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TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE

HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM

Compiled by Dr Chook Ka Joo Quality Assurance Department Tunku Abdul Rahman College and Mr Johnny Chin Fui Chung Extra-Mural Studies Department Tunku Abdul Rahman College

2008

CONTENTS

Page

1.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0

THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCES

3.0

REFERENCING SYSTEM

4.0

THE HARVARD SYSTEM

5.0

CITATION IN THE TEXT

6.0

THE REFERENCE LIST

7.0

EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING

REFERENCES

TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Referencing or citing means acknowledging the source of information and ideas you have used in your assignment (e.g. essay, report, project, research paper, etc.). This is a standard practice at all institutions of higher learning including Tunku Abdul Rahman (TAR) College. This learning guide on Harvard referencing system was developed based on the following references: Curtin University Library. 2007. Harvard referencing. Fisher, D. and Hanstock, T. 1998. Citing references. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2005. Research methods for business students. University of Bournemouth. 2005. Citing references. University of South Australia. 2006. Referencing using the Harvard author date system.

2.0

THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCES

The following are reasons why referencing is needed: to acknowledge debts to other writers to demonstrate the body/scope of knowledge upon which your research is based on to enable all those who read your work to locate the sources easily

More importantly, by using appropriate references, you will show the breadth and quality of your assignment and avoid plagiarism. For further details on plagiarism, please refer to the TAR College guide on Avoiding Plagiarism.

3.0

REFERENCING SYSTEM

The two most common types of referencing systems used are: Author-date system such as the Harvard System, APA (American Psychological Association) and MLA (Modern Languages Association) ii. Numerical system such as the Chicago or Turabian, Vancouver and footnote. i.

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

The referencing system used in TAR College is the Harvard System for all of the Schools except the School of Social Science and Humanities, which is using the APA system.

4.0

THE HARVARD SYSTEM

In the Harvard System, cited publications are referred to as citation in the text by giving the authors family name and the year of publication and the details are listed in the reference list at the end of the text/work (see page 9 for examples). The process of citing references consists of two inter-related parts: i. Citing - the way a writer refers from the text to the sources used in the assignment. ii. Referencing - the process of creating a reference list of each source a writer has used in writing the assignment. All statements, opinions, conclusion, etc. taken from another writers work should be cited, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised.

5.0

CITATION IN THE TEXT

When writing a piece of work, you will need to refer to materials written or produced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. The system that you have used to cite the sources must be consistent and accurate to enable readers to identify and locate the materials to which you have referred to. The same set of rules should be followed every time you cite a reference. When you cite references in the text of your assignment include: the author or editors family name (or organisation responsible) - do NOT include given names or initials the year of publication page(s) of publication (if appropriate and where available)

5.1

In many cases, you just need to use the authors family name and date. For example: Many factors are known to affect the success of students at the tertiary education level (Saunders, 2005). OR

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

Saunders (2003, p.21) claims that there are many factors that are known to affect the success of students at the tertiary education level. In these two examples, the sentences summarise the main view expressed in an article written by Saunders, which is not taken from one single page of the source. Also note that the first example highlights the information but the second example highlights or gives prominence to the author of the article. i. If the authors name occurs naturally in the sentence, the year is given in parentheses: In a popular study, Harvey (2005) argued that we have to teach good practices As Harvey (1992, p.21) said, good practices must be taught and so we ii. If the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and year are given in parentheses: A more recent study (Stevens, 2002) has shown the way theory and practical work interact Theory rises out of practice, and once validated, returns to direct or explain the practice (Stevens, 2002).

5.2

There are cases when you need to include a page number in the parentheses. For example: Ramli (2006, p.7) showed that 63 percent of workers was found to be affected by work-related stress. You need to include the page number when you: i. use a direct quote from an original source ii. summarise an idea from a particular page iii. include tables, figures, charts or illustrations from other sources in your work Use p. when you are citing the information from a single page and pp. when the information is cited from more than one page.

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

5.3

When there are four or more authors for a reference, you need to include all their names in your first in-text citation of their work. When the same source is cited again, use et al. (which is Latin for and the others). Saunders, Jones, Cooper and Steinmark (2006, p.7) postulate that 54 percent of the students do not use proper referencing system As a result of this, Saunders et al. (2006) listed a few major problems that students face in doing project work. The names of all the authors are listed in the reference list in the same order they are listed in the original reference.

5.4

Personal communication such as interviews, telephone calls, video conferencing and internet chat do not provide recoverable data; therefore, they are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communication in the text citation only. Provide initials as well as the family name (full name for Asians) of the communicator and provide the exact date. Many designers do not understand the needs of the young people according to Toi See Luon (personal communication, 19 April 2007)

5.5

Additional Information Quotations As a rule, if the quote is less than a line, it may be included in the body of the text in quotation marks. Summaries or paraphrases Give the citation where it occurs naturally or at the end of the relevant piece of writing. Tables, charts, diagrams or illustrations These should be referenced as though they were a quotation if they have been taken from a published work. If details of particular parts of a document are required, e.g. page numbers, they should be given after the year within the parentheses. Rules for citation in text for printed documents also apply to electronic documents except where pagination is absent. If an electronic document does not include pagination or an equivalent internal referencing system, the extent of the item may be indicated in terms such as the total number of lines, screens, etc., e.g. [21 lines] or [approx 8 screens].

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

5.6

Writing convention The following conventions are not prescribed by national or international standards but have been included because they are usually adhered to by the academic community. If you are quoting a few words, the usual practice is as follows: Example A: Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2003, p.93) argued that grounded theory is best defined as theory building compared to the assertion of Glaser and Strauss (1967) of inductive approach to research. Example B: Robson (2002, p.178) defines case study as a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon [current issues] using multiple sources of evidence. The quotation forms part of your text and is indicated by enclosing it using either single apostrophe or double apostrophe . The indicates word or words from the original source have been left out. Square brackets [ ] tell your reader you have added your own words to the quotation. If you are quoting a longer quotation, it is a common practice for the whole quotation to be indented: There is no doubt that Internet technology has changed and is changing the way organizations do business. Using the Internet, companies have, for instance, (1) created knowledge bases that employees can tap into anytime, anywhere; (2) turned customers into collaborated partners who design, test and launch new products; (3) become virtually paperless in specific tasks such as purchasing and filling expense reports; (4) managed logistics in real time; and (5) changed the nature of numerous work tasks throughout the organization (Robbins & Coulter, 2005, p.197)

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

6.0 6.1

THE REFERENCE LIST The reference list in the Harvard system: is titled References is arranged alphabetically by authors family name is a single list books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together and not arranged in a separate list includes the full details of your citation in the text is NOT a bibliography you do not need to produce a bibliography for your assignments unless specifically asked to do so by your lecturer. A bibliography lists everything you may have read but did NOT use it in the course of doing the assignment while a reference list is limited to the citation in the text references used in your assignment.

6.2

Steps involved in referencing a. Note down the full details of the source including page number from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, the details included are author(s) of the book, year, title, edition, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. In the case of a journal article, the details included are author(s) of the article, date of publication, title of article, title of journal, volume and issue number of journal and page numbers. For all electronic information, in addition to the above, you should note the date you accessed the information and database or website address (URL). b. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document. c. Provide a reference list at the end of your assignment.

6.3

Whenever possible, elements needed for the reference list should be taken from the title page of the publication. For place of publication, provide the city. If more than one town/city is listed, list the first one or the location of the publishers head office. If the town is not well known, you may add a county, region or state. Note that in the United States of America, states are denoted by a twoletter code, for example Hillsdale, NJ.

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

For the publishers name, omit superfluous terms such as Publishers, Co. or Inc. but always retain the word Books or Press. Where the publisher is a university and the place or the location is not included in the name of the university, do not repeat the place of publication.

6.4

Each reference should use the elements and punctuation given in the following examples for the different types of work you may have cited. Underlining is an acceptable alternative to italics when references are handwritten. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by authors family names. When an item has no author (e.g. newspaper report, annual company report, brochure), it is cited by its title and sequenced in the reference list by the first significant word of the title. The Harvard System requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented to highlight the alphabetical order. Setting out the items in a Reference List using the Harvard Referencing System The main elements required for a reference are set out in this order: 6.7.1 Example of a book The main elements required for referencing a book are set out in this order: Authors family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.
Authors family name followed by a comma, then initial(s) followed by a full stop Year of publication followed by a full stop - no brackets Title of the book in italics followed by a full stop - upper case used only for the first word

6.5

6.6

6.7

Cameron, S. 2002. Business students handbook: Learning skills for study and employment. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Place of publication followed by a colon Publisher followed by a full stop

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

6.7.2 Example of an academic journal The main elements required for referencing a journal article are set out in this order: Authors family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of article. Title of journal. Volume number and (issue or part number), page number.
Authors family name followed by a comma, then initial(s) followed by a full stop Year of publication followed by a full stop - no brackets Title of the article in single inverted comma - upper case for the first word only, full stop after the second inverted comma

Bilosvalavo, R. and Lynn, M. 2006. Mission statements in Slovene enterprises: Institutional pressures and contextual adaptation. Management Decision., 45(4), pp.773-788.
Page number (pp) of the article followed by a full stop at the end

Title of the journal in italics followed by a full stop

Volume number of the journal

Issue number in a bracket followed by a comma

6.7.3 Example of an electronic publication The main elements required for referencing an electronic publication are set out in this order: Authors family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of document or website. Date viewed. Full address <url>.
Authors family name followed by a comma, then initial(s) followed by a full stop Year of publication followed by a full stop - no brackets Title of the article in italics, followed by a full stop upper case used for first word

Potter, J. 2005. The big five personality test. Viewed on 11 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive>.
The internet address (URL) is enclosed in < and > with the full address and followed by a full stop Date the document is accessed followed by a full stop

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

7.0 7.1

EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING Books Basic format for books: Authors family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.
Books An example of citation in the The entry in the reference list text A key factor in good exam Cameron, S. 2002. Business students handbook: Learning skills for study and employment. Harlow: Prentice Hall. technique (Cameron, 2002, p.158) Khoo, K. K. 1977. The western Malay states. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. Khoo (1977, p.45) argues that According to Kim and Mauborgne Kim, W. C. and Mauborgne, R. 2005. Blue ocean strategy: How to create (2005), uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant. Boston: Harvard Business School. Guelich, S., Gundavaram, S. and Birznieks, G. 2000. CGI programming with pel. Cambridge: OReilly.

Single author

Two or three authors

Four or more authors

As suggested by Sandler et al. Sandler, M. P., Patton, J. A., Coleman, R. E., Gottschalk, A., Wackers, F. J. and Hoffere, P. B. 1995. Diagnostic nuclear medicine. Baltimore: (1995, p.14) Williams & Wilkins. Leeders, S. R., Dobson, A. J., Gibbers, R. W., Patel, N. K., Mathews, P. S., Williams, A. and Marriot, D. L. 1996. The Australian film industry. Adelaide: Dominion.

The industry (Leeders et al., 1996) Book with no author Book with no date

As shown in Networking Essential Networking essential plus. 2000. 3rd edn. Redmond: Microsoft Press. Plus (2000), This has been emphasized by Seah, R. n.d. Micro-computer applications. Redmond: Microsoft Press. Seah (n.d.) when .

TAR College Harvard Referencing System

Electronic book

Gottshalk and Solli-sather (2006) Gottschalk, P. and Solli-saether, H. 2006. Managing successful IT contend that outsourcing relationship. Viewed 30 July 2007. Available from <http://site.elibrary.com/lib/tarc/docuement/display.jsp?docID=1008436 &page=1>. Popularity of the novel Les Cocteau, J. 1961. Les enfantrs terribles, trans. R Lehmann. Penguin: Enfants Terribles increased after London. Translation (Cocteau, 1961) Walpole and Evans (eds, 2001) Walpole, M. and Evans, C. (eds). 2001. Tax administration in the 21st question whether century. St Leonards, New South Wales: Prospect Media. If there is only one editor, use the abbreviation ed. The instrument must (Jones Jones Instrument Technology. 1985. Mechanical measurement. London: Instrument Technology, 1985). Butterworth. Singapore 2001. edn, Rodan, G. Ashgate: Aldershot.

Translated book

Second edition or later edition of a book

Edited book editors work not paramount

One volume of a multi-volume set of books Chapter in an edited book

It has been implied (Einax, 1995) Einax, J. 1995. Chemometrics in environmental chemistry: Applications. that Vol. 2. Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Berlin: Springer. Ezhar (2001) notes that Ezhar, T. 2001. Working with foreigners. In Asma Abdullah and Aric Low. (eds). Understanding Malaysian workforce. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Institute of Management, pp.179-196.

Encyclopaedia or dictionary - with no author Encyclopaedia or dictionary - with author

Collins Cobuild English Dictionary No entry is required in the reference list because you have the name and (1995) defines ethics as date of the dictionary in the in-text citation. Hawkins (1997, p.128) defines Hawkins, J. G. 1995. Kamus dwibahasa Oxford Fajar. 2nd edn. Kuala ethics as Lumpur: Fajar Bakti.

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7.2

Journal articles Basic format for journal articles: Authors family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number, Issue, Page no.
Journal An example of citation in the text Ho (2007, p.2) argues that The entry in the reference list Ho, S. 2007. Knowledge sharing - a fear factor. Malaysian Management Review. 42 (2), pp 1-22.

Single author

Two or three authors

Bilosvalavo and Lynn p.774) acknowledge

(2006, Bilosvalavo, R. and Lynn, M. 2006. Mission statements in Slovene enterprises: Institutional pressures and contextual adaptation. Management Decision. 45(4), pp.773-788.

The impact of IT (Li and Li, G. and Clifford, N. 2007. When a talking computer agent is half human and half humanoid. Human Communication Research. 33(2), pp.163Clifford, 2007, p.163). 193. More than four authors 2nd citation onwards George et al. (2007) claim that Journal article with no author Electronic book It is a growing problem in the UK Anorexia nervosa. 1969. British Medical Journal. 10(2), pp.529-536. (Anorexia Nervosa, p.530) Holland (2004) maintains that Holland, M. 2004. Guide to citing internet sources [online]. Poole, Bournemouth University. Viewed on 10 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/using/guide_to_citing_internet _source.html>. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A. N. and Mayer, D. 2007. Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review. 85(2), pp.129-138.

Journal article from an electronic journal using electronic database

and this has been established Eisend, M. and Schucherta, P. 2006. Explaining counterfeit purchases: A by Eisend and Schucherta (2006). review and preview. Academy of Marketing Service. Vol. 2006 (2). Viewed on 31 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.amsreview.org/ articles/eisend12-2006pdf>.

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A World Wide Web site Document on World Wide Web with no author Electronic thesis

The result of the test can Potter, J. 2005. The big five personality test. Viewed on 11 July 2007. (Potter, 2005). Available from: <http:// www.outofservice.com/bigfive>. Harvard referencing is a format of Wikipedia. 2007. Harvard referencing. Viewed on 23 July 2007. Available (Wikipedia, 2007). from: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/harvard_referencing>. Crain (2000) postulates that Crain, J. 2000. The effects of a formal induction program on newly hired teachers perceptions on self-efficacy. Department of Teaching and Leadership, University of Kansas. Viewed on 30 July 2007. UMI Proquest Dissertation ATT990068.<http://proquest.umi.com.newdc. oum.edu.my/pqdweb?index=1&did=728423791&SrchMode=1&sid=3&F mt=14&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=118 5859215&clientId=56581>. Ong, K. T. (Minister of Housing and Local Government). 2007. Sustainable living in Malaysia. 16 June 2007. Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Kuala Lumpur. Viewed on 30 July 2007. Available from: <http://aplikasi.kpkt.gov.my/ucapan.nsf>. Marsh, A. 2007. What are these?List server. Google Recreational Gardens. Viewed on 30 July 2007. Available from: <http://groups.google.com/group/rec.gardens/browse_thread/thread/e0e c899d3facbe61/2956944565b8e75c#2956944565b8e75c>.

Media releases on the World Wide Web

Ong (2007) notes that sustainable living

Discussion lists or newsgroups

Marsh (2007) postulates that

email

Amir (2007) confirmed this by Personal communications such as conversations, letters and personal email on 1 July 2007 email messages are not included in a reference list. A programme was developed MathWorks. 2001. MATLAB. Ver 6. computer programs. Natick, MA: The (MathWorks, 2001). MathWorks Inc. Hawkings (1994) states that Hawking, S.W. 1994. A brief history of time: An interactive adventure. [CDROM]. Crunch Media.

Computer program CD ROMs and DVDs

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7.3

Special publications and materials Basic format: Authors family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of item, description of item. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example An example of citation in the The entry in the reference list text It has been shown (Chang, Chang, C. C. 2003. Malaysias outline perspective plan towards prosperity in the trend of globalisation, Proceedings of the Seventh World Chinese 2003) that Entrepreneurs Convention, 21 - 26 July 2003, Sunway Resort, Petaling Jaya. The Associated Chinese Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: ACCIM. Chang (2003) contends that As Fernandez (2007) notes in Fernandez, T. 2007. I didnt make any threats: Kayveas. The Sun. 31 July his articles, 2007, pp.2. in The Sun (31 July 2007, The Sun. 31 July 2007. Master plan boost for northern corridor, pp.3. p.3). The plans include Unesco. 1995. General information programme and UNISIST. Paris: Unesco. (UNESCO,1995). Genting Berhad. 2007. Genting Berhad annual report 2006. Kuala Lumpur: Genting Berhad.

Conference paper

Newspaper article with author Newspaper article with no author Publication from a corporate body

Government article

Patent

Ministry of Agriculture. 1998. The third national agriculture policy. Kuala The strategic approaches Lumpur: Ministry of Agriculture. include (Third National Agriculture Policy 1998-2010, 1998). Tadayuki, Kazuhsia and Atushi Tadayuki, O., Kazuhsia,Y. and Atsushi, N. 1999. Hard butter composition and its production. Japanese Patent 99-78710. (1999) show that Aziz, A. 1997. Methods and apparatus for a key management scheme for interent protocols. United States Patent Application 68-438.

Video or television recording

The process involves 3 stages MIG Welding. 1987. Mild steel with low current. Video recording. (MIG Welding, 1987). Cambridge: Welding Institute.

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Pamphlet or brochure

TAR Colleges philosophy is TAR College Prospectus 2007/2008. Kuala Lumpur: Tunku Abdul Rahman College. (TAR College Prospectus, 2007). The original broadcast (War of War of the worlds. 1999. Mercury Theatre on the air. Audio CD. Radio Spirits. Asin. the Worlds, 1999) in 1938 is said to have caused mass panic amongst listeners. The standards set by SIRIM SIRIM. 2003. Code of practices for access of disabled persons outside (2003) states that buildings. MS13311:2003. Shah Alam: SIRIM Berhad. It has been confirmed by Seow Personal communications such as conversations, letters and personal (2007, personal communication, email messages are not included in a reference list. 10 July 2007) that this practice is widespread. Lee (1995) recommends that Lee, C.W. 1995. Characteristics of rubber products for mining applications. Unpublished Final Year Advanced Diploma Project. Advanced Diploma in Material Engineering. School of Technology. Tunku Abdul Rahman College. MF06983.

Audio cassette

Standard

Personal communication

Thesis

Document on microfiche

Ball, Lee, Phan and Ra (2001) Ball, K., Lee, Y.H., Phan, O. and Ra, Y. S. 2001. Adult retraining and suggest that reskilling in Australia and South Korea. National Centre for Vocational Education Research. Leabrook (Australia) and Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (Seoul). ERIC microfiche ED451368. The Service Tax (Amendments, Service Tax (Amendments). 2002. 2000) states that Industrial Relations Act. 1967.

Acts of Parliament

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7.4

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Here are some of the FAQs on referencing. Question 1 If I read a book or a journal article by one author (Author 1) and he mentions an idea by another author (Author 2), whose idea do I refer to? How do I reference that? You must mention both authors (Author 1 and Author 2) in your in-text citations; and in your reference list, you only need to list the item you have read, that is Author 1. For example, if you read about an idea by Lim (Author 2) in a book by Saunders (Author 1), you need to mention both the authors in your in-text citations. Your in-text citations would appear as: Lim (Saunders, 2003, p.71) states that or Lims study (cited in Saunders, 2003, p.71) indicates that or Saunders (2003, p.71), in reporting Lims study, emphasized the aspect In the reference list, you list only Saunders (the source you read) and not Lims (whose idea you only read about in Saunders).

Question 2 How do I cite the authors names if they have the same family name in the reference list? How do I show in my in-text reference which idea belongs to which author? You distinguish between the two authors in your assignment by adding their initials to the in-text reference (which usually only has the family name and date). For example: The theory was first suggested in 1970 (Johnson, H. T., 1971) but since then, many researchers, including Johnson, D. E. (2001), have rejected the idea.

Question 3 How do I cite an author who has written more than one work in the same year? How do I show which idea comes from which reference? You put a lower case letter of the alphabet next to the year or date and keep these letters in your reference list as well.
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For example: In a recent publication, Bart (2004b) argued that mission statements of most organization are underutilised and most organization had jumped on the bandwagon of creating mission statements without knowing the true purpose of the statement (Bart, 2004a). The order of sequence in which you attach the letters is based on the alphabetical order of the title of the work by the author.

Question 4 How do I cite information from my lectures, tutorials or study guides? You do NOT cite your lectures, tutorials or study guides as sources unless your lecturer has particularly said this is acceptable. This is because lectures, tutorials and study guides are intended to give you an introduction to a topic. In assignments where you undertake research, you are expected to read widely and identify for yourself the main ideas that are relevant from various sources. In addition, oral communication is not generally referenced. Your lecturers and tutors do not reference their comments. If you cite them as your source of an idea, it could be inaccurate, possibly even plagiarism, because the lecturers might be referring to someone elses idea, not one of their own.

Question 5 What if I cannot find the author or a date in a website? When there is no name on a webpage, look for a sponsoring body like an organisation or a government department responsible for the information. Where there is no sponsoring body, use the title of the article or document on the screen as the author. Where there is no date, use n.d. (no date).

If a resource has no author and no date, you need to consider whether it is a suitable source for academic work, as your work will suffer from lack of credibility.

Question 6 How do I reference a graph or a figure that I copy or adapt? A basic principle of Harvard referencing is providing the author and date as an in-text reference. This also applies when you use other peoples
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pictures, graphs or figures. You also need to make it clear if you have adapted the picture or graph for your own purposes. For example:

The Process

(AACSB, 2006, p.6)

Question 7 How do I cite Malaysian or Asian names? You will need to be aware of the various ways to cite Asian names. For Chinese and Japanese names, use the writers family names when you are citing them in your text. As for your reference list, put the writers family names first followed by their initials. For example:
Full name Chinese Name Sheng Ye Lin In-text citation Sheng (2003) Reference List Sheng, Y. L.. 2003. The Chinese dilemma. New South Wales: East West Ltd. Kimbara, T. 2007. The digital collapse. London: Penguin.

Japanese Name Tatsyo Kimbara

Kimbara (2007)

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However, for Malay and Indian names, use the writers full names in both the in-text citation and reference list. For example:
Full name Malay Name Mahathir Mohammad Indian Name Bala Ramasamy In-text citation Mahathir Mohammad (1982) Bala Ramasamy (2004) Reference List Mahathir Mohammad. 1982. The Malay dilemma. Petaling Jaya: Federal Publications. Bala Ramasamy. 2003. FDI and uncertainty: The Malaysian case study. Journal of Asia Pacific Economy. 20(2). pp.75-79.

For names of other Asian writers such as Thai names, Cambodian names, etc., you need to find out how other writers within your academic world cite these names. Always refer to current journals or publications to see how these Asian names are cited. If you are still unsure about this, refer to various refecencing guides which are available online. Question 8 In the reference list, do I separate the various sources of references that I have used in my in-text citations? All references that you have referred to in your assignment or project should be arranged in alphabetical order in one list with NO separation of the sources into categories like books, journals, etc.

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REFERENCES

Curtin University Library. 2007. Harvard referencing. Viewed on 4 July 2007. Available from: <http://library.curtin.edu.au/referencing/harvard.pdf>. Fisher, D. and Hanstock, T. 1998. Citing references. Nottingham: Balckwells Bookshops. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2005. Research methods for business students. 3rd edn. Harlow: Prentice Hall. University of Bournemouth. 2005. Citing references. Viewed on 4 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/ docs/Citing_Refs.pdf>. University of South Australia. 2006. Referencing using the Harvard author-date system. Viewed on 4 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.unisanet.unisa. edu.au/learningconnection/student/learningAdvisors/documents/harvardreferencing.pdf>.

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