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Practical Lab Report: Energy from Burning Fuels

Aim: To investigate the amount of energy produced by different types of fuels Background Information: Answer the following questions and be sure to use 2 in-text citations 1. What are fuels and what are they used for? 2. Explain how the energy in the fuel is removed/extracted? a) What is combustion? Write the chemical equation for combustion. b) What type of energy is extracted from the fuel? 3. Complete the following table for each of the fuels:
Fuel Chemical Formula Solid, Liquid or Gas (at 20C) Gas Combustion Products How is the fuel stored In Tanks Cost (high, medium, low) Moderate Use of fuel Energy Released kJ/gram (Kilojoules/g) 22.6

Methanol

Gases

Ethanol

Liquid

Gases

In Tanks

Moderate

29.7

Propanol Petrol (Octane) White Spirit (Decane) Kerosene (Dodecane)

Gas

Gases

In Tanks

Moderate

33.45

Liquid

Gases

In Tanks

Low

47.77

Gases

In Tanks

Low

47.64

Gases

In Tanks

low

47.5

4. Explain the method being used - How is the method helping you achieve your aim? - Why are you taking specific measurements?

- Explain your calculations - How are you making it a fair-test

Year 8 Practical Lab Report: Energy from burning Different Fuels

Same measurements for the water Measured the mass of the fuel burnt in grams and divide the energy from this amount by the mass so we had a calculation for J/g. We did this so we could compare the energy produced by each fuel Approximately the same burning time Using the same calculations Switching the water at the start of each trial to allow the water to reheat easier so they had approximately same temperature Stir the water constantly to move the heat around and evenly distribute Performed more than one trial to increase accuracy

Hypothesis:
I believe that the petrol will have the most stored energy per gram because we use it a lot for the vehicles

Equipment:
Matches Measuring cylinder 150ml water Spirit burner 30ml of each fuels Thermometer Safety goggles Stop watch Lab coat Electric balance

Risk Assessment: Method:

Year 8 Practical Lab Report: Energy from burning Different Fuels

Diagram:

Figure 1.1

Year 8 Practical Lab Report: Energy from burning Different Fuels

Results Table 1.1: Mass of different fuel and the temperature of heating water
Type of Fuel
Trial Trial 1 Initial Mass Final Mass Initial Final of burner of burner Temperature Temperature and fuel (g) and fuel (g) of Water (C) of Water (C)

151.6 159 157.6 156.067 160.8 159.5 157 159.1 128.9 132.4 133.5 131.6 123.7 122.7 121.4 122.6 149.5 148.4 147.4 148.4 113.7 119 122.6 118.43

149 155.6 133.3 145.967 159.5 157 154.6 157.03 127.9 130.8 131.7 130.13 122.7 121.7 120.3 121.56 148.4 147.4 146.4 147.4 111.9 115.4 118.9 115.4

25.5 27.2 28.4 27.033 27 29 29 28.3 28.0 27.9 29.0 28.3 27 29 29 28.3 28 28 28 28 26.2 28.5 29.2 27.97

39.6 41.5 52.1 44.4 35 14 54 45.7 37.5 36.2 36.5 36.73 34 33 40 35.6 33 35 37.5 35.2 32.8 39.2 40.6 37.53

Methanol
(Leon, Syed & Rey)

Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Trial 1

Ethanol
(Gautham & Kenneth)

Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Trial 1

Kerosene
(Su Min & Joong Hoon)

Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Trial 1

White Spirits
(Hyo Ju & Robert)

Propanol
(Ah Yeong & Jonathan)

Petrol
(Henry & David)

Trial 2 Trial 3 Average

Year 8 Practical Lab Report: Energy from burning Different Fuels

Analysis:
Calculations 1. Average [Methanol] Average initial mass of Burner and fuel (g) = (151.6+159+157.6) 3 = 156.067g 2. [Methanol] Average mass of fuel burnt = Initial mass final mass = 156.067-145.967 = 10.1g 3. T (C) = Final temperature initial temperature = 44.4-27.033 = 17.397C 4. Energy used by fuel to heat 150ml of water q=m*c*T {q=energy (J), m=mass (g), c=specific heat capacity of water, T= temp (C)} Analysis Table 1.2: Mass of Different Fuel and the Temperature of Heating Water Type of Fuel
Average Initial Mass of burner and fuel (g) Average Average Average Average Initial Final Final Mass Mass of Temperatur Temperature of burner Fuel burnt e of Water of Water and fuel (g) (g) (C) (C) T (C) = Final Initial Energy (J) used by whole Mass = 150 4.2 T Energy (J) used/ g = Energy (J) Mass of Fuel (g)

Methanol Ethanol Kerosene White Spirit Propanol Petrol

156.067 145.967 159.1 131.6 122.6 148.4 118.43 157.03 130.13 121.56 147.4 115.4

10.1 2.07 1.47 1.04 1 3.03

27.033 28.3 28.3 28.3 28 27.97

44.4 45.7 36.73 35.6 35.2 37.53

17.367 17.4 8.43 7.3 7.2 9.53

10941.21 19062 5310.9 4599 4536 6003.9

1083.29 5292.652 3612.857 4422.115 4536 1981.485

Year 8 Practical Lab Report: Energy from burning Different Fuels

Discussion: - Answer the following questions below: 1. Describe the results you received. Which fuel produced the most energy? 2. Why do you think this fuel produced the most energy? 3. Which of these fuels is more commonly used in human activities? Considering your results, why do you think this is so? 4. Was your test a fair test? Why? (What made it a fair test, or what didnt make it a fair test?) 5. Describe 2 errors that may have occurred in your experimental method and how these errors may have affected your results. Suggest 2 direct solutions which would help prevent these errors next time. Set your answer out as so: Error 1: Solution 1: Error 2: Solution 2:

Conclusion: - Summarise the results obtained - Was your aim achieved? How? - What your hypothesis correct? Why? References: - Use Harvard Style Referencing - At least 2 books and 2 Websites to receive full marks.

Year 8 Practical Lab Report: Energy from burning Different Fuels