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00310000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f00000001462
6b707400000204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000
0088767565640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c72545243000004
3c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61
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31000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000strana Trigonometrijski oblik kompleksnog braja --------------30 Logaritmi
----------------------------------------------------------31 Operacije sa logari tmi ma -----------------------------------31 Lincarne jednacine i sistemi linearnih jednaCina --------32 Linearna

jednaCina -------------------------------------------32 Sistem linearnih jednacina sa dvije nepoznate-----------32 Metode l~jesavanja sistema jednacina ---------------------33 Diskusija
rjesenja sistema od dvije lineame jednacine -34 Sistem od tri jednacine sa tri nepoznate ------------------35 Linearna funkcija -------------------------------------------------36 Kvadratne j
ednacine --------------------------------------------38 Diskusija rjesenja kvadratne jednacine -----------------~-38 Vi et -ova pra vila ----------------------------------------------39 Rasta v \j

anje kvadratnog trinoma --------------------------39 Diskusija 0 rjesenjima kvadratne jednacine--------------39 K vadratna funkcija ----------------------------------------------40 Polozaj nule
kvadratne funkcije prema datom razmaku 41 .J cdnaCine viSeg reda ---------------------------------------------43 M a tematicka ind u kcij a -----------------------------------------45
Aritmeticki i gcomctrijski nizovi -----------------------------46 Ari tmeti cki niz------------------------------------------------46 Geometrij ski ni z----------------------------------------------47

Beskonacni geometrij ski red -------------------------------47 Binomni obrazac -------------------------------------------------48 Ko m binatorika ---------------------------------------------------49
strana Vj erovatnoca ------------------------------------------------------50
GEOMETRIJA---------------------------------------------------51 Tacka, prava i ravan u prostoru ----------------------------5 1 Ugl ovi ---------------------------------------------------------') 2
Kruznica, uglovi kruznice ----------------------------------53 Mjerenje uglova ---------------------------------------------- 54 Uglovi uz transferzal u ---------------------------------------55
Uglovi mnogougla, zbir unutrasnj ih j spoljasnjih -------56 U glovi na kruznici -------------------------------------------57

Mnogouolovi ----------------------------------------------.--------~-7
b

~rougao

--------------------------------------------------------57 Cetvero u gao -------------------------------------------------- 58 Tangentni i teti vni mnogougao ----------------------------60
Broj dij agonala mnogougla ---------------------------------61 Odnos izmedu stranica trougla ----------------------------- 61 Podudatnost traugl ova ---------------------------------------61
Slicnost trouglova (mnogouglova) ------------------------62 Kruznica i hug -----------------------------------------------63
GEOMETRIJSKA TIJELA (povrsine i zapremine) -----64

Prizma,
kocka,
kvadar
---------------------------------------64
Piramida,
zarubljena
piramidLf
------------------------------64
Valjak,
siplji
valjak
------------------------------------------65 Kupa, zarub lj ena ku pa --------------------------------------- 65 Lopta, dijelovj lopte -----------------------------------------66 Torus
-----------------------------------------------------------67
Iracionalne jednacine i nejednaCine -------------------------68

III 1\1
strana

Eksponencijalna funkcija ---------------------------------------69
Eksponencijalne jednacine i nejednacine------~----------70

-Logaritamska funkcija------------------------------------------70
Logaritamske jednacine -------------------------------------71 Logaritamske nejednaCine ----------------------------------72

TRIGON0 METRIJA-------------------------------------------73
Definicija trigonometrijskih funkcija no. pravouglom troll glu ---------------------------------------------------------73 Trig~nometrijska krllznica-----------------------------------74 Svodenje na prvi
kvadrant ----------------------------------74 V rijednosti trigonometrijskih funkcija --------------------75 Veza izmedll trigonometrijskih funkcija istog ugla -----76 Adicione teoreme
--------------------------------------------77 Trigonometrijske funkcije clvostrukog ugla ---------------77 Trigonometrijske funkcije polovicnog ugla -------------77
Izrazavanj e preko tga 1 -tg-a -------------------------------/ -8

2
Transformacija zbira i razlike u proizvod i obrnuto ----78
Funkcije viseslrukih uglova --------------------------------79
Rjesavanje pravouglog trougla------------------------------80
Sinusna teorcma ----------------------------------------------81
Kosinusna teorema-------------------------------------------81
Tangensna teorema ------------------------------------------82
Uglovi trou la ------------------------------------------------83
(J

~

b

Poluprecnik opisane i upisane kruznice ------------------83 Povrsina trougla ----------------------------------------._-----84 Grafici trigonomctrijskih funkcij a -------------------------85 Trigonometrij

ske j ednacine---------------------------------86

Sferna trigonometrija -------------------------------------------87
" strana
ANALIT!eKA GEOMETRIJA ------------------------______ 89
U daljenost dvije tacke --------------------------------_______ 89
Koordinate tacke koja dijeli duz --------------------------_ 90
Koordinate sredista duzi --------------------------------____ 90
Koordinate tezista trougla ------------------------------____ 90
Povrsina trougla ---------------------------------------_______ 90
Prava i jednacine prave----------------______________________ 91
Prava kroz jednu tacku ------------------------------________ 92
Prava kroz dvije tacke ------------------------------_________ 92
U gao izmedu dvije prave ---------------------------________ 93
Uslov paralelnosti dvije prave --------------------------___ 93

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0000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a000
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4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000
080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e79000064657363000000000000001273524742204945433
6313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e310000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001. . -d OKolmtostJ viJe prave-------------------____________ 93 Udaljenost tacke od prave -----------------------------_____ 93 Uzajamni polozaj dvije prave -------------------------------94
Jednacina simetrale ugla ------------------------------______ 94
S 0'1

KRUZNICA ---------------------------------------------__________ 95
lednacina kruznice sa centrom u ishoclistu ---------------9S lednacina kruznice sa centrom u tacki S(p,q)------------95 Tangenta kruzn ice -------------------------------------______ 95 Uslov
tangenci onalnosti ------------------------------_____.__ 96 Palama jednacina kruznice -----------------------------_____ 96 Parametarska jednacina kruznice --------------------------96

EIipsa --------------------------------------------------_____________ 97
Jednacina tangente j normalc eiipse --------------------___ 99 U slov tangencionalnosti ----------------------------_________ 99 Elipsa sa centrom u tacki M(c,d) -----------------------___ 99
Povrsina elipse ---------------------------------------______ 100

Hiperbola ---------------------------------------------___________ 100
V VI
strana Asimptote hiperbole --------~------------------------------102 Usloy tangencionalnosti -----------------------------------102

Jednacina tangente i normale-----------------------------102
ParaboIa ----------------------------------------------------------102

kroz tri tacke-------121 Parametarske jednacine ravni ----------------------------122 Rastojanje date tacke od ravni ------------------------"--122 VII strana U gao izmedu dvije ravni ----------------------____________ 122 Presj ek tri ravni u j ednoj tacki ------------------_________ 122 Prava u prostoru ----------------------------------_____________ 123 Parametarske jednacine prave ---------------------_______ 123 Jednacina prave kroz dvije tacke ------------------______ 123 U gao izmedu dvije prave ----------------------___________ 124 REALNA FUNKCIJA REALNE PROMJENLJIVE __ 125 Zadavanje funkcije-.125 o ---____________________________________ Nula funkcije -------------------------~-----------___ 125 Osobine funkcij e -------------------------------____________ 126 Inverzne funk cij e ----------------------------______ _________ 129 o Inverzne funkcije trigonornetrijskih funkcija ------_____ 130 Osnovni odnos izmeciu ciklometrijskih funkcija ---___ 133 Granicne vrijednosti funkcij a ----------------------_________ 135 Pravila za racunanje sa granicnim vrijednostima----__ 135 N eki primjeri granicnih vrijednosti -------------_________ 136 Neprekidnost funkcije --------------------------___________ 137 Asimptote krivih iinija u ravni ---------------------__________ 138 ~ Iv .U slov tangencionalnosti-----------------------------------104 Jednacina tangente i normale-----------------------------104 Povrsina odsj ecka parabole -------------------------------104 VEKTORSKI RACUN ---------------------------------------105 Operaci je sa vektorima ------------------------------------106 RazlagL{nje vektora na komponente ---------------------107 Vektori u koordinatnom sistemu -------------------------109 Linearna zavisnost vektora -------------------------------110 Skalarni proizvod elva vektora ---------------------------113 Vektorski nroizvod dva vektora -------------------------115 Mjesoviti ~roizvoc! tri vektora ---------------------------116 ANALITICKA GEOMETRIJA U PROSTORU--------1l8 Rastojanje dvije tacke u prostoru ------------------------118 o 'v ° 119 Koordinate sredIsta dUZl ----------------------------------"-. Povrsina trougla --------------------------------------------119 Zapremina tetraedra u prostoru ---------------------------119 Ravan u prostoru ----------------------------------------------120 Jednacina ravni u prostoru --------------------------------120 Uslov paralelnosti i okomitosti dvije ravni-------------121 Scgmentni obli k jednaCine ravni -------------------------121 .1ednacina ravni kroz jednu taeku.

DU ERENC JALNI RACUN---------_______________________ 140 lzvodi -geometrijsko znacenje ----------------------_________ 140 Osnovna pravi la izvoda -------------------------__________ 141 Tabela izvoda osnovnih funkcija ----------------________ 142 Izvod slozenc funkcij e ----------------------------________ 143 Izvoel impl icitne funkcije --------------------_____________ 144 Di ferencij aJ funkcije --------------------------_____________ 145 Primjena izvoda u fizici ---------------------------________ 146 VIII ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465 40000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 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00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 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000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 .

samo samo ak o m u Je ci1'ra ak o m u Je cifra Il Prirodan broj je djeljiv sa 3 ako i samo ako mll je zbir cifara djeljiv sa 3. Npr: Za brojeve 240 i 360 240=(2·2·2·3)·2·5 NZD(240. b da Je ~J~lIl. Svaki slozen broj se moze prikazati U obliku proizvoda prostib brojeva. (2.2. najv. a .~c od ~ ako je a cijeljivo sa b. jer rnu je zbir cifara 2+0+7=9 i 9 je djeJjivo sa 3) II Prirodan broj je djeljiv sa 9 ako i samo ako mu je zbir cifara djeJjiv sa 9.l80. Npr.15)=1 15=3·5 . Npr: 300 = 2·150 315 = 3·105 =2.6. brojevi 424.3.11. . 180.7. (N pr. . broj 207 je djeJjiv sa 3. " Prirodan broj je cijeljiv s 5 ako a jeciinica 0 iii 5..8. II Prirodan broj je djeljiv sa 6 ako i sarno ako je istClvremeno djeljiv sa 2 i sa 3.eci.84)= 2·3=6 180=2·2·3·3·5 84=2·2·3·7 . Prirodan broj je djeljiv sa 4 ako i samo ako mu je dvocifreni zavrsetak djelji v sa 4. Najveci zajednicki d~el~lac dva III VIse ~roJev~ je najveci broj koji je u isto vrijeme dJehlac svakog oci oVlh broJeva. Brojevi koji osim jedinice i samog sebe imaju i drugih djelitelja ZOyu se slozeni brojevi.. Prosti i slozeni brojevi Broj koji je djeljiv sarno sa 1 i sa samim sobom zove se prost hroj.84 126=2·3·3·7 NZD(l26.za..). '" Prirodan broj je djeljiv sa 25 ako i sarno ako mu je dvocifreni zavrsetak djeljiv sa 25.360)= 2·2·2·3=24 360=(2·2·2·3)·3·5 Npr.0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 . .Ak~ je.1O. (Npr.an. 4.4. Za brojeve 126. broj a kazemo cia je sadrZalac prirodnog broja b.5. 10 IS' 4=2·2 ' 10=2·5 NZD(4. Prirodan broj je djeljiv s 2 ako a jedinica jedna od cifara 02. zajednocki djelilac dva iIi vise broieva 1 o11da se tl broJevI naZlvaJu rnedusobno prosti. I" Prirodan broj je dje\jiv sa 8 ako su mu tri zadnje cifre nule iIi cine broj djeJjiv sa 8. 516).75 = 3·3·35 =2·2·3·25 =2·2·3·5·5 NajveCi zajednicki djeIilac (NZD) = 3·3·5·7 Za pr~rod.

18.1. nisu relativno prosti npr.3.. Ako nemaju jednake nazivnike niti brojnike onda ih prosirujemo do zajeclnickog nazivnika. (razlomak se nece promjeniti). A~o b:'~je~i. Smijemo brojnik i nazivnik nekog razlomka podijeliti jednim istim brojem (razlicit od nule). Ako se ~ijeli broj a nalazi (na brojnoj osi) lijevo od cijelog Drop b onda Je a manji od b. Ako su b:'oJevl r~latl1mo prosti njihov najmanji zajednicki sadrzalac je I1Jhov prOlzvod. Treba uporediti 77 . 24=2·2·2·3 NZS(18.-1. 45 45: 5 9 "4 Npr. Npr.2.-2.. ~ ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006 d6e74725247422058595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000000494543207352474200000000000 00000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c7774707 4000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0 000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c0000008676696577000 003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c7254524300000 43c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863 292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e7900006465736300000000000000127352474220 49454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e310000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000 a a:k Skracivanje razlomaka b = b: k' k:. brojna osa -3 -2 -I 0 2 3 4 .24)= 2·2·2·3·3=72. 20 =20: 5 = Uporedivanje razlomaka Razlomke najlakse mozemo uporedivati ako imaju jednake 25 Npr.. 24 NZS odredujemo na slJedecl naC111. 18=2·3·3..0..t. } negativni cijeli brojevi nula pozilivni cijeli brojevi ---+I--+f--rl~1r-'f--+--+--t-~r-~-4--+f f .:O. Skup cijelih brojeva Z={ . razlomak ciji je brojnik manji) i1i : < ~ (manji je onaj razlomak ciji je nazivnik veci).. . -< -(manji je onajnazivnike i1i jednake brojnike..N~jma?ji z~jednicki ~adrZalac dva iIi vise brojeva-NZS je naJma~JI br~J u kome Je sadrzan svaki od tih brojeva.

nuIa cijelih i cetiri stotnine).. . .J'elih i dviJ'e desetnine) 10 ' 100 004 ( 4 Razlornak = . 10 (citaj: nula cijelih ijedna clesetnina). 3 Razlomak --1000' .2 . 100.3 9 razlomke _ I _. . _=--=--=--=-Kako je3 5' 3 3·5 15 5 5·3 15 10 9 kl' d' 2 3 v' _>-za JucuJemo aJe ->-. 1 Razlomak ~Uedna desetnina) cesto se oznacava sa 0." l'j' lljadnine). =0 ()03 (llUla cIJe III tn'h'" f 37 215 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012c012c0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce0002000900060031000061 6373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b70740000020400000014725859 5a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c00000086766965770 00003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000 043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e7900006465736300000000000000127352474 22049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 3. 15 15 3 5 Decimalni razlomci su oni u kojima je nazivnik jedan od brojeva 10.7=-. 2-=02 (nula ci. . 3 2 2·5 10 3 3.15=--' 3.034 = 3034 'J 10 100' 1000 Operacije sa razlomcima Sabiranje i oduzimanie:Mocru se naJ'laksve sabl'j'at" d" . 2. 1000.

. moze pretvoriti u razlomak? 0. 100 100 Kako se broj 0.. OrnCI kOjl" ImaJU 1St1 nazivnik (Sa·b'· 1 I 'j' duZlmamo ' .lrdmO 0 ' blOJl1lke a nazlvl11k ostavimo isti) 2 3 5 17 4 13 -+-=--7 7 7 15 IS-iS Ako razlomci nernaJ'u isti naZiV111'k...4::: 56.. . +3. 3 +!5 cVesto se pise bez znaka 1/+" pa se dobije broj 3 ~ (tri cije1a i jedna petina)...39393939 . ond'a lh prosirivanjem moramo dovesti n41 z41jednicki nazivnik.. npr.. koji se naziva mjesoviti razlomak ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465 40000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c00000014 6258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0 000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865 776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e3 1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Kod dijeljenja dva decimalna broja djelilac i dijeljenik pomnozimo sa 10 ako djelilac ima jednu decima\u.33333 .1 2·2 5 4 1 ----= ----=---- 6 3 6·1 3·2 6 6 6 Zbir prirodnog broja i razlomka. sa 1000 ako ima tri itd. . 5 + 3· 7 =. ==X /·10 .: belI 0 uZlmaU laZ. I : . ). Npr.333 . .. 235 2 35 . 235 = --== --(mjesovtti broJ) .333 .. Npr. 5. pa se dijeljcnje decimalnim brojem svodi na dijeJjene decimalnog broja cijelim brojem.!_31 7 5 7 ' 5 5 ' 7 35 35 - 35 5 2 5. 2 +~= 2.!Q.. ) iii grupa od dva iii vise brojeva (2. NpI'.. sa 100 ako ima dvije.36 86 144 00 Pretvaranje decimalnog broja u razlomak U razlomak se mogu pretvoriti svi decimalni brojevi sa konacno 111nogo decimalnih mjesta i decimalni brojevi koji imaju beskonacno mnogo decimalnih mjesta kod kojih se ponavlja jedan te isti broj (0..664: 2.64: 24 2..

. =X /·100 39. ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465 40000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c00000014 .=2+0. ..J3 == 1..... =2+0...=100x 39+0. . .0. e == 2. ==lOx 3+x =lOx 3 == 10x-x 3 3' 3=9x ::::} x = -znaci broj 0.33..3 9 9 Kako se broj 2. = -.3939 . Unija racionalnih i iracionalnih broieva cini skup realnih brojeva R.333= 0... 11: =3. Decimalni br~j~vi sa beskonacno mnogo decimalnih 111jesta kOJ~ se ne pona~IJaJu po nekom pravilu ne 1110gU se napisati u obhku razlomka 1 takve brojeve zovemo iracionali brojevi.3939..... 99' 2.39.4142.3..=2+ 39 99 = + 198 99 39 = 237 .14 .33...333 .7182...393939.73205 .3939 .393939.. Skup iracionalnih brojeva se oznacava sa J.... pretvara u razlomak? 2..3939 .=100x 39+x =100x 18 39 39=99x ::::} x =99 znaci 2. J2 =1.39 Iracionalni brojevi ...= 2.39 .. .... Npr..3939 . 0...==10x 3+0..

=9 . aO=1 (a:.!. 27': 9 =(Z. b*Q 4 Stepeni sa negativnirn eksponentorn ( ·-2 a-ll=~ an . 24=16 iIi (-2)4=(-2)-(-2)0(-2)-(-2)=16 2k 1 2k 1 a + >O za a>O. '\!I =_1_=.<> 7=a + a ·a -'co i:t -jednakih eksponenata: all.1 y! \-n ( In Vrijedi = : n fa-ol-O) or 2-3=_~=~.t:O) a2k>0 Npr. 3 ) (~ (:.r " 2' 8'.5)\::103=1000.6258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0 000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865 776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e3 1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 al=a. a + <O za a<O 3 Npr. 3 =27 a (-2i= (-2)·(-2){-2)=-8 . 8b -3b =5b Mnozenje stepena: -jednakih baza: 2 7=a9 m "_am+l1 • pr a2.. pi". 5a +7a\::lOa .J =3=81.) Operacije sa stepenima 3 3 5 5 5 Moge se sabirati i oduzimaU sarno stepeni jednakih baza jednakih eksponenta. baza pozitivna a negativna ako je baza negati vna. 23. (Vrijednost stepena je pozitivan broj ako je eksponent paran bro] a ako je eksponent neparan broj onda je vrijednost stepena pozitivna ako je. Dijeljenje stepena ~jednakih baza: -jednakih eksponenata: 4 a": b"~(: J .pr.53=(2.b!l=(a·-bt.

pr (a2 ) =a 6 Steponovanje binoma (a + b)2 =a + 2ab + b kvadrat zbira (a -b)2 =a2 -2ab +b 2 kvadrat razlike pr.y + 3(2x)-(yi -i=8x3 -I2x2Y+6x/-i (a±b)4::::a4±4a3b+6a2b2±4ab3+b4 RastavIjanje na faktore nekih poznatih izraza 2 2 a -b = (a -b )(a +b) razlika kvadrata 4 2 pr. 64x -9/=(8x 3y) (8X2+3y) 3 3 2 2 a -b =(a -b)(a +ab +b ) razlika kubova 3 3 2 a +b =(a +b)(a -ab +b 2) zbir kubova 27 3 ry 3 9 6y 2 '\ pr. (2x-y)3 =(2X)3 -3(2x)2.x I'-+--+4y --2y x A I ) 4 "2 2 3 -b as + =(a-b)(a-'+a 5 b +b")=(a2 b+ =(a+ b)(a 4 3 -a l.Stepenovanje stepena (aill r= 2 am·. (2x -3y)2 =(2x)2 -2(2x)· (3y) +(3y)2 =4x2-12xy +9y2 2 kub zbira 3 2 2 (a_b)3=a -3a b+3ab -b3 kub razlike pr.+a2b _b 2 -ab3 2 + b4) ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465 40000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c00000014 6258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0 000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865 776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e3 1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 . x = -8y 3 .

P =I:::::} (cos<p + isin<p)n = cosn<p + i sinn<p -Moivreov obrazac . z1 =P1(cos <Pl +i sin <PI)' z 2 =P2(cos <pz + i sin <P2) zl . ( )] -=-'leos <PI -<PZ +lSm <PI -<P2 Zz PZ Stepenovanje kompleksnog broja zn =[P(cos<p+ isin<p)t =pO (cosn<p+ i sinn<p) Specijalno za. . z = p(cos <P + i sin <p) Operacije sa kompleksnim brojevima u trigonometrijskom obliku.10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 Trigonometrijski oblik kompleksnog broja y b tg<p =a a =p cos <P b == Psin <P x Ako u z=a+bi zamjenimo a i b koji su odreaeni prema slici dobijamo trigonometrijski oblik kompleksnog broja.).'Zz = PIPZ[COS(<Pl + <pz)+ i sin(<Pl + <pz)] ZIP1 r ( .

-.718 .t:l) je eksponent k kojim treba stepenovati bazu ada se dobije broj N.... log e=O. n-l) ~ n n [L0garitmi . .2.434294. Ako je baza logaritma broj e=2. (k=O. log2 8 = 3 . logaa=l jer aJ=a.Korienovanje kompleksnog broja nl nCr <p + 2kn <0 + 2kn "J ~z =" p cos + i sin . log x=ln x·log e . k loga N = k ¢:} a == N 3 npr...l . Vrijedi: lou x 1 a ba =X logab =--10gb a -logaritam proizvoda loga (xy) = loga x + loga Y X -loboaritam kolicnika loga -= logi a x -Ioga y y -logaritam stepena log a xk =k loga X -logaritam korijena loga ~=!Joga x n Ako je baza logaritma broj 10 onda se logaritam zove dekadski i tad se baza izostavlja: IOglOX=JOg x. .. zove se prirodni logaritam: logex=ln x. Veza izmeau dekadskih i prirodnih logaritama.1 Logaritam nekog pozitivnog broja N za bazu a (O<a:.=M (modul Briggsovih . jer vrijedi 2 =8 Za logaritme vrijedi loga1=O jer aO=l.

= M loge loge loge 31 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce0002000900060031000061637370 4d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a000002180000001467 58595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000 003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7 0797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000 000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e ..---= logx·--.. -= 2.302585 .logaritama) logx 1 1 -1 Inx =-.

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Rjesavaju se uglavnom "oslobadaju6i".0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 lracionalne jednacine i nejednacine JednaCine kod kojih se nepoznate javljaju i pod korijenom su iracionalne jednacine. 2) Ako je n paran broj vrijedi ~f(x) f(x)~O =Vg(x) <=> f(x) =g(x) u oblasti u kojoj je i g(x)~O iii f(x) < ~f(x) =g(X) ° i g(x) <0 Specijalno: <=> ff(x)=g2(X) 19(x) ~ 0 Nejednacine 1) Nejednacina 2~f(x) < g(x) (n E N) ekvivalentna je sistemu nejednacina: !r(x)< [g(x)f" 2~f(x) < g(x) <=> ~lf(X. 1) Vf(x) = ~g(x) <=> f(x) = g(x) . se korijena.ako je n neparan broj.) ~ 0 g(x) > 0 . Korijen se u tom slucaju uzima sarno aritmeticki.

. > a X2 tj. monotone opadaju6a.. Osobine eksponencijalne funkcije: 1) Funkcija y =aX je definisana za svako x u skupu R i uz uslov za baw O<a. Znak funkcij e \~ i. U intervalu (0. tada je a x =1 . 6) Za a>1 u intervalu (-cc. 4) Ako je O<a<l.O) je O<ax<l.ko je x=O. I I I -----~ I __ L ___ ----:--""1=-:n -I \ ~ Jednacine Prilikom rjesevanja eksponencijalnih jednacina najcesce jednacinu dovedemo na oblik af(x) =ag(x) (O<a:... X ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012c012c0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465 40000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c00000014 6258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0 000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865 776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e3 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003. I I ~--I I I'" I I I '\. eksponencijaine jednaCine nejednacine Funkcija oblika y =aX (a> 0) je eksponencijalna funkcija. a za O<a<1 je aX>1... af(x) =ag(x) ¢::> f(x) =g(x) Kod eksponencijalnih nejednacina. I I I "'" ! I I I I I . odakle imamo: f(x) g(x) {f(X) < g(x) za a> 1 . Ona je ekvivalentna jednacini f(x)=g(x) . nejednacinu najcesce svodimo na oblik af(x) < ag(x) . ______/_y=2' za a> 1: Jogax<O za XE (0. 5) i\.+=) za a>1 je a >1' a za O<a<l je O<ax<1. za sve a>O.1) I\ I i\: I\I : \.f(X) ~ 0 { g(x) < 0 iIi2~f(X) 2n+~f(x) > g(x) ¢::} rex) > [g(x)fn {. tada X1<X2 ¢::? aX.tl).g(x) ~ 0 3) 2n+~f(x) < g(x) <=> f(x) < [g(x)2n+l J > g(x) ¢::} f(x) > [g(X)2n+l ] Eksponencijalne funkcije.i:1 2) Pozitivna je za svako x (ax> 0 za \:j xE R) . : I \.

1) logax<O za XE (1. logaritamske funkcije -_ 10 x :1 ' -----------~.u j~dn~~ini nemaju istu bazu moramo ih prvo svestl na lstu bazu Konstecl formulu 1 fo<a:. y =loga x = 0 ¢::> x =1 logax>O za XE (1. Xj<X2 ¢::> logaXl>logax2 Pr. logaritamska jednacina i nejednaCina Funkcija oblika y = loga x (0 < a :..tl) ¢:.tl 1 [ O<c:.+oc) za O<a<l logax>O za XE (0. 1Il 1 Logaritamske iednacine rf(x) > 0 Ioga f(x) = log a g(x) If(x) =g(x) Ako svi I.a <a ¢::> f(x»g(x) za O<a<1 Logaritamska funkcija.y!!'oJog I x .tl')loga b=---iIi 10gb a O<b:. Tok funkcije Za a>1 funkcijaje strogo rastuca tJ·.ogaritmi . Osobine: 1Definisana je za x>O.> i g(x) > 0 . 2lmajednu nulu a to je x=l za bilo koju baw O<a:. x·<x -"-' 10 • I gaXj< ogax2 1 2""""" i Za O<a<1 funkcija je opadajuca tj.t 1) je logaritamska funkcija.+oc) 4.tl tj.

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1 NajmanjQ pozitivna ill za ) zove se .10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012c012c0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 Tok funkcije (monmonost) Periodicnost: funkci ispunjava uslov: . 'dXE da odicna sa periodom 0.. ((J) konstanta :.::0).

.b]. funkcija. funkcija je rastuca d) f(Xl»f(xz). funkcija je neopadajuca b) f(XI):::::f(xz)." [1' ) I ' tome. Bijektivne funkcije imaju svoje inverzne funkcije. funkcija je opadajuca na intervalu [a.ie nerastuca c) f(XI)<f(Xl). .XzE vrijedi' x (nema ni jednog elementa u skupu B na koji se preslikavaju iii vise elemenata skupa Je Ako je funkcija sirjektivna injektivna onda . Neka je f:A~B bijektivna funkcija. f: a) 'dyE B je sl se Za 'dx I. datoj funkciji f(x)=2 inverzna Je funkclp (X = Og2X x . gornjih uslova kaz. lednacinu y=2x Ijesimo po x i dobijemo x=log2Y· ~ad ~~mjenimo 'I 'dobiJ'emo y=log2x.Tl-OSnOVfl1 kTt-period Nekaje Xl<X2.b]cD .W ona bijektivna. Aka ovu jednaCinu rijesimo po x dolJicerno x=<p(y). Primjer: Datoj funkciji f(x)=2' naci inverznu funkciju. Xj. Ako u jednacini x=<p(y) zamjenimo slova x i y dabi(:erno funkciju y=(p(x) koja je inverzna funkciji ) i ona se 'cno ozr-2lCaVLl sa fl(x).X2E [a.emo da SL! monotone. lednacinom y=f(x) definisano je y kao funkcija ad x. To je inverzna fmkclJa.~ . funkcije koje zadovaoljavaju . Grafici inverznih funkciJ'a su simetricni U odnosu na nravu v=x . (simetrala I i III kvadranta). Ako vriJedi: a) f(XI)::5:f(X2). Prema s ova x 1 y.

. Slicno se definisu i ostale ciklometrijske funkcije. 2' 2 . I [ 7t 7t] D f' .i~h ~unkcija I II .1] a kodomen (-oc. 'V" bijektivne n3 svojim oblastima defimsanostl mozemo se og. +oc) koja je beskonacno muHiformna (beskonacno viseznacna) .funkcije trigonometrijskih funkcija lnverzne funkcije trigonometrijskih funkcija zov.unkciJc funkclJe y=smx na ll1terva u - y~arcsin x je (-1. .amcltJ r rc rc " t rval l--- na zatvorcm 111 e 2' 2 J l ' ". Kako trigonometrij~ke f~nkcJJe mSl~. ' cikJometrijske funkcije.. rc '11"11-1C) na nrimj'cr Ja ie za ugao a =-.[jednoj vrijednosti nezavisno promjenljive x odgovara beskonacno mnogo vrijednosti y] . omen . sa cosinus i cotangens na kojem zadovoljavaju uslov bijekcije pa potrazimo njihove inverzne funkcijc. t) rc 1 6 2 sada pitanje koliki je ugao Ciji jc sinus 1 jednak 2 1 To pisemo arcsin -=? To je inverzna operacija od trazenja2 sinusa a funkciju y=arcsin x zovemo inverznom funkcijom ..emo. y=arcsin x je luk hive y=Arc sin x koji se zove glavna vrijednost funkcije.f ~ ~.1) a njen kodomcn je [ - l ~ .--: Z --' u '>--. Grafici ciklo etrij. . [0' rcl 1 sa sinus 1 tangens 1 mterva.~ Mozemo posmatrat i funkciju y=Arc sin x ciji je domen [-1. '" .

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Integrali oblika f _ m 0 SIn x cos x n -. m+l 0-1 1 f . n _ izracunavaju se metodom parcijalne integracije stavljaju6i sin xcos xdx = + smm xcos2 xdx f f xneaxsjnbxdx i xneaxcosbxdx ·.000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003 10000616373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000 00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564 0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545 2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e 790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 2.

t:O polinom po lnx odnosno arcsinx. . sm xcos x m-I f m n sin xcos xdx = . gdje je P(x) m+n m+n . izracunavaju se metodom parcijalne integracije. Pri racunanju inlegrala oblika faxcosbxdX.m+n m+n u =xI! i dv =e 3X sin bx odnosno dv=eilXcosbx.Integrali oblika J P(x)eaxdx . 158 159 ffd8ffe000104a46494600010201012b012b0000ffe20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce000200090006003100006 16373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000002040000001472585 . za m+n:.. f P(x)sinaxdx i f P(x)cosaxdx .Integrali oblika J P(lnx)xlldx i f P(arcsinx)dx . Integracija transceQentnih funkcija l. m-I n+1 r + sinm-2 xcosn xdx 3. gdje su a i b realne konstante koriste se trigonometrijski identiteti a ~ cos acos~ =~ =~ [cos(a -~)-cos(a +f)] [cos(a -f)) +cos(a +~)] acos~ =~[sin(a -f)) +sine a +f))] 2. gdje je P(x) polinom n-tog stepena. svode se smjenom lnx=t odnosno arcsinx=t na integrale f P(t)e(n+l)tdt j f P(t)costdt _ 5.

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