such a proceeding is really honest. But is not this attempt to throw the whole blame of and punishment for the present deplorable condition of society on to a single class of men a very great mistake? In what way are landlords as a ? class less honest than the average citizen citizen the opportunity of Give the average becoming a landlord and of appropriating the land values created by his tenants. better system. But the average man has very and he is.

and this we can best do in another chapter. 1 25 may himself be secured against expropriation of the is rent-values which he taining. now constantly cx*eating or mainthis We have demonstrated how . may be done on a small scale experiment we have next to consider how the may be carried out on a much wider scale. .THE PATH FOLLOWED he UP.

" it Human nature will not flourish. I think. Granted dustrial life generally the success of the initial experiment. It will. to consider the analogy presented by the early progress of railway enterprise. This will help us to see more clearly some which selves of the is broader features of the so closely now upon us if new development only we show ourfirst energetic and imaginative. so far as their fortunes shall may be within my control. Railways were made without any statutory powers. and there must inevitably arise a widespread demand for an extension of ment the stepping-stone to a higher methods well. unaccustomed Scarlet Letter. SOCIAL CITIES. to consider will some of the chief problems which have to be faced in the progress of such extension." — " The The problem with which we have now to deal.CHAPTER XII.Nathaniel Hawthorne. soil. and. stated. any more than a potato." . if be planted ana re-planted for too long a series of generations in the same worn-out strike My into children have had other birth- places. be well. so healthy and so advantageous j and it will be therefore. their roots earth. in approaching this question. is this How to make our Garden City : shortly experi- and better form of inthroughout the country. They were con- .

or at a price not too extravagantly removed from such value. this market value. . is once fairly recog1 Clifford's "History of Private Bill p. railway enterprise went forward at so rapid a rate that in one year no railway construction.600. be also if Parliamentary powers were necessary for the extension of railway enterprise. being done. because of his posi- one obstinate landlord might take advantage demand an altogether exorbitant price for his stifle and thus practically its such an enterprise. 1 less than £132. For it would have been impossible. to obtain legislative powers. lie between points many miles distant. Introduction. But when the " Rocket " was built. almost as easily as a family moves out of a rotten old tenement into a new and comfortable dwelling. or at least very difficult. such powers will certainly needed when the inherent practicability of building new. most a few landowners was necessary and what private agreement and arrangement could thus easily compass was scarcely a fit subject for an appeal to the Legislature of the country. land compulsoi'ily at to obtain power to secure the and. 1885). It was necessary. in proportion to the power to be exercised. Legislation" (Butter- worth. well-planned towns.000 was authorised by Parliament to be raised for the purpose of Now. 88. and of the population moving into them from the old slum cities as naturally. if railway enterprise was to go forward.SOCIAL CITIES. and. and. and the supremacy of the locomotive was fully established. 127 structed on a very small scale. the consent of only one or at the . being of very short lengths. therefore. it then became necessary. to make equitable estates arrangements with all the landowners whose might tion to land.

Let me here introduce a very rough diagram. the idea of a wellwill planned town such as I have described not have prepared the reader for the later development which must inevitably follow the planning and building of town clusters each town in the cluster being of different design from the others. representing. and yet the whole forming part of one large and well-thought-out plan. But the land ai'ound Garden City is. town filled up. the true principle on which all towns should grow. anything like a scientific fashion. as I conceive. cities. fortunately. perhaps. but if the movement is to be carried on in nised by the people. stretches of first land far larger than that occupied by our experiment must be obtained. For. grown until it has reached a population of 32. would convey to few minds the conception of a net-work of railways extending over the whole country. if This disastrous result would indeed take place as is the land around the town were. just as the first short railway. Garden City has.128 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. we will suppose. and the beauty and healthtown would be quickly destroyed. the agricultural land would become " ripe " for building purposes. site may be secured by arrangement with one or more landowners. so. not in the fulness of the . To build such towns. large areas Here and there a suitable of land must be obtained. individuals anxious to as the make a profit out of For then. which was the germ of railway enterprise.000. How — — shall it grow? How shall it provide for the needs of its others Shall who it it. will be attracted by numerous advantages? is build on the zone of agricultural land which around and thus for ever destroy ? its right to be called a " Garden City " Surely not. the land around our present owned by private it.

D Z .

.

And surrounded by its " 1 this is the principle which it is intended to follow. but in the real interests of the whole are few objects community. alternative. How does it grow It grows by leaping over the " Park Lands " and establishing North Adelaide. I think. feel confident that the people of Garden City will not for a moment permit the beauty of But their city to be destroyed by the process of growth. but overlooked.000. to its convenience. Consider for a moment the illus- case of a city in Australia which in trates the principle for city of Adelaide.SOCIAL CITIES. Our diagram may now be understood. to its — beauty.'' so that the new town may have a zone of country of its own. Now. will The town will grow . There is a bright. hands people of private individuals : 129 : it is in the hands of the and is to be administered. I have said " by establishing another city. Park Lands. but it grow in accordance with a principle which will result in this that such growth shall not lessen or destroy. which I am The accompanying sketch map shows. not in the supposed interests of the few." The city is built up. How Parlittle will it grow? It will grow by establishing liamentary powers probably —another —under some city distance beyond its own zone of " country. is Garden City built up. Its population has reached 32. way be selfishly joying its and thus preclude many from enadvantages 1 Certainly not. but ever add to its social opportunities. in Garden City. will not the inhabitants preventing the Garden City growth of their of in this city. but improve upon. there which the people so jealously guard as their parks and open spaces. it may be urged — If this be true. as the is some measure contending. for administra- . and we may." and.

the schools libraries. the would be on a scale in the world whose land is pawn I to private individuals can afford. but so grouped around a Central City that each inhabitant of the whole group. These trains would . in course of time. of magnificence in which no city and universities. 12 minutes. though tages in one sense living in a town of small in. say. cities. and yet all the hedgerow. all There is. and would enjoy . would be in reality living of. all the advan- a great and most beautiful city fresh delights of the country land prim parks and gardens merely would be within a very few minutes walk or ride. this principle of in And growth — this principle of always preserving a belt of country round our cities would be ever kept in mind cities. theatres. first. reality represent and thus the people of the two towns would one community.130 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. tive purposes there would be two but the inhabita very few ants of the one could reach the other in minutes. and wood- — the people in their collective capacity own the land on which this beautiful group of cities is built. we should have a cluster of not of course arranged in the precise geometrical form of my diagram. have said that rapid railway transit would be realised by those who dwell in this beautiful city or group of cities. which could be accomplished in. size. Reference to the diagram will show at a glance its the main features of railway system. And because —not — field. picture galleries. till. for rapid transit would be specially provided for. the churches. an inter-municipal railway connecting outer ring the towns of the so that to get —20 miles in circumference its — from any town to most distant neighbour requires one to cover a distance of only 10 miles. the public buildings.

1895: plain of the "We Londoners often com- want which of system in the arrangement of the our one railways and their terminal stations in and around the Metropolis. feel sure. distance from any The is town to the heart of Central City only 3£ miles. I That this difficulty exists. there are a of which. Nov. I may quote advantage dress of Sir a passage from the Presidential adBenjamin Baker to the Institute of Civil Engineers. necessitates performing long journeys in cabs another. so that a complete scheme might be evolved out of the numerous . in 1836.SOCIAL CITIES. 12th. it will number each town being connected with every other town in the group by a direct route. which traverse the high-roads. chiefly to get from railway system to arises. Those who have had experience getting from one suburb of in a of the difficulty of London to another will see moment what an enormous advantage those who dwell in such a group of cities as here shown would enjoy. There is — also a system of railways by which each town is placed in direct communication with Central City. and this could be readily covered in 5 minutes. with On this point. because they would have a railway system and not a railway felt chaos to is serve of their ends. not stop between the towns 131 —means of communication for this purpose being afforded by electric tramways be seen. The difficulty in London course due to want of fore- thought and pre-arrangement. for. a motion was proposed in the House of Commons that all the Railway Bills seeking powers for terminals in London should be referred to a Special Committee. from the want of forethought of no less able a statesman than Sir Robert Peel.

be unnecessarily sacrificed for rival schemes. nearer to each other than we are in our crowded while.' But are the people of England to suffer for ever for little the want of foresight of those who dreamed of the It future development of railways? Surely not. and built our upon some such plan should then be.132 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. for as that all I have crudely shown. on the grounds that operation till ' no railway project could come into the majority of Parliament had declared that its principles and arrangements appeared to them investments profitable. We cities. cases It satisfactory. and events have shown how false was the assumption that the passing of an Act implied any warranty as to the financial prospects of a railway. and that property might not Sir projects before Parliament." from Parliament. . it high time that we availed ourselves more fully of those means. seeing the enormous progress which has been is made in the means cities of rapid communication. and its was a suffi- recognised principle in these profits of that the probable an undertaking should be shown to be it cient to maintain in a state of permanent utility before a Bill could be obtained. pur- poses of quick communication. at the same time. was in the nature of things of railways little likely that the first network to> ever constructed should conform true principles but now. and landlords were perfectly justified in expecting and demanding such a warranty In this instance. we should be surrounding ourselves with the most healthy and the most advantageous conditions. incalculable injury was unintentionally inflicted upon Londoners by not having a grand central station in the Metropolis. Robert Peel opposed the motion on the part of the Government.

but cannot stay the tide of progress. in other words. unwieldy. ill-ventilated. Each generation should build to suit its own and it is no more in the nature of things that men is should continue to live in old areas because their ancestors lived in them. at least. it is quite a different matter. Is it to express themselves. What may What Might Be . that the existing wealth forms of the country are permanent. but they are in the nature of things en- unadapted for is our nature a society in which the social side of demanding a larger share of recognition a society whei'e even the very love of self leads us to insist upon a greater regard for the well-being of our fellows. with its towns built. The large cities of to-day are scarcely better adapted for the expression of the fraternal spirit than would a work on astronomy which taught that the earth was the centre of the universe be capable of adaptation for use in our schools. and are forever to serve as hindrances to the introduction of better forms . a while. cities unhealthy island — —ulcers on the very face scientific of our beautiful are to stand as barriers to the introduction of of towns in which modern social methods and the aims reformers may have the fullest scope in which No. needs . it cannot for be for long. than it that they should cherish faith the old beliefs which a wider and a more . unplanned. These crowded cities have done their work they were the best which a society largely based on tirely selfishness and rapacity could construct. and its railway " system " for the most part constructed. but that in an old-settled country.SOCIAL CITIES. 133 Some of of ray friends is have suggested that such a scheme town clusters well enough adapted to a new country. that crowded. cannot be hinder . is But surely to raise such a point to contend.

structed with comparatively small disturbance of vested interests.134 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. the opening chapter Midlothian" (Sir Walter Scott). and. therefore. The reader is. That there is ample land in this country on which such a cluster as I have here depicted could be con- The simple — . Let such powers be given more Let larger and yet larger measures of local self-government be granted. pensation. the question can only be answered in one way and when that simple fact is well grasped. just at the very rail- moment when ways. earnestly asked not to take it for granted that may perhaps take a pardon- in their present form. with but little . and then all that my diagram depicts only on a far better plan. 1 was about to be supplanted by the and faced resolutely. is Can better results be obtained by starting on a bold plan on comparatively virgin soil than by attempting to adapt our old cities to our newer and higher needs? Thus fairly faced. any more permanent than the stage-coach system which was the subject of it so much admiration issue to be faced. of " The Heart of . and an overburdened Parliais ment becoming more and more anxious freely. for instance. County Councils are to devolve now seeking larger powers. the social revolution will speedily commence. the large cities in which he able pride are necessarily. therefox-e. need for comand. because the — 1 See. some of its duties and more upon them. enlarged understanding have outgrown. will be obvious to anyone first when our issue. experiment has been brought to a successful there will be no great difficulty in acquiring the necessary Parliamentary powers to purchase the land and carry out the necessary works step by step.

Thus. First. 135 and combined thought. threats. think not. will be far more ready to events as revealing society to a higher make . by thus frankly threatens. and will range themselves in opposite camps. in the early days of railway legislation. of all vested interests most influential —I mean the vested interests of those who work for their living. because the largest in the end. (A . whether by hand or of brain — will be naturally in favour its the change when they understand nature. and land desiring to sell itself. and did all in their to thwart and power and hamper what threatened them. These interests But other great vested interests brushed this opposition easily on one side. who are very reluctant to yield to such as are sometimes made against them by Socialists of a certain type.SOCIAL CITIES. result of well-concerted easily attainable. " Are you not. so avowing the very great danger to the vested interests of country which your scheme indirectly interests against yourself. because those vested like a solid interests which are said to be ranged phalanx against progress. by the force of circumstances and the current of events. legislation arming vested any change by and I making impossible?" First. the vested interests in canals stage coaches were alarmed. thirdly. say vested-property interests will be broken in twain. This sort of cleavage has occurred before. were chiefly two — capital seeking investment. — will be But this it may be said. and. the and most important. And for three reasons. because property owners. I Let me deal with these points separately. be for once divided into opposing camps. Secondly. concessions to the logic of itself in an undoubted advance of form and. will.

at least those marked The holders of sell who are willing to and many of them are even now most anxious to do so will welcome the extension of an experiment which promises to place English agriculture once again in a position of prosperity : the holders of city lands will. and the path of land —the foundation on which other reforms must be built— be made comparatively reform all will easy. so far it. tendency for agricultural land to agricultural land. landowners throughout the country will be divided into two opposing factions. and permit the current of legislation to set strongly in a new direction. be a strong tendency 1 ground values to the other a less rise.I36 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. The chief reason for this is that agricultural land as compared with city land is of vastly larger quantity. which will them asunder with For what will such irresistible force. then scarcely begun to assert claims. for city Two tendencies will then The first will fall. back to the land which can be now secured so cheaply.) And now how such a successful experiment as Garden City may easily become will drive into the split very bed-rock of vested interests a great wedge. display themselves. and inflated in proving this open wide the doors of migration from the old crowded cities with their and artificial rents. an experiment have proved other things too numerous up to the very hilt? Among to mention. as their merely selfish interests prevail. ir . it will have proved that far more healthy and economic conditions can be secured on raw uncultivated land (if only that land be held on just conditions) than is can be secured on land which at present of vastly higher it will market value. greatly fear In this way. labour seeking employits third vested interest ment —had notice —namely.

in and invest them one basket new enterprises. and to surround their children with many advantages which cannot be enjoyed on his estate. have eggs in and thus will the opposing influences of vested property neutralise each other. and.SOCIAL CITIES. prises Invested capital —that capital sunk in enter- which society will recognise as belonging to the old order — will take the alarm and fall in value enormously. Capital in the same 137 way will be divided into opposite is. and he sees his houses or lands depreciated in value. of wealth. camps. The man when he is personally attacked and denounced as an enemy of society. capital seeking investment will welcome an outlet which has long been Invested capital will its sorest need. is slow to believe in the perfect good faith of those who denounce him. when efforts are made to tax him out by the forcible hand of the State. and on land held on conditions more advantageous to them. But vested-property affected yet interests will be. for they will not wish to " " . Holders of existing forms of capital will strive even though it be at a great sacrifice — — to sell part of their old time-honoured stocks. more remarkably in another way. on municipally-owned all their land. in its opposition be further weakened by another consideration. to oppose such —and often with no small measure of success. lawful or unlawful. even welcome a change 10 . is But if the average wealthy of selfishness man no more an unmixed compound than the average poor man. he will philosophically bow to the inevitable. but because those lived in or who upon them have learned how to erect far better homes of their own. as I believe. and. while. in his better moments. he is apt to use every efforts endeavour. on the other hand. not by force.

labour. some measure of the man there is some regard and when these natural feelings run there is man athwart his pecuniary degree in interests. The will divide in vested interests of land and capital will unite and consolidate the interests of those who live by work. . is then the result is that the spirit of opposition inevitably softened. while in others it is entirely replaced by a fervent desire for the country's good. In every reforming instinct. medical men. artists. with such modifications as experience may show to be necessary. the all let me deal for a moment with the of most valuable. in some all men. even at the sacrifice of many cherished possessions. and will lead them to unite their forces with the holders of agri- and of capital seeking investment. to urge upon the State the necessity for the prompt opening up cultural land of facilities for the reconstruction of society . in every for his fellows . of a cluster of cities may well inspire all Such a task as the construction like that represented in our diagram workers with that enthusiasm which unites men. will involve him in far greater pecuniary loss than any change in the incidence of taxation is likely to which inflict. talent. be affected? twain the My answer is. and the most permanent vested interests —the vested How which force interests of skill.I38 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. then to employ voluntary tive efforts similar to those adopted in the Garden City experiment. the result of an impulse from And now greatest. of architects. will these energy. industry. when collec- the State is slow to act. Thus it is that what will not be yielded to a force from without may readily be granted as within. for it will call for the very highest talents of engineers of all kinds. and.

merchants and financiers. and no such field of Work in abundance is. to plant gardens for ful crowded courts to construct beautiscientific water-ways in flooded valleys. to found pensions with in liberty for our aged poor. now imprisoned to silence workhouses of to banish despair and awaken hope . For the vastness of the task which seems to frighten some of represents. surveyors. But railway touched the enterprise. measure of its value to the community. 139 experts in sanitation. a just system of land tenure for one representing the selfishness which we hope is passing away . the very my friends. sented in the early part of this century to construct iron highways throughout the length and breadth island. builders.SOCIAL CITIES. as well as the very simplest forms of unskilled labour. who have' fallen the harsh voice of and to awaken the soft notes of brotherliness and . as has been several times urged. . as we build. one of the greatest needs of employment has been opened up since civilisation began as would be represented by the task which is before us of reconstructing anew the entire external fabric of society. friendly and co-operative societies. landscape gardeners. uniting in a vast of this network all its towns and its cities. all the skill and knowledge which the experience of centuries has taught us. in fact. organisers of trades unions. agricultural experts. to establish a system of distribution to take the place of a chaos. spirit if that task be only undertaken in a worthy and with worthy aims. manufacturers. together skill with all those forms of lesser and talent which lie between. It was " a large order " which was preto-day. in the breasts those anger. employing. life of vast as has been influence. the people at but few points compared with the newer call to build home-towns for slum cities.

of peace to place in strong bands implements of is and construction. and suffering. of Here is war and destruca task which may power. disease.140 goodwill GARDEN j CITIES OF TO-MORROW. . well unite a vast army workers to utilise that the present waste of which the source of half our poverty. tion so that implements may drop uselessly down.

so that they may be enjoyed in the fullest mea- sure lived in slums for homes are being erected for those who have long work is found for the workless. and the consumer and thus (by reducing railway rates and charges. Ian i the landless. are being constructed. orchards and woods. awakened. the most the world has yet seen. be ness. THE FUTURE OF LONDON. are being planted in the midst of the busy life of the people. new means of tribution are bringing the producer into closer relations. parks and gardens. and the number of profits) are at once raising prices to the producer and diminishing them to the consumer. interesting to consider some of the more such which will be produced on our now overin crowded a vast cities by the opening-up new districts of field of employment as the reader's mind will. long pent-up energy are presenting themselves at every turn.CHAPTER XIII. and opportunities for the expenditure of . and they a social life which permits alike of the completest concerted action and of . it is hoped. It will striking now be effects. A new sense of freedom and joy in is pervading the hearts of the people as their individual faculties are discover. now able to realise with some degree of clear- New of towns and groups of towns are springing up our islands hitherto well-nigh deserted scientific . . in parts of new dis- means communication.

1 1 it will continue to flow in present direction at a scarcely diminished rate for a long Now it can hardly be supposed that any It is scarcely necessary to give instances of what is meant. means the fullest individual liberty. which. seen to be old-fashioned and effete.142 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. and Paper by Mr. Redistribution. See . H. February. W. on "Industrial ' : ). few appear to believe that such a remedy will ever be found. whose forms are at once.E. as the largest and most unwieldy of our cities. M. The effects produced on our over-crowded cities. but that time to come.. it is Mr." by P. G. the long-sought-for of reconciliation between order and freedom —between the well-being of the individual and of society." Society of Arts Journal. in order to study it will them effectively. Wells has recently entirely changed his views as to the future growth of London (see " Anticipations. and the calculations of our statesmen and reformers proceed upon the assumption that not only will the tide cities is of population never actually turn from the large cities its countryward. a well-nigh universal current of opinion that a remedy for the depopulation of our country districts and for the overcrowding of our large urgently needed. Read also The Distribution of Industry. satisfactory to note that 1893. but one that occurs to my mind is that this assumption of the continued growth of London forms one of the fundamental premises of the Report of the Royal Commission on Metropolitan Water Supply. as I said at the outset. in " the Heart of the Empire " (Fisher Unwin). also note on page 31. be well to confine our attention to London. ii. But though every one recommends that a remedy should be diligently sought for. Madgen. On the contrary.I. W. by the light of a new contrast." chap. will be so far-reaching in their character that. Wilson. There is. is likely to exhibit those effects in the most marked degree.E. L. 1902.

healthier. instead of bending their energies to reforming London by means of a reduction of its population. therefore. cleaner and more just and sound economic conditions prevail. remedy advocated work is effective that new garden-cities are springing up all over the country on sites owned by the the rate-rents of such corporate property forming a fund ample for the carrying on of municipal undertakings representing the highest skill of the modern municipalities — engineer and the best aspirations of the enlightened re- former and that in these cities. socialistic and upon the great undertakings which our and municipal reformers are at the present so anxious to secure ? moment . not be discovered likely to be carried remedy sought for on with great it is zeal or thoroughness and. upon the homes of its people. is the in still sceptical) that the . upon its open . are boldly advocating a policy which involves the purchase of vast undertakings prices on behalf of the municipality. if Let us now assume (simply as an hypothesis. perhaps not surprising to find that though the late chairman of the London County Council (Lord Roscbery) declared that the growth of this huge city was fitly comparable to the to growth of a tumour (see p. and its municipal assets upon London as a labour market. upon its land values. at which must prove far higher than they will be only the long-sough t-f or remedy is worth reader this if found. spaces. must in the nature of things be the more noticeable effects upon London and the population of London. . What. wholesomer. upon its municipal debt. 11) —few venturing deny the of correctness of the analogy — yet the various members that body.THE FUTURE OF LONDON. then. search will 143 made in the full Lelief that the is .

represent an extremely small and diminishing fraction of the burden will.000. shakes off not only all his obligations to but also is all his obligations to his municipal when he migrates he must assume the burden of a new municipal rent. and the temptation to migrate and many other reasons. A municipal debtor is quite from an ordinary debtor lie can escape in one most important payment by migration. ipso facto. who kindly permit them live upon it at enormous rents £16. be extremely strong. and he his landlord. But different respect. and of a new municipal debt. will fall First. He has at.000 per — annum. notice that ground values of enormously Of course. so long as the 121 square miles out of the England exercise a magnetic draw to it one-fifth of the whole population. now for this borne. notice this. But now let us notice how each person in migrating . in to But the life and earnings of Londoners ai-e not only pawn to the owners of its soil.000. who compete fiercely with each other for the 58.144 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. convince large numbers of can better elsewhere. but these in our new cities will creditors. but to move away from a given municipal area. once. representing London's municipal debts. which is yearly increasing but they . Its spell is But de-magnetise them that they their condition in every way by migrating and what becomes of that monopoly value? broken.000. so long will that land have a monopoly price.000 square miles attraction so great as to right to occupy the land within that small area. value of are also in pawn to the extent of about £40. representing the present ground London. It true. and the great bubble bursts. that people.

instead of being in its present position with vast debts a vicious and small is assets. though each person in migrating will enable those who remain to make better and yet better terms with their landlords on the other hand. without any need for a levy but it would have been enabled to own its own water-supply and many other useful and profit-bearing undertakings. the interest on it will have to be borne by fewer and yet fewer people. For. reached. have to make terms with a the simple who can apply remedy of migrating and building a better and brighter if civilisation elsewhere. there be some change in the law). the municipal debt remain. like the London's land. the owners of and immoral system is and when the breaking-point London's bonds will. till at length. and thus the relief to the working population which comes from reduced rent will be largely discounted by increased rates. they are not allowed to rebuild on a just and reason- able basis on the site of their ancient city. very briefly. But bound ultimately owners people of to snap. the bearing of this . while making the burden rents less I45 of will ground(unless heavy for those who remain. We may next notice. its rents would not only have easily provided for all current expenditure. Had London been built on municipally- owned land. making the debt ever a larger and larger burden. it may become intolerable. and yet further population will remove. and in this way the temptation to migrate will continue. of rates or for incurring loans for long periods. from Loudon. Of course this huge debt need never have been incurred. of rates make the burden on the ratepayers of London yet heavier.THE FUTURE OF LONDON. ing the same. though accompanied by a still further reduction of rent.

continually increasing. Families which are now compelled to huddle together in one room will be able to rent five or six. for accommodation most miserable and insufficient. and falling rapidly. house- in rental value. often represents in time and money a very considerable tax. and fall Slum property will sink to zero. that . eye-sore and a blot. not at the expense of the ratepayers. These wretched slums will be pulled down. And this change. But imagine the population of London falling. will be effected. and the problem of finding employment for those who remain. and their sites occupied by parks. will it yet remain an though no longer a danger to health and an outrage on decency ? No. The rents now paid by the working population of London. and where their work is within easy- walking distance of their homes property in London will enormously. but almost entirely at the expense of the landlord class : in this sense. represents each year a larger and larger proportion of income. recreation grounds. and by thus will the housing problem temporarily solve itself the simple process of a diminution in the numbers of the tenants. and the above those which they can now afford to whole working population will move into houses of a class quite occupy. Its But what will become of this slum property? power to extort a large proportion of the hard earnings of the London poor gone for ever. fall ! Obviously. migration of population upon two great problems —the problem of the housing of the people of London.I46 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. the migrating people establishing themselves where rents are extremely low. and allotment gardens. at least. as well as many others. while the cost of moving to and from work.

Elsewhere new cities are being built London then must be transformed. compelled. unless a corresponding field of employment is opened within it. the compulsion of effect this result improving the Nor will. London must die. and that it no no longer pays. such ground rents as are still 1 47 paid by the people of London retain in respect of those classes of property will which some rental value city. who sells for a ridiculously low price the machine which has cost a very large sum. improvements of : all kinds can go similar forward rapidly and scientifically in if London improvements can only be carried out vested interests recognise the inevitable and accept terms which may seem ridiculous. for the simple reason that there is a far better one in the market. and of then vesting such land in the new municipalities : in London corresponding arrangewill consent to build. when the landowners will be in a sorry plight. to work the inferior machine. Elsewhere the town is invading the country here the country must invade the town. A vast field of employment being opened outside London. have to bear the burden of think. in the face of keen competition. by a Nemesis from there is whom no escape. I any Act it of Parliament be necessary to will probably be achieved by the voluntary action of the landowners. owing to the fact that there are but few buy out. injustice — : : Elsewhere cities are being built on the terms of paying low prices for land. .THE FUTURE OF LONDON. For observe what must inevitably happen. but are no more so than those which a manufacturer often finds himself compelled to submit to. ments must be made or no one interests to Elsewhere. The displacement of capital will. to make some restitution for the great which they have so long committed.

then the land- owners of London and those who represent other vested had better quickly make terms. what Mr. the imposition of hands of a Parliamentary terms upon the promoters which seem to them extremely onerous and unremunerative. most properly keep down the fares by workmen's trains. without . There are already visible symptoms of the coming change —rumblings at this very its which precede the earthquake." will also become a deserted one. or London. doubt. and Committee. but the iraplacement of labour will be yet greater. Railways are projected. let us hope. the slight evils attending which society will be well able to mitigate. These checks upon enterprise must affect the growth of London even now. be enoi'mous. but which would pay the company extremely well it were not for the prohibitive price asked for land and its other property along the line of projected route. will prevail. But better counsels. Long-desired London improve- ments are awaiting such a change in the law as will throw some of the cost of making them upon the landowners of London. London against moment may be said to be on strike landowners. made comparatively rich a very — healthy change.148 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. may be circumvented. A few will be but the many may be made comparatively poor. secure. Grant Allen termed " a squalid village. being attacked. and a interests besides being . at the —for instance. and when the people now living in London discover how easily vested interests. but in some cases the are not built —because anxious to pi-ess for The Epping Forest Railway London County Council. and make it less rapid than it otherwise would be but when the untold treasures of our land are unlocked.

1 More recently a book by Mr. and that site occupied by a huge population. —are of to be considered) more than. which contains its A in in introduction the following striking passage: —"The Bell and literature relating to 1 London. that the present area of the London County Council ought not (if health and beauty. reconstruction London have In 1883 the late Mr. if drainage. such as 5. parks.. new city rise 149 on the ashes of the old. must be constructed London tion to be saved. is But this. least. The task is it will indeed be difficult. sewerage. Arthur Cawston. one-fifth of its present popula-- and that new is systems etc. entitled " Comprehensive Scheme for Street Improvements London. comparatively. William of Westgarth offered the Society to be Arts the sum of £1. of Proposals for the already been projected. at certain. Easy. represented on our Diagram is Of far greater difficulty the problem themselves — —even if all vested interests freely effaced of rebuilding a new city on an old site.THE FUTURE OF LONDON. lighting. contains See "Reconstruction of Central London" (George Sons). and on the construction of Central London of —an offer which brought forward several schemes some boldness. . extensive as it is. to lay out on virgin soil the plan of a magnificent city. say. railways. and that which is too frequently put in the front rank rapid production of wealth forms to contain tion. while the whole system of produc- and plete and must undergo changes as comas remarkable as was the change from a system of distribution of barter to our present complicated commercial system." was published by Stanford.200 on the best means of re- awarded in prizes for essays providing dwellings for the London poor.

of cities such as that dealt with in the well. will and the have been power of vested interests to block the if way almost. in what way the means successfully employed improving these cities can be best adapted to the needs of London. Berlin. has resulted in not only the biggest. or Vienna come. removed. Let us." The time which for the complete reconstruction of London will eventually take place on a far more compre- hensive scale than that now exhibited in Paris. thinking only of the larger tasks . therefore. not yet A simpler problem must first be solved. Glasgow. first bend all our energies to the smaller of these tasks. the recon- These tasks done. Paris has been gradually developed since 1848 slums have disappeared from Berlin since 1870. slums into magnificent streets flanked by architectural Vienna. Birmingham. without the controlling guidance of a municipality. however. A comprehensive plan for the transformation of . in- convenient. eighty-eight acres in the centre of Glasgow have been remodelled ninety-three acres of squalid Birmingham has transformed buildings ring. that the gigantic growth of their capital. and then a group last chapter. but in probably the most irregular. — has. having completed her stately outer : about to remodel her inner city is and the aim for of the writer to show. and unmethodical collection of houses in the world. problem of vast They are beginning to realise. and partly through their American and foreign critics. by example and illustration. and done struction of London must inevitably follow. of one no work which aims at the solution interest to Londoners.150 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. not entirely. is . One small Garden City must be built as a working model. partly by their more and more extensive travels.

THE END. which lie 151 beyond as incentives to a determined line of immediate action. . and as a means of realising the great value of the right little things if done in the right manner and in spirit.THE FUTURE OF LONDON.

.

J. Mr. 68 Charitable Institutions. Joseph.) Adelaide. faction effects of dissatis-with. Right Hon. estimated rents. and Mrs. Mr. 43 security for. 148 Cadbury. Right Hon. 117. ways.. 122 " Wealth Forms and Vested Interests. 48 China.. their situations. 110 Building lots. 33 favourable How Appropriation of wealth-forms advocated by Socialists. Scheme for London improvement.. of London. S. vii. Limits of Municipal activity. 41 field for. Water famine in Derbyshire. 64. 20. 74 . powers. 39 II . profits on gas. Sir Benj. and duties... Chamberlain. Dr. 17 nearness to schools. 70 Bruce. Bakeries. 13G Allen's. L.. low value compared with city land. 99 Agricultural Land. 32 Birmingham. 129 Administration. Arthur. J. of 66. Sewerage of London. Description of London. real question for working classes is one of production. its probable future rise in value. (See Allotments. 82 Balfour. 131 Banks. . and temperance. 88 ProMunicipal. delegation of its powers.C. 17 . Blake's resolve. Mr.. 89 than in any other muniits cipality. 89 Burns. a 39 . not of division. viii.INDEX Binnie. his scheme combined with others. raised. not greater Buckingham. number and size. Lord. 20 Boffin. 10 Chapters vi.P. 116 Baker. 32 London Bail. Sewerage Act Parliament for enforcement of rates unnecessary. 88 Barwise. 67 (See Parliament. — Societies. Its Bights. 63. 85 Children and water famine. 85 Capital. 24. Bishop of. Alleged effects of opium. 10 . M. Pennv. 71 . Churches.. A. a new creation of urged as a counter programme. 72 how constituted.") Cawston. 28 .. J. 65 Chester. precursors of Post Office Banks. 27. Liquor Traffic. Grant.C. 149 Central Council. Temperance. George. Sir Alexander.

119 Hawthorne. R. transplanting. profit on. 63 a Departments. 19 Grand Arcade. 27. Common ownership of land. Rate of interest — B. Man- . mode of growth. chap. on sudden changes. Dr. 95-6 Factories. Henry. 138 Freedom. Physiology of industry. on rings of middlemen.) County Councils. 90 stores. Krapotkin. and how secured. 32 Farrar. 39. 124 Difficulties of. requires potato. 11. Poor cannot be raised without depressing rich. All blame on landlords. Compensation for improvements.. 124 Gorst. A wealth. 24 organisation and disorganisation. 91 Hyndman. £ Electricity. The. Alarming growth of. Frank. 21 as test of systems. 43. 40 Green. per head. 117 .154 Circle Railway. 25 kitchens. true 128 Clifford. life and workshops. of combined with greater production. Sir John. 63 Crystal Palace. 80 Consumers' League. ix. Hobson. Growth of cities. farms. 20. Life in our villages. 21. 24. 77 for. 17 Force without. Debentures A. Views of. 1 127 Cobbett. rents. 70. Id. J. diagram. 40 — Cost of reDaily Chronicle. ample scope for growth of. 83 Co-operative farms. 34 Competition. Rents fixed by. 25 Cricket fields. 74 effect on prices. 26. on London. 23. how brought about. 58 on growth of railways. . 25 . 11 Fields. Estimates. 31 Railway and Canal Traffic Act (1894). Mr. 21 Rate of interest and how H Human nature. cost of. housing. 15. 31 Floods and water famine. like secured. on growth of cities. Dean. (See Crystal Palace and Local Option.. 116 Farquharson. 3 . Country. 11 60 .. 73 Distribution. depopulation of. more just. 25 INDEX. 41 Communism. G George. compared with impulse within. 9 Ground rents Is. (^ee Liberty. 25. 82 principle. 53 Daily News. 58. 11 Country 19 and town life contrasted and combined. 126. in chester. 39 how applied. Fairman. 12 . esti- mated . 84 — — — — Failures foundation of success. GO Cities. Larger powers 134 Cow pastures. 67 Electric light. 51. 94 causes of former considered.) Avenue.

xiii. 75 Jerusalem. 39 . fully observed. growth chaotic. . 122 Landlord. 131 . Mr. 51 sites and buildings com. 54 . object saving lesson in. their impending fall. 155 of insignificant in Garden City. 53. 112. 63. Landlord's term.INDEX. Industry. Prince. . Isolated efforts. SO it diminishes reduces working risks. . and Fields. Blake's Resolution. . 52 Garden City contrasted cost of its school with. Principles of. 38 . its future. 26. 55 Land compared with other wealth forms. 81 . 118. high rents. liqaor traffic. 77 . 66 Local option and shopping. Nemesis. on antagonism between interests of society and of individual. farms. 24 excellent an individualism. 82 checks sweat83 . 22 diagram 3 cost. . 117. amount Land system may be attacked without attacking indi- but should be viduals. 25 associated with co-operation. 20 Library Public. 124. quality. 28. 96. rent.) Interest. 117 Krapotkin. thus carrying out principle advocated by Lord Rosebery. camps. of railroad contrast with Garden City's system. its effects on prices. 29 Individual taste encouraged. Redistribution of. 142 . 9G . 95 Issues. Problem of. 143 large debt and small assets. meaning 35 Increment of land value secured by migrants. Garden City. ." 33 too small for its population. simultaneous fall 144. 58. 130 . 116.. . 25. . 82 Lawn tennis courts. raised at election times. 135 Large farms. 31 144 . . Benj. excessive number of shops. necessity for. 80 expenses. 144. 1 1 . for. application to ing. 26. 141 and more Socialistic. Lord Rosebery on. 142 Inspection. sewerage system "unarea alterably settled. Growth of. Average man a potenlandlords will 124 tial. pared 48 . Labour — a programme 90 machinery. 147 leaders. its continued growth generally anticipated. 145 of ground values and rise of rates as the withdrawal with . 87. this leads to mistaken policy of London its County Council. 84 Local Self-government. 24 Insurance against accident or sickness. 40 Liberty. chap. solved. workshops. 72 London. become divided into two their 136 135. 28. cost of dwellings contrasted. and wages. . distinct. society may become more Individualistic Laundries. principle. 28 (See Debentures. K Kidd. want system. Leases contain favourable covenants. . 62 Lighting.

J. Tom.1 56 INDEX. on London overcrowding. 120 Mexico experiment. 148 the "squalid village. be avoided in the case of shops. ployed. 86 . 79 Morley. 149 . 146 comparison with Garden City slum proin this respect of moving to . 77 town forms a 76 natural market for farmers. 32. 38 on organised migration. 146 transformation of London. 47. 62 trial greater extent of local selfgovernment. . 93 is advocated by Wakefield. Misgovernment. of population makes debt per head larger. on the depopulation of the country. advantages and economies of a well-planned city. 51 . 70 . . and advantages of competition secured. organised. 69. 27. 92 set free from its enchantment. secures. 27 evils of . check upon. 102 by Professor Marshall.." inconsistency of its proposals. 81 Master-Key. . saving effected in the case of. chapters i. London on strike 147 . 13 " Merrie England. 53 (d) large reduction in railway rates. 148 proposals for reconstruction of. their number reduced. water supply within its own (y) proximity of workers to work. profit on electricity. (*) plenty of space and avoids overcrowding. iii. 10 on the gradual adoption of new ideas.. perty falls to zero. choice of work- Wakefield. . (I) . 92 (k) a way of escape from present municipal obligations. L. 145 . . 26 Marshall. 13 Manufacturers. a field of work . 88 . J. for unem. M Machinery. ephemeral nature of wealth. 32 Migration." 91 Municipal enterprise. The Three. against its landlords. 142 Magnets. will become deserted. and M. "Phyof.. crement of land values for migrants. 91 importance of dispensing with its unnecessary use. 51 (e) the . 99 limits. 104 Milk.. 98 Middlemen. Right Hon. P. 32 Mill. A.. 93 Monopoly. Mr.. 22. Professor. W. its ii. . on Temperance. . (b) full in- at present 70 small range compared with private. etc. 71 Money not consumed by being spent. his Manchester. 55 Madgen. cost and from work ever increasing. on IndusRedistribution." un. siology of Industry. London. 104 Marshall. on excessive number of shops in Markets. S. men. . growth how determined. 72 . 29 (c) saving of compensation in respect of business disturbance. 54 {h) a . . 144 . (a) combined advantages of town and country. (j) opportunities for economic use of money. 67 Mann. no rigid. 118 endorsement of 104 on the .. may Mummery and Hobson. (/) a splendid system of territory less entirely reconstructed. 16 Management expenses. .

iii. 25 Prices raised to producer. bathing. estate. chap." meaning of term. on growth of cities. . 142 140 Over-crowding prevented. reconciliation of. chap. which are fixed by competition. 59 cost of maintenance small. 66 provision for. . 60. what these suffice proposed experiment. sary in the early stages of railway enterprise. Right Hon. 51 Playgrounds.. 25 . A. 20 . diminished to consumer. 80 Power. J. estimated cost. 157 N Nationalisation Pro-Municipal enterprise. 66 Poor law administration. .. ance. V. 126. computation of. . 21. 12 Risk of shopkeepers. 65 Petavel. Neale. 34.. (See Parks. K.INDEX. Need. 130 London. iv. 117 Ruskin. tenants in Parks and gardens. 34 committee. 28. and v. A. 61 Philanthropic institutions. so in relation to the reform initiated by occupation have some preassessed by a ference.) R Railways. Mr. 141 Rate rent.66 Plan. viii. Rents. Dr. compares 11 . at hand.) Police. 134 Rhodes. Balfour on necessity of increased production. Old age pensions. to do. but requisite later . J. Order and freedom. 139. 51. [See Municipal. 65 Recreation. ) Public-houses.. importance of in building cities. 98 Railway " rates. land. 32. from town estate. Rosebery. Capt. chap. 32. to a tumour. their rapid growth. 88 Owen. revenue raised entirely by rate-rents. 62 Parliamentary powers unneces. 81 on excessive (See TemperPublic-houses. 30 "Revolution. 39 cost of. 116 Roads. Rates levied by outside bodies. in England and Wales. 26. 85 number of shops in London. 131 construction of railway system was "a large order " a larger one remains to be executed.) etc.) Production. must be preceded by humbler tasks. An urgent. on borrowing from Individualism and Socialism. . agricultural ii. Trust. 116." 31 Revolution. 24. 22. . 141 Private and public enterprise. 134 Pensions. 114 (See Merrie EngNunquam. Experiment of. a carefully planned 127 chaos in system of. boating. . 141. London Lord. (See Parks. 28. 65. . reduction in. The Coming. 35 . 58. 27. 73 estimate of. . 73 . 89 Mr. increased production secured and distribution rendered more just. Social. from chap. (See Pensions.

158 INDEX. (a) evils attending . 107 his reasons . 12 Topolobampo experiment. 109) . 41 multiplicain London. inconsistency of Socialistic writers. 118. 135 . shop-keepers reduced. G.. 29 mis- for withdrawing his proposals. 148 Subways. 28. (this difficulty come in completely over109). 84 The limes on sudden changes. and their efforts meet with little success. 63 method. scheme of common land administered by parish. on depopula. . difficulties in London. 83 . 42 Slum property declines to zero. growing need for. the difference between this and my own chiefly one of basis on ment can Temperance. 97. 25 . against. 16 Tillett. estimated . my proposals. their threats little heeded. (b) difficulty of acquiring land on equitabla terms. does not represent a of 80. scheme. advocated common land administered by State. and of yet to making it remunerative 108 . 54 their economy. John M orley on. 108 (but my s Sanitation. . 109 Star. 23. 59 Sweating. 110 his objection on principle to State control rebuked out of his own mouth. which an experisafely proceed. Socialism. meaning of term. xii. 16-19 Tramways. 81 risk tion of prevented. 58. 146 Small holdings. for works. on depopulation of country. 10. 146 is destroyed and sites converted into parks. Herbert. 24 St. new street. 32 Shaw-Lefevre. 25 Smoke. 61 Semi-municipal industry. 58 . factories. 76 Sewage. 12 Schools. J. purchasers. Mr. opportunity for public conscience to express itself. etc. . State control. tion of country. Ben. free from these evils. 137 Spence. u "Unearned increment" a nomer. 52 Strikes. 24. 65 34. The. Right Hon. 47 . sites for. estimated cost of buildings and maintenance. their neglect of the land question. 39. . 106. the " dictum of absolute ethics" that all men are equally entitled to the use of the earth practically realised under my scheme. 10 experiment may lead to temperance reform. the true and the false. James Gazette on dangerous growth of cities. absence of. . chap. excess of rents from. 25 Social cities. 90 of London against landlordism. 107 Spencer. 9 —Three Magnets. £8. 12 Strand to Holborn. (See Local Option and Crystal Palace. Lord Bruce on. 52 Shops.. 123 . Right Hon. 131 Trees. Diagram 1. 21. 66.) Sinking fund for land. on chaotic growth of London. comparison with London. . 78 . cost of system. like Spence's. 98 Town life and country life contrasted and combined.

24 .become divided. Wards. 118 . town divided into by boulevards. J. Mill's of. (See Crystal Palace.. . Art of Colonisation. 142 Winter Garden. view of it. Humphrey. H. William. 3 J. plenty of. 22 each ward . 142 Westgarth. G. all Ward. and industry.INDEX. municipality. 138 Villages. Effect of competition upon. interests of skill. 159 changes preceded by sporadic efforts. Waste products. 130. 88. 135 vested . (See Country. Mr. labour. future growth of London. 118 Wells. energy. 25 . Women may fill all offices in War. Mrs. Depopulation of. Mr. on w Wages. Mill on. 94 Variety in architecture. threatened. in cultivation of soil. 45 work on one practically complete before commencing on another. Water. 81 Wakefield. 148 122. complete town. implements drop down. Water-supply usually a source Wealth -forms of revenue. . 102 104 140 . W. scarcity 17 the most important of all consolivested interests dated by the same force which divides the vested interests of land and capital in twain. P. prizes for essays on reconstruction of London. 147 Workmen's trains. 66 for the most part extremely ephemeral. in employments. talent. 33 utilisation of. 135 the same thing has occurred before. 149 Wilson. 55. on the distribution of industry. S. 45 in a sense a . S. 111 indirectly Vested Interests. of in country. 75 Work.

.

" of which this book is substantially a reproduction. as a deliberately thought-out enterprise. indeed a lost art. When Garden woman's share in the work will be found to have been a large one. but has to be before carried to it finer issues than those of. enlisted.POSTSCRIPT. the reader who has followed rr>e thus far will be interested to learn posed to set forth. could build cities according to too often ignored. . having been published towards the end of 1898. and what is probe done to realise the project which was there I will endeavour to answer these questions. a most of For the task before me was. I perceived that the project widely thing was to known — that the city which was pictured so vividly in less vividly my own mind must be pictured by many. and that a strong and widespread desire for its up-rearing must be created before a single step could be wisely taken to put the project in a concrete form. difficult one. 1 Woman's is influence is City built. very women exnumerous departments of human men and had to of 1 and many is of these be reached and City building. and demanded the hearty co-operation in perienced activity. as it shortly will be. " To-Morrow. what has been done. T was fully conscious. who have practised ever dreamt Autocrats like Alexander the Great and Philip II. in this country at least. first At make the more or the outset. Women are among our most active missionaries. and this art has not only to be revived.

" " Clarion. energies largely exhausted " to the work. as building of the co-operation on of such cities necessarily involves . which it was impossible for me to give up and I could." " Young Man. the project has been favourably commented upon of types of journals as " in journals representing widely different points of view. merely as illustrations of this " Commerce. only give odds and ends of time and task My — — . when I commenced my investigations many years ago. Besides the daily and weekly papers of London and the provinces. well-thought out and carefully-matured plans. I " may mention. but a city which is to be the outward expression all its of a strong desire to secure the best interests of inhabitants can. and favourably noticed. among a self-governing people. I little dreamed where they would lead me was rendered especially difficult by the nature of my professional work." " Country Gentleman. new lines— in untried ways community should be it is essential that the freedom of the individual as well to prepare the as the interests of the preserved. only arise as the outcome of much patient and well-sustained first effort. First the press came to my aid. in such a variety To-Morrow " has been." " Court Leisure Hour." " Ladies' ." " Spectator. very much work must needs be done way for the successful launching of such an experiment. for. but few have been noticed. To-Morrow " was very widely noticed. the and." " Builder's Journal. therefore." " Councillor and Guardian." " Commonwealth. hardly a self-imposed one." Pictorial.162 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. I was not left without help. for- tunately. But. Moreover. because they could impose their will by force." Circular. Many books have been more fully reviewed.

" by the " Times' " own showing. " Vegetarian. touches life at every point." " Hospital." interest Labour Copartnership. but that If this be so. especially at their details first. or High Wycombe for business reasons. I am no Utopian. which when once carried out will be an objectmust have far-reaching and beneficial But.POSTSCRIPT. or Dunstable. Mr It ought not to be impossible to give systematise this movement and the old country some new towns in which intelligent design shall direct the social workings of economic forces. the first lecture after publication being given in Decern- . however. for to is me the building of the city it is is what I have long " small set my mind upon. and lesson results. '' 163 Public Health ' Engineer. The only difficulty is to create the city. The work out to said " : perfection. although approval of Thus." Journal of Gas Lighting. and with me no matter. the my " aims was general. expressed as to " doubts were often." A few months after this. tion of Materials for a tentative realisa- Howard's ideal city exist in abundance in London at the present moment. : nothing of the kind.." Municipal Reformer. readability. indeed." Brotherhood." " Nor was the reason of this widespread difficult to discover." In my spare time I lectured on the Garden City. taxation. the " Journal of Gas Lighting " put my case very forcibly thus " Why should the It is creation of a town be an insuperable difficulty." " " Municipal " Journal. etc. Time and again it is anounced that some London firm have transferred their factory to Rugby. then. Times of administration. The project." " " Argus. a small matter to Utopians.

too. Williams. Rev. Friends.L. because the subject far as possible. near WarringSoon after the publication of to receive " many letters. M. on the 10th June. Manof Brother- and many provincial towns. at as early a date as possible. 1898. R. Glasgow. and I was sup- ported also by Dr. who wrote heartily commending the project as " sound business.C. N. Chartered Accountant. . Lampard. Newchurch. a few friends met at the offices of Mr. a suitable organisa- might be created Accordingly. Fleming .C. W. To-Morrow. for carrying it out. and tion it would be well to form an Association with a view to securing supporters in a more systematic of formulating the scheme more completelv. at the Rectory Road Congregational Church. ton. One of the first of these was from Mr. so that. I consulted a friend." benefits. the Rev. be widened. hood Church being among the first to lecture upon the project nor shall I ever forget the pleasure I felt at hearing his simple and forcible exposition of it. and Mr. by means of lectures. past President.C.. . of Daisy Bank Mills. James Branch. Payne.164 GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW. E. L. Alexander W. J.A.L. as re- have always given lectures when quested.C. Stoke Newington. ber.C." therefore. began to help. 70 .C. A. Young. Mr. Forman. and we decided manner. A. W. and yet as likely to confer great public After a few months of such undertake. Institute of Actuaries. interest in the " project could I. fitful work as I could Mr F. made good copy. .C. and have spoken in London. C. In the chair was Mr. T. Bootland. and I speedily found that. L. 1899. Flear." I began and these often from business men. The lecture was well reported in a local journal. Bruce Wallace. chester.C.

gave an interesting outline of the project. H. were very small. Architects. a public meeting was held at the Memorial Hall. We had put the minimum at the democratic none should be shut out. F. — Experts. so that sum. 1901 —a little more than two years— the .P.G. " in Treasurer.. of Tun- bridge Wells. at a very short notice.C. a barrister. and additional interest was afforded The Association and diagrams. and urged those present to support me in my very difficult task. its a very first useful summary To-Morrow the 21st Hon. some who could afford much more were content to subscribe that shilling. Individuals. and the Garden City Associa- was formed —Mr. Payne being " its first Hon.C. E. Finsbury Pavement. Idris.. Members Socialists Moderate and Progressive.. W. Ministers of Religion. though remaining as firmly convinced as ever of the soundness of the Garden City idea. and Mr. tion 165 Mr Fred. was elected chairman. M. Lawyers. and three months after its formation I was "The Association able to write to the "Citizen": numbers amongst its members. Financial by lantern steadily grew.C.. a post which he resigned at a later stage on account of ill-health. Medical Men. On the same month. however. of Merchants.C. Secretary.POSTSCRIPT. from the formation of the Association until total August 13. in the chair.. which was presided over by Sir John Leng. T.P. and. who. Lecturers now began slides to come forward in different parts of the country. but. L.. unfortunately. E. Cooperators." and the Our subscriptions. At this meeting a Council was formed. Manufacturers. Farringdon Street. Steere.C. and at the of that first sittings body Mr. Bishop. J. L. of who had of written Uses. Radicals and Conservatives. W. Artists.

1

66

GARDEN

CITIES

OF TO-MORROW.

subscriptions to the general funds of the Association only

reached £241 13s. 9d.

A

change

suddenly

came over the Association.

I

learned early in 1901 that Mr. Ralph Neville, K.C., had written in

approval of the essential principles

"Labour Copartnership" expressing his full of the Garden City project, and when I called upon him he at once consented to join our Council, and, shortly afterwards, was unanimously elected its chairman. At about the same time,
though
step,

our

financial

position

hardly justified

such a
a paid
to the

we took an office of our own, and engaged secretary, who agreed to devote his whole time
work.

And

here the Garden
It

City Association
services
of

was very

fortunate.

Thomas Adams, a young Scotchman, who has proved active, energetic, and resourceful to whose suggestion was due the Conference held last September at Mr. Cadbury's beautiful village of Bournville, which has done more
secured

the

Mr.

than anything

else to

and

its

project

make the Garden City Association known to the great public, and to give
of the feasibility

to our

members ocular proof

—indeed,

the wonderful success
like

of a

scheme in so many respects
in

our own.*
Since our

Annual Meeting
530 to

December our memberto a special effort of as

ship has increased

members
ment
at

—from

—thanks mainly
1,300;

and,

many

of

our

friends, anxious to

put the project

to the test of experi-

an early date, are offering to subscribe very con-

siderable sums, a Joint Stock
*

Company,

to be called the

Through the kindness

of Messrs. Lever Brothers, a conference is being arranged for July this year at Port Sunlight, a most admirably planned industrial village in Cheshire.

POSTSCRIPT.

167

Garden City Pioneer Company, Limited, with a small capital of about £20,000, is being formed for the purpose of securing the option of a site, and of preparing and presenting to the public a complete scheme adapted to the development of the site thus selected a scheme which will be in accordance with the general principles

set forth in this book,
details.

but

differing, of course, in

Subscribers to this preliminary

many Company will,

of course,

run considerable

risk

;

and, as the profits, even
success, will only be

in the event of the

most complete

nominal, the appeal will be addressed only to those

who

take an interest in the project as public-spirited citizens.

The Secretary

of the

the latest information on this subject,
gladly enrol members.

Garden City Association and

will give
will

also

No

one can possibly be under a greater obligation

than he who has an idea which he earnestly wishes to see
carried out
visible that

and who
which

finds others helping

exists only as a thought.

greatest of debts

am

I.

him to make Under this By writing; by speaking; by
;

organising public meetings and drawing-room meetings

by suggestion, encouragement, and advice by secretarial and other work by making the project known among their friends; by subscribing funds for propaganda work and, now, by offering to subscribe considerable sums for practical steps, many have helped and are
; ;

helping

me

to

do that which, without their

have been quite impossible.

aid, must They have thus multiplied

my
of

strength a thousandfold

;

and from the very bottom
Ere

my

heart I thank them for the assurance of speedy

success

which their

efforts

have thus given me.
City.

long, I trust

we

shall

meet in Garden

A.I. Macnamara. J. Alderman W. George Lampard. John Clifford. Bruce Wallace.. Albert Spicer. H. F. A. R. J. Young. Overy.C.A.P. G.R..C. J. Sir Robert Head. M.G. M.A. H.I. Mrs. J. L. Sir Robert Pullar (Perth). G.C. Sir Lady Forsyth.W. Mrs. The Hon.A. Williams Benn.GARDEN CITY ASSOCIATION.C. W.C. Wallace. M. C.P. Ivor H. Percy Alden. B. Platt-Higgins.C. Leicester Harmsworth. Richard Whiteing.P.S. Leon. M. M. llarington Morgan.A. Professor Alfred Marshall fCambridge).P. Canon Moore Ede (Sunderland). George Cadbury. K. L. M. Walter T.C.P. Gilbert Parker.C. Michael Fliirscheim. Stopford Brooke. J. Yoxall. P.. VICE-PRESIDENTS. M. W. Swiuton.D.E. Alfred Hood. .. Corelli.C. J. The Bishop of London. M.P.P. J. J. Tuckett (Cambridge). William Baker. M. A. Elliott Viney.A. M. M. J. Whitley. Cecil Harmsworth. F. Ben. Dr. Tempest Anderson (York). M. L. T.I.M.C.P. W.P. M. Rev. Caine.P. J. F. Stephens. M.C. Wm. Dr. E..P. Barrett(Ashton-under-Lyne). M. (Bournville). L. Dr.C. M. Miss Julie Sutter. Macnamara.C.P. A. Magrath.C. M.P. M.P..C. Professor Rev. L. M. L. H. W.P Mrs.P.R.P. (Bradford). Professor A. J. M.. Arthur Sherwell.P. Farquharson. The Master of Elibank. The Countess of Warwick. Logan. K.P. Morgan-Browne. Wells. Idris. Canon Scott Holland. Rev.R. Yarborough Anderson. C. W. The Bishop of Rochester. Henry Holiday.P. H. Sir M. E. Dean Kitchin (Durham).C. M. L.. M. L. M. Byles. H.R. Henry B. B. T. M.C. Hay. Anna Farquharson.S. Hardy. Alderman Rev.P. S. Robert Yerburgh. Ashton Jonson. G. Aneurin Williams. Henry C. M.C.B.P. Samuel Edwards. C. R. Miss Marie AValter Crane. George Jacob Holyoake. Meyer Edward R. James Bryce.P. A.P. J. M. W. L. Walter Foster. Harris. Dickinson. R. Chapman (Manchester).A. Fleming Williams. (Birmingham). D. J. Anthony Hope Hawkins. W. Schwann. L.R. A. Alfred Emmott. M. E.S. Henry J. London). Lever (Port Sunlight). T. J. Moon.P. Bart. Mrs.B.P. Atherley-Jones. J. F.A. The Earl of Meath. Biddulph Martin. Joseph Rowntree (York).P. F. The Bishop of Hereford. Rev. M. M. 12 . J. Robert Williams. Sir John Leng.C.P. The Hon Dadabhai Xaoroji.P. Bhownaggree. The Right Hon. Wilson. R. R.P. Jones (Chairman C. Claude G.P.S.L. Madame Corrie Grant. Winslow Hall. A. Mrs.P. Hobhouse. Woodward. P. F. M. Bootlaud (Manchester). H. Robert Cameron.C.C. The Earl of Carrington. Thomas Child. II. Sarah Grand.

and ultimately to formulate a practical scheme on the lines of that project. Sydney Schiff (Chester). Gurney Salter. Manchester District R.E. Wolverhampton. Hessle. Thompson. Coop. Hon. W. 1 Morningside Road. C. Alderman \V. Inst.M. M. To promote the discussion of the project suggested by Mr. J. public. Miss Edith Bradley (Lady Warwick James Branch.B.A.) Honorary Provincial Secretaries.. Membership. Flear.— F. Ritzema. Payne. Higham. under the title Garden Cities of To-morrow. W.B E. <>/.A. Bricknell. Treasurer— A. C. Bishop. 39 Caldercuilt Road.A. Payment entitles of an Annual Subscription of not less than Is. W.I '.A A. M. i H. Maryhill. Cleghorn. Hon. J. East Yorks. B. Aneurin Williams. Ebenezer Howard. W. L. Mrs. . Lane. Liverpool and Cheshire District— J. H. Ebenezer Howard in " To-morrow " *. 15 Montpelier.GARDEN CITY ASSOCIATION. L. Sherrington. Chairman—Ralph A. Hurst.I. M. P. Norton. J. Croscer. Peaisall. William Carter. Manchester. (London). j Jameg — M General Secretary— THOMAS ADAMS.C. D. Glasgow. M. COUNCIL. 25 Copthorne Road. the Subscriber to published by the Association. Morrell. Arthur Blott.C.E.C. F. 6d. Neville. Lander. ' F. Edward T. *ftFred. W. More funds are required for the immediate purpose of bringing our proposals prominently before the and an average subscription of necessary to meet current expenditure. Herbert Warren. Boo tie. Guyscliffe. MacLaurin.A.Tames P. LL. P. Sturdy. C. M. confers Membership." .C. Moston Lane. Union S. J. 77 Chancery Objects. with such modifications as may appear desirable. Bailhache.L. H. S. per member is The income for Now published by Swan Sonnenschein " & Co. idlands— Rev. T. Gray (Secretary.E. London r W. near Liverpool./>«/» 7 zcouana— /RobertA llport. (The fall Council will consist of 30 Members.M. Rollo Russell. G. B. G. Ackerraan. A Subscription of all literature 2s. New Moston. P. Hostel). W. K.C. C. Edward Rose. * 5s. Manchester). A.Inst.. Lawrence.. or more. K.R. Ebenezer Howard. J. Edinburgh. (Blackburn).

Smoke Members desirous of taking part in Abatement. 77 Chancery Lane. by in- constitutional means. and town and country.C. . Martin. Sir M.. Office: W . Aneurin Wililams. being an increase of It is 700 since January 1st. etc.300. Housing and Public Health. and contain reports of speeches by. Mr. Ralph Neville. M. Garden City Association. still A few reports of the Bournville Conference may be had. M. such as Land Tenure. M. Art. B. 80 pages. George Cadbury. Cheques and postal orders should be crossed London City and Midland Bank.GARDEN CITY ASSOCIATION. post free. The Membership 1. The Association publishes a number of tracts which are A list of publications forwarded to members on joining. E. . and some explanatory literature will be sent free on application. hoped that all who life are desirous of improving. the dustrial conditions of present physical. will help to immediately increase this number. the first half year 1901-02 of was ten times that of the is same over 1902. London. Mr. W. price 6d. Mr. Fore Street. Committees have been or are being appointed to consider questions of detail. London Printed at the Rosemount Press.Earl Grey. Co-operative Societies.C. the Mayor of Camberwell. R. Education. .P. period the previous year. in social. Mr. K.P. Mansfield Robinson. Fleet Street. Dr. Manufactures and Trade. These reports consist of Ebenezer Howard. Publications. Labour. Sectional Committees. the work of any section are requested to communicate with the General Secretary. Mr. All communications should be addressed to the Secretary. and others.C. Liquor Traffic. Bhownaggree.

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