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Assignment No.: 1 Analysis and Design Course: Bachelor Of Computer Application (II Semester) Date of Submission at the Learning Center: 8th Dec, 2009
Discuss analytical representation of a system
As an abstraction we symbolically represent a system as a simple entity by using a rectangular box as shown in Figure 3.1. In general, inputs such as stimuli and cues are fed into a system that processes the inputs and produces an output. As a construct, this symbolism is acceptable; however, the words need to more explicitly identify WHAT the system performs. That is, the system must add value to the input in producing an output. We refer to the transformational processing that adds value to inputs and produces an output as a capability. You will often hear people refer to this as the system’s functionality; this is partially correct. Functionality only represents the ACTION to be accomplished; not HOW WELL as characterized by performance. This text employs capability as the operative term that encompasses both the functionality and performance attributes of a system the simple diagram presented in Figure 3.1 represents a system. However, from an analytical perspective, the diagram is missing critical information that relates to how the system operates and performs within its operating environment. Therefore, we expand the diagram to identify these missing elements. The result is shown in Figure 3.2. The attributes of the construct – which include desirable/undesirable inputs, stakeholders, and desirable/undesirable outputs – serve as a key checklist to ensure that all contributory factors are duly considered when specifying, designing, and developing a system
Analytical System Entity Construct
Ques.2 How do you and your organization define system? Mention the systems that require engineering Ans.
Evolutionary Development Strategy: A development strategy used to develop “a system in builds, but differs from the Incremental Strategy in acknowledging that the user need is not fully understood and all requirements cannot be defined up front. In this strategy, user needs and system requirements are partially defined up front, and then are refined in each succeeding build.” Grand Design Development Strategy: A development strategy that is “essentially a ‘once-through, do-each-step-once’ strategy. Simplistically: determine user needs, define requirements, design the system, and implement the system, test, fix, and deliver.” Incremental Development: “A software development technique, in which requirements definition, design, implementation, and testing occur in an overlapping, iterative (rather than sequential) manner, resulting in incremental completion of the overall software product.” Incremental Development Strategy: A development strategy that “determines user needs and defines the overall architecture, but then delivers the system in a series of increments (“software builds”). The first build incorporates a part of the total planned capabilities; the next build adds more capabilities, and so on, until the entire system is complete.”
Explain the concept of mission Dynamics
Every natural and man-made system conducts missions in its operating environment in some form of dynamic, physical state. Dynamics are a time-based characterization of system static’s over a deﬁned timeframe within its operating environment. The dynamics may range from slow changes – rock anchored on a hillside – to moderate changes – temperature variations – to violent, sudden changes – earthquakes or volcanoes. Dynamics occur as inconsistencies, perturbations, and instabilities in the balance of power in the local or global environment. Mankind has always been intrigued by the study of dynamics and their effect on behavior patterns – of the Earth, weather, oceans, stock market, and people – especially when its comes to predicting dynamic behavior that can have devastating economic or safety impacts. Thus, predicting the advancement of the state of the practice and technology is big business. Why? We need to be able to conﬁdently predict how a system will behave and perform under speciﬁed – dynamic – operating conditions
Explain the guiding principles that govern system acceptability
In summary, the preceding discussions provide the basis with which to establish the guiding principles that govern system acceptability. Principle System acceptability is determined user satisfaction; user satisfaction is determined by Five User criteria: Provide value – meaning operational utility. Fit within the user’s system and mission applications – meaning operational suitability. Be available to conduct missions – meaning operational availability. Accomplish performance objectives – meaning operational effectiveness. Be affordable – meaning cost effectiveness
Ques. 5 Ans.
Give the overview of system life cycle
The evolution of any system made by or known to humankind begins at the point of conception and ends at disposal. This process is referred to as the system life cycle. The system life cycle serves structurally as the foundation for system development. Human-made systems are conceptualized, planned, organized, scheduled, estimated, procured, deployed, operated and supported, and disposed of using this structure. Natural systems follow similar constructs with life phases
The life cycle for any system, product, or service consists of a series of phases starting with system conception and continuing through final disposal. For human-made systems the beginning and ending of each phase is marked by a signiﬁcant control point or staging event such as a key decision at a technical review or a field event that authorizes progression to the next phase.
There are a number of ways to deﬁne a system life cycle. Ten people will have 10 different versions of this graphic. You and your organization should choose one that best reﬂects your organization and industry’s perspective of the life cycle. The phases are: System Deﬁnition Phase System Procurement Phase System Development Phase System Operations and Support (O&S) Phase System Production Phase System Disposal Phase This Unit presents the system/product life cycle as a top-level framework of embedded phases required to evolve a User operational need for a system, product, or service from conceptual “vision” through disposal. Each of the phases represents a collection of activities that focus on speciﬁc program objectives and work products. As you will soon discover, some of these Phases have well-deﬁned endings marked by key milestones while other phases overlap and transition from one to another
Ques.6 Explain the types of behavior patterns emerge when systems interact with their Operating environment
All natural and human-made systems exist within an abstraction we refer to as the system’s OPERATING ENVIRONMENT. Survival, for many systems within the OPERATING ENVIRONMENT, ultimately depends on system capabilities – physical properties, characteristics, strategies, tactics, security, timing, and luck. If we observe and analyze these systems and their patterns of behavior to understand how they adapt and survive, we soon discover that they exhibit a common construct – template – that describes a system’s relationship to their OPERATING ENVIRONMENT. Provides a graphical depiction of the construct. This construct establishes the foundation for all systems. When systems interact with their OPERATING ENVIRONMENT, two types of behavior patterns emerge: 1: - Systems interact with or respond to the dynamics in their OPERATING ENVIRONMENT. These interactions reﬂect peer-to-peer role-based behavioral patterns such as aggressor, predator, benign, and defender or combinations of these. 2: -System Responses – behavior, products, by-products, or services – and internal failures sometime result in adverse or catastrophic effects to the system – creating instability, damage, degraded performance, for example – that may place the system’s mission or survival at risk When you analyze interactions of a SYSTEM OF INTEREST (SOI) with its OPERATING ENVIRONMENT, two fundamental types of behavior emerge: Hierarchical interactions (i.e., vertical interactions under the command and control of higher order systems).
Ques.7 Contact a system development program in your organization. Research how they analyzed their SYSTEM OF INTEREST (SOI), its OPERATING ENVIRONMENT, and their respective system elements. How was this analysis reﬂected in the SOI architecture? Ans.
Discuss the concepts of operating environment
Analytically, the OPERATING ENVIRONMENT that inﬂuences and impacts a system’s missions can be abstracted several different ways. For discussion purposes the OPERATING ENVIRONMENT can be considered as consisting of two high-level domains: 1) HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS and 2) the PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT let’s deﬁne each of these system elements High Order Systems Domain All natural and human-made systems function as individual SYSTEMS OF INTEREST (SOIs) within a hierarchical system of systems. Each higher-level abstraction serves as a HIGHER ORDER SYSTEM within the system of systems hierarchy that has its own scope of authority and operational boundaries. HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS are characterized by: Organizational purpose or mission. Organizational objectives. An organizational structure. Command media such as rules, policies, and procedures of operation. Resource allocations. Operating constraints imposed on embedded system entities. Accountability and objective evidence of valued-added tasks performed. Delivery of systems, products, and services For most human-made systems, we refer to the vertical HIGHER ORDER SYSTEM-to-SYSTEM OF INTEREST (SOI) interaction as C3I – meaning command, control, communications, and intelligence. The Information Age has added a fourth item – computers – thereby changing the acronym to C4I – command, control, computers, communications, and intelligence. If we observe the behavior of HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS and analyze their interactions, we can derive four classes of system elements: 1) ORGANIZATION, 2) ROLES and MISSIONS, 3) OPERATING CONSTRAINTS, and 4) RESOURCES. Let’s deﬁne each of these system element classes. ORGANIZATION Element: The hierarchical command and control reporting structure, authority, and its assigned accountability for organizational roles, missions, and objectives. ROLES AND MISSIONS Element: The various roles allocated to and performed by HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS and the missions associated with these roles and objectives to fulﬁll the organization’s vision. Examples include: strategic and tactical plans, roles, and mission goals and objectives. OPERATING CONSTRAINTS Element: International, federal, state, and local statutory, regulatory, policies, and procedures as well as Physical laws and principles that govern and constrain PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT systems and SYSTEM OF INTEREST (SOI) actions and behavior. Examples include: assets, capabilities, consumables and expendables; weather conditions; doctrine, ethical, social and cultural considerations; and moral, spiritual, philosophical. RESOURCES Element: The natural and physical raw materials, investments, and assets that are allocated to the PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT and SYSTEM OF INTEREST (SOI) to sustain missions
Explain in brief the four primary system development models.
The Waterfall Development Model represents one of the initial attempts to characterize software development in terms of a model. Today, the Waterfall Model exemplifies how many organizations develop systems and products In the Waterfall approach, “development activities are performed in sequential order, with possibly minor overlap, and minimal or no iteration between activities. User needs are determined, requirements are defined, and the full system is designed, built, and tested for ultimate delivery at one point in time. Some people refer to this as a stage-wise model.”
The Evolutionary Development Model In general, the Evolutionary Development Model is based on the premise that “stages consist of expanding increments of an operational software product, with the directions of evolution being determined by operational experience.” This conception is based on an evolutionary strategy of a system or product development through a series of pre-planned product improvement (P3I) releases. Evolutionary development provides a potential solution for Acquirers, Users, and System Developers. As discussed in an earlier section, some systems/products are single-use items; others are longer term, multiplication items. For some mission and system applications, you generally know at system acquisition what the requirements are. In other applications, you may be able to define a few up-front objectives and capabilities. Over time, the fielded system/product requires new capabilities as problem/opportunity spaces evolve. Some systems, such as computers, become obsolete in a very short period of time and are discarded. From a business perspective, the cost to upgrade and maintain the devices is prohibitive relative to purchasing a new computer. In contrast, some Users, driven by decreasing budgets and slow changes in the external environments, may use systems and products far beyond their original intended service lives System Development Models The trends of increasing technical complexity of the systems, coupled with the need for repeatable and predictable process methodologies, have driven System Developers to establish development models. Background Leading to System Development Models Systems and products prior to the 1950s were hardware intensive systems. Processing was accomplished via electromechanical devices that implemented logical and mathematical computational processes. By the 1960s, analog and digital small-, medium-, and large-scale integrated circuits, coupled with modular design methods, enabled developers to improve the reliability and accuracy of the computations with some limited software involvement. During these years when design errors or changes occurred, the cost of making corrections in mechanical hardware and electronic circuitry was becoming increasingly expensive and time-consuming. With the introduction of microprocessor technologies in the early 1970’s, Software became a viable alternative to system development. Conceptually, capabilities that had to be implemented with hardware could now be implemented more easily and quickly in software. As a result system design evolved toward flexible, reconfigurable systems that enable System Developers and maintainers to target unique field applications simply by tailoring the software.
Ques.10 Ans. For your organization, identify the following related to the systems, product, or services